Barriers To Lean Six Sigma

For a better understanding, let us discuss some of the most common  barriers  that business organizations might have to deal with while implementing ‘Lean’ Six Sigma projects.

The Human  Barrier 

This  barrier  relates to the inherent psychological bent of the human mind that tends to resist change, even when the change might aim at benefiting the individual concerned. When an organization introduces ‘Lean’ concepts, employees generally develop the feeling that they will be required to shoulder new responsibilities and learn new skills so as to perform effectively in a ‘Lean’ environment. Some employees may even start thinking that they will lose their jobs when ‘Lean’ is fully implemented inside the organization.

Their concerns may be misplaced, but businesses should never take such developments lightly, because such feelings can easily affect employee morale and confidence. When employees develop such negative feelings about their organization, they tend to display a non-cooperative and unsupportive attitude that can easily prevent the successful implementation of ‘Lean’ concepts and methodologies.

To overcome this  barrier , businesses just need to get their communications right, i.e. make the employees aware that even though ‘Lean’ may involve cost cutting, it does not lead to employee retrenchment. Businesses can ask the HR department to convey the real purpose of ‘Lean’ to the employees or may even request a senior officer, who might have the respect and trust of employees, to do the job.

The Technical or Knowledge  Barrier 

Businesses, especially smaller ones that have limited resources at their disposal, often find it difficult to implement ‘Lean’ concepts. Lack of in-house technical expertise and the inability to bear the high costs of hiring professionals such as Black Belts and Master Black Belts are often the main reasons that prevent such businesses from implementing ‘Lean’ and deriving its benefits.

For overcoming this  barrier , small businesses should opt for in-house training programs that are not only affordable but also allow small businesses to maximize their resource utilization. Small businesses can enroll their employees for ‘Lean’ certification courses and provide them additional incentives for completing the course within the stipulated time. They will then be able to develop an in-house talent pool that has the requisite technical and knowledge base, required for implementing ‘Lean’ concepts in a business organization.

The Learning  Barrier 

This  barrier  is created when a business tries to copy a ‘Lean’ project that might have been implemented by a competitor. Businesses often fail to realize that ‘Lean’ is not just a set of tools and techniques; that it a continuous learning process and concepts that may have proved effective for the competitor may not necessarily give the same results in each and every organization. To overcome this  barrier , businesses should try to develop their own unique ‘Lean’ projects and continue to increase their learning through the ‘hit and trail’ method.

Every business organization is different, which is why learning what works and what does not is the way to go for businesses that aim at implementing ‘Lean’ concepts and deriving the associated benefits.

Fireproof Safe Reviews and Frequently Asked Questions

It is extremely important for the consumers to follow and consider some guidelines in choosing the right safe. Looking for this information could become tedious but here is a summary of the most important things to look for. Remember that having all your valuables safe and intact in one place is a lot more comforting than losing them all to a house fire.

FIRE RESISTANT SAFES

There are such safes that are called FIREPROOF SAFES. With all reality, there are NO SUCH FIREPROOF safes – there are, however, FIRE RESISTANT SAFES. These are the kind of safes that are designed to protect its contents against fire or extremely high temperatures. They are usually rated by the amount of time they can withstand the extreme temperatures a fire produces, while not exceeding a set internal temperature, e.g., less than 350 °F (177 °C) over 30 minutes.

Models are typically available between half-hour and four-hour durations. A good fire resistant safe should have a minimum of 30 minutes fire rating but an hour or more of protection is even better. The problem is, you don’t know where a fire could start – it may start right next to your safe and continue to subject the contents of your safe to high temperatures for a long period of time. Fireproof safes are NOT recommended for protecting large amounts of cash or high value items from theft. When you want BOTH burglar and fire protection, look for a burglar fire safe or a high security burglar fire safe.

Document safes are designed to maintain an internal temperature no greater than 177 °C (351 °F) while in a constantly heated environment in excess of 1,000 °C (1,830 °F). Data safes are designed to maintain an internal temperature no greater than 55 °C (131 °F) while in a constantly heated environment in excess of 1,000 °C (1,830 °F).

The conditions stipulated above are maintained for the duration of the test. The test usually lasts for about 30 minutes or could be extended to several hours depending on its grade. They are also tested for impact by dropping them from a set height onto a solid surface and then tested for fire survivability once again.

In the USA, both the writing of standards for fire-resistance and the actual testing of safes is performed by Underwriters Laboratories.

Underwriters Laboratories Certification for Safes:

Class 125

– sustains an internal atmosphere of 125°F (52°C) and 80% humidity

– waterproof

– hour ratings: ½, 1, 2, 3, or 4

– suitable for papers, floppy disks

Class 150

– sustains an internal atmosphere less than 150°F (66°C) and 85% humidity

– waterproof

– hour ratings: ½, 1, 2, 3, or 4

– suitable for papers, Optical media (CDs)

Class 350

– sustains an internal atmosphere of less than 350°F (177°C) and 85% humidity

– most basic of U.L. tests and specifically tests for the storage of paper

– sufficient for storage of paper

– hour ratings: ½, 1, 2, 3, or 4

– suitable for papers, Floppy Disks, Optical Media (CDs)

Class TL-15

– combination locked safe that offers limited protection against combinations of common mechanical and electrical tools

– resist abuse for 15 minutes from tools such as hand tools, picking tools, mechanical or electric tools, grinding points, carbide drills and devices that apply pressure

Class TL-30

– combination locked safe that offers moderate protection against combinations of mechanical and electrical tools

– resist abuse for 30 minutes from tools such as hand tools, picking tools, mechanical or electrical tools, grinding points, carbide drills, devices that apply pressure, cutting wheels and power saws.

Class TL-40

– combination locked safe that offers moderate protection against combinations of mechanical and electrical tools

– resist abuse for 40 minutes from tools such as hand tools, picking tools, mechanical or electrical tools, grinding points, carbide drills, devices that apply pressure, cutting wheels and power saws.

Class TRTL-30

– combination locked safe that offers high protection against combinations of mechanical, electrical, and cutting tools

– resist abuse for 30 minutes from tools such as hand tools, picking tools, mechanical or electrical tools, grinding points, carbide drills, devices that apply pressure, cutting wheels, power saws, impact tools and, in addition, can withstand an oxy-fuel welding and cutting torch (tested gas limited to 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) combined total oxygen and fuel gas)

Class TRTL-60

– withstand the same assaults as Class TRTL-30 for 60 minutes

Class TXTL-60

– meets all the requirements for Class TRTL-60

– withstand high explosives such as nitroglycerin or equivalent to not more than 4 ounces (110 g) of nitroglycerin in one charge (entire test must not use more explosive than that equivalent to 8 ounces (230 g) of nitroglycerin)

Additional reminders:

1. Check the safe if it is indeed UL TESTED. The safe has passed the testing requirements ONLY when you see a UL label applied to the safe.

2. If you also want burglary protection, choose burglar/fire safe that is appropriate for the content value.

These ratings and content values are guidelines only:

B-Rated

Up to $5,000 content value

B/C Rated

Up to $10,000 content value

U.L. RSC

Up to $15,000 content value

C Rated

Up to $30,000 content value

U.L. TL-15

Up to $200,000 content value

U.L. TL-30

Up to $375,000 content value

U.L. TL-30X6

Up to $500,000 to $ 1,000,000 content value

U.L. TRTL-30X6

$1,000,000 and up content value

3. Don’t use a floor safe to protect against fire.

Floor safes are great for gold, silver, coins, jewelry and other valuables because they are engineered to protect against burglary attacks. While they are burglary resistant, these are NOT – despite of common beliefs – ideal against fire or extremely high temperatures. Floor safe doors are made of plate steel that ranges from ½” to 1½” thick and unfortunately, nearly all floor safes do NOT have fire retardant material included in the door. Therefore, most floor safes are not a good product to protect against the ravages of a fire.

Hanging Self Adhesive Wallpaper

How to Hang and Apply Self-Adhesive Wallpaper

Self-Adhesive Wallpaper is a new concept that is a peel off and stick on applicator to wallpaper nearly any room in the house. While it seems easy enough to use, this how-to guide explains each step thoroughly and even adds in some tips and tricks for applying this kind of wallpaper that you probably weren’t aware of. Here are 5 main tips to applying and removing self-adhesive wallpaper.

1. Peel off at the Corners

While this may seem inherently obvious, starting at the right spot is as crucial as pushing out each and every air bubble. When you are peeling off the back to your self-adhesive wallpaper, make sure to start at the same corner as the corner of the wall you are starting with. From there, you can peel off the corresponding corner and move down. It’s not crucial, but it is helpful to start from the corner opposite of your dominant hand. I.e. start from the left corner if you are right-handed. It makes it easier when you’re moving from left to right across your wall.

2. Apply in Segments

When applying the wallpaper, make sure you don’t just peel off the backing to the entire roll and press it all down. This is a surefire way to create impossible-to-fix- air bubbles. Rather than removing the entire backing, once you have the top corners placed down, peel it off in segments of approximately 20-24 inches. This assures a good level placing and easy removal of air bubbles if you confine the placement to only about 2 feet at a time. It can be easy with this type of wallpaper to rush through but you still need to do it in segments to insure even placement.

3. Press down Evenly

This step is similar to hanging traditional wallpaper you still need to press down evenly to force out any and all air bubbles. The best method to doing this coincides with Step 2. Unrolling in segments of approximately 2 feet allows you to press out the air bubbles in an even fashion without being overwhelmed with too much wallpaper area to cover.

The best way to force the air bubbles out is to start from the center of the wallpaper and push out to the sides with your open palms. A good tool to use instead is a wallpaper smoother. However, if you don’t have one, open palms work just as well!

4. Trim Around the Molding (If applicable)

Many people have a segment of molding either at the top of the wall, the bottom of the wall, or in the corners. It is important to trim away any excess wallpaper that spills over onto these moldings. A good practice for removing it is to press it into the molding to create a smooth crease to run your straight razor or xacto knife across. This clears your wall of excess wallpaper in a good clean fashion.

5. Removing the Wallpaper

While most traditional styles of wallpapering require a LONG process to get the wallpaper off (typically it would be a day long process) self-adhesive wallpaper does not. Simply peel off at one of the corners and peel down from there. This type of wallpaper is very easy to peel off and reposition. Once you remove it from the wall the stickiness will still be there and can be applied to other walls or surfaces. Just make sure the area you are applying it to is not bigger than your current wall otherwise Step 4 will have caused you to create too small of wallpaper.

Good Luck!

How to Make Dried Flowers Yourself

Want to make your garden’s summer flowers last all year? Ok, the easiest way is to bring your garden flowers indoor and dry them.

* First: Harvesting Flowers

It is best to cut your flowers in the morning hours after the dew has evaporated from the plants. Once cut, group stems into bunches using rubber bands (pure rubber rubber bands work best) and remove them from the sunlight as soon as possible.

There are definite developmental times which are best for cutting flowers for drying. This can be very specific for different plants or even different cultivators of the same plant. In general, it is best to pick immature flowers (ones that are not completely open) since flowers continue to open during the drying process. If you pick a flower at the time that it looks perfect, it will continue to open while drying, leaving you with a flower past that ‘perfect stage’. Most people pick flowers too late. For example, have you ever seen a pretty dried rose? If you really look at it, the flower is still fairly closed. Avoid harvesting flowers too mature in development. Such flowers will generally shed upon drying and will not hold up well in arrangements.

We offer specific picking and growing recommendations for each flower we grow. Just click on any dried flower name on any of our lists to obtain a wealth of specific information including pictures!

* Second: Preserving Flowers

With only a few exceptions, we air dry all our flowers. We simple hang flower bunches upside down on wire (over two miles of it is stretched in our circa 1860 barns). The barns offer ideal conditions: 1) darkness; 2) very good airflow; 3) cool updrafts; 4) perfect (usually) humidity levels. Once you have cut your flowers, it is important to remove them from the sunlight as soon as possible. This, along with drying in the dark, is the most important factor in maintaining good color.

Note:

1)How to Hang Flower Bunches

  Suspend  a 1/2-inch-diameter horizontal pole or pipe from the  ceiling . If fastening hooks into your ceiling or walls is not an option, use tripods or two high-backed chairs to support the pole. A bent paper clip makes a perfect hanger for your bunches. Put newspaper or a drop cloth on the floor under the hanging bunches to catch fallen leaves, seeds, and petals. Hang bunches far enough apart to allow good air circulation.

2) How Long to Hang Flowers to Dry

The drying process takes from 10 to 20 days, depending on the plant. When dried, the stems should snap. You must test the flowers for dryness. Dissect one or two, and make sure the flowers” insides are thoroughly dry.

Some flowers, such as delphiniums, keep their color better if dried quickly near sources of warm air such as a heater. Large, many-flowered blooms such as dill, fluffy grasses, and Queen Anne”s lace, should be dried upright, not hanging upside down.

3) How to Dry Flowers with Silica?

Silica-gel drying is done in shallow, airtight, plastic (or glass) containers or trays. I dry many flowers at once using a 10- by 18-inch airtight plastic container. Yours need not be that big, but make sure that the flowers aren’t crowded. Spread the flowers out, face up, on a 1-inch (minimum depth) bed of crystals. Carefully spoon or sprinkle more silica on top until you’ve completely covered the flowers with at least another inch of crystals. Drying flowers with single-petal structures, such as daisies, facedown is another technique, but my results have been identical using both approaches. To dry flowers facedown, create a small mound for the flower head, place the flower head facedown on it, and add silica over the flower until it is covered. Flowers can be almost touching, and because similar kinds of flowers dry at the same rate, you may wish to group similar blooms in the same container. Seal the container, and don’t disturb it for three to four days.

Remove delicate blossoms very carefully. Shake or brush off the crystals lightly with a soft artist’s paintbrush. Leaving flowers in desiccant too long makes them very fragile, so remove flowers right away once you’ve determined that they’re dry enough.

4) How to Use Sand to Dry your Flowers?

Sand must be very fine, clean, dry, and preferably salt free. Sifting is recommended to remove coarse grains and foreign particles. Rinsing the sand in water several times to remove any soil is also recommended. Damp sand can be dried in an oven by placing in shallow pans and baking at 250 degrees for 20 to 30 minutes. Be sure to use only flowers in their prime and process them quickly to prevent wilting.

To dry with sand, place an inch or two of sand in a container; scoop away a small amount of sand to form a depression on the surface; place the flower head upright in this depression and press the sand in and around the outside of the flower to support it. Next, scoop a little sand into your hand and allow it to trickle in a fine stream around each petal. Start with the outer petals and work inward row by row, allowing the sand to build up equally on all sides of each petal so its position and shape are not altered. Flowers dried with sand are fragile so be very careful when removing them from the sand. Notice that flowers must be stored in a strong carton to protect the petals from breaking.

5) Using a Microwave Oven to Dry Flowers

The latest and fastest method to dry flowers is to use a combination of silica gel and a microwave oven.

With the use of a microwave, you can now dry your flowers very quickly. Flowers should be gathered at their peak or else they will turn brown. Use any of the drying agents (silica gel, sand, borax) in a container deep enough to cover the bloom. Leave a 1/2 inch stem on the flower, and place it face up on a 1/2 inch layer of drying agent. Carefully sprinkle enough agent to cover the flower, and place it in the microwave along with a small bowl of water. Do not remove the flowers from the agent immediately, but set them aside for several hours. Listed below are some times for drying flowers in a microwave.

By using air drying and other methods also, many flowers can be preserved for year-round enjoyment. Plan now to include some flowers in your garden for drying, and check nearby fields and road sides throughout the summer and fall for more dried plant materials.

* Third: Care of Dried Flowers

Routine dusting can be accomplished using a real feather duster or hair blow dryer on it’s lowest setting.

* Last: Storing and Enjoying Dried Flowers

We recommend wrapping the flowers in newspaper and placing them in a cardboard box. Do not store the box containing the dried flowers where it is unusually damp (some basements) or very dry (some attics). Also, a lot of people think you should never store dried flowers outside (it would be way to cold). This is simply not true. Temperatures are not important. In fact, a garage can be an ideal place for storing dried flowers. Actually, if your home is heated by forced air, the preferred place to store dried flowers would be in a outside building away from the dry heat.

In general, dried flowers should remain out of direct sunlight while you enjoy them in their final state. This will minimize fading over time. We also suggest not to place dried flowers in the path of forced air heat registers. This extremely dry air is very hard on dried flower structure (causes shattering).

Suggestion for use of dried flowers would include wreaths, swags, sheaths, bouquets, and sprays. Simply hanging dried flowers in a room can be very appealing. Also, placing clusters of bunches in a basket, as though you just came in from a garden, is most attractive.

Caution: if you do store your dried flowers outside, make sure you protect them from small rodents and insects (a few mothballs will work).

Finally, I should to say that drying flowers can be addictive! Before long, wreaths will adorn all your doors, and swags will hang from every wall. And they’ll all have come from your own garden. Talk about an extended season! You’ll soon see why dried flowers are often called “everlastings”.

Colour Match Your Room With Laminate Flooring

When you’re doing a redecoration, you want to get everything just right. After all, it’s your home. You live here. And you’d like it to be perfect. That’s why you’ll spend hours in the DIY store looking for the exact shade of paint to match your old walls, and it’s why you’ll drive all the way to one on the other side of town if this one doesn’t have the one you need. Matching and balancing colours is the key to a welcoming and attractive room, and that goes for more than just the paint and the furniture. Choosing the right floor can make all the difference to the look and feel of your room.

Laminate floors offer one great advantage over other forms of flooring such as carpeting or tiles; they are highly versatile. Laminate floors come in an almost limitless array of different shades, effects and finishes. Because of the protective plastic film that distinguishes laminate floors from others, they make a sensible practical choice as well.

A closer look at the range of styles on offer reveals that there is a laminate floor to suit every home.

Dark wood

Dark wood effects can balance a room with furniture in paler shades such as beige and ivory, saving the room from dullness. Combined with bright walls, a dark floor can bring a touch of striking designer elegance to a living room or kitchen.

Light wood

Traditionally, pale shades of wood resembling beech are particularly popular in flooring. Laminate offers the appeal of a classic and authentic-looking wood-style floor at far lower price than real wooden flooring. These shades are complemented by darker furniture, but can also be combined with white or pastel upholstery to create an oasis of calm.

Stone

To bring a slightly Mediterranean mood to a sunlit room or conservatory, stone effect tiling works a treat. Available in a variety of different colours, the paler tints with their realistic patterned texture can suffuse your home with a relaxed continental ambience.

Marble

Marble is majestic. If you are looking to make an impression in your home, the traditional choice for palaces and stately homes cannot go amiss. This attractive stone finish works especially well in the kitchen, where it might inspire you to cook up feasts fit for kings, while perfectly setting off your furniture and appliances.

Granite

For a hint of drama and distinction, a dark granite effect floor is a perfect choice. Not only is this stone the favourite in chef’s kitchens the world over, but it can be stunning in bathrooms, where the juxtaposition of white porcelain with a black granite floor adds a touch of old world glamour to what can often be the most boring room in the house.

So release your inner Laurence Llewellyn Bowen and experiment with colour. The floor’s the limit when it comes to choosing a laminate style. Use your imagination and take advantage of the veritable rainbow of colours and effects on offer.

All About Hydraulic Pumps

In order to generate pressure in the working fluid, hydraulic systems should use a pump. All hydraulics uses the pressure of a working fluid to generate mechanical force and motion. Hydraulic pumps have many functions and a wide range of applications. If these pumps all use the same principles of physics to generate pressure, there are many different types which are designed to more specifically to fit various applications.

Although various types of hydraulic pumps have some common components, they still have much difference according to different modes of operation. For example, screw pumps are typically made up of a pair of intermeshed screws that rotate together inside of a metal housing. They generate low noise levels and have fewer moving parts that are susceptible to wear and damage, but also have a lower efficiency than other types.

Gear pump is another type. It uses the meshing of two gears to move hydraulic fluid across the pump. The simplest type of gear pump is the external tooth gear pump, which is made up of a pair of meshing gears whose rotation pulls fluid around their outside circumference. And different materials can be used depending on the application.

Then let us look at the rotary vane pumps. When compared to gear pumps, they have higher efficiency at the expense of greater mechanical complexity. The heart of it is an off-center cylindrical rotor up against the side of a cavity into which the fluid to be pumped is introduced. The cylindrical rotor has two wings which extend from its sides under pressure of a spring inside the rotor.

In addition to the above types, the peristaltic pumps also need our attention although they are not so familiar to us. A peristaltic pump is made up of a flexible tube through which the working fluid flows and a rotor. The rotor has wings that press against the tube as it rotates, squeezing the fluid through the tube.

Mistake Proofing Overview

Mistake proofing is a technique for eliminating errors. It is based upon the premise that it is good to do something right the first time; it is even better to make it impossible to do it wrong the first time. The idea is to make it impossible to make a mistake. You may also hear the term, Poka Yoke or Error Proofing applied to mistake proofing.

The objectives of this article are to provide participants with the information so they can:

  • Understand the difference between errors and defects;
  • Understand how defects originate
  • Recognize the elements of source inspection and its role in defect elimination;
  • Identify key mistake proofing devices;
  • Show mistake proofing as a proactive tool, and;
  • Show how mistake proofing fits into the   Lean  Six Sigma methodology.

Principles for Mistake Proofing

Mistake proofing is rooted in a deep respect for the intelligence of workers. It is a principle that seeks to take over repetitive tasks or actions thereby freeing a worker’s time for creative and value-adding activities. Its objective is zero defects.

There are several examples of mistake proofing in everyday life. Consider automatic sinks and toilets in public rest rooms. They are designed to turn on and off without having to think about them. Automatic seat belts work the same way. All one needs to do is sit in the car and turn on the key and a shoulder harness moves into place. Mistake proofing focuses on eliminating the source of errors.

Errors vs. Defects

Errors are not the same as defects. Errors cause defects. Defects are many times the result of errors.

Walk into any public restroom and you are likely to see toilets that have not been flushed or sinks, with water running freely. In many cases, the hot water has been turned off in the sinks to conserve the costs of energy for heating the water. In these circumstances, what are the defects and what are the errors?

The defects are the filthy toilets and the running water. These are nonconformities in the process. They do not meet the predetermined criteria that the public and management have established for a good restroom. As such, they must be corrected. If not corrected, they will cost management, both in terms of dollars and customers.

Hot water that runs unchecked involves a significant fuel expense. Filthy toilets discourage the public from returning to the business. What is management to do?

One solution is to get out of the business. Many public places take this approach. Their restrooms are closed to the public. A modified version of this solution is to limit services to limit expenses. This is the approach taken when management turns off hot water. The hope is that the customer does not miss it. Another solution is to inspect for defects frequently and correct them when found. Yet this solution is only effective if its cost is less than or equal to the cost of the defect. Most often it is a stop-gap measure that provides fewer defects but at greater costs. Mistake proofing offers a third solution.

The question is, can the error that causes the defect be minimized? Can it be eliminated? The error in our public rest room example is human forgetfulness. People forget to operate the equipment. So, we build in an automated solution that takes care of this operation for them. They can no longer make the error; the defect is removed.

There are five general reasons why errors occur:

  • Procedures are incorrect or non-existent. They do not fit the task, the environment, the equipment, the materials, the measurement, or the labor resources.
  • There is excessive variation in the process
  • There is excessive variation in the raw materials
  • Measuring devices are inaccurate
  • Human error

The last item on our list, human error, can be further broken down into ten categories:

  • Forgetfulness, nor not concentrating;
  • Misunderstanding, or jumping to conclusions without having all the information;
  • Identification, or viewing the situation incorrectly (perhaps it is too far away);
  • Training, or lack of it;
  • Willful errors where the human ignores the rules;
  • Inadvertent errors involving distraction or fatigue;
  • Slowness, or delays in judgment;
  • Lack of standards;
  • Surprises when something does not go as planned, and;
  • Intentional errors such as sabotage.

This list should give some food for thought. There are many things that contribute to human error. Among them are adjustments, multiple tasking, infrequent tasks, lack of standards, and repetition that is too rapid for the individual.

Such things can be controlled. Indeed, a great deal of planning and expense is involved in trying to do so. Yet errors still happen. A traditional approach to manufacturing and service industries is to think they are unavoidable. People are only human. Everything varies, and you can’t plan for all contingencies. The traditionalist would say that everything must be inspected to control the inevitable defect. (Remember that defect is the result of error.)

The  Lean  Six Sigma view, however, differs. Many errors can be eliminated, not all of them, to be sure, but many. If many can be eliminated, and many more can be reduced, and if the focus of the efforts is in the Vital Few rather than the Trivial Many, then the need for inspection can be reduced or eliminated. Inspection for defects does not capture all of them. A  Lean  Six Sigma approach makes the User the inspector, and it controls the errors in the processes to assure that the user is satisfied with their inspections. Inspection happens in a  Lean  Six Sigma process; it is an inspector for error.

Source Inspection

The chart below illustrates the traditional inspection process that focuses on finding the defect. Here the inspector stands at the end of the line and feeds back information to its various positions.

Mistake proofing provides immediate feedback at each step, prior to the creation of a defect. Detection is finding an error after it has occurred. Indeed, action can be taken before errors occur. Immediate feedback and immediate proximity to the potential error allows for better Prediction and Prevention.

Mistake Proofing On the Job

Shutdown: Effective in both prediction and detection. An example of a shutdown device is a camera that will not function when there is not enough light to take a picture. The meter predicts the picture will not take, and it shuts down. Some clothes dryers shut down when they detect an overheating situation.

Control: A control device can make pending errors impossible. Erroneous items cannot be used in the process. When gas stations introduced unleaded gasoline, the nozzle on the leaded pump was designed to be too big to fit into an unleaded tank, thereby preventing error. A fruit orchard assures that only the biggest apples pass on to its customers by passing the apples through a sizer. Apples that are too small fall through and are sent to a discount outlet.

Warning: A warning device predicts when something is about to go wrong. It can also sound immediately when something does go wrong. Seat belt buzzers are warning devices used for prediction. Smoke detectors detect a hazardous situation.

Contact Methods: Contact with a part highlights errors. Electrical outlets have been mistake proofed to assure proper polarity. It is impossible to put a plug in an outlet incorrectly.

Fixed Value Methods: Errors are detected through counting. Many boxes should be shipped with four different hazardous material warning labels. When labels were on separate rolls, errors in shipping often occurred. By placing all labels on a common roll and aligning them for easy reference, the worker easily knew when a label was missed.

Motion Step Methods: Detect errors by motion, or the lack of it. Seven screws in various sizes were inserted in the final assembly of a CD-ROM drive. Often a screw would be forgotten. The seven Different screws were put into bins with photo-electric switches. When a screw is removed, the beam is broken. The part cannot move on to the next operation until the beam is broken on all seven bins.

As you begin to recognize the techniques and methods that apply to mistake proofing, it is easy to see how the principal has been applied. Limit switches are commonly applied to assure that machines are not operated beyond their design capacity or that they are operated in a safe manner. Guide pins are routinely used to assure that jigs and molds go together in the correct configuration. At the end of this module are eight mistake proofing challenges. How can the problems be solved?

When You Can’t Mistake Proof

Some strategies can be employed to minimize mistakes, or make them easier to detect. Consider the following:

  • Colors and color coding. Credit card receipts are almost always designed so the customer gets the yellow copy and the merchant gets the white copy.
  • Use of shapes. Stop signs are always octagonal.
  • Auto-detection. Word processors come with spell checkers. These reduce errors considerably.
  • Make it easy to do it right. Use checklists. Have effective data collection forms that follow the process. Design work flows with fewer hand-offs.

5 Steps to Mistake Proofing: There are five steps to mistake proofing:

1. Identify problems. Look at customer returns, defective parts analyses, and error reports. Do a FMEA.

2. Prioritize problems. Look at problem frequency and cost. Identify wasted materials, rework time, detection time, and detection cost. Consider inspection costs.

3. Seek out the root cause. Drive down until you truly understand the source of the error. Correct mistakes at their source.

4. Create solutions. Make it impossible to do it wrong. Perform a cost benefit analysis to see how long the investment in the solution will take to repay itself. Be creative in solution generation.

5. Measure the results. Have errors been eliminated and what is the impact? There is no doubt that mistake proofing offers several advantages when it is designed into the product. No formal training programs are required to implement it or to use the devices. It eliminates many inspection operations, and it relieves operators from repetitive tasks that take away from their creativity and value added activities. It results in defect-free work. It provides immediate action when problems do arise.

Mistake Proofing Challenges

Look at the following situations. What mistake proofing methods or techniques might you consider applying?

  1. ATM customers complain that they never know the right way to insert their ATM card, and it usually takes a couple of tries to get it right
  2. A local bottling company wants to make sure that all bottles are filled with exactly the right amount of soda.
  3. A large pharmaceutical company is trying to develop a way to assure elderly people living alone take their prescription medicine at the right time and in the correct dosage.
  4. A manufacturer of home power tools wants to make sure that customers are wearing eye and hand protection before using their equipment.
  5. A consumer electronic company has had several customer complaints lately that their instructions were missing from their product.
  6. Nine different tools are needed to change a jig and die. Often, in the middle of changeover, the set-up operator realizes a tool is missing and has to stop to look for the tool.
  7. An easy-to-assemble furniture manufacturer has received several complaints about holes not being tapped for all screws. Because the furniture is made from hardwood, the customers have to drill the holes themselves.
  8. A contact lens solution manufacturer received complaints from distributors that some customers found empty boxes with their shipments. The company wants to make sure no more empty boxes are shipped.

Sony BRC Series HD Cameras and the EVI-HD1 – Their Impact on Future Video Conferencing Trends

Infocomm 2008 kicked off their 3-day conference last Wednesday (June 18, 2008) with a vengeance. Held at the Las Vegas Convention Center, I had the opportunity to fly out for their opening day to see what the latest trends are and to get a first hand glimpse of new products in action. Upon arrival to the LVCC, the size of the convention was overwhelming to say the least and that was before thousands of people flocked to the doors after the ribbon cutting ceremony.

Broken up into two different halls and occupying over 1,050,000 sq. ft., there were at least 950 exhibitors showcasing their latest and greatest audio visual and electronic products to a floor of at least 15,000 people in attendance. This number does not include the plethora of meeting rooms being used for several technology seminars and workshops in addition to key note speaker presentations.

Although there were several different products showcased, one of the primary buzzwords for the conference was “Telepresence”. “Telepresence” is defined as “a set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present, to give the appearance that they were present, or to have an effect, at a location other than their true location.” ( Wikipedia 2008 ) In a nutshell, the term “telepresence” is an updated term that seems to be replacing “Video Conferencing” as technology continues to advance. With telepresence, the person not in the office comes through in almost a 3D fashion making it seem as though they are actually present when they are not. Video conferencing is less technical and the people on the other end are included in a video fashion.

Walking through the “Telepresence Pavilion”, the two new and most popular VC systems came courtesy of Polycom and Sony. Although the Polycom telepresence systems were exhibited in abundance, the Sony EVI-HD1 and BRC series of cameras were equally showcased as the latest and greatest HD cameras available for video conferencing/telepresence applications.

SONY EVI-HD1

Built upon the great success of the EVI-D70 and EVI-D100, Sony’s first high-definition EVI robotic camera was designed for videoconferencing, distance learning, houses of worship and corporate training. This single chip-based, pan/  tilt /zoom camera features multi-format capabilities to output both standard- and high-definition video so users can easily migrate from standard-definition to HD.

The new EVI-HD1 model uses a 1080i CMOS sensor that delivers exceptional high-definition resolution in 720p, 1080i or 1080p. The camera can be used with compatible codec’s and systems from other manufacturers, due to its ability to output standard-definition video (YC and composite), high-definition analog component (Y, Pub, Pr) or digital HD-SDI. For companies outfitting conference rooms with 16:9 widescreen displays, the EVI-HD1 camera outputs 16:9 images in 480i or HD formats. The camera also incorporates a 10x optical zoom lens with a 70-degree horizontal field of view and is equipped with high-torque, high-speed direct drive motors that enable smooth, fast and quiet pan/ tilt  operations, making it ideal for conference rooms and courtrooms.

The camera’s pan/ tilt /zoom controls can be operated by an easy-to-use supplied IR Remote Commander® unit or via the RS-232C interface (VISCA(TM) protocol) with a host of commercially available controllers. The EVI-HD1 can also be controlled from an optional RM-BR300 Remote Control Unit. The ergonomically designed joystick and feature-rich control panel of the RM-BR300 provide superb operability in various remote video-shooting applications.

BRC SERIES

The Sony BRC Series consists of three revolutionary Pan/ Tilt /Zoom (PTZ) color video cameras, each especially designed for remote video shooting applications. Both the BRC-H700 and BRC-300 have already been highly successful worldwide, satisfying user needs for high-definition (HD) and standard-definition (SD) applications, respectively.

With a number of useful features and excellent picture quality, the BRC Series is ideal for a variety of remote video shooting applications, such as in houses of worship, auditoriums, teaching hospitals, corporate boardrooms, and at sporting events, trade shows, and concerts. Furthermore, it is an excellent choice for broadcast applications, such as the recording of television programs or as a weather camera. Since the BRC Series consists of three cameras each with specific benefits, users can choose the most appropriate solution for their specific application needs.

The Sony high definition BRC-H700 offers high picture quality and high sensitivity with three 1/3-type HD CCDs and a resolution of 1,120,000 total pixels. It is ideal for users demanding extremely clear HD images with great detail, and because of its high sensitivity, it can be operated in shooting environments without ideal lighting. Furthermore, it has the widest viewing angle in the BRC Series, allowing users to capture wide areas of a scene such as audiences at concerts or in auditoriums.

The Sony standard-definition BRC-300 incorporates three 1/4.7-type Advanced HADTM CCD sensors with a total of 1,070,000 pixels. It is an ideal camera for cost-effective SD applications – and it can capture images in both 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratios, the latter offering a wider viewing angle. Furthermore, the BRC-300 is the smallest camera in the BRC Series, making it ideal in environments that require the camera to be positioned unobtrusively.

Sony also recently introduced the new HD/SD BRC-Z700, equipped with three 1/4-type HD ClearVidTM CMOS Sensors. This camera is both HD and SD capable, enabling versatile operations and allowing users to easily migrate from SD to HD picture quality. What’s more, the BRC-Z700 incorporates a newly designed smooth PTZ mechanism for precise camera control.

On display at the Sony booth last week, the BRC-H700 and BRC-Z700 gave visitors an inside look into why these two cameras are rapidly becoming the true leaders in the High Definition Video Conferencing/ Telepresence world:

  • The BRC-H700 and BRC-Z700 each have sixteen presets (BRC-300 has six presets) to which predefined Pan/ Tilt /Zoom positions and other parameters can be allocated. These presets can be recalled at the touch of a button to easily capture video from pre-specified areas. They can also be controlled from either the supplied IR Remote Commander(TM) Unit or optional RM-BR300 Remote Control Unit. The ergonomically designed joystick and feature-rich control panel of the RM-BR300 provide superb operability in various remote video-shooting applications
  • Users can transmit uncompressed digital data including external sync and camera control signals via an optical multiplex unit such as the BRU-H700 and BRU-300. With only a single cable connection between the camera and the HD optical multiplex unit, the system is extremely easy to install.
  • Flexibility
    • Third party switchers and multiplexers work very well with the BRC cameras.
    • Sierra Video Systems and AMX switchers and multiplexers were on display at the show and work very well with the BRC cameras.
    • Sony adaptor cards are available or third party adaptor cards can be used to accommodate the user’s video interface
  • Users can run fiber cables up to:
    • 500 meters in length for the BRC-300 and
    • 1000 meters in length for both the BRC-H700 and BRC-Z700.

With everything the Sony BRC series of industrial cameras has to offer not only for HD Video Conferencing/ Telepresence but for a plethora of other applications, an increasing number of people are beginning to integrate these cameras into their current video conferencing set-ups. The new HD cameras from Sony are changing the dynamics of video conferencing due to the drastically improved picture quality one sees when moving from standard definition to high definition.

Another reason to consider moving to a Sony HD camera is the impending mandatory change of broadcasting from analog to digital in 2009. Due to this change in technology, it may prove beneficial for users to begin looking at their current technologies early enough to assess where they need/want to be in conjunction with what they have to do in order to get there. Displays are quickly moving towards HD-capable which could leave analog users in a bind if they do not follow suit with compatible equipment. Whether it be purchasing an analog to digital converter box or replacing the company’s analog equipment with HD, the fact remains that technology is moving forward and those who sit up and take notice will be the ones to succeed over the competition.

How To Buy A Rectangle Shade Sail

A rectangle shade sail or multiple units can transform any outdoor setting into an architectural extravaganza. Rectangle shade sails also known as, sun sails can be made from a variety of fabrics including shade cloth, Textiline, Sunbrella or a variety of other light weight durable fabrics. Rectangle sun sails are best when manufactured from a UV resistant fabric such as shade cloth or Sunbrella. Properly installed rectangular sunshades should not flap in the wind and should be very taut between fixing points. Furthermore, a centenary curve is also needed in order for the sail to not sag in the middle.

Rectangular shade sails can be purchased in variety of colors and sizes as well as custom made. Typical sizes that are commonly found when you buy shade sails online include 12X8, 12X14, 12X16 or 12X18 or even greater. Custom made rectangle sun shades can be made to whatever size that you need. It is not recommended to go very narrow as you will not end up with any shade after you factor in the necessary inward curve that is designed with each sail.

Before you purchase any rectangle sails online you should look at other factors such as the construction of the sail as well as the materials that are being used. Look for rectangle sails that are made from heavy-duty fabric such as a Sunbrella type fabric or anything equivalent of Coolaroo Commercial 95. There are many fabrics on the market that are as good or better than the Coolaroo fabric such as Synthesis 95, Cooltrashade or Monotec 370, which is considered the best in the industry. Less expensive shade sails do not normally use UV treated thread. Look for sun sails that are made with UV treated awning thread. Tenara Gore Tex is considered to be the best in the awning industry. This thread has a 8 year factory warranty. Inferior awning threads will disintegrate and leave your sail virtually useless.

Heavy-Duty Rectangular sunshades when installed properly can withstand 90 mph winds or higher. Sails for shade should be installed onto steel or wooden posts. Steel posts are preferred if you are looking to qualify for wind ratings required by city code when commercial or residential shade sails are installed. Your footings should be equivalent to one third of the entire post length. Therefore a 12 foot post should be installed about 4 feet into the ground with a hole diameter of about 24 inches. Be sure to use 3500 psi or greater Portland cement to ensure a proper install.

Rectangle shade sails can be arranged in a variety of ways. Use your imagination when trying to determine how you want your sail set up to look. Rectangular sunshades should be installed at a variety of heights in order to get the proper look. They do provide additional shade benefit over triangle shade sails. Rectangle shade for sun when installed properly will last for a very long time and will ultimately provide the best protection against the suns harmful UV rays for your family, yourself and your property.

French Doors

French patio doors are available in many styles, colors and materials. A French door, is sometimes also referred as French window. It is a door which has multiple windows set into it along the full length of the door. The main purpose of this structure is to allow maximum light inside the rooms.

Traditional French doors are put together from distinct and unique small pieces of glass and mullions. Special variety of French doors that are constructed of double-pane glass sometimes has grills and designs as decorations embedded between the panes. The decorative grills especially in wrought iron are sometimes found to be placed on top of single pane of glass in the door.

Now French doors can be custom made according to personal taste using different ideas and fusion of wood, wrought iron, or more specifically from maple wood to cherry stain or fiberglass; using glass walls, exactly as per the demand of the customer.

French door can be chosen for the main entry door constructed in solid wood and fiberglass. It can also be chosen to bring in the beauty and sunshine of the outside inside the room. If you have a beautiful view of children’s park or a swimming pool outside; install a glass French door and admire it whenever you want. If you want to enjoy the sun but avoid the chilly wind outside, or you want to brighten up your home with beams of sunlight; French door is the right option for you. Use you imagination the possibilities are endless.

The immense popularity of the French Doors is due to its flexibility and design and the available options for min ‘n’ match. There are several varieties of French Doors. It can be a monolithic solid door or have one side stationary and the other side swing in and out. It can also have both sides sliding in glass French doors or may be one side fixed and the other side sliding, or a folding French door [http://www.nanawallsystems.com/folding_doors.html].

No matter how you want your French Door to be and in whatever choice in materials, you will find that most doors are well insulated and assembled to make it comfortable in their use.

Hazard Warning Symbols and Their Meanings

There are many different signs and symbols that are used to identify containers and areas that are a hazard to your health. From construction sites to household cleaners, these signs contain the symbols that allow you to readily recognize them and to avoid the hazards that they pose if not handled properly. The use of these signs is regulated by organizations that enforce the proper handling and protection, thus the symbols are uniform with some difference in backgrounds or colors to specify the particular hazard.

Perhaps the most common hazard sign is the skull and crossbones. Historically this sign has been a symbol for the indication of poison. Over the years, however, the symbol has also come to stand for a generic meaning of lethal hazards. The skull and crossbones can often still be found on many containers as an indication that the contents can be fatal if ingested, inhaled or improperly mixed with other hazardous substances.

Resembling the blades of a black fan on a yellow background is the symbol that is placed on signs where there is danger of radiation. Although radiation is successfully used to treat cancer patients, it is a hazard to people and protective clothing must be worn in areas where radiation is used to avoid injury to healthy parts of the body. This symbol can be found in plain black and white and well and carries the same meaning and warning indications.

Biohazard risks are identified by a symbol that is three interwoven arcs with a bell shape in the middle. This sign can be black with a yellow background or black and white and is representative of those substances and areas that are biochemical hazards that can be transmitted through the air or by contact with the skin.

High voltage is often present when storms created downed power lines. Power centers are the source of a great deal of electricity and should be respected as such. Construction sites can also have high voltage areas when there is a need for electricity to power the site. This symbol puts one in mind of a lightning bolt or a staggered exclamation point.

Warning signs can be posted for many different hazards since they tend to have a generic meaning. The hazard can be anything from a falling debris alert to slippery pavement and beyond. A simple exclamation point inside a triangle is the symbol that alerts all who see it to the possibility of a hazard or danger.

Chemical hazards are also identified by a hazard symbol placed on the container or signage in the vicinity. Although the standards differ depending on the location, there is uniformity within the various countries on how such listing are made. In the U.S., a diamond shape with four partitions. The degree of the hazard is defined in the categories which are specific to flammability, health risks, reactivity and hazard details.

There are many other hazard sign symbols that are used and it is important to understand what these symbols me. As a rule, however, if you are unsure of what a symbol means, you should move away from the area as soon as possible.

4 Common Types of Rhinoplasty

There are many reasons that people choose to undergo rhinoplasty. For instance, people consider nose jobs to reshape their nose – whether reducing the size, or adding size to it – and to repair damage caused by trauma. Yet, in general, there are four common types of rhinoplasty: Reduction, augmentation, ethnic and post-traumatic rhinoplasties.

Do you know which type you’re considering? You likely have a general idea of what you would like to accomplish with nasal surgery. But understanding the different types will help you weigh your options. Here’s a quick look at the four most common types:

1. Reduction Rhinoplasty

The majority of patients seeking rhinoplasty want to decrease the size of their nose, whether the length of the bridge, the size of the tip, or the width of the bridge. Most commonly reduction rhinoplasty addresses bumps on the bridge of the nose, as well as decreasing the width of the nasal bridge. When your goal is to reduce specific areas of the nose, you will first meet with your rhinoplasty surgeon to discuss your options. Then, your surgeon will develop a surgical plan that’s designed to meet your expectations.

2. Augmentation Rhinoplasty

Another common reason patients seek a nose job is to increase dimensions of the nose. For example, a patient may opt for this type of procedure to widen the bridge of the nose, or to increase the projection of the tip. Augmentation is usually required when the nose has underdeveloped congenitally, or when injury has caused underdevelopment. Typically, cartilage from the nose can be used to build up the nasal structure, yet sometimes cartilage must be grafted.

3. Ethnic Rhinoplasty

Ethnic rhinoplasty is a term that’s widely used to describe a nose job that specific population groups undergo to revise their natural nasal profