Relationships and Vulnerability

Vulnerability, even thinking about it can be frightening to some people. Actually, a person must be strong to allow herself to be vulnerable. Vulnerability can allow others to know us, who we really are. Vulnerability allows negotiations. It allows an opening between conflicting needs.

Unfortunately, many people have been raised from the time they are young to deny their vulnerability. Many were raised by parents who could not be vulnerable. Many parents believe their children's poor behaviors are directed at them and become angry and defensive in their parenting behaviors. When children are raised by defensive parents, they learn how to be defensive. Adults who are on the defensive can not allow them to be open and vulnerable enough to relate to another adult.

Being vulnerable is being open. To love others, one must be open. When we are open, we allow our hearts to feel. When our heart is open to feeling love, it will also feel pain when love is withdrew.

Vulnerability is part of process of empathy. To empathize with someone we need to be able to feel them, to know what they are feeling. This is part of good enough relationships. Being open allows us to be affected by one another and is vital to connection. When we allow ourselves to be hurt and feel pain, we are much more likely to recognize another's pain. Sensitivity is important in this context. Sensitivity to ourselves and others. By allowing ourselves to be vulnerable, we understand humility. We recognize and know inherent equality.

Often, highly defended people have been so deeply hurt, they can no longer allow themselves to be vulnerable. Some may have been raised in a situation where everyone was defensive. Many who are highly defensive also become grandiose. Grandiosity, needing to believe we are somehow bigger, better, more important than we are, is an illusion. A sad illusion built on unrecognized and acknowledged pain.

When we allow ourselves to feel our pain, and work through it, we learn important lessons about ourselves and others. Our ability to empathize with others who are in pain, increases and we become better able to help them. We can be genuinely helpful when we can hear others. Only when we can fully listen to others, with every fiber of all our senses, can we be helpful to them. Respect subjects listening.

Being attuned to others requires us to be vulnerable. We need to be able to allow the other to have control. We need to listen and empathize. Our ability to do that is built on our having felt and worked through our pain. Tempering a sword involves putting it into a fire and hammering it. A tempered individual is a vulnerable one. One who has allowed herself to go through her pain and healing process. As Marcel Proust said, "One heals suffering only by experiencing it to the full."

Bigger Breasts From DHEA Supplements

Can you have bigger breasts from DHEA supplements? What are DHEA supplements? Why do we need one and how can it help in augmenting your breasts sizes?

DHEA is a short term for the dehydroepiandrosterone. Our adrenal gland, a gland found near our kidney, copiously produces this steroid hormone together with the other hormones needed by our body. It also produced by our neurons, and other glands that are located in the different parts of the human body.

This hormone is essential as a precursor to produce the sex hormones, the testosterone and estrogen. These two hormones are important in the reproductive system of every individual. Now, just like any other hormones, DHEA declines its production as you grow older. It peaks when you are in your 20s and slopes down when you reach late 30s or early 40s.

How is DHEA supplement produced? In the human body, dehydroepiandrosterone is produced from the cholesterols. Commercial DHEA is extracted from the Mexican Wild Yam. This plant contains the diosgenin, steroidal Saponins. Through the use of a state-of-the-art technology, these diosgenins are innovatively converted into a useful food supplement.

Based on clinical and medical studies, the following are the health advantages of DHEA:

a.) It treats people who suffer from hypopituitarism, a medical condition that makes the pituitary glands fail to produce the pituitary hormones,

b.) It invalidates the condition of bone loss as well as the effects of anorexia nervosa,

c.) It advances the mental functions of patients who have HIV infection,

d.) It also enhances the blood vessels functions and precludes the development of cardiovascular disease.

The list of advantages can go on, but to cut the chase and rather answer the query if DHEA supplement can make your breast grow bigger, then the following statements are the basis of this probability. As mentioned earlier, dehydroepiandrosterone is an essential substance from which estrogen is formed. Estrogen is vital in the reproductive system and the growth of the breasts. When your body has a good estrogen level, it can certainly increase the size of your boobs. This is how you will get bigger breasts from DHEA supplements.

The Greatest Marketing Story Never Told

I was told this story by a partner of Sol Polk’s back in the early 80’s after we opened the first “hot tub” store in Chicago. Jack supplied me with hot tubs and spas and also would inventory and install all the hot water heaters for Polk Brothers and that’s another good story for some other time!

Sol Polk was an old pitchman in Chicago who, along with his brothers and a sister built Polk Brothers; a home appliance retailer that closed in the early 90’s but left a Foundation of over $350 million that grants money every year to charitable foundations to this day.

Sol was traveling in Europe back in the early 70’s and met a Dr. from Delaware who was on his way to a convention to present his new “procedure” later to become a maneuver. Yes, he met Dr. Heimlich and the Dr. explained his new discovery to Sol Polk. Sol was so impressed that he asked if he could share it with businesses in the states and promised to never sell it. Well, back then Illinois had a senator Charles Percy who was a past President of Bell & Howell. Sol and he were acquaintances and Sol petitioned Percy to share this amazing new “Heimlich Maneuver with every school, institution and restaurant in the country.

Senator Percy was a U.S. Senator but did help Sol get it made law in Illinois and it is still a law today that every public place that serves food has to have the Heimlich Maneuver Placard displayed prominently in case of an emergency.

The law that Polk got enacted in Illinois states and I quote: “Illinois requires the health department to design and distribute without charge placards containing approved methods for laymen to safely and effectively remove food lodged in a person’s throat. The instructions must be limited to first-aid procedures that do not use instruments or devices. They must be of a size and design suitable for posting in food service establishments. The instructions must, to the extent practicable, be expressed in words and illustrations that are not offensive to restaurant patrons.”

Once the law went into effect, Polk was already in full swing with his donating the placards for free to every restaurant, school, municipal building and hospital in the state. Sol hired high school students from Proviso East High School just down the street from his family business to address envelopes that he paid out of his own pocket. The only charge to any restaurant or municipal buildings was just shipping and handling. Therein lies the brilliance of this clever marketer. The first year, giving away “The Heimlich Maneuver” placard, Sol Polk made a little less than $6 million.

Now $6 million may not sound like a lot but by today’s standards, it would equal: $39,976,056! Not bad for a FREE placard that, true to his word to Dr. Heimlich, Sol always provided for no charge to anyone who asked for it.

I think this is a perfect example of what some creative marketing and follow through can do for almost any business.

The Hidden Advantages of Sales Management Training

There are several advantages to sales management training. People who undergo this type of training are able to identify and reach their goals much more quickly and efficiently. Individuals who focus on technique as well as mindset are able to focus their energies on making positive progress consistently. Sales management training will help people who take it to become more efficient with managing their time, resources, and increase their team’s effectiveness. Having the availability of qualified coaches who know which techniques are most applicable in almost every situation can also be beneficial. Individuals will also be able to communicate better with each other because they understand the art of selling does not stop with just products.

People who can maximize their skills properly are able to reach goals effectively. When people are able achieve their goals they are more satisfied and productive. People who have an understanding of their ability to make a difference with their team often find it easier to climb the corporate ladder. Individuals who understand the importance of motivating others while they are climbing the ladder themselves will be beneficial to the business as a whole.

Sales leaders who focus on sales productivity as well as mindset are able to expand the profitability of an organization greatly. When profitability is expanded everyone involved in an organization benefits. People on a management team have to understand how to set up a sales process, motivate people, and increase effectiveness as well as their time properly. Passing along the information that every minute matters is essential for continual growth in any corporate setting. When professionals understand the value of their time they will be able to prioritize tasks which need their attention. When people are able to give proper priority to sales and service related tasks, customers have a better overall experience.

Working with a qualified sales coach is another benefit of the sales management training program. When sales leaders understand the value of having a mentor, they are more likely to ask for guidance on how to improve on their own independent skills. When every person is committed to improving their own skills, technique, and effectiveness, the efficiency of a business will be tremendously increased. When a business is running smoothly, it is easier to meet the needs of their customers and have high retention rates.

Sales leaders and sales managers who go through sales management training understand how to communicate with their team much more effectively to influence better results. Once people understand how to communicate with each other in an effective manner, they will be able to implement proven sales strategies for better performance. When proper sales strategies are implemented, sales teams are more effective, sales go up, and the company increases revenues. When salespeople are working together under the guidance of a sales manager that has been trained in an effective sales management method, they will be begin to experience new levels of success.

There are numerous benefits of sales management training. Every person attending Sandler sales management training will be able to go back into their workplace and maximize their own skills thereby benefiting their employer greatly.

Sitting and Provision of Fire Extinguishers – Fire Extinguisher Training

During an emergency involving fire, the speed at which a fire extinguisher can be sought is vital. Also choosing the correct type of fire extinguisher for each type of fire can be the difference between life and death. Over the years, general guidelines have been established as recommended practice after being derived from fire incident investigations.

For general fire protection purposes, extinguishers should be located as follows:

i) So that no-one has to travel more than 30 metres to reach one. This is to ensure the speed at which one can be sourced is as efficient as possible.

ii) Conspicuous positions. It can be difficult to find one when they are positions which are out of the sight of people and not obviously seen in emergency.

iii) Near room exits, on exit routes or on staircase landings.

iv) On similar positions on each floor. This helps build a habit in people’s minds of there being a common place to find an extinguisher when needed.

v) Easily accessible. Obstructions to the extinguishers add to the delay of being able to extinguish the fire.

vi) Where intended for a particular hazard, they should be conveniently located for the place of risk, but not so close that they may be inaccessible in the event of fire. Getting the right extinguisher next to the right kind of hazard helps to eliminate bad choices when attempting to extinguish fires, which could lead to further loss.

vii) Avoidance of exposure to excessive heat or cold.

viii) Avoidance of corrosion. This ensures the fire extinguishers are ready and fit for purpose.

ix) Grouped together in fire points where practicable. This helps to ensure that fire fighting is as efficient as possible.

Information

Due to the different methods needed to bring various types of extinguishers into operation, they should bear clearly understood written and pictorial operating instructions. Ideally all extinguishers should operate in the same way and be controllable.

In the UK, for quick identification there is a British Standard colour code (BS 7863) for each type of appliance:

• Red for water

• Cream for foam

• Blue for powder

• Black for Carbon Dioxide

• Canary Yellow for Wet Chemical

Halon Fire Extinguishers – Coloured green

The Montreal Protocol has ruled that Halon fire extinguishers should have been phased out by the year 2000 and as such all Halon extinguishers should be replaced with a suitable alternative, i.e. some kind of inert gas.

British standard for portable fire extinguishers

British Standard ‘BS EN3’ is the current manufacturing standard for portable fire extinguishers in the UK. It came into force on 1 January 1997 therefore every new extinguisher manufactured must comply with BS EN3 for it to be an ‘approved’ extinguisher. The main feature is that the extinguisher body must be RED, regardless of its contents.

Clause 57.1 does however allows for a maximum of 5% of the surface area of the body of the extinguisher to be colour coded to indicate its contents. The area chosen must be visible 180 degrees when the extinguisher is in its normal position.

