Singer Featherweight Sewing Machine: Singer Featherweight II 117 Review

Whether you’re new to sewing or have years of experience, you have probably heard about the famous Singer Featherweight. This popular sewing machine was widely used by quilters and sewers from all over the world. It is ideal for those who enjoy learning new sewing techniques in a classroom but don’t appreciate carrying a full sized machine around town. Technology has evolved and new models of sewing machines have been released. The new Singer Featherweight II 117 is incredibly easy to use and has an affordable price.

This 13-pound sewing machine is perfect for home sewing and delivers professional results. The Singer Featherweight II 117 makes a great gift for today’s quilting, sewing, and craft enthusiast. The machine has 16 stitches and features electronic speed control, convertible free arm, top drop-in bobbin, and adjustable stitch width and length. It can produce up to 750 stitches per minutes. This model is ideal for advanced decorative techniques such as crazy quilting and appliqué.

Singer offers excellent service and back up support to all sewing machines purchased online or in-store. If you buy the popular Featherweight II 117, you will receive lots of free accessories and different stitches. This tiny machine comes with a built-in carrying handle, built-in accessory storage, snap-on presser feet, and universal presser foot pressure. If you don’t have a lot of room in your house, the Singer Featherweight II 117 is a great choice.

This highly portable sewing machine enjoys tremendous popularity worldwide. Despite its low price and reduced size, it has plenty of features that can satisfy both beginners and experienced sewers. The Singer Featherweight II 117 is suitable for patchworkers as well. It features four-step buttonholes, zipper foot, straight-stitch foot, button sewing foot, overcasting foot, feed cover plate, horizontal rotary shuttle, buttonhole openers, and screwdrivers. In addition to these convenient features, the machine comes with a 25-year limited warranty.

The Singer Featherweight II 117 produces beautiful stitches and has enough options and settings to satisfy most part-time tailors. This model is designed for home use, so if you’re making clothes for your loved ones, it gets the job done. The machine can be easily carried in and out for quilt classes. It can also handle multiple layers and heavy materials with ease. From the moment you first use the Singer Featherweight II 117, you will know you are sewing on one of the best machines ever made.

Tips for Staying Warm in the Bleachers

Your body is designed to burn food for energy and produces heat from within. So, do not forget to eat! If your body is getting cold, it will sacrifice your feet and hands to save its life. Ever wonder why your feet and hands are the first to get cold ?! Your body loses heat in 5 ways – radiation, convection, construction, respiration and evaporation.

  1. Radiation: Just as a wood stove radiates heat into a room, your body radiates heat into the air. The more insulation you put around it, the loss of heat is reduced.
  2. Convection is moving air. Wind blowing through your sweater or around your jacket is heat lost through convection. Windproof outer layers will help prevent heat loss.
  3. Sitting on some cold bleachers at a football game, grabbing a ski pole, or just catching a cold zipper on your neck, are all heat loss by construction.
  4. Evaporation is a very efficient cooling process.

6 Tips for Staying Warm at a Sporting Event:

  • Check weather conditions before heading outside. Watch your local weekly weather forecast to make it easy to prepare in advance.
  • Dress appropriately. If you are going to be in the extreme cold, wear as many layers of warm clothing as possible. If it's mildly cold, try to dress in just a few layers and pack an extra coat or sweater in case the temperature drops.
  • Be prepared for all conditions. Keep an umbrella, poncho or warm jacket with you. Have an indoor, heated place to go … you do not want to be stuck outside if the weather conditions become extreme.
  • Wear waterproof shoes or boots with a good grip. If your feet are cold and wet, it will not matter how well the rest of your body is bundled up. You will still be miserable!
  • Wear gloves and / or mittens and long thick socks. These protect your hands and feet, which are the hardest places to keep warm blood flowing. Try wearing thinner gloves underneath heavy winter gloves for extra warmth.
  • Pack warm food. Sometimes all you need in chilly conditions is hot food or drink. Carry a thermos with hot drinks, soups, or noodles. Warm food and drink will warm you inside and keep your strength up.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia: shivering, shallow breathing, confusion, exhaustion, slurred speech, loss of coordination, weak pulse, unconsciousness (in severe cases)

Treatment of Hypothermia: remove any wet clothing, protect individual against the wind, move to a warm shelter as soon as possible, rewarm the individual with extra clothing, take the person's temperature if a thermometer is available, offer warm liquids (avoid alcohol or caffeine) ).

The Journey of Goldy the Sunflower Oil

The journey of Goldy the sunflower oil is an interesting and beautiful one, starting from the sunflower farm. In this article I will explore the life span of the average sunflower.

It all starts in summer when the sunflowers bloom on the sunflower farm. It looks picturesque with the rows of lovely sunflowers all facing the morning sun. From there on the sunflowers are picked and the oil is extracted. The seed is separated from the outer shell and the bad ones are taken out of the batch. Then the seeds are mashed and heated up which makes it easier to extract the oil. The oil is bottled and transported to the various oil retailers. From there on the journey becomes more exciting. The sunflower oil manufacturers have done their job and now it’s up to us, the public, to create the fun experience.

Goldy the sunflower oil bottle waits anxiously on the store shelf for just the right person to pick him. He is excited with the possibility of the role that he could fulfil. Cooking oil has many uses in the baking industry. The oil enhances the flavour of the baked goods and it adds a lighter texture to cakes. So Goldy could become something great such a grand wedding cake or something fun like a bake pop for a kid’s party.

Suddenly a hand reaches out for Goldy, grabs him gently and places him in the shopping trolley. He says goodbye to his fellow sunflower oil buddies and rolls on to the check-out point. His new owner is a renowned and busy baker. The baker has won many awards for her decorative wedding cakes and tasty pastries. The bakery is a lively store with many happy clients and staff. Goldy is so excited for his new life and wish he could tell his fellow sunflower buddies of the adventures that he will soon experience.

The baker unpacks Goldy the sunflower oil and places him on the bakery counter to be packed away for the night. He has a long day ahead of him tomorrow and he’s so excited that he can’t seem to contain himself. He is placed in the pantry with the other supplies. The baked goods supplies welcome him to the baker’s pantry and start sharing the wonderful and exciting stories of the days at the bakery.

Goldy hardly gets any sleep that night because of the wonderful stories being shared and the excitement that the next day holds.

Toxic Degreaser Chemicals – Three Reasons Not to Use Them

If your company works in the industrial sector, industrial cleaners and degreasers are probably a necessity. But that doesn’t mean that you have to endure the effects of dangerous degreaser chemicals. There are thousands of dangerous chemicals found in traditional cleaners and degreasers, some of the most common of which are methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, toluene, glycol ethers, and numerous fluorinated and chlorinated solvents. Until recently, the use of these and other chemicals was necessary to attain high cleaning power. But today, eco friendly solvent supplies offer environmentally preferred solutions that clean as well or better than their toxic counterparts. If you currently use toxic cleaners, switching to environmentally preferred cleaners could do more than save the environment; it could also save your company. Below, examine three reasons why.

The Danger of Hazardous Air Pollutants

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) are chemicals that evaporate from toxic solutions, harming both the environment and the health of those who inhale them. Some companies attempt to negate HAPs by implementing a superior ventilation system. But if a toxic solution can be smelled-and it always can be-then the presence of HAPs is still there. In the short term, HAPs decrease productivity by causing respiratory distress, vertigo, and stomach sickness. But in the long-term, chronic conditions and illnesses caused by prolonged exposure to HAPs can lead to lawsuits damage a company’s finances and reputation. If you don’t think that toxic material can come back to haunt companies that use them, remember the asbestos debacle, which was costly enough to put some companies out of business.

The Collateral Expense of Toxic Chemicals

Some companies continue to use toxic degreaser chemicals because environmentally safe degreasers cost more. But when you calculate the cost of chemical waste removal, using a fully organic biodegradable degreaser can result in a lower chemical waste disposal bill that saves more money than buying cheaper toxic degreasers, especially if a company performs degreasing on a daily basis. Today, most companies are preoccupied with cost savings and their environmental stance. Switching to biodegradable cleaning solutions can improve both.

The Threat of EPA Regulations

Even if you decide to keep using toxic cleaners, the EPA will eventually regulate or prohibit their use in industrial and commercial settings by regulating or prohibiting one or more or the chemicals they contain. EPA regulations are announced well in advance of their effective dates to allow companies to research appropriate replacements. Companies that fail to do so end up in two unenviable situations: they have a stock of toxic cleaner that they can no longer use or use in sufficient quantities, and they’re forced to implement one or more replacement solutions with no research in place.

What is a Healthy Eating Plan?

Healthy eating is important for everyone, from babies to the elderly. Learning to eat well is more than just eating a variety of foods so that your body gets the proper nutrients. It is also about enjoyment of foods and maintaining a healthy weight. Anyone can eat for good health. It involves 2 simple steps. First is to eat foods from all the different food groups. The second step is to eat a variety of foods from each group every day. Sounds simple. However so many people are not following a healthy eating plan. Busy lifestyles, availability of fast food, advertising and a lack of understanding of what healthy food is, all work against people trying for healthyier eating. Unhealthy eating causes illness and weight problems. Type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically and is directly linked to the increase in obesity. Heart disease and some cancers are also linked to obesity.

A study by the Medical Journal of Australia found that 56% of Australian adults are considered overweight or obese. This is a 61% increase in obesity since 1991 Un-treated obesity poses significant, even life-threatening health risks.

Everyone understands the importance of having car / home / insurance. Have you considered the importance of nutritional insurance? This means eating the foods that will protect you against future disease, and understanding the benefits nutritional supplements can provide.

If you are currently not following a healthy plan you will be surprised that you are most likely not eating enough. You may need to increase the amount of food you consume.

Daily Food Suggestions

Fruit 2-3 servings, Vegetables 5-7 serves, Protein 3-6 serves, Whole grains 2-3 serves, Dairy 2-3 serves

Antioxidant Super Foods

Antioxidants help prevent cellular damage. Eat plenty of foods rich in antioxidants such as almonds, berries, citrus, carrots, spinach, tomatoes, and bell peppers.

1. Top your cereal with almonds or berries; Add tomatoes to sandwiches, soups or stews; Layer your whole grain bread sandwich with slices of peppers and fresh spinach.

2. Pack a snack bag of nuts, baby carrots, grape tomatoes, and bell pepper slices for a nutritious pick-me-up between meals.

3. Protein snack bars carry easily for quick energy and a tasty treat.


Calcium is the super nutrient that keeps bones and teeth strong. Now research shows that low-fat dairy also helps people lose weight! The best sources of calcium come from the cow.

1. Start your day with a protein rich breakfast. Add a bowl of whole grain cereal topped with skim milk and fresh fruit for a breakfast of champions.

2. Snack on low-fat yogurt or cheese between meals for an energizing treat.

3. Calcium-fortified juices and cereals are excellent alternatives to meet your three-a-day requirement.


Fiber does wonderful things for the body, from lower cholesterol levels, keeping you regular, and sometimes preventing certain cancers. Grandma called it roughage and we need plenty of it each day.

1. Read food labels to find whole grain breads and cereals that provide three or more grams of fiber per serving. A bowl full of bran or high-fiber cereal is a great start to meeting your daily needs.

2. Eat whole fruits and veggies for a healthy dose of fiber. Aim for five to nine servings a day. Juices do not contain as much fiber as whole fruit.

3. Dried beans and lentils are loaded with fiber and protein, so add them to soups, stews, salads, eggs, and salsas.


Soy is a super nutrient and excellent source of protein. It can lower cholesterol, which can help prevent cardiovascular disease. 1. Tofu takes on the flavor of foods that it is cooked with. Try a stir-fry of colorful veggies and cubed tofu with a light Asian sauce for a quick meal. You can also find cereals at the store loaded with both soy and fiber. Serve with skim milk and you'll get three super nutrients for breakfast.

2. Take a soy protein bar for a quick snack or lunch during the day. Soy nuts are another great portable snack option.


Most of us do not get enough of this precious stuff. As a result, we may look peaked and feel fatigued. Our bodies are composed of more fluid than anything else, so water is a vital nutrient for our well-being.

1. Fill up a 2 liter water bottle each morning and keep it with you for quick and refreshing drinks throughout the day.

2. Do not rely on thirst; This sensation diminishes with age. Drink often and choose from nutritious liquids, including 100% fruit and vegetable juices, skim or low fat milk, broths, water, and herbal teas.

Never skip meals. It is important for your metabolism t eat 3 meals a day plus 2 snacks.

By following a healthy eating plan you will maintain your body in optimum fitness. You will decrease your risk of developing life style diseases. Your body will reward you by being in peak condition.

How to Design and Build a Nightclub Or Restaurant

If you ready to Design and Build your nightclub or restaurant you need to get familiar with a process. There is things like: design, architectural drawings, city approval, permits, general contractor, build out, location, impact fees, inspections, liquor license and more. If you planning on running the project by yourself to "save money", you might as well just get yourself a job, I am serious. Amount of time you need for research, dealing with different professionals and city, find your way to have everything synchronized and work in timely matter, stress of people not showing on time or doing things wrong, getting change orders and overpay for others mistakes, oh Boy, I've seen it all.

When it comes to do it right, you need to find yourself a team / company who does nightclub development for a living.

Here how this works.

I assume you got your finances together.

You start with concept, take it to your team and let them investigate a location you found or refer you to right place in town if you do not familiarize with it. You do not want to convert existing retail places to nightclubs. Why? IMPACT FEE. City will charge you a lot of money for it. You want to find existing nightclub place and remodel it.

Now you're ready for design. Your team will come up with design and photo renders that you can present to your investors, landlord and city for approval. When you negotiate terms with landlord, do not forget that you are improving his property in value, so he wants you there. NEVER PAY RENT until your place designed, build, inspected and ready for business.You sign lease with landlord but as I mentioned before your place payment will be after your place build.

Now your design goes to an Architect, who plays an important role in your team. He will transform design in to drawings that city will approve and issue permits for construction. Here is one step that I have to mention – GENERAL CONTRACTOR. That is you most valuable player on the team. Its his license going on the project, plans, permits and he is the one who will coordinate and manage the entire project. He will be dealing with inspectors and other professionals.

When it comes to working with a city, getting permits, approvals and resolving any issues you need expediter. He or she knows everyone in the building department and can have things done fast. Time is always your friend, FASTER YOU OPEN FOR BUSINESS – FASTER YOU START MAKE MONEY.

Other things like: liqueur license, hiring staff, marketing and advertising, getting free liquor for opening (promotions) are something your team will assist you with also.

Wish you LUCK and I hope this article is helpful.

Flirting With Girls – Successful Steps

Are you fascinated with mastering the art of flirting with girls? Do you think that the vast majority of ladies you’d enjoy being with are out of your category and it could be a waste of time to try and have a discussion with them? If so then read on because this posting will reveal to you numerous steps you can get better at to flirt efficiently and get her interest.

You should at all times be yourself! You shouldn’t try to be someone you are not. If you’re not a rough individual then do not try to be. If you are not a funny guy then do not try to be one. Even if you can accomplish it and make an impression on her at the start it is not going to last and the real truth about your character will come out (and make for a very clumsy moment). The only thing you absolutely need to focus on is self-esteem. All (or most) females love self-esteem so do your very best to be your most self-assured self.

When flirting with girls it is advisable to be the one to make the first move. This means you’ll want to be the one that opens the conversation. You should begin the conversation. Be sure you keep in mind the fact that you have to be more confident. You’ll need to be secure in what you are saying. Fake it to start with and with a small amount of time it will come in a natural way.

Make sure you listen to her. This really is crucial. The easiest method to show her that you will be a good listener is always to ask her a question, let her supply you with a full answer, after which you can comment on what she said to make certain that she is aware you followed what she said. You should not interrupt her. Let her wrap up and be curious or it simply won’t work.

Provide a compliment. If you find that you briefly run out of things to talk about then look her in the eyes and compliment some thing about her. It could be about some article of clothing she has on or maybe it’s about her perfume. Gals like to be complimented and when flirting with girls it’s hard to do better than making them feel better about themselves. Just be sure you don’t overdo it. You possibly can compliment too much.

Start contact. In the event the conversation goes well then you can certainly start contact by touching her arm delicately whilst you’re laughing. Please do not touch her hand or attempt to put your hand on her for almost any expanded amount of time. A lightweight touch to the arm will continue to work wonders and lets her know that you’re interested in her.

If you are trying to think of things to speak about you are able to get back to the fundamentals. Ask about her hobbies. Talk about what music she likes to listen to or ask her how her day went. Talk about her favorite film or her favorite form of movie. These sorts of questions can definitely spark an interesting conversation so when flirting with girls the more interesting you make yourself the greater success you are going to have.

Do what you can to be funny. Some men are effortlessly humorous and some fellows might not be. You’ll find ways in which you may make yourself funnier should you not happen to be. Try to be ironic but you shouldn’t try to be a jokester. For those who absolutely can’t be funny then think of yourself as interesting alternatively. Converse about things that you are knowledgeable in (or stuff you understand quite a lot about). Memorize some useful facts or maybe a magic trick or two. In case you are funny then make an effort to be funny in a flirty way. Please don’t joke about anything sensitive. Ensure that is stays light and use your humor to make her like you.

Just remember when flirting with girls that you ought to not be too needy. This could possibly appear as desperate and may damage any chance you have got with females. Take the time and let the conversation flow organically. You won’t need to be Don Juan to secure a cell phone number. Just try to be laid back, self-confident, and funny or unique.

Understanding And Overcoming Hydrocele And Similar Disorders

Hydrocele is an accumulation of serum in the scrotum. Normally there is a limited amount of serum within the scrotum and in the walls of the testicles to serve as protection against friction and for better health of the cells, but under certain conditions this fluid increases in quantity and may become extreme in amount.

While there is little pain or distress with this condition there often is insufficient swelling to cause much inconvenience. When appearing later in life it usually results from injury to the testicle, from gonorrheal infection, from obstruction of the abdominal veins, or tuberculosis or general dropsy. It may cause sufficient pressure upon the testicle and spermatic vessels to have the effect of causing atrophy or defective functioning of these glands.

Hydrocele may exist from birth (congenital hydrocele). This condition like a rupture, is reducible, for the scrotum communicates with the internal abdomen. Again, like a rupture, it may show an impulse on coughing.

In acquired hydrocele the communication with the abdominal cavity is cut off in the inguinal canal (in the abdominal wall) so that the swelling is not reducible and there is no impuls on coughing. Encysted hydrocele is another form involving mainly the scrotal portion of the spermatic cord. This form may arise from either the testicle or the epididymis, an elongated body attached to the testicle, in the scrotum.

Congenital hydrocele often terminates spontaneously in the course of time, although usually it is necessary to wear a special support. Sometimes a simple surgical operation may be advised, this consisting purely of eradicating the neck of the sac. Sometimes a congenital hernia (or rupture) enterprises this condition, because of the abnormal opening in the inguinal canal. Many cases of hydrocele are incurable except by surgery, for even if one succeeds in reducing the accumulated fluid, more very likely will re-form without the sac of the tunica is eradicated.

Treatment. In those cases where the individuals do not wish to submit to operation, natural methods may be tried – though the prospects of complete cure are not bright. Both local and constitutional treatment will be required. It may be necessary to build up or restore vitality to a high degree. The cold sitz-bath upon arising and upon retiring is one of the best local treatments. It is not advisable to continue these baths long enough to prevent prompt reaction to warmth upon terminating the bath. After the cold sitz-bath taken shortly before retiring, a cold wet cloth should be applied to the affected part. This may be held fairly snugly in place by an athletic supporter or by a "T" -bandage.

The "T" -bandage is a waist band four to six inches in width to the center of which is sewed at right angles, a similar strip which is brought up between the thighs and pinned to the front of the waist band after this has been Pinned snugly in place.

If the cold sitz-bath is taken for a few days without noticeable results, it may be beneficial to apply a mud pack at night, held in place by the "T" -bandage and removed in the morning. The cold sitz-bath may be taken upon its removal. Exercises taken head down on an inclined board, or a similar position taken without exercise, will be of some benefit in the congenital type, but will have less effect in other types.

Fasting may be employed with temporary favorable results. The fluid not infrequently reduces appreciably when food is withheld and a limited amount of fluid drunk. But the tension in this condition is for the fluid to re-accumulate shortly after resuming eating and drinking the normal amount of fluid.

As has been stated, surgical interference usually will be necessary in this condition. The operation does not involve removal of any structure but strictly correcting a difficulty. The type of surgical procedure will be determined by the physician or surgeon, and of course will depend upon the type and severity of the affliction and the age and condition of the patient.

Great Swimming Places for Kids

Finding new places to take your kids swimming helps keep things interesting so they stay motivated to improve their skills. It’s important to always scout out a new swimming hole first to make sure it’s safe. You can be reassured that most public swim areas have trained staff members ready to supervise young children. From hitting the local pool to traveling to natural landmarks, here are some great places to take your family swimming.

Home Pools

A backyard pool is one of the most convenient places for your kids to swim. It’s a great place that allows them to get comfortable being in the water. Professional swim lessons from a very early age are critical to keep them safe.

Public Water Parks

Once your child has mastered some basic swimming skills, public water parks are full of fun. Most of these parks have kiddie pools for the youngest swimmers. For those who have reached age and height requirements, there is skimming down slides and floating down lazy rivers. While lifeguards are always onsite, parents must also keep an eye out for their child’s safety.

Summer Camp Swimming Holes

At summer camp, your child gets exposure to swimming in a variety of environments while receiving instruction from certified lifeguards. Your youngster will learn basic safety skills like treading water in a natural lake. They can then advance to new levels by learning to water ski. And whitewater rafting is the ultimate water sport. Regular pools and water slides are also part of the summer camp swimming experience, which gives kids more options for learning to love the water.

Indoor Recreational Pools

Parents often worry that their child will lose their swimming skills during the off-season. Indoor pools make it possible for them to keep practicing when it’s raining or cold. Many indoor pools offer swimming lessons and sports teams. These give kids a way to build upon the basic skills they learn during the summer.

Family Beaches

Being a little apprehensive about taking your youngster to swim in natural bodies of water is a good thing. You’ll feel more confident once they’ve practiced at summer camp. From lakes to public beaches by the ocean, you will find clean family-friendly areas. They often have lifeguards on duty during the busy season but you’ll want to confirm that. When visiting a public beach, it’s critical to follow all warning signs concerning strong undertows. And never enter water that has been declared off limits to the public.

Finding new places to keep your youngsters interested in swimming can make planning activities for the family fun. Swimming is the perfect way for them to burn off energy while strengthening their body. Whether they love sliding down the fun slides or doing flips off the diving board, safety is always the number one priority.

Why You Should Learn Micro Airbrush Art

Micro Airbrushing is an important skill for all airbrush artists. Being able to do micro airbrushing will allow the artist to create a more realistic and more exhaustive detail on all small areas of their airbrush design. It is in these small areas that a great amount of artist miss the opportunity to really define the particulars because they are unable to fully generate the detailed area. Micro airbrushing is needed to really capture the facts of these small areas. Micro airbrushing is also a valuable skill for an airbrush artist if they airbrush small model cars. By acquiring the abilities needed to do micro airbrushing the artist can capture more detail in their airbrush art on the model car.

Imagine being able to create realistic eyes on a dragon you only airbrushed onto the hood of a tiny model car? When a person looks strongly at your artwork on the hood of the model car they can really see the capability of the ability that you have as an airbrush artist. Or imagine that no matter what size your task is, even the fine details are introduced to the detail that they need to be noticed. All this can be done if an artist takes the time to learn airbrushing. There are couple of ways that an artist can pick up the way to do micro airbrush art.

One way that an artist can study how to do micro airbrush art is to purchase a video created just to teach micro airbrushing. AirBrush Action has a video titled Micro Airbrushing that features airbrush artist Robert Benedict. With this video you will be shown the way to airbrush 23 skulls onto a region the mass of a dime. This video will let you know every thing that you would every need to be aware of using micro airbrushing. A couple of great features of the video is that you will learn how to truly work with House of Colors paints and how to work on low air pressures. Learn more to do with the way to do freehand is also a good asset of this video. It is these that are the advanced systems and will take you as an artist to the next level of airbrush art.

Another way an artist can learn micro airbrushing is to work directly with a professional. Include a workshop that teaches micro airbrushing and you can discover with some hands on projects under the oversight of an expert. Using a professional can also mean subscribing for some private one on one lessons that will present you with more direct attention from the instructor. This could present you with somewhat bit more of a grip over taking a work shop where the instructor has many people to teach at one time.

Once you have mastered your skills in micro airbrush art you will be dumbfounded at the quantity of detail that you are able to place in any airbrushing project. This ability will help set you apart from the remainder of the competition and allow you to achieve the top of the airbrush art industry. Growing a genuinely renowned artist in your trade is dependent upon just how much detail you can capture in your career compared to other artists.

The Most Important Japanese Lesson Yet!

Public transportation is big in Japan. You’ll probably need to catch a bus at some point. So, you will want to ask questions such as, “is this bus bound for Tokyo?” You’ll probably also need to tell people things such as, “I need to get off the train at Nagano station.” Phrases and questions like these are the key to getting around in Japan.

This Beginner Japanese article is here to help you! You will learn how to ask and answer questions about where you are trying to go. Ask Kono basu wa Tokyo-iki desu? (“Is this bus bound for Tokyo?”) and similar questions in Japanese. This Japanese article is the key to getting where you are headed!

Vocabulary: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:

waza waza – “taking so much trouble”

agaru – “to enter, to come up” (class 1 verb)

kaeru – “to go back” (class 1 verb)

yuuhan – “evening meal”

ekimae – “in front of the station”

umai – “delicious, tasty” (-i ending adjective)

uisukii – “whiskey”

koori – “ice”

hantai – “opposite”

kansha – “thanks, gratitude”

shoojiki – “honestly, honest”

betsu – “different, another”

Grammar: In this article, you’ll learn the following words and phrases:

Useful Vocabulary and Phrases

yuuhan “supper, evening meal”

There are several words meaning “supper” in Japanese:





yumeshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

banmeshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

Please also review “breakfast” and “lunch:”




asa-meshi (very informal and sounds masculine)







hiru-meshi (very informal and sounds masculine)

hantai “opposition”

When we add -suru or o suru , it becomes a verb meaning “to oppose.” The opposite word is sansei, which means “approval.” The particle ni follows the object one opposes or agrees with.


Musume no kekkon ni hantai suru.

“I’m opposed to my daughter’s marriage.”

Today’s Target Phrase

Tokyo ni kaetta.

“She went back to Tokyo.

The verb conjugations that make the –ta form of a verb, or the plain past form of a verb, are today’s grammar point. The formation of the plain past form is quite simple: change the final sound of the –te form from –te to –ta.

-ta Form of Verbs

  1. Conjugate a verb to the –te form. SEE Beginner Series Season 4, Articles 19, 20, 21, and 22 for more details.
  2. Drop the -te and add –ta

“English” / Dictionary Form / Te Form / Ta Form

“to buy” / kau / katte / katta

“to write” / kaku / kaite / kaita

“to speak” / hanasu / hanashite / hanashita

“to wait” / matsu / matte / matta

“to die” / shinu / shinde / shinda

“to drink” / nomu / nonde / nonda

“to make” / tsukuru / tsukutte / tsukutta

“to swim” / oyogu / oyoide / oyoida

“to invite” / yobu / yonde / yonda

“to go” / iku / itte / itta

“to eat” / taberu / tabete / tabeta

“to return” / kaeru / kaette / kaetta

“to do” / suru / shite / shita

“to come” / kuru / kite / kita

Formal Speech and Informal Speech

Politeness Level / Formal Speech / Informal SpeechNon-Past Affirmative / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaerimasu. / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaeru.

Non-Past Negative / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaerimasen. / Watashi wa Tokyo ni kaeranai.

Past Affirmative/ Miu wa Tokyo ni kaerimashita. / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaetta.

Past Negative / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaerimasen deshita. / Miu wa Tokyo ni kaeranakatta.


*Non-past dictionary form of a verb: See Nihongo Doojoo, “Style You and Beyond, Articles 19, 20, 21, and 22,” for more details.

*Non-polite past form of a verb: See Beginner Season 4 Article 23 for more details.

*Please note thatthe non-past plain negative form of a verb conjugates as -i ending adjectives to get the past form. Change the final -i to katta.

For Example:

  1. kaeranai becomes keranakatta
  2. minai becomes minakatta

This grammar point hasn’t been explained in the Nihongo Doojoo series yet.

Practice 1:

Fill in the blanks to complete the chart.

Class 1 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to listen” / kiku / kikanai / kiite / kiita

“to lend” / —- / kasanai / kashite / —-

“to wait” / matsu / —- / —- / —-

“to read” / —- / yomanai / —- / —-

“to understand” / —- / —- / wakatte / —-

“to go” / iku / —- / itte / —-

“to say” / iku / iwanai / itte / —-

“to meet” / au / —- / —- / —-

Class 2 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to sleep” / neru / nenai / nete / —-

“to look” / miru / —- / —- / —-

Class 3 Verbs

“English” / Dictionary Form / Plain Negative Form / -Te Form / -Ta Form

“to do” / —- / —- / shite / —-

“to come” / kuru / —- / kite / —-

Practice 2:

Change the formal speech to casual speech.

  1. Terebi o mimashita.
  2. Yhan o tabemashita.
  3. Nihon-go o benky shimashita.
  4. Kin Nihon ni kimashita.
  5. Wakarimashita.
  6. Mizu o nomimashita.
  7. Takush de ikimashita.  

Meteorological Station

A Meteorological Station or weather station as it is also known, is a place where data is gathered to monitor weather conditions. This facility could be on land or at sea, measuring the atmospheric conditions to study climate and weather.

Typical measurements that would be taken include wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, barometric pressure, humidity and temperature. When measuring temperature and humidity, the observation is kept away from direct sunlight. When measuring, the instruments will bear the full force of the wind to gain readings.


Observing the weather will be done automatically and manually, automatically probably every hour, and manual observations once a day. For measuring data out at sea, ships and buoys will be used. but they will typically measure wave height, sea temperatures and much more.


A weather station will use most of these instruments to measure there data.

  • Rain gauge: This will measure liquid precipitation over a period of time.
  • Hygrometer: This instrument is used for measuring humidity
  • Anemometer: Wind speed is calculated with this device.
  • Barometer: For measuring atmospheric pressure.
  • Thermometer: This measures land ans sea temperature.

You also may have a smaller version of a station that is set up at an airport, to monitor things such as,

  • Ceiling projector: This measures the cloud ceiling
  • Disdrometer: Measuring drop size distribution
  • Transmissometer: This checks visibility
  • A sensor for present conditions for rain fall

You also have advanced or professional weather stations that use the same instruments above, but might also include, solar radiation sensors, snow gauge, leaf wetness sensors, soil temperature sensor, and ultra violet light sensors. Another instrument they might use is a probe that measures evapotranspiration which is very useful for the agricultural industry.


Meteorological stations can be set up two ways, either wireless or wired. They both have advantages, and disadvantages, so its important to do your homework if you are thinking about buying one.


Apart from the rain gauge and the anemometer (these two instruments need to be out in the elements) the rest should be enclosed in what is called a Stevenson Screen, which it a type of vented box. This is to stop direct sunlight and wind to affect the instruments


If you have an interest in the weather for personal information it is possible now to have your own personal weather station. there is hundreds of products out there today on the market, for every ones specific needs.

You can now have all the data connected to your home PC, or laptop, this is how advanced these systems are now, and collecting data can be sent to different groups, or organisations through the internet. Another source of transmitting data to fellow meteorologists is by way of cb radio.

Because weather is part of our daily routine, it is not surprising that major weather stations have been setup in a network all over the world. These networks will monitor pressure systems and weather fronts. You can find and read about all the different networks around the world.

Rabbit Fur

We all know about the adorable aesthetics of rabbits. At present, eight genera of rabbits are to be found in the world, of which the Amami rabbit of Japan already faces extinction. They are known for having fuzzy pelts and fine hair that may be commercially used to create fur products.

In addition, rabbits are known for being extremely meek and relatively slower mammals that can hardly protect themselves from the various attacks that are posed on them. Their essential harmless nature makes them an easy victim of the worldwide animal fur industry. In fact, it has been accurately surmised that rabbit fur constitutes the fastest growing part of the worldwide fur trade. This proves to be a deplorable statistic end to one of the most playful and innocent animals that nature has on offer.

In the wild, rabbits frequent the meadows, grasslands, and other landscapes that have ample provisions for their survival. This makes rabbit warrens very easy to locate. Their underground burrows also alert hunters about their nesting extent. Owing to the fact that they usually live in packs, situating a single rabbit hole proves to be very lucrative for these hunters, as they can capture multiple rabbits from a single warren or interconnected ones.

The majority of the rabbit population is found in North America. This makes this continent one of the major producer and exporter of rabbit fur in the world. Along with North America, many European nations also pride themselves with the vain statistics of being a major player in the global rabbit fur industry.

Since a rabbit has a petite anatomy, about 30 to 40 rabbits need to be slaughtered to produce an average fur coat. Such a despicable fact places much pressure on wild-rabbit hunters. Consequently, extensive rabbit fur farms have cropped up in several parts of the world. Herein, rabbits are especially bred in torturous circumstances, just so that they can whet the cruel appetites of some superficial fashionista.

As far as commercial fur farming is concerned, the genus of rabbits that is most in demand is that of the Rex rabbits. Rex Rabbits may be of two kinds. While the Castor Rex exhibits a brownish color, and is the more expensive variety, the Chinchilla Rex provides the cheaper alternative. Other than these, another breed that has also proved to be highly popular is that of the Orylag rabbits, which are especially farmed in France for their fur as well as their meat.

This is a truly horrid instance of animal cruelty at its worst. In fact, mortality rates in rabbit farms happen to be very high. While the Rex rabbits exhibit a mortality rate of 10 to 15%, the mortality rate among Orylag rabbits is as high as 25 to 35%.

Countless ordeals and traumas are in store for these harmless rabbits in fur farms. In a rabbit fur farm, breeding rabbits are managed for 3 years. During this time, they are forced to reproduce at least twice a year. After the birth of their kits, the mother rabbits are forcibly separated from their offspring within 4 weeks. Such separations are continued for lengthy periods of time. In fact, mothers are only permitted to enter the nursing area during unstable feeding times. Such malicious partitions, which go against the natural course of mammary nursing, put the mothers under a great deal of stress. As a result, it is not uncommon for mother rabbits to show symptoms of derangement that might at times manifest itself in the form of cannibalism, wherein the mother may eat her young.

The fate of the children is also as horrible as that of their mothers. Whatever be their kind, all breeds of this helpless mammal are kept in abominable conditions. They are restrained in bare wire mesh cages that are too small to allow them the liberty to move about freely – something that they are instinctively programmed to do because of their natural reflexes. In fact, the cages for single rabbits have the measly dimension of about two shoeboxes. Sometimes as many as 12 rabbits are crammed into an enclosure that is only a third larger than the aforementioned single-rabbit cage size.

Owing to such poor and inhuman living conditions, many rabbits develop spinal deformations, broken bones, and appalling skin lesions. Further, the mesh flooring of the cages creates sore hocks, and other infectious paw injuries. Many of them are also afflicted by respiratory diseases, caused by poor ventilation. As a result, a considerable percentage of the rabbits lose their lives, much before reaching the slaughterhouse.

The slaughterhouse, in itself, is the representative vortex of inexcusable animal cruelty. These animals are often killed by incurring blows with heavy sticks before their throats are slits. At other places, these naturally docile and helpless animals are stunned by electric instruments. In view of the horrific way in which multiple rabbits are restrained in vertically piled crates, as they watch their brethren being slaughtered, while they, themselves, writhe and bleed in rabbit excrements, these fur farms can be rightly equated with modern day animal torture chambers.

While the Rex variety of rabbits are more common in the world, the more exclusive and expensive rabbit furs that adorn the wardrobe of the rich and famous are actually extracted from Orylag rabbits. These rabbits are the products of 15 years of genetic engineering endeavor that was undertaken by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA).

The fur of these rabbits is known for being softer, shinier, and more resistant to the ravages of natural elements. Owing to this, these rabbits are only bred in a select few farms in France that maintain strict standards of quality. From here on, they are often transported to the design studios of some of the biggest fashion labels in the world.

The Orylag mothers are known for producing 7 – 12 babies at a time. After she has reproduced, she goes through forcible artificial insemination after only a few days.

Though such rabbits are considered to be bred in ethically acceptable conditions, they are, in fact, subjected to the very same kind of ruthless treatment that their Rex counterparts experience. Like the Rex rabbits, the Orylag rabbits are also separated from their mothers at four weeks. From this time until till their seventh week, they live with their siblings. Finally, they are placed in solitary cages, so as to prevent fighting (a physical manifestation of their psychological distress) and damage to their pelts. Once they are about 20 weeks old, they are slaughtered in cold blood.

There is little awareness among people about the conditions at rabbit fur farms. Even if many people know about the consequences of their fur purchases, very few of them have the conscience to say ‘NO’ to such products. This is evidenced in the fact that the rabbit fur sales have grown over the years.

While traders continue with their mad lust for money, countless rabbits are being killed to satiate the growing demands of this industry. With a gradual decrease in the production costs, it is estimated that rabbit fur sales are only going to escalate. This can only project a grim future for these social and endearing mammals.

Leaping Into the 6th Technology Revolution

We’re at risk of missing out on some of the most profound opportunities offered by the technology revolution that has just begun.

Yet many are oblivious to the signs and are in danger of watching this become a period of noisy turmoil rather than the full-blown insurrection needed to launch us into a green economy. What we require is not a new spinning wheel, but fabrics woven with nanofibers that generate solar power. To make that happen, we need a radically reformulated way of understanding markets, technology, financing, and the role of government in accelerating change. But will we understand the opportunities before they disappear?

Seeing the Sixth Revolution for What It Is

We are seven years into the beginning of what analysts at BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research call the Sixth Revolution. A table by Carlotta Perez, which was presented during a recent BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research luncheon hosted by Robert Preston and Steven Milunovich, outlines the revolutions that are unexpected in their own time that lead to the one in which we find ourselves.

  • 1771: Mechanization and improved water wheels
  • 1829: Development of steam for industry and railways
  • 1875: Cheap steel, availability of electricity, and the use of city gas
  • 1908: Inexpensive oil, mass-produced internal combustion engine vehicles, and universal electricity
  • 1971: Expansion of information and tele-communications
  • 2003: Cleantech and biotech

The Vantage of Hindsight

Looking back at 1971, we know that Intel’s introduction of the microprocessor marked the beginning of a new era. But in that year, this meant little to people watching Mary Tyler Moore and The Partridge Family, or listening to Tony Orlando & Dawn and Janis Joplin. People would remember humanity’s first steps on the Moon, opening relations between US and China, perhaps the successful completion of the Human Genome Project to 99.99% accuracy, and possibly the birth of Prometea, the first horse cloned by Italian scientists.

According to Ben Weinberg, Partner, Element Partners, “Every day, we see American companies with promising technologies that are unable to deploy their products because of a lack of debt financing. By filling this gap, the government will ignite the mass deployment of innovative technologies, allowing technologies ranging from industrial waste heat to pole-mounted solar PV to prove their economics and gain credibility in the debt markets.”

Flying beneath our collective radar was the first floppy disk drive by IBM, the world’s first e-mail sent by Ray Tomlinson, the launch of the first laser printer by Xerox PARC and the Cream Soda Computer by Bill Fernandez and Steve Wozniak (who would found the Apple Computer company with Steve Jobs a few years later).

Times have not changed that much. It’s 2011 and many of us face a similar disconnect with the events occurring around us. We are at the equivalent of 1986, a year on the cusp of the personal computer and the Internet fundamentally changing our world. 1986 was also the year that marked the beginning of a major financial shift into new markets. Venture Capital (VC) experienced its most substantial finance-raising season, with approximately $750 million, and the NASDAQ was established to help create a market for these companies.

Leading this charge was Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Beyers (KPCB), a firm that turned technical expertise into possibly the most successful IT venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. The IT model looked for a percentage of big successes to offset losses: an investment like the $8 million in Cerent, which was sold to Cisco Systems for $6.9 billion, could make up for a lot of great ideas that didn’t quite make it.

Changing Financial Models

But the VC model that worked so well for information and telecommunications doesn’t work in the new revolution. Not only is the financing scale of the cleantech revolution orders of magnitude larger than the last, this early in the game even analysts are struggling to see the future.

Steven Milunovich, who hosted the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research lunch, remarked that each revolution has an innovation phase which may last for as long as 25 years, followed by an implementation phase of another 25. Most money is made in the first 20 years, so real players want to get in early. But the question is: Get in where, for how much and with whom?

There is still market scepticism and uncertainty about the staying power of the clean energy revolution. Milunovich estimates that many institutional investors don’t believe in global warming, and adopt a “wait and see” attitude complicated by government impasse on energy security legislation. For those who are looking at these markets, their motivation ranges from concerns about oil scarcity, supremacy in the “new Sputnik” race, the shoring up of homeland security and – for some – a concern about the effects of climate change. Many look askance at those who see that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in how we produce and use energy. Milunovich, for all these reasons, is “cautious in the short term, bullish on the long.”

The Valley of Death

Every new technology brings with it needs for new financing. In the sixth revolution, with budget needs 10 times those of IT, the challenge is moving from idea to prototype to commercialization. The Valley of Death, as a recent Bloomberg New Energy Finance whitepaper, Crossing the Valley of Death pointed out, is the gap between technology creation and commercial maturity.

But some investors and policy makers continue to hope that private capital will fuel this gap, much as it did the last. They express concern over the debt from government programs like the stimulus funds (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) which have invested millions in new technologies in the clean energy sector, as well as helping states with rebuilding infrastructure and other projects. They question why the traditional financing models, which made the United States the world leader in information technology and telecommunications, can’t be made to work today, if the Government would just get out of the way.

But analysts from many sides of financing believe that government support, of some kind, is essential to move projects forward, because cleantech and biotech projects require a much larger input of capital in order to get to commercialization. This gap not only affects commercialization, but is also affecting investments in new technologies, because financial interests are concerned that their investment might not see fruition – get to commercial scale.

How new technologies are radically different from the computer revolution.

Infrastructure complexity

This revolution is highly dependent on an existing – but aging – energy infrastructure. Almost 40 years after the start of the telecommunications revolution, we are still struggling with a communications infrastructure that is fragmented, redundant, and inefficient. Integrating new sources of energy, and making better use of what we have, is an even more complex – and more vital – task.

According to “Crossing the Valley of Death,” the Bloomberg New Energy Finance Whitepaper,

“The events of the past few years confirm that it is only with the public sector’s help that the Commercialization Valley of Death can be addressed, both in the short and the long term. Only public institutions have ‘public benefits’ obligations and the associated mandated risk-tolerance for such classes of investments, along with the capital available to make a difference at scale. Project financiers have shown they are willing to pick up the ball and finance the third, 23rd, and 300th project that uses that new technology. It is the initial technology risk that credit committees and investment managers will not tolerate.”

Everything runs on fuel and energy, from our homes to our cars to our industries, schools, and hospitals. Most of us have experienced the disconnect we feel when caught in a blackout: “The air-conditioner won’t work so I guess I’ll turn on a fan,” only to realize we can’t do either. Because energy is so vital to every aspect of our economy, federal, state and local entities regulate almost every aspect of how energy is developed, deployed, and monetized. Wind farm developers face a patchwork quilt of municipal, county, state and federal regulations in getting projects to scale.

Incentives from government sources, as well as utilities, pose both an opportunity and a threat: the market rises and falls in direct proportion to funding and incentives. Navigating these challenges takes time and legal expertise: neither of which are in abundant supply to entrepreneurs.

Development costs

Though microchips are creating ever-smaller electronics, cleantech components – such as wind turbines and photovoltaics – are huge. They can’t be developed in a garage, like Hewlett and Packard’s first oscilloscope. A new generation of biofuels that utilizes nanotechnology isn’t likely to take place out of a dorm room, as did Michael Dell’s initial business selling customized computers. What this means for sixth revolution projects is that they have much larger funding needs, at much earlier stages.

Stepping up and supporting innovation, universities – and increasingly corporations – are partnering with early stage entrepreneurs. They are providing technology resources, such as laboratories and technical support, as well as management expertise in marketing, product development, government processes, and financing. Universities get funds from technology transfer arrangements, while corporations invest in a new technologies, expanding their product base, opening new businesses, or providing cost-benefit and risk-analysis of various approaches.

But even with such help, venture capital and other private investors are needed to augment costs that cannot be born alone. These investors look to some assurance that projects will produce revenue in order to return the original investment. So concerns over the Valley of Death affects even early stage funding.

Time line to completion

So many of us balk at two year contracts for our cell phones that there is talk of making such requirements illegal. But energy projects, by their size and complexity, look out over years, if not decades. Commercial and industrial customers look to spread their costs over ten to twenty years, and contracts cover contingencies like future business failure, the sale of properties, or the prospect of renovations that may affect the long term viability of the original project.

Kevin Walsh, managing director and head of Power and Renewable Energy at GE Energy Financial Services states, “GE Energy Financial Services supports the creation of CEDA or a similar institution because it would expand the availability of low-cost capital to the projects and companies in which we invest, and it would help expand the market for technology supplied by other GE businesses.”

Michael Holman, analyst for Lux Research, noted that a $25 million investment in Google morphed into $1.7 billion 5 years later. In contrast, a leading energy storage company started with a $300 million investment, and 9 years later valuation remains uncertain. These are the kinds of barriers that can stall the drive we need for 21st century technologies.

Looking to help bridge the gap in new cleantech and biotech projects, is a proposed government-based solution called the Clean Energy Deployment Administration (CEDA). There is a house and senate version, as well as a house Green Bank bill to provide gap financing. Recently, over 42 companies, representing many industries and organizations, signed a letter to President Obama, supporting the Senate version, the “21st Century Energy Technology Deployment Act.”

Both the house and senate bills propose to create, as an office within the US Department of Energy (DOE), an administration which would be tasked with lending to risky cleantech projects for the purpose of bringing new technologies to market. CEDA would be the bridge needed to ensure the successful establishment of the green economy, by partnering with private investment to bring the funding needed to get these technologies to scale. Both versions capitalize the agency with $10 Billion (Senate) and $7.5 Billion (House), with an expected 10% loss reserve long term.

By helping a new technology move more effectively through the pipeline from idea to deployment, CEDA can substantially increase private sector investment in energy technology development and deployment. It can create a more successful US clean energy industry, with all the attendant economic and job creation benefits.

Who Benefits?

CEDA funding could be seen as beneficial for even the most unlikely corporations. Ted Horan is the Marketing and Business Development Manager for Hycrete, a company that sells a waterproof concrete. Hardly a company that springs to mind when we think about clean technologies, he recently commented on why Hycrete CEO, Richard Guinn, is a signatory on the letter to Obama:

“The allocation of funding for emerging clean energy technologies through CEDA is an important step in solving our energy and climate challenges. Companies on the cusp of large-scale commercial deployment will benefit greatly and help accelerate the adoption of clean energy practices throughout our economy.”

In his opinion, the manufacturing and construction that is needed to push us out of a stagnating economy will be supported by innovation coming from the cleantech and biotech sectors.

Google’s Dan Reicher, Director of Climate Change and Energy Initiatives, has been a supporter from the inception of CEDA. He has testified before both houses of Congress, and was a signatory on the letter to President Obama. Google’s interest in clean and renewable energies dates back several years. The company is actively involved in projects to cut costs of solar thermal and expand the use of plug-in vehicles, and has developed the Power Meter, a product which brings home energy management to anyone’s desktop-for free.

Financial support includes corporations like GE Energy Financial Services, Silicon Valley Venture Capital such as Kleiner, Perkins Caulfiled and Byers, and Mohr Davidow Ventures, and Energy Capital including Hudson Clean Energy and Element Partners.Can something like the senate version of CEDA leap the Valley of Death?

As Will Coleman from Mohr Davidow Ventures, said, “The Devil’s in the details.” The Senate version has two significant changes from previous proposals: an emphasis on breakthrough as opposed to conventional technologies, and political independence.

Neil Auerbach, Managing Partner, Hudson Clean Energy

The clean energy sector can be a dynamic growth engine for the US economy, but not without thoughtful government support for private capital formation. **[Government policy] promises to serve as a valuable bridging tool to accelerate private capital formation around companies facing the challenge, and can help ensure that the US remains at the forefront of the race for dominance in new energy technologies.

Breakthrough Technologies

Coleman said that “breakthrough” includes the first or second deployment of a new approach, not just the game changing science-fiction solution that finally brings us limitless energy at no cost. The Bloomberg New Energy white paper uses the term “First of Class.” Bringing solar efficiency up from 10% to 20%, or bringing manufacturing costs down by 50%, would be a breakthrough that would help us begin to compete with threats from China and India. Conventional technologies, those that are competing with existing commercialized projects, would get less emphasis.

Political Independence

Political independence is top of mind for many who spoke or provided an analysis of the bill. Michael Holman, analyst at Lux Research, expressed the strongest concerns that CEDA doesn’t focus enough on incentives to bring together innovative start-ups with larger established firms.

“The government itself taking on the responsibility of deciding what technologies to back isn’t likely to work-it’s an approach with a dreadful track record. That said, it is important for the federal government to lead – the current financing model for bringing new energy technologies to market is broken, and new approaches are badly needed.”

For many, the senate bill has many advantages over the house bill, in providing for a decision making process that includes technologists and private sector experts.

“I think both sides [of the aisle] understand this is an important program, and must enable the government to be flexible and employ a number of different approaches. The Senate version empowers CEDA to take a portfolio approach and manage risk over time, which I think is good. In the House bill, CEDA has to undergo the annual appropriation process, which runs the risk of politicizing every investment decision in isolation and before we have a chance to see the portfolio mature.” – Will Coleman, Mohr Davidow.

Michael DeRosa, Managing Director of Element Partners added,

“The framework must ensure the selection of practical technologies, optimization of risk/return for taxpayer dollars, and appropriate oversight for project selection and spending. **Above all, these policies must be designed with free markets principles in mind and not be subject to political process.”

If history is any indication, rarely are those in the middle of game-changing events aware of their role in what will one day be well-known for their sweeping influence. But what we can see clearly now is the gap between idea and commercial maturity. CEDA certainly offers some hope that we may yet see the cleantech age grow up into adulthood. But will we act quickly enough before all of the momentum and hard work that has brought us this far falls flat as other countries take leadership roles, leaving us in the dust?

Printing Posters

Printing posters can be a useful marketing technique for those who are trying to reach a wide audience. Using posters in marketing is particularly useful when the audience is on foot and can view them as they walk by. When you’re creating your design, you should focus on the primary message. Then have smaller details outlined in smaller print.

Choose the appropriate poster size – They come in a variety of sizes

When you first set out to select the right size for your poster, you should determine where you are going to place it. Measure the area where the poster will go, so you can be sure it is the right size for the location. They come in any size and shape imaginable. It’s best to go with the size that best suits the location. You can also save money by finding out what standard sizes your printer offers and using one of those sizes.

Design it – Use a template or lay it out yourself with a computer or scrap paper

Before you design or print your poster, you should first draw an outline on paper or on a computer using desktop publishing software. Draw it to scale and use any key words that are sure to grab the attention of the audience you are attempting to reach. Once you have designed the layout of the poster, you are ready to get it professionally designed. You can also use a template online to save money.

Ask About Turnaround Times – Find out the turnaround time of your prospective printing company. Turnaround times vary widely from company to company.