How Guide Dogs Work

For almost all dog lovers, the phrase “work being a dog” does not make really sense. As the standard dog companion undoubtedly offers his master immeasurable joy, it’s clear that he dwells a life of impressive pleasure. Our pets superbly move from the lighthearted times of child years straight to the relaxation of old age, skipping the functional portion of life completely.

However, many dogs gladly execute really challenging tasks for most of their life, applying an entire day’s work much like ordinary people. Guide dogs, one of the acquainted types of working dog, offer a priceless assistance to humans. Each day, they assist their masters go around more securely.

Guide dogs assist sightless or visually weakened individuals go around across the world. In many nations, they’re permitted anyplace that the community is permitted, for them to help their masters be anywhere they may wish to go. To get this done, your guide dog should learn to:

• Obey numerous verbal instructions

• Lie silently once the master is seated

• Bring the master to elevator control keys

• Stop in all rein in until instructed to continue

• Turn right and left, move ahead and stop on order

• Discontinue at the end and the top of stairways till instructed to continue

• Maintain a comfortable speed, to the left and in front of the handler

• Stay on a straight route, disregarding interruptions like smells, other creatures and individuals

• Help the master to get on and navigate around the bus, passageways as well as other kinds of public vehicles

• Recognize and steer clear of obstructions that the master will not be capable to fit through (narrow pathways and very low overheads)

Furthermore, a guide dog should know to contravene any instruction that could put the master at risk. This potential, called discerning disobedience, is probably the most incredible factor regarding guide dogs — that they’ll balance behavior with their personal evaluation of the circumstance.

This ability is very important at crosswalks, in which the master and dog should function very tightly jointly to understand the circumstance securely. If the team gets to the suppress, the dog stops, signaling to the master that they’ve gotten to a crosswalk. Dogs can’t identify the traffic lights color, therefore the master must decide of when it’s safe to continue along the street. The handler concentrates towards the stream of traffic to determine when the light has changed and gives the instruction “forward.” When there is no danger, the dog continues across the highway in a direct line. If there are vehicles getting close to, the dog waits till the peril is disappeared and then goes behind the forward command.

The Scarlet Letter and Symbolism

The Scarlet Letter is a novel with much symbolism. Throughout the novel several characters represent other ideas. One of the most complex and misunderstood characters in the novel is Pearl, the daughter of Hester Prynne. Pearl, throughout the story, develops into a dynamic symbol – one that is always changing. Although Pearl changes, she always symbolizes evil. Pearl symbolizes evil in the story by representing God’s punishment of Hester’s sin, symbolizing the guilt and the scarlet letter that controls her behavior, and defying Puritan laws by being cheerful and associating with nature. Pearl represents God’s punishment by her mocking and nagging of Hester. Throughout the novel she sometimes seemed to her mother as almost a witch baby (Matthiessen 104). She is a baffling mixture of strong emotions with a fierce temper and a capacity for evil. With Pearl, Hester’s life became one of constant nagging, and no joy. The child could not be made amenable to rules. Hester even remarks to herself, “Oh Father in heaven – if thou art still my father – what is this being which I have brought into the world” (Hawthorne 89)? Pearl would harass her mother Piyasena/Pine 2 over the scarlet “A” she wore. In time, Hester was subjected to so much ridicule from Pearl and others that she was forced into seclusion. Pearl represents the sins of both Hester and Dimmesdale. Pearl is said to be the direct consequence of sin (Martin 108). Their sins include lying to the people about the affair that led to Pearl. Hester realizes what Pearl represents when she does not hold Pearl up in front of the “A.” She carries the child around because it is a direct reflection of her sin. Hester is, “wisely judging that one token of her shame would but poorly serve to hide another” (Hawthorne 48).

Dimmesdale’s sin is not adultery but not having the courage to admit that he had adulterated. Therefore his is a “concealed sin.” The scarlet letter amuses Pearl, and also controls her behavior. It is noted that, Pearl has been described in terms almost exclusively of uncontrolled, chaotic passion (MacLean 54). Throughout the novel Pearl is attracted to the “A.” Even when she is just a baby, “her infant’s eyes had been caught by the glimmering of the gold embroidery about the letter” (Hawthorne 90). When Pearl is older and Hester throws the letter on the ground, Pearl yells at her mother until she places the “A” back on her bosom. Hawthorne says that Pearl is, “the scarlet letter in another form; the scarlet letter endowed with life,” (95) which proves the she is truly the scarlet letter. Throughout the book the “A” is the sign by which the colonial authority seek to fix the crime and the criminal (Ragussis 97), although the cloth shows the sin so does Pearl. She is a far stronger device for punishing Hester than Piyasena/Pine 3 the piece of cloth on Hester’s chest. Due to her influence, Pearl becomes the chief agent to her mother’s salvation. Hester and Dimmesdale share much guilt because of Pearl. Dimmesdale’s guilt is filled with mental anguish, and serves as a constant reminder of his sin. Dimmesdale is a minister [who] commits adultery and is driven to public confession by remorse (Martin 108). He remains silent so that he can continue to do God’s work as a minister. It is said that he was a guilty character [who] finds empathy in connection with others (Peckham 92). Pearl brings him guilt when he would not stand with them on the scaffold; “Thou was not bold! – thou wast not true! … Thou wouldst not promise to take my hand, and my mother’s hand, tomorrow noontide” (Hawthorne 150)! Hester’s guilt, however, is derived from both Chillingsworth and Dimmesdale. Chillingsworth married a woman who did not love him, which is one of the causes of Hester’s guilt. Dimmesdale causes her guilt when he sees her suffering alone for the sin that they both committed. Though they both committed the same sin, only Hester’s shines through. Pearl was cheerful due to the scarlet letter her mother possessed. When the breastplate at Governor Bellingham’s Mansion distorts the scarlet “A” into something overpowering and horrible, it is Pearl who points at it, “smiling at her mother with the elfish intelligence that was so familiar an expression on her small physiognomy” (Hawthorne 99). Even as a child, Pearl is affixed to the letter “and, putting up her little hand, she grasped it, [the letter] smiling, not doubtfully, but Piyasena/Pine 4 with a decided gleam” (Hawthorne 90).

Pearl’s tendency to focus on the scarlet letter is fully developed when she mimics her mother by placing a seaweed “A” on her own chest. Much of Pearl’s strangeness comes from her exceptional quickness of mind and the abnormal environment in which she is reared with only her mother as a companion. As Pearl develops a personality, she becomes symbolic of the kind of passion that accompanied Hester’s sin. Hester tolerated Pearl’s pretentious behavior but could not find it in her heart to condemn the child. As Pearl thus becomes so closely associated with the letter “A” on Hester’s breast she becomes the embodiment not only of Hester’s sin but also of her conscience. Nature is an amusing hobby for Pearl; therefore one of her favorite activities is playing with flowers and trees. She fits in with natural things, “and she was gentler here [the forest] then in the grassy margined streets of the settlement, or in her mother’s cottage” as Hawthorne notes in the novel (202). She is so closely affiliated to nature that the creatures of the forest approach her instead of disperse. “The mother-forest, and these wild things which it nourished, all recognized a kindred wildness in the human child” Hawthorne notes as Pearl is on a walk with her mother (202).

However, the Puritans believed that anything affiliated with the forest was evil; therefore, Pearl defies their laws by being effervescent and joyful in the woods. Some of the Puritans even believe her to be a demon offspring. So unusual is her behavior that she is often referred to in such terms as “elf child,” Piyasena/Pine 5 “imp,” and “airy sprite.” Pearl is a virtual shouting match between the Puritanical views and the Romantic ways. Pearl is a source of many kinds of symbolism. She is both a rose and indeed the scarlet letter. If she had not been born, Hester would not have had to wear the letter. Pearl is a burden to Hester; yet Hester loves her. She is also her mother’s only treasure and her only source of survival. Without Pearl, Hester would have lived a different life, one without the scarlet letter, one without sin, and one without her treasure.

Which Real Butterfly Jewelry Is Best for Me?

In recent years, it has become quite popular for various vendors to advertise and sell real butterfly jewelry. Although many vendors are careful to only sell jewelry made from butterflies born, raised, and passed away naturally on humane butterfly farms, some vendors are not so careful so if you are environmentally sensitive, be sure to ask the vendor where they get their butterflies from before purchasing.

Historically speaking, there have been three types of butterfly jewelry on the market: laminated wings, wings encased in cases covered with glass, and wings dipped in resin. All of these are typically used for earrings but they are occasionally found for use in necklaces as well. Only recently has a fourth version of real butterfly jewelry arrived in the marketplace. Before addressing the newbie, let’s consider the advantages and disadvantages of traditional real butterfly jewelry.

Laminated Wings

While laminated butterfly jewelry varies somewhat in quality, the biggest difference that you may want to consider is selection. All laminated products yellow with age so prolonged exposure to the sun will eventually render the jewelry unattractive – prolonged exposure to the sun will slowly fade the colors on the original butterfly wing as well. If you are wearing them in primarily indoor venues, they should last quite a while before yellowing and losing their beauty. Although they are fairly durable as you might expect, the lamination will eventually start to curl or peel apart slightly and will produce a frayed edge. Of course, with lamination comes glossy texture, so you also lose some of the natural beauty of the butterfly – but not much. Generally speaking though, these are minor critiques – the big differences between vendors is their selection of butterfly wings. Look for a vendor that carries dozens of species rather than only a few. Of all butterfly jewelry, this type is often the least expensive, so finding a vendor with a great selection and a good price is not too difficult.

Wings Encased in Glass Cases

Real butterfly jewelry encased in glass cases makes durability a non-issue when compared to laminated products. Although some few vendors carry cheap cases that may even unexpectedly pop open if you are not careful, most butterfly jewelry sold in this fashion comes in attractive (usually silver) cases that surround a portion of the butterfly wing. This preserves the natural beauty of the butterfly wing for a very long time. However, jewelry of this nature almost never allows you to see the entire butterfly wing and often produces a fairly heavy earring. Further, when real butterfly wings are used, prolonged exposure to the sun will slowly fade until the original colors are lost forever – this is a problem with laminated products as well. Despite the fact that UV protected acrylic sheets are available on the market, it appears that no vendor uses this technology to make this type of butterfly jewelry last longer or to make the earrings less heavy. In short, your taste in which cases are the most attractive is the biggest factor when looking for butterfly jewelry encased in glass cases – the selection of butterfly wings is less crucial with this genre of jewelry because the whole wing is almost never used so many people will not even notice that the jewelry is made from real butterfly wings. Of all butterfly jewelry, this type is often the most expensive.

Butterfly Wings in Resin or Lucite Cases

Real butterfly jewelry dipped in resin or Lucite varies drastically in quality. Some butterfly wings are so badly damaged in the process that you can barely tell that it is a butterfly wing encased in a plastic coating at all. Others preserve the beauty of the wing fabulously. Generally speaking, the better the product, the higher the price; there are some exceptions but you will have to shop around to find them. Although this product is more durable than the laminated products, it has the same problems with discoloration – both the resin/Lucite coating and the butterfly wing discolor over time – and it tends to make a heavy earring as well. Few vendors offer much selection with this product so you may not have the same ability to be picky about which species that you would like to wear.

The Newbie: Natural Looking Real Butterfly Wing Earrings

There is only one vendor in the world that offers these fabulous products. Like the laminated wings described above, this product features whole butterfly wings rather than a small portion of the wing, which allows for a better view of the butterfly’s natural beauty. There are at least two big differences between the treated butterfly earrings and the standard laminated earring: first, the butterfly wing (in its pristine natural state) is exposed for viewing, which uniquely preserves the natural beauty of the butterfly wing just as it looked when the butterfly was alive; second, this product is generally best for nice dinners, formal occasions, or special gatherings – they are absolutely perfect for weddings – rather than every day use.

Two Types

Whether you are interested in earrings, hair clips, butterfly roses (butterflies mounted on a floral stem), or other custom jewelry, you should be aware that they come in two varieties: “any occasion” and “special occasion.”

Special Occasion (a.k.a. Natural)

Special occasion butterflies have only been through half of the unique preservation process. This means that the jewelry exposed to the viewer’s eye will look precisely like it did when the butterfly was alive! They are thoroughly gorgeous and absolutely exquisite! This also means that the jewelry is more delicate – the wings are liable to scratches and rubs and are more likely to break than any occasion jewelry (see below). Although the wings are bendable, touching the wings can rub off scales and make the butterfly look aged so it is best to only touch the clip portion of the hair clip (or boutonniere) or the earring post as much as reasonably possible. This type of jewelry is referred to as “special occasion” for two reasons: first, this is an absolutely stunning new product that will dazzle your friends and second, because the real wing is exposed to touch, they may not be suitable for more extensive activities. Consider these your Cinderella slippers!

Any Occasion (a.k.a. Glossy)

The “any occasion” preservation process makes the butterflies flexible enough to be handled (with reasonable care) and lightly waterproof. These butterflies are intended for regular (non-athletic use in mild weather). You should note that with some species, the natural coloring of the butterfly wings does darken somewhat during the plasticization process so look at the final product picture or speak with a specialist before ordering. With some species, this process actually enhances the look of the butterfly wing (imagine a stain glass butterfly wing) but usually, you are best to look for the natural coating.

Hair Clips

Because of this unique technology, earrings are not the only possibility – hair clips can also be made of real butterflies (antennae included if you want) and there are also real “butterfly roses.” If you want to get noticed, these hair clips will surely not fail you – brand new to the market and designed to look like a butterfly just landed in your hair to take a rest, this is a very unique hair product. Add to your hair clip a butterfly rose and you are ready for your wedding reception too!

Remember, although this new butterfly jewelry is not as durable as other forms of jewelry, damages are often repairable so these are not “disposable” items that you throw away after your first use. Nevertheless, you should not expect this jewelry to last a lifetime. However, if you order a hair clip or butterfly rose for some special occasion that you want to remember, the vendor can custom preserve the butterfly in a display to mount on your wall so they can be preserved for a lifetime.

Care of Natural Looking Real Butterfly Wing Earrings

Another small con: care of this jewelry is a little more intensive than other forms of real butterfly jewelry (it is not difficult though, just unfamiliar) so before making your customized order, make sure to read up on how to care for your stunning earrings – that way, they will last longer and retain the natural and stunning beauty of the real butterfly.

The Pros and Cons of Ceramic Sinks

Ceramic sinks have gotten a bad reputation in the sink industry as being a material that isn’t desirable for any bathroom, kitchen, and so on. However, what many people do not realize is that there are two sides to ceramic sinks, a positive and a negative side. These two sides exist for every type of sink, and it is important to understand the sides of ceramic sinks before making any decisions based on public opinion.

Pros

The advantages of them have obviously been known for many years seeing as how they have been used and are still used today. Ceramic type sinks are quite beautiful and can come in a variety of colors to fit the decor needs of the buyer. They are also quite inexpensive as far as sinks go because metals, granite and other sink materials cost so much to obtain and fabricate sink shapes from, whereas ceramics are easier to work with in the manufacturing process. A final advantage of sinks made from ceramic materials is that they can be found everywhere sinks are sold.

Cons

There are also many disadvantages to using them, and these are often exaggerated to the point that people avoid them on principle. One of these is the tendency of ceramic materials to break or become damaged, which is slightly higher than that of metal or granite sinks. Another large disadvantage of ceramic sinks is that they do not look modern enough for many kitchen and bathroom planners today to bother using – comparing polished stainless steel to the shiny lacquer of ceramic is something a lot of people just are not willing to do because of this reason alone.

Mobsters, Gangs – Johnny "Dio" Dioguardi

If there was a way to make an illegal buck, Johnny” Dio” Dioguardi, called by Bobby Kennedy the “master labor racketeer,” had his sticky fingers in the pot. Dio was such a treacherous thug at a young age, in 1936, U.S. Attorney Thomas E. Dewey claimed Dio was, “A young gorilla who began his career at the age of 15.”

Johnny Dio was born Giovanni (John) Ignazio Dioguardi on April 28, 1914, on Forsyth Street in downtown Manhattan. Dio had three brothers: Frank and Vincent, who were legitimate guys, and Tommaso, or Thomas, who became, as did Johnny Dio, a capo in the Luchesse crime family. Dio also had an unnamed sister who can be identified only as “Mrs. Dioguardi-Priziola.”

Dio’s father Giovanni B. Dioguardi, who owned a bicycle shop, was murdered in August 1930 on a street in Coney Island, in what police called a “mob-related execution.” It seemed that the elder Dioguardi and another enterprising gentleman had robbed a rich lady of her jewelry, and the two men had were arguing over how to split the proceeds. The elder Dioguardi, who had been arrested twice for murder but never convicted, took six shots to various parts of his body, and it is presumed the other gentleman kept all the jewelry.

Johnny Dio graduated grammar school, but after less than two years at Stuyvesant High School, Dio dropped out and went to work for his uncle on his mother side: gangster James “Jimmy Doyle” Plumeri. By this time, the handsome Dio (who was said to have looked like silent movie star Rudolph Valentino) had already gotten a reputation on the Lower East Side as a tough youth, who terrorized street vendors into giving him a good portion of their wares for free. Uncle Jimmy Doyle (nobody called him by his real name Plumeri), recognizing Dio’s talents for thuggery, immediately put Dio to work as a schlammer (leg-breaker) in the Garment Center for Doyle’s Jewish associates Louie “Lepke” Buchalter and Lepke’s partner Jacob “Gurrah” Shapiro, who were affectionately known as “The Gorilla Boys.” Lepke, along with Albert “The Lord High Executioner” Anastasia, was the head of Murder Incorporated, a group of stone killers who murdered whomever the mob bosses in New York City and around the country said needed to be murdered. However, there is no proof that Dio ever joined that august group. Dio’s specialty was union-related extortion, and in that, he was tops in his field.

Dio and Doyle started a garment workers trucking association, whereby the truckers working in the Garment Center were forced to join the trucker’s union, headed, of course, by Dio and Doyle. If a poor sap trucker decided he didn’t want to join the union, a trip to the hospital was inevitable, if not a trip to the morgue. The union dues was hefty, but at whatever price they were forced to pay, it was a small price indeed to ensure the trucker’s continued good health. Of course, the “union dues” never made it into the union’s coffers (it went straight into Dio’s and Doyle’s pockets instead), and phony books were established to satisfy whomever decided to enquire about the trucker’s union’s financial solvency.

Members of the trucker’s union were even told where to spend their money and how much to spend on specific items. Dio and Doyle were pals with a local barber, and they ordered their truckers to patronized this special barber to the nifty tune of $2.50 a month. The truckers were also told where to buy their wine, where to buy their meats, and where to buy their clothing, and how much to spend on each item, which was certainly not at bargain prices.

For several years in the 1930s, Dio and Doyle, with nobody to stop them, had a sweet deal going for themselves in the Garment Center. Besides extorting the truckers, the dynamic duo of Dio and Doyle profited from the other end of the totem pole too. They forced the Garment Center’s clothing manufacturers (bosses) to employ only union truckers. Then they used the clout of their trucker’s union to bulldoze the clothing manufacturers into paying hefty off-the-books fees in order to keep their business up-and-running, and profitable.

If the clothing manufacturers refused to pay the extortion fees, Dio and Doyle would order their union truckers to go on strike, putting a dead stop to the clothing manufacturer’s cash flow. On occasions, if the bosses didn’t play ball, union thugs (schlammers) would break the bosses’ fingers, their arms and legs; and sometimes all three body parts on the same visit. In extreme cases, like if a boss threatened to talk to the Feds, Lepke’s Murder Incorporated boys would enter the scene, and seconds later, the chatty boss would exit the face of the earth, toes up.

In 1932 and 1933, Dio and Plumeri were indicted twice for extortion, but they beat the rap both times, because their victims refused to talk to the Feds. In 1934, Dio was lucky enough to be elected executive secretary of the Allied Truckmen’s Mutual Association, an association of employers. Even though Dio was boss of the trucker’s union, he represented their employers during a strike by 1,150 Teamsters in September 1934.

Nice work if you can get it.

However, in 1937, both Dio and Doyle ran out of luck. The nephew and uncle duo were indicted for extortion and “atrocious assault.” During the trial it was alleged that Dio and Doyle, and several other of their gangster underlings, had been extorting as much as $500 from each trucker. Plus, it was alleged they had forced the clothing manufacturers to add a hefty “tariff” to every suit, coat, and pair of pants manufactured in the Garment Center. This tariff went straight in the pockets of Dio and Doyle, and that increased the cost of good for the general public.

Sweet deal indeed.

According to an article in the New York Daily Mirror, “At the trial, frightened witnesses testified how recalcitrant employers and employees were beaten when they refused to pay. One man said he was confined to bed for two weeks after an assault. Another said the hoodlums had threatened to cut off his ears.”

Realizing they were dead in the water, during the middle of the trial, both Dio and Doyle pled guilty as charged. In return they received free room and board in upstate Sing Sing Prison for a period of three-five years.

After he was released from prison, Dio decided New York City was too hot for him, so he moved to Allentown, Pennsylvania, where he took up roots long enough to open his own dress manufacturing plant; non-union, of course. He later sold the plant, and to guarantee the new owners would have no trouble, Dio took $11,200 under the table to ensure that his erstwhile plant would remain non-union.

Dio sped back to New York City, and using the same tactics he had employed in Allentown, he set up a dress wholesaler. Using his profits from the business, Dio was smart enough to buy legitimate businesses, which included real estate and trucking. He also dabbled in the stock market, making him seem to the IRS as just another tax-paying citizen. But the New York City police knew better. They just couldn’t pin anything illegal on Dio, although they continued trying.

Back in his old Forsyth Street neighborhood, Dio decided to start a family. He married the former Anne Chrostek (a non-Italian). She bore Dio two sons (Philip and Dominick) and one daughter (Rosemary) who sadly passed away from an unknown illness. It was during this time that Dio, before the age of forty, was officially inducted into the Luchesse Crime Family, making him all the more untouchable on the streets of New York City. Even though they were only Italian on their father’s side, both of Dio’s sons eventually followed in their father’s footsteps into a life of crime. Philip Dio, who was called “Fat Philly,” was later inducted into the Colombo Crime Family, while Dominick, like his father, became a made man in the Luchesse Crime Family.

(Editor’s note: The Mafia rules changed around this time to allow more members to be inducted into the “Honored Society,” to fill the gaps of those who either were killed or sent to the can; “college” as the mob likes to call it. At this point, only your father (not both parents) had to be Italian for you to get “your button.” If your mother was Italian and your father a non-Italian — you were spit out of luck. Them’s the breaks.)

By the 1950’s, Dio had become a powerful captain (capo) in the Luchesse Crime Family, and with money pouring into his coffers in bundles (he allegedly earned $100,000 a week), he started living the life of a colonial baron. In the early 1960s, Dio moved his family into a spacious estate out on Freeport, Long Island, which cost Dio $75,000 in cash (Dio didn’t like banks or bank loans). During the week, Dio ate with his cronies in the best New York City eateries (his favorite being the trendy Black Angus Steakhouse). But, as is the Italian custom, Sundays were strictly for the family (famiglia). Inviting family member and close friends, Dio was proud of the fact he was an expert cook and was personally able to conjure up the best Italian delicacies to delight his guests. Dio was especially gracious to his wife, whom he loved dearly (unlike most mob men, Dio was faithful to his wife). Instead of personally buying his wife Christmas presents, Dio would give her a shoe box stuffed with cash, with a little note saying, “Buy yourself some nice clothes, honey.”

During the 1950’s, through his connections with New York City Teamster leaders Martin Lacey and John O’Rourke, Dio became tight pals with Teamster big-wig Jimmy Hoffa. Dio and Hoffa first met in a secret meeting in a New York City hotel room, and Hoffa, who had hoped to unseat Teamster President Dave Beck, figured Dio, with his union background, would be the perfect person to become chums with. In late 1955, Dio was able to obtain charters from the Teamsters to set up seven Teamster locals, called “paper locals,” because they did not have actual teamsters as members. The roles were filled with Dio’s relatives and pals, and their vote for teamster president was in Hoffa’s back pocket.

Dio’s modus operandi for more than 30 years was this: control the unions, then use the unions as a sledgehammer over the heads of the bosses. Dio would tell the bosses, “Pay or my boys will strike.” The bosses always paid, the workers always got screwed, and Dio made out like a bandit every time.

During his illustrious criminal career, Dio controlled the unions to the detriment of its members to such an extent, that during the 1950’s McClellan Committee hearings into organized crime, the committee issued the statement, “It cannot be said, using the widest possible latitude, that Johnny Dioguardi was ever interested in bettering the lot of the workingman.”

Famous Mafia turncoat Joe Valachi owned a dress factory on Prospect Avenue in the Bronx for 12 years. Valachi once said, “I never belonged to any union. If I got into any trouble, any union organizer came around, all I had to do was call Johnny Dio and all my troubles were straightened out.”

However, in 1956, as the Teamsters elections neared and they were scheming for control, both Hoffa and Dio had a stone in their shoe, and his name was syndicated newspaper columnist Victor Riesel.

Victor Riesel was born on March 16, 1913 on the Lower East Side to Jewish parents in a mixed Italian/Jewish neighborhood, not far from where Dio grew up. Victor’s father, Nathan Riesel, was very proactive in union activities and was instrumental in creating the Bonnaz, Singer, and the Hard Embroiderers Unions. In 1913, he also helped organized Local 66 of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, and soon he was elected secretary-treasurer of that union, then finally president.

When Victor Riesel was a young child, his father taught him how to make union speeches, which the young Victor fiercely gave at union meetings and at outdoor union rallies. Nathan Riesel was hard-line anti-communist, and he was strident in preventing the communists from infiltrating his locals. Victor saw his father return home many times, beaten and bloodied from fights he had with communists activists, or the mobsters (schlammers) who were hired by the factory owners to break up union strikes that Nathan Riesel had participated in. This formed the notion in Victor Riesel’s young mind that gangsters were the bane of legitimate unions.

In 1926, Nathan Riesel moved his family to the Bronx, where Victor attended and graduated with honors from Morris High School. While in high school, Riesel began working as an “stringer” for several newspapers throughout America. His writings were mostly about the labor movement in the United States, and how they were hampered by a “gangster element,” who sought to play both ends of the spectrum by infiltrating the unions, then working for the boss manufacturers to physically quell any union strikes or demonstrations. In 1928, Riesel enrolled in night classes in the City College of New York City (CCNY), where he took courses in human resource management and industrial relations. To support himself while attending night school, Riesel worked at strenuous jobs, both in a steel mill and in a saw mill. While in college, Riesel also worked as a columnist, then as an editor on the student newspaper. Besides writing columns on the labor movement, Riesel also wrote columns on varied subjects like literature, and the theater.

While in college, to get needed experience in the outside newspaper world, Riesel took a job as a general office boy at The New Leader, a political and cultural weekly magazine that was both liberal and anti-communist. Riesel cuts his teeth in the business by doing anything his bosses at the newspaper told him to do, including sweeping the floors, and writing columns for the newspaper. In 1940, after 12 long years of hard work, both in and out of school, Riesel finally earned his Bachelor of Business Administration from CCNY. He was offered the job as the managing editor at The New Leader, and he took the job with the determination of ridding the unions of “gangsterism.”

Riesel caught his first big break, when in 1941, he was hired as a columnist for The New York Post. In the 1948, when the Post changed management, Riesel switched to the New York Daily Mirror, owned by newspaper magnate William Randolph Hurst. By 1956, Riesel’s column was syndicated in 193 newspapers throughout the United States. In that same year, Riesel began working in conjunction with United States Attorney Paul Williams, with the expressed purpose of taking on the gangsters who ran the New York City garment and trucking unions.

This was a double whammy for Johnny Dio, who was heavily involved in both unions, and for Jimmy Hoffa, who was trying to unseat Dave Beck as head of the Teamsters.

On April 5, 1956, Riesel was asked to be a guest host on Barry Gray’s WMCA overnight radio talk show. Riesel had recently been on a rant in his columns concerning the International Union of Operating Engineers and its President William DeKoning Jr., who Riesel claimed was conspiring with known labor gangster Joseph Fay to reinstall DeKoning’s father William DeKoning Sr. as the president of the union. DeKoning Sr. had just exited the can after being imprisoned for extortion, and Riesel felt that having the senior DeKoning back as president of the union would be a downright disaster.

As a result of his columns on both DeKonings and Fay, Riesel received numerous death threats. However, Riesel shrugged them off, knowing only a fool would hurt an esteemed member of the press. Doing so would certainly result in the law coming down hard on all union racketeers, and their rackets.

On this particular radio show, Riesel invited two members of the International Union of Operating Engineers, who were challenging the DeKonings for control of the union. This did not sit too well with Johnny Dio, or with Jimmy Hoffa, who both figured Riesel would go gunning for them next.

Gray’s show originated at Hutton’s Restaurant on Lexington Avenue and 47th Street. After the show, which ended at 2 a.m., Riesel and his secretary moseyed over to Lindy’s restaurant, on Broadway between 49th and 50th Street, to grab a bite to eat and drown the food down with hot steaming coffee. (Ironically, this was the same Lindy’s Restaurant in front of which small-time gambler Herman Rosenthal was shot to death in 1912.)

At approximately 3 a.m., Riesel and his secretary emerged from Lindy’s and started walking toward the secretary’s parked car on 51st Street. Riesel wore his eyeglasses to work, but when he was out in public, for appearances sake, he normally removed his eyeglasses. Just as Riesel and his secretary neared the secretary’s car, Riesel took off his eyeglasses, put them in an eyeglass case, and inserted the case into the breast pocket of his overcoat. Suddenly, a tall, thin man, wearing a blue and white jacket, sprung from the shadows of the Mark Hellinger Theater and flung a vial contain sulfuric acid into Riesel’s eyes, rendering Riesel blind for the rest of his life. Then the assailant calmly walked away and disappeared into the night. Thereafter, Riesel wore sunglasses to shield the public from the sight of his severely disfigured eyes.

The day after the attack, the Daily Mirror offered a $10,000 reward for information that led to the capture and conviction of Riesel’s assailant. The Newspaper Guild of America, the New York Press Photographers, the New York Reporters Association, and the Overseas Press Club chipped in with another five grand. In less than a week, donations from assorted groups, including the labor unions and radio station WMCA, had raised the reward total to $41,000.

With tips coming in in droves, some reliable, some not so reliable, in August of 1956, the FBI ascertained that Riesel’s assailant had been small-time hood Abraham Telvi. The only problem was, Telvi was now deceased; apparently murdered on July 28 because he had demanded another $50,000 on top of the paltry $500 he had already been paid for throwing the acid in Riesel’s face.

On August 29, Dio was arrested for conspiracy in the Riesel attack. Dio pled not guilty and was released on $100,000 bond.

On October 22, Dio’s pal Joseph Carlino pled guilty to hiring Telvi to attack Riesel. Carlino implicated two other men, Gandolfo Maranti and Dominick Bando, as accomplices in hiring Telvi. Carlino also said that Dio had ultimately given the order for the attack. Dio lawyered up with a top New York City mob attorney, and his attorney was able to get Dio’s trial severed from the trial of Maranti and Bando.

At their trial, both Maranti and Bando verified Carlino’s assertion that Dio had engineered the attack against Riesel. Maranti and Bando were both found guilty of conspiracy. But their sentencing was delayed until after the Dio trial.

Dio’s attorney was able to delay his trial for almost six months, and during this time Maranti and Bando began to have bouts of memory loss. When Dio’s trial finally commenced, both Maranti and Bando recanted their testimony, and with no corroboration of Carlino’s claim that Dio ordered the Riesel attack, all charges against Dio were dropped. Maranti was given 8-16 years in prison, and Bando 2-5 years in prison, and another 5 years for contempt of court. Amazingly, Carlino received a suspended sentence for aiding the law in the convictions of Maranti and Bando. However, no matter how the situation was cleared or not cleared up in court, Dio has forever been remembered as the man who “blinded Victor Riesel.”

In October of 1956, Dio was indicted, along with several Teamster officials, on extortion and conspiracy charges. The indictment said that Dio had extorted money from New York City Garment Center truck drivers, and had also extorted money from Garment Center manufacturing bosses not to have the same truck drivers go out on strike. Also included in the indictment was the alleged extortion of New York City stationery store owners, whose stores Dio’s men had picketed. The store owners were allegedly told that if they wanted the picketing stopped, they would have to force their employees to join Teamster Local 295, and hire Johnny Dio’s “labor consulting” firm, Equitable (not) Research Associates, for a $3,500 retainer, and $200 a month salary.

Because Dio’s attorneys were so adept at stalling tactics, and the fact that key government witnesses had recanting their testimony, Dio’s trial did not take place until November of 1957.

The trial took four weeks, but when it ended, Dio was convicted as charged and sentenced to two years in prison. While in prison, Dio was indicted again on extortion charges. This time, instead of the victims being stationery store owners, they were the owners of electroplating shops. In 1958, Dio was convicted again, and this time the judge threw the book at Dio, sentencing him to 15-30 years. Dio began serving his time in Sing Sing Prison, while appealing his sentence. On June 23, 1959, an appeals court inexplicable overturned the decision in Dio’s trial, saying that since Dio didn’t issue the threats personally, he should not have been convicted of extortion. A split court ruled, “Extortion cannot be committed by one who does not himself induce fear, but who receives money for the purpose of removing or allaying pre-existing fear instilled by others.”

Jonathan Kwitney said in his book Vicious Circles, “The decision seemed to legitimize the whole purpose of the Mafia.”

However, the law was not finished with Johnny Dio. On June 24, 1959, one hour after he finished his two-year bit on the first extortion charge, Dio was pinched by the Feds and charged with income tax evasion; for non-payment of taxes for three dress manufacturing companies he owned (non-union, of course), and two labor union locals. Dio went on trial in March of 1960. He was found guilty and was sentenced to four years at the federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia. Dio was released in March of 1963, partially on the basis that he had obtained a real job in a legitimate industry. Dio claimed he was now a salesman for Consumers Kosher Provision Company, another sham job that provided Dio the opportunity to do what he had done in several other industries before. This time it was the kosher meat business that would pay the piper for Dio’s Machiavellian machinations.

At first, the scam worked like a charm. Dio and a bunch a his mobster buddies separately approached two rival kosher meat companies and convinced both of them that their business would be ruined if they did not hire their group of thugs to fight back against the other company’s group of thugs. The two competing companies were the Consumers Kosher Provision Company, run by a dupe named Herman Rose, and the American Kosher Provision Inc., who had employed mobster Max Block (he had just been forced to resign as head of the butcher’s union) to make sure other mobsters didn’t try to shake down American Kosher. Block’s muscle was provided by Genovese thug Lorenzo “Chappy” Brescia, who had been extorting the butcher’s union for years. According to Vicious Circles, Block was receiving an annual salary of $50,000 a year from American Kosher, and Brescia’s cut was $25,000 a year.

This is where Dio began working his magic in the kosher meat business. Through two intermediaries, Dio approached Herman Rose and convinced Rose that in order to compete with American Kosher, it was imperative Rose hire Johnny Dio to protect his interests. Rose figured this was the right thing to do and he hired Dio at the salary of $250 a week; not an exorbitant amount of money. But it gave Dio the appearance of an honest job, and it gave the Mafia the opportunity to control the prices in the two top kosher meat companies in the area. (This is why, overnight the price of kosher meats skyrocketed.)

After Herman Rose died in 1964, Dio convinced the Kleinberg family, which owned the majority of stock in Consumer Kosher that it was good business to merge with American Kosher. The Kleinbergs, trembling in their boots, agreed with Dio’s assessment, and with the mob running both companies, the “bust-out business” in the kosher meat industry began in full throttle.

Soon, Dio and his pals, using their usual tactics, began scooping up, and creating from scratch, other small kosher meat companies. Stock was transferred back and forth between the companies, and so were the assets, which included the kosher meat itself. First, Consumer Kosher went bankrupt; then did American Kosher. The other Dio-controlled companies started acquiring the meats (that had not been paid for), and one by one, they too declared bankruptcy, only to be acquired by another sham company owned by, what the newspapers called, “The Kosher Nostra.” The suppliers of the meat out west, because of the multiple bankruptcy proceeding, were stiffed of their meat payments. According to New York Post reporter Marvin Smilon, one of these meat providers had the temerity to ask one of Dio’s meat cronies, “Why do we have to deal with Dio?” He was told, “Sit down and be quiet. You ask too many questions.”

But all good things must come to an end. In 1966, Dio, along with four of his associates, were indicted for “bankruptcy fraud.” In 1967, they were all found guilty, and Dio was sentenced to five years in prison. However, with his high-powered attorneys working their magic, Dio was able to stay out of prison for almost four years. This gave Dio the extra time he needed to work another scam, called “The Great Mafia Bagel War.”

It started with Ben Willner, who had a machine that could make automated bagels, for around 50 cents a bagel, whereas a hand-rolled bagel cost about 65 cents to produce. This was not good news for the Bakery and Confectioners Workers Union, because it put their member’s jobs at risk. Willner was great pals with Moe Steinman, who didn’t care too much how the bagels were being made, because he had a stranglehold on bagel distribution, not bagel production. Willner ran to Steinman, and Steinman, hoping to help his pal out, introduced Willner to Johnny Dio, whom Steinman knew was an expert at “labor-related problems.” Dio helped out Willner, for a piece of the pie of course, and soon Steinman was packing his supermarkets with anywhere from $3,000 to $4,000 worth of Willner’s bagels a week.

The only problem was that Genovese Crime Family capo Thomas “Tommy Ryan” Eboli had his own bagel maker, who was being short-changed because of the Willner/Dio/automated bagel-making machine trio. This man was named Arthur Goldberg and he ran to Eboli, screaming. Eboli demanded a sit-down with Dio, who had been with the Luchesse Family for more than 30 years. At the time, in the New York City Mafia pecking order, the Genovese Family was much more powerful than the Luchesse Family, and Dio was effectively pushed out of the bagel business for good. Dio broke the bad news to Willner, and as a result, in December of 1969, Willner was forced to close shop. This led to the Eboli/Goldberg crew taking over Willner’s business, and his automated bagel-making machines.

Dio felt bad about losing his bagel scheme, but he felt even worse, when in November of 1970, he ran out of appeals and was forced to go to prison for a five-year stretch at the federal prison at Lewisburg, P.A. on the bankruptcy fraud charges. (He did not Pass Go, and he did not collect the customary two hundred dollars.)

In 1972, while still in prison, Dio was indicted again, this time for stock fraud, concerning the At Your Service Leasing Corp., a luxury car leasing firm that did most of its business with organized crime figures. It was alleged that in 1969, before Dio went to prison, Dio, along with Carmine Tramunti, Vincent Aloi, and Michael Hellerman, “floated” $300,000 of false stock in the car leasing company. Dio’s group then either bribed, or forced security dealers to sell the stock, and then turn over the money to the Dio investment group. The jury found Dio guilty, and he was hit when a knockout blow when he was sentenced to nine and ten-year prison terms, to run consecutively. Dio appealed his convictions twice, but he lost both appeals.

Johnny “Dio” Dioguardi never was a free man again. Dio died on January 12, 1979, in a Pennsylvania hospital, where he had been transferred to from federal prison. To add insult to injury, Dio was scheduled for parole in just a few short months.

The news of Johnny Dio’s death did not receive an inch of space in any of the New York City daily newspapers, even though a paid death notice appeared a few days after his death in the New York Daily News.

It was as if Johnny Dio, a gangster’s gangster if there ever was one, had never existed.

Gable or Shed Roof – Selecting the Right Roof for Your Home Addition

Adding a room onto an existing home is probably the most cost effective way to increase a building’s usable interior space. In this article, an addition means what a colleague calls a “three sided” addition. This phrase intends to avoid confusion with other sorts of home additions such as raising a building to create a new ground level space, or raising the roof to create a story between a ground level space and a roof area. The three sided addition means that the new and existing building will share an interior wall.

The first consideration when planning an addition is headroom: the height of a ceiling relative to human proportions. Most building codes stipulate minimum ceiling heights, but, as most people prefer ceilings that are at least eight feet (2.5 m) high, a well-designed space will probably meet or exceed these. Ensuring adequate headroom is probably the most challenging aspect of addition design, and is the main reason to start planning an addition from the roof down.

Begin your design thinking by trying to envision what you consider an ideal ceiling height for your addition when finished. As mentioned, most prefer a minimum eight feet, but a few inches less than this will still work in a pinch. It is important to start here, because your new ceiling will likely be hanging from the roof framing that will, in turn, attach to the existing building. If this framing attaches to an existing building too low, your ceiling will be too low. Let’s look at a couple standard roof frame techniques to help clarify.

Gable Dormer: When most kids in the western world draw a house, it will have a gable roof. A gable roof is an upside-down “V.” A gable dormer is this same roof shape attached to an existing main building at a right angle. It will have a peak as does the children’s drawing, and where its roof meets the main roof is called a valley. As people have been using gable dormers for centuries, you won’t need to look far for an example. The main advantage to a gable dormer when designing an addition is that the addition’s ceiling height is determined by how high its peak is relative to the main building. Typically, the higher the peak, the greater the available ceiling height.

As with any building project, there is seemingly no end to pro and cons, and compromises need be found. When using a gable dormer frame for an addition, the compromise is that much of its weight will bear on the existing or main roof framing because it overlaps this framing. As the main roof framing was not likely designed to support this extra weight, this main roof frame will need to be strengthened. Of course, there are a few more in and outs to know about putting a lid on your addition using the gable dormer method, but in my opinion, this method is the slickest, and in the long term, will offer better looks than most alternatives. Due to the structural bolstering, and other framing elements required when using a gable dormer, it will likely cost more, as well.

If considering the gable dormer method, one thing to bear in mind is that because a sizable addition’s roof dormer will cover up a substantial portion of the existing roof, hold off on re-roofing until the dormer is in place. This will save burying a lot of new roofing material under the new dormer.

Shed Roof: The shed roof or shed dormer has an unfortunate name, but when artfully built, proves a cost effective roof frame for an addition, as well as an attractive one. Starting again with that inverted “V,” the shed-style addition roof is a flat plane say the shape of a floor tile or square cracker that meets one “leg” of the upside-down “V” somewhere. “Somewhere” is the operative word because this versatile addition roof style can, when well supported, be attached anywhere on a building from the main roof to its exterior wall. For now, let’s suppose the shed roof attaches at the base of the inverted “V.” Ideally, the roof joists your ceiling is hung from will “land” on the exterior wall plates where the main roof frame rests. This makes for easier framing.

But here’s the tricky part of using the shed-style. Unlike the gable method which has its drainage slopes built into the design, that tile shaped shed roof plane needs to be tilted down, at least a little bit. How much depends on roofing know-how and the materials chosen. Using the so-called 1:12 ratio which I think of as minimum, for every foot the roof extends from the main building, the plane, that tile or cracker, tilts down one inch. The tricky part is that at this ratio, every foot away from the main building is one less inch of headroom. If the addition roof extends 12 feet (4 m) from the main building, an eight-foot-high ceiling becomes seven with the loss of an inch every foot. This means that landing your new addition roof on the existing exterior wall frame may not provide enough headroom, even when using the minimum 1:12 pitch ratio. Try this simple formula using a 2:12 pitch ratio to see why a minimum slope is often used. Losing two inches of headroom per foot results in the loss of two feet (60 cm) of headroom over 12 feet.

With headroom in mind, you’re probably asking, “Can I raise the ceiling to get more headroom?” Yes, but you will simultaneously be determining where your new shed roof plane meets existing work. If that cracker or tile plane lands too far up the inverted “V” of the main roof, it will put weight on existing roof framing not intended to support it. This scenario, as with gable dormers, will necessitate some engineering thinking and doing, but in my opinion, will be worth the trouble. Shed roofs simply look better when they connect to a main roof, as opposed to being hung from an exterior wall under the eave.

Another good way to increase headroom is by lowering the addition’s floor elevation. This is more commonly necessary with single story buildings, but can be a challenge even with a second story addition. The problem is, of course, that by the time that shed roof is extended away from the building and headroom is lost as per the formula, the ceiling is so low as to be impractical. In this event, about the only option available is to “sink” the addition a step or two down to ensure adequate headroom.

A main benefit of the shed roof is its simplicity. It does not demand advanced carpentry skills to execute as far as roof framing goes. Instead shed-style addition roofs are challenging in that they not only require greater thought about drainage and roofing materials, but ask also for consideration of how building loads are transferred to their foundations, as these are often less obvious than with gable-style additions. A last important note about using a minimal or “low-slope” roof is not only that a low-slope roof material must be used, but extra care is needed to ensure the addition’s roof membrane goes well up and under the main building’s roofing material. In general, the lower the slope, the greater this under-flashing.

As always, it’s better when planning a building project to make mistakes on paper instead of on the job. This thinking is particularly true in additions, where certain elements of a plan are pre-determined by an existing structure that may be expensive to alter greatly. Of course, it’s also true that Will usually finds a way, so with a little “top down” thinking about addition roofs and some basic tools, a building’s usable interior space can be substantially increased without mowing a building down and starting from scratch.

What Colour Is Your Golf Swing?

You may have noticed lately that at some golf courses the starter and will a point of asking, or sometimes even suggesting which tee box golfers will be using during their round. With the growing popularity of golf and more golfers on many Niagara courses, you should soon expect to be advised about hitting from the proper tee boxes, But there is more to this trend than accommodating the masses.

Because slow play has become a concern for course managers and players alike, it only makes sense to take practical steps to speed up play and shorten the time it takes for a round of golf. There are many proven ways to speed up play, but enforcing the use of the skills- appropriate tee boxes – be they red, white, blue, gold or black – mightverywell be the simplest and most effective.

Slow play is not the only reason that every golfer should play the course at a length in keeping with their own abilities. Shorter hitters teeing oft from markers too far back will necessarily take more shots, encounter more hazards, incur more penalties, lose more balls, spend more time searching for balls, and require more time to complete their rounds. How much fun can that be? Scores balloon, handicaps soar and sandbaggers are born.

Here’s the thing – many players automatically play the white tees, for example, without giving a thought to the length of the white course. That’s a mistake. Here in Niagara, for instance, the white yardages range from 6,494 yards at International (R&B nines) to 6,181 yards at the Links of Niagara at Willodell (about the Niagara average), and down to 5,312 yards at Water Park. A mid-handicapper might struggle with the length of one course off the whites but master a shorter course playing from the same set of tees.

Instead, each player should play from the tees that most closely correspond to their comfort zone. That may very well mean playing the whites at course A, the blues at course B, maybe even the blacks or reds at course C. Although it seems a good idea, there is no standardization of tee colours with corresponding course lengths. Course handicap and slope ratings are calculations intended to equalize courses based on their length, contours, hazards, greens, trees, etc. – on a scorecard or in a computer, not on the course!

Working at stretching your game a bit by playing somewhat longer, more challenging courses or from tees a bit further back should not come at the expense of golfers playing behind you. While real improvements can only come en the course, the place to practice is the driving range. Choose a golf course that is in, keeping with your handicap, length off the tee, and the pace at which you play. By doing so, the game will be more enloyable. more clubs and shots will come into play, course management skills will improve, a round of golf will take a little less time, and friendly competitions and handicap play can be more fairly conducted.

How to Paint Mist Or Fog in a Landscape Painting

Painting mist or fog turns an ordinary scene into something special or specific. For example, mist can indicate that it is morning before the sun has burnt off the fog or it can indicate distance. Fog can add mystery, suspense or even peacefulness to paintings.

You should decide beforehand if you want the entire scene to contain mist of fog or just distant mountains and valleys. A scene that is fully misted will have little detail in the background because just like on a misty day – visibility is limited. Look at other paintings and at nature and observe what you see.

Let’s say that the entire scene will be misted. You most likely will use opaque or dulled down colors and paint in the background, again use little detail. A dry brush technique with circular strokes makes a nice misty effect. Use slightly more detail in the middle ground and more in the foreground. When the painting is done you could use a very – very thin (watercolor consistency) white and go over the entire painting layer by layer until the effect you desire is achieved.

If the effect your looking for is mist or fog at the base of mountains or trees, then that’s pretty easy too. I paint with acrylics and they dry quickly so this technique works well. After your mountains or trees are dry, dry-brush with white from the bottom upwards. Remember the mist is very transparent, so you need to use a tiny amount of paint on a dry brush. Start at the base, use circular strokes and work your way up until the mist blends in. Do the same with mountains or water scenes.

I would suggest practicing these techniques before attempting to apply them to a finished painting. If you aren’t comfortable, the last think you want to do is ruin your work. Remember, mist and fog are fairly simple techniques that add tons of character to art.

I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale – Khushwant Singh: A Story Of Baptism In Blood

Sher Singh killed a crane. He wanted to be a terrorist. But there was baptism in his blood. He felt for the crane. If one crane is killed, the other dies of grief. His instigator is Madan. Madan feels if there is baptism in blood that blood should be shed. Sher Singh and Madan were training to shoot Englishmen. This short novel by Khushwant Singh is about the Sikh community who created a military brotherhood to fight against the British. The Sikhs were defeated by the British in six successive battles. Having been defeated the Sikhs however were recruited in the British army for their valour and honour. The Sikhs believed that ‘God is truth’.

The story is ultimately about love, kindness and peace in spite of terrorism, revolt and militancy. This is depicted by the symbol of the angry crane who loses its mate. Even as Sher Singh stuffs up hand grenades and rifles he thinks of the wounded bird. So the story is ultimately about the inefficacy of terrorism and violence and the message of peace.

Sher Singh was the son of a senior magistrate as well as the head of a band of terrorists. He had so long reveled in both identities but now he had to make a choice. The concern was what to choose, security or terrorism.

Sher Singh’s home was a haven of comfort and security. His mother and sister represented feelings of comfort and security. But Sher Singh was policywise at odds with his father Buta Singh. They differ in their opinions regarding the British. Buta Singh is basically a supporter of the British. He believes in mutual help between British and Sikhs. On the other hand Sher Singh thinks there are plenty of Gandhis and Nehrus whom they should follow, not the British. Buta Singh cannot change his loyalties at his age. But he is realizing that the nationalists need to be supported. In fact his loyalty to the British was being taken as servility. He was being accused of double facedness.

The story is thus basically about the tension between the British and Sikhs which the author has brought out through a vivid charting of conversations, revolutionary speeches, meetings and such. It emerges that there are two parties, the anti-British and the Pro-British. The old generation of Sikhs are pro-British. The younger generation are trying to do away with the British. There were Hindus like Madan who were instigators of terrorism. Young aspirants for leadership were dancing to the songs of Madan and bundling up handgrenades.

Along with the general background of politics the story charts very simplistically the private lives of Sher Singh, Beena, Champak and Madan. Sher Singh being a failure at his marital relationship tries to please his wife by aspiring a high position in politics, by becoming a political leader, a hero and a terrorist. Bina his sister is passionately in love with the tall, handsome, charming Madan from whom she gets a stinker. Madan a married man pretending to be very worried about the country carries on a passionate illicit relationship with his friend’s wife Champak and instigate his friend Sher Singh to become a hero and a terrorist.

Terrorist attacks are planned, few bridges blown up, few roads barricaded, few scintillating speeches given and finally a murder committed. Sher Singh is arrested and put to prison. There the pampered boy of the family is tortured, beaten up and taunted by the Anglo Indians. The aspiring hero commits some foolish trifles and ends up in prison.

Sher Singh’s mother a deeply dignified lady in spirit and soul fasts herself to near death praying for her son’s release. John Taylor, the British ICS and his wife both a bit different type of British, sympathetic towards Indians, representatives of British solidarity feel veneration for Sher Singh’s mother and release her son. Thus ultimately they story proves that terrorism, violence, heroism are just a child’s fancies. What really resolves is the beauty of spirit, the spirit of love and prayer, the belief ‘God is Truth’. The short novel of Kushwant Singh under the garb of politics, murder, terrorism, revolution and heroism teaches the inefficacy of all these and the triumph of peace and God.

Was The ‘Rainbow’ Division Tarnished By Its Battlefield Behavior In World War I?

World War I began in Europe in 1914, however, the United States remained neutral until 6 April 1917 when President Woodrow Wilson signed the joint resolution declaring that a state of war now existed between the United States of America and Imperial Germany. Three months later, in August 1917, U. S. National Guard units from twenty-six states and the District of Columbia united to form the 42nd Division of the United States Army. Douglas MacArthur, serving as Chief of Staff for the Division, commented that it “would stretch over the whole country like a rainbow.” In this manner, the 42nd became known as the “Rainbow Division.” It comprised four infantry regiments from New York, Ohio, Alabama, and Iowa. Men from many other states, among them New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Indiana, Michigan, Rhode Island, Maryland, California, South Carolina, Missouri, Connecticutt, Tennessee, New Jersey, Colorado, Maine, North Carolina, Kansas, Texas, Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Oregon, and Pennsylvania also joined the division and became machine gunners, ambulance drivers, worked in field hospitals, or served in the military police.

The Southeastern Department commander recommended that the 4th Alabama Infantry be assigned to the 42nd. The commander of the 4th was Colonel William P. Screws, a former regular army officer who had served from 1910 to 1915 as the inspector-instructor for the Alabama National Guard. Screws was widely regarded as one of the major assets of the Alabama National Guard, and his reputation was likely a prominent factor in the selection of the 4th to join the 42nd. To upgrade the 4th Infantry to war strength, the transfer of the necessary numbers of enlisted men from other Alabama Guard units, including the 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments and the 1st Alabama Cavalry.

On August 15 the War Department officially redesignated the 4th Alabama Infantry as the 167th Infantry Regiment, 84th Brigade, 42nd Division. The regiment comprised 3,622 enlisted troops and 55 enlisted medical staff for a total of 3,677men. The 1st Alabama Infantry had contributed 880 enlisted men to join the new 167th, the 2nd Alabama Infantry and the 1st Alabama Cavalry had provided enlisted men to bring the 167th to war strength, which was nominally 3,700 officers and men.

The Rainbow Division became one of the first sent to Europe in 1917 to support French troops in battles at Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, the Verdun front, and Argonne. On 15 July 1918 the Division, acting as part of the 4th French Army, assisted in containing the final German offensive at the Battle of Champagne.

Let us set the scenario for the matter of alleged American battlefield atrocities on the part of the ‘Rainbow’ Division. On 15 July 1918, the Germans, in their final bid to end the war in their favor, launched a massive attack southward in the Champagne country of France. Although most of the defending troops were French, there were some units of the U.S. 42nd Division also involved in the defense and in the counter-attacks that ensued.

Concerning the battle participation of the U. S. 42nd (‘Rainbow’) Division in the Champagne-Marne Defensive battle of 15 July 1918, we read as follows in Donovan, America’s Master Spy, by Richard Dunlop:

“The regimental commanders [of the U. S. 42nd Division] were instructed to post only a few men in the first trench line, which would easily fall. Most were to be positioned in the second line, from which they were also expected to withdraw as the Germans swept ahead.”

“On July 15 at 12:04 a.m., the German artillery commenced one of the war’s most tremendous barrages. When at 4:30 a.m. the artillery stopped firing as suddenly as it had started, the silence over no-man’s-land was dreadful. The first Germans appeared wraithlike, running toward the American lines through the morning mist. Minenwerfers [large caliber German mortars] suddenly rained down on the defending Americana, and machine guns chattered death. The Americans who escaped the first charge scrambled back to the second line.”

“The Germans found themselves in full possession of the American first trenches; they thought they had won. They shouted, cheered and broke into song. Then the American barrage opened on the trenches. Since each piece of artillery had been carefully zeroed in on the trenches when they were still in American hands, the accuracy of the gunfire was uncanny. Some of the crack Prussian Guards still managed to reach the second line of trenches, but they too were repulsed, after bloody hand-to-hand encounters. The Germans broke off the attack.”

“To Donovan’s [Colonel William J. Donovan, commanding officer of the 165th Infantry Regiment, from New York] disgust, the Germans resorted to subterfuge. Four Germans, each with a Red Cross emblazoned on his arm, carried a stretcher up to the lines held by the 165th. When they were close, they yanked a blanket from the stretcher to reveal a machine gun, with which they opened fire. The Americans shot them dead. Still another group tried to infiltrate the American lines one night wearing French uniforms. They too were shot. All told, some breakthroughs were made, but the Germans had been halted by the Americans. The Americans had not been defeated as the French battle plans had expected they would be. After three days of battle, the Germans began

to pull back.” 1

On 18 August 1918 the following cablegram was received at American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) headquarters, Chaumont, France:

“”A F August 18, 1918.

Commanding General, 42nd Division, Bourmont.

Following received from Washington:

“For Nolan. Condemned Associated Press Dispatch from London received by Cable Censor ‘0055 Monday Baumans Amsterdam accusation that soldier[s’] of 42nd American line Division enraged at losses suffered 15/7 near Rheims killed same evening 150 German prisoners is made by Wolff Bureau on “Creditable authority” and accordingly displayed in Saturday’s German papers’. Dispatch held for assumed inaccuracy. Investigate and report.” Make immediate investigation and report by wire this office. By direction.

Nolan

4.55 P.M. “” 2

A “Condemned Associated Press Dispatch…” is assumed to be an AP dispatch which was intercepted by the “Cable Censor” and deemed unfit for forwarding (if sent from F&F) or transmission (if originating in London) and thus was condemned. This action would also presumably be taken if the origin of the telegram or cablegram was thought to be spurious or even sent under false pretenses. The original copy of this message was most probably burned with the “Confidential waste” at AEF HQ Chaumont.

Pershing and his staff at Chaumont did everything possible to control the press and the AEF staff would quickly ‘condemn’ sources from reporters and reports that were not run through General Pershing’s staff.

Regarding the day the telegram was received by AEF HQ on August 18, 1918, this would have been on a Sunday. “0055 Monday” in the telegram would refer to 12 August 1918. The telegram was received shortly after the Champagne-Marne Defensive Campaign, and while the U. S. 42nd Division was fighting in the Marne Salient during July and August of 1918. The “Wolff Bureau” was the Wolff Telegraph Agency in Berlin, a semi-official German new agency in 1918.

The G-2 (Intelligence Officer) of AEF Headquarters, Brigadier General Dennis E. Nolan took prompt action to investigate the alleged murder of German prisoners of war on 15 July 1918 during the Champagne-Marne Defensive Campaign. Nolan directed Major General Charles T. Menoher, commander of the U. S. 42nd Division to undertake an immediate investigation of the charge. The investigation was made on 20 August 1918 at the station of the U. S. 42nd Division, AEF, Bourmont, France.

The U.S. 42nd Division was composed of troops from Alabama, Ohio, Iowa, and New York. The troops that had contact with the German Army on 15 July 1918 were:

2nd Battalion, 165th Infantry Regiment (New York); 3rd Battalion, 166th Infantry Regiment (Ohio); 2nd Battalion, 167th Infantry Regiment (formerly 4th Alabama), and Companies E and F of the 168th Infantry Regiment (Iowa).

The force of the investigation fell on the 2nd Battalion, 165th Infantry, the 3rd Battalion of the 168th, 2nd Battalion, 167th, and Companies E and F of the 168th.

According to the “Report of investigation of reported killing of German prisoners of war,” from the Division Inspector and to the Commanding General, 42nd Division, AEF, sworn testimony was taken from a total of thirty-eight officers of the 42nd Division, and particularly from officers whose troops were so stationed as to come into contact with the Germans in the Champagne battle of 15 July 1918. Twenty-three officers gave sworn testimony and fifteen company-grade officers were required to give depositions. The testimony was uniformly a denial that any atrocities were committed during the fighting that day of 15 July 1918.

According to the same report, “All the officers state that no German prisoners were killed by American troops nor were any mistreated; not did any officer hear anything to that effect. On the contrary the prisoners were treated well, the wounded cared for and carefully transported to the rear and the prisoners given food, drink and cigarettes. In at least one case a wounded prisoner was carried while one of our wounded officers walked.” 3

The “CONCLUSION” of the report states: “That the statements contained in the telegram set forth in Paragraph II of this report are false and without any foundation in fact. That all prisoners taken by troops of the 42nd Division were turned over immediately to the French military authorities, and that, therefore, no troops of the 42nd Division had access to them other than those whose statements are covered by this report.” 4

The “RECOMMENDATION” of the report states: “That no further action be taken.” The findings were forwarded to AEF Headquarters and there the matter was dropped. 5

An unknown German newspaper purportedly published in Berlin, Germany, on Saturday, 17 August 1918 allegedly printed an article alleging that 150 wounded and captured German soldiers were summarily killed by soldiers of the U. S. 42nd Division on 15 July 1918. There were five newspapers published in Berlin on the date of Saturday, 17 August 1918: Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Deutsche Tageszeitung Germania, Neues Preussische Zeitung, Nordeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Vossiche Zeitung. Searches of the mentioned German newspapers have been made by several historians. No atrocity articles have ever been located in these German papers.

In James J. Cooke’s book, The Rainbow Division in the Great War, we read:

“”The Rainbows also had developed a very real hatred for the Germans. During the German bombardment on 15 July 1918, the doctors and nurses moved what wounded they could to a dugout, and the once callow Lieutenant van Dolsen recoiled in horror at what he saw”:

“Well we got down into the dug out and my dear mother such a shamble I never hope to see again. A long black tunnel lighted just a little by candles, our poor wounded shocked boys there on litters in the dark, eight of them half under ether just as they had come off the tables their legs only half amputated, surgeons trying to finish and check blood in the dark, the floor soaked with blood, the hospital above us a wreck, three patients killed and one blown out of bed with his head off. Believe me I will never forgive the bastards as long as I live.”

Editor’s note: Lt. van Dolsen, being an officer, was able to ‘censor’ his own letters, otherwise this type of comment would never have reached the home front. Van Dolsen’s letter to his aunt, Occupation Forces, Germany, 19 February 1919, MHIA. See also Stewart, Rainbow Bright, 70-71.

“One Alabama private who was in the thickest of the fighting on 15 July wrote to his mother, “All of you can cheer up and wear a smile for I’m a little hero now. I got two of the rascals and finished killing a wounded with my bayonet that might have gotten well had I not finished him…I couldn’t be satisfied at killing them, how could I have mercy on such low life rascals as they are?”

“A good bit of this hatred resulted from the Germans approaching American lines dressed in French uniforms taken from the dead in the first line sacrifice trench.”

“The hand-to-hand fighting was especially severe for the Alabamians and New Yorkers, and many of their comrades were killed or wounded in the fighting for the second defense line and in the counter-attacks that followed. Adding to the confusion was the occasional round of friendly artillery fire that fell short and hit the Americans as they repulsed the enemy.”

“The Alabama defense and decisive counter-attacks on 15 July was praised by all, and established the 167th Regiment as the best fighting regiment within the division.”

“There had always been rumors of units of the 42nd Division taking no prisoners. Major William J. Donovan, in May of 1918, described to his wife the possibility of the Alabamians’ of the 167th Infantry Regiment capturing and killing two Germans, and he ended his letter stating, “They [the 167th] wander all over the landscape shooting at everything.”

“Elmer Sherwood, the Hoosier gunner, reported the story that the Alabamians attacked a German trench with Bowie knives. “They cleaned up on the enemy,

Sherwood recalled, “but it is no surprise to any of us, because they are a wild bunch, not knowing what fear is.”

While in Germany on occupation duty with the Rainbow, Lieutenant van Dolsen wrote to his aunt back in Washington, DC, that the Alabams “did not take many prisoners, but I do not blame them for that.”

“The New York regiment was also known for fierce fighting and taking few prisoners on the battlefield. This issue of battlefield atrocities by the U. S. 42nd Division would again surface after the severe fighting at Croix Rouge Farm, in the Marne Salient, where the soldiers from Alabama and Iowa were heavily engaged at close quarters with a determined enemy.” 6

J. Phelps Harding, 2nd Lt., 165th Regiment, U. S. 42nd Division, AEF, wrote a letter home to his folks on 22 September 1918. His letter states, in part:

“I’m glad I had a chance to join the 165th-it’s a man’s outfit, and it has done fine work over here. One of the German prisoners, who met us here and at Chateau-Thierry, but did not realize we were at both places, said that America had only two good divisions – the 42nd and the Rainbow. He didn’t know they were one and the same. I won’t ask for any better men than the Irish in the 69th (165th). They are a hard hitting, dare devil bunch, very religious, afraid of nothing, and sworn enemies of the Boche. The regiment lost heavily at Chateau-Thierry – my company alone had 110 wounded and 36 killed outright – and every man has a ‘buddy’ to avenge. Lord help the Boche who gets in the way of the ‘old 69th.’ We are told to treat prisoners as approved by the war-that-was, when soldiers were less barbarous than they are now. After every action we see or hear of mutilation of our men – and there’s many a German who suffers for every one American so treated. I don’t mean he is mutilated – no American stoops that low – but I do mean that he grows daisies where, if his colleagues had been a bit more human, he might have been getting a good rest in an American prison camp.

Now I’ll really stop – perhaps I should have stopped before writing this last paragraph, but it’s said, so it stands.” 7

Editor’s note: As an officer Phelps was privileged to censor his own writing. An enlisted man, however, concerned about censorship, might have hesitated to write that ‘after every action’ soldiers found ‘mutilation of our men’ or to suggest that American soldiers killed German prisoners in reprisal. Boche is the French derogatory slang term for German soldiers during World War I.

In defense of the ‘Rainbow’ Division’s behavior on the battlefield, here is a letter I received in 1997 from Clark Jarrett, grandson of Paul Jarrett, a lieutenant in the 166th Infantry Regiment. Clark Jarrett telephoned his grandfather (at his age of 101 years) and transcribed his father’s conversation:

“”I appreciated your letter very much. I did as you requested…I called my grandfather the night after I received your letter. We had a very good phone call. I read him your exact words and took notes during our conversation. Here is what he had to say:

“I never saw or heard of anything about atrocities in the Rainbow. I can say that the 165th (New York) was not prepared to go to the front when the entire division was ready. I heard personally that the “165th was not fit for service.” They were considered playboys, not soldiers. My regiment, the 166th, served with the 165th as the 83rd Brigade. At the Second Battle of the Marne (Battle of the Champagne) I was informed by messenger that I should be aware of my left flank, as the Germans had entered the trenches of the 165th. I put my binoculars to my eyes and I saw that there was trench fighting going on down to my left. Thank God that the Germans did not break through. But I was aware that they might at any moment. After that, the 165th performed as well as any other unit in the Rainbow.

As for the 167th Alabama…the only time I every saw or heard of anything unusual was at Camp Mills, Long Island, New York, when we were in training to go to Europe. One night, we were called out to separate the 167th from a Negro unit. Apparently the white soldiers really got upset that black soldiers were in the division. Anyway, we had to part the two units…but I didn’t see any specific violence. I heard that there was a pretty good fight going before we got there. It was the 167th I was going to help when I got my knee fractured during the fighting at the Ourcq River.””

I hope this will give you another piece of the puzzle, David. I quizzed him really hard about the facts. He, as you know, has a wonderful memory, and will not [I repeat] not, go along with anything, nor any memory of someone else just to satisfy that person. He will tell it just exactly the way it was.”” 8

“On the fourth day, when the 69th and the Alabama continued to hold, the French general [Gouraud] said, “Well, I guess there is nothing for me to do but fight the war out where the New York Irish want to fight it.” 9

Author of The Last Hero, Wild Bill Donovan, Anthony Cave Brown, tells us:

“And, Donovan was to admit, the Micks took no prisoners. “The men, “he wrote,” when they saw the Germans with red crosses on one sleeve and serving machine guns against us, firing until the last minute, then cowardly throwing up their hands and crying “Kamerad,” became just lustful for German blood. I do not blame them.” Later when WJD [William J. Donovan] was required to sit in judgement on the German officers’ corps for its conduct in World War II, he recalled this incident, realized that if World War I had gone the wrong way, he might have been arrested for having committed war crimes, and he refused to prosecute.” 10

It is interesting to note that, during the fighting along the Ourcq River, and after the Champagne-Marne Defensive Campaign, the U. S. 42nd Division evidently again became involved with the matter of battlefield atrocities. We read as follows in Anthony Cave Brown’s book entitled, The Last Hero, Wild Bill Donovan:

“In the fighting the Micks again began to kill their prisoners, and Donovan recorded: “Out of the 25 I was able to save only 2 prisoners, the men killed

all the rest.” 11

Editor’s comment: “Micks” is an ethnic slang expression for the Irish-Americans. Once again we have the situation where an officer in the AEF is able to write just about any comment at all to the home folks. One speculates as to what the average enlisted soldier would have written, had he been permitted to do so. Major General William J. Donovan, commander of the 165th (formerly 69th ) Infantry Regiment during World War I, was later to become the founder of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and “father” of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Going back to the 167th Infantry Regiment (formerly 4th Alabama), Professor James J. Cooke, author of The Rainbow Division in the Great War, informs the author that:

“The matter of the atrocities concerned mainly the 167th Infantry and I was very concerned with it because of the investigation conducted by the HQ, AEF. There had been problems with the 167th being very aggressive in combat. But, when I searched for references in German papers, like you, I found none. It appeared that HQ got their information from reporters who simply heard rumors, etc. I do believe, however, that HQ was well aware of the hard fighting tendencies of units like the 167th and wanted to investigate quickly. I included the investigation mainly because it was HQ that ordered it done rather than from any German or poor sources. That is as far as I got when doing the Rainbow book. I did indeed research AEF records in RG 120 at National Archives II, especially the JAG [Judge Advocate General] and G2 [Intelligence] records, but found, like you, a brick wall as far as the origins of the reported atrocities. By the way, when I ran across “condemned” sources it was usually for reporters and reports that were not run through Pershing’s staff. As you know Pershing and his staff at Chaumont did everything possible to control the press.” 12

The soldiers of the 4th Alabama National Guard Regiment (167th of the U. S. 42nd Division) seem to have been a rather different ‘breed of cat.’ Many of them were backwoodsmen, avid hunters and crack rifle shots. It is said that many of them brought their personal Bowie knives over to France and that they used them in battle. 13

In a letter to the home folks, Ambulance Corps driver George Ruckle wrote, in part: “The Germans call us barbarians, they don’t like the way we fight. When the boys go over the top or make raids they generally throw away their rifles and go to it with trench knives, sawed off shotguns, bare fists and hand grenades, and the Bosch doesn’t like that kind of fighting. The boys from Alabama are particularly expert with knives and they usually go over hollering like fiends-so I don’t blame the Germans for being afraid of them.” 14

A young officer in the 42nd Division, made the observation in a letter home in early 1918 that, “the Alabamans, a rough, quick-tempered lot, always spoiling for a fight, lost their tempers.” This comment was made in regards to an altercation between the men from Alabama and the French civilians.

Could the old adage that, “where there is smoke, there must be fire” apply here?

In placing all of these pieces of evidence of alleged battlefield atrocities committed by the U. S. 42nd Division on the scales of justice, how does it all weigh out? In the opinion of this historian, the ‘Rainbow’ Division probably stands guilty of some extremely aggressive battlefield behavior during World War I. It is also my distinct impression that the investigation conducted by AEF HQ was a total whitewash.

Americans are loathe to accept the idea that their soldiery, in any war, either enjoy killing their enemies or are capable of committing war crimes of any sort and specifically battlefield atrocities against enemy soldiers or civilians. Americans are always so shocked and horrified whenever their soldiers act (or react) like anyone else in the world, as if “our boys” occupy a moral high ground unique on the planet. But, if one is to be true to historical fact, one must accept the idea that American soldiers have not always behaved honorably on the battlefield. There is ample testimony to this effect from World War I, World War II, Korea, (e.g., the incident at the tunnel at No Gun Ri in 1950, where a number of civilians were allegedly massacred by American soldiers) Vietnam (e.g., the Mylai incident, where Vietnamese civilians were allegedly massacred under the command of Lt. William Calley), and from Iraq, where all too frequently some of our fighting forces are accused of having shot unarmed prisoners, or having tortured them in prison.

In coming down to the year of 2005, we have Marine Corps Lt. General James N. Mattis, known as “Mad Dog Mattis” to the troops he led in Afganistan and Iraq, publicly stating that “It’s a lot of fun to fight, you know. It’s a hell of a hoot. It’s fun to shoot some people. I’ll be right up front with you. I like brawling.” The Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Mike Hagee said, in part, “While I understand that some people may take issue with the comments made by him, I also know he intended to reflect the unfortunate and harsh realities of war.” 15

The murder of surrendering prisoners is not unique to World War I. That has been a barbarous practice in all wars. However, one aspect of World War I fighting has been perhaps neglected; perhaps the murder of surrendering prisoners was more common in that brutal war than we would like to believe.

While brave, kindly and charitable acts also characterized World War I, we should not forget that it also produced its share of battlefield atrocities. A certain de-sensitization about the value of human life may be necessary to cope in the stress of performing a job that requires killing, a cold mentality that must be kept on the battlefield.

Perhaps the best tribute to fighting ability of the Guardsmen of the Rainbow Division came from their enemies. In a study made in post-war days, the German High Command considered eight American divisions especially effective; six of those were those of the much maligned “militia” or National Guard! When the German soldiers were asked which American combat division they most feared and respected, the reply was always, “the 42nd”, and “the Rainbow.” For some reason the Germans never made the distinction. 16

Editor’s note: On German opinion of the 42nd Div., see e.g., The United States Army in the World War, XI, 410, 412-13; Thomas, History of the A.E.F., 221.

George Pattullo, a World War I correspondent for the periodical Saturday Evening Post, and accredited to American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in France in 1918, wrote as follows in his article entitled, “The Inside Story of the A.E.F.,” May 6, 1921:

“Just as it is impossible for an individual to view his family’s relations with outsiders impartially, so it is beyond the capacity of nationals of one country to see anything except their own side in dealing with other nations. The tendency to attribute base motives and double dealing to a rival is universal; on the other hand, everything that one’s own country does is great and noble and of pure purpose. And of course an enemy is always a scoundrel.

The extremes to which this sort of thinking will drive people are often laughable. I remember two nice old ladies from New England stopping a returned war correspondent on Fifth Avenue to question him about certain stories they had heard of war prisoners in German hands.

“Was it true that the Germans prodded prisoners with bayonets and kicked them, too, to make them walk faster?”

“Well, war’s a tough game,” answered the correspondent who was a bit fed up with

the whole business.

“It’s dog eat dog, and every army has men in it who go in for rough stuff.

You have to, in a fight!”

“Oh!” gasped the ladies, all aflutter, “But not our boys!

They’re too noble.” 18

Howard V. O’Brien, an AEF officer stationed in Paris, wrote an illuminating statement in his 1918 diary:

“Acquaintance growing up among different regions of U.S. Oregon reg’t and

outfit from Boston on same ship. Mass. boys at first dubious of “wild” Westerners-which had highest percentage of college men and generally bien élevé of any outfit I’ve seen. Most refractory bunch yet encountered, from Alabama. Pistol toters. G.O. [general order] ruled rods out. After that, all scrapping Marquis of Queensberry, and several good lickings helped.” 19

Victor L. Hicken, in his book The American Fighting Man, states:

“As far as the fear of the German soldier for the American soldier in 1917

was concerned, there is some basis for this contention. A French officer, observing the Yanks, wrote: “He arrived a born soldier….I think the Germans are afraid of him.” Rumor spread behind the German lines that it didn’t pay to fight well against the Americans; for they seldom allowed the Germans to surrender after putting up a stiff fight. One American regimental history, that of the “Rainbow Division,” substantiates this possibility by claiming that its men “fought to kill,” and that few prisoners were usually taken. Indeed, the facts on the “Rainbow Division” show that, for the amount of fighting the division did, very few prisoners were taken.” 20

A German is reported to have said:

“I did not meet the Americans on the battlefields but I have talked with German soldiers who did. These soldiers were against the Rainbow Division near Verdun and said they don’t want such fighting as they encountered there. The Americans were always advancing and acted more like wild men than soldiers.” 21

In Americans in Battle, we read:

“An historian of the Rainbow Division admits that its men fought to kill, an admission borne out by the mere 1,317 prisoners taken by the division.” 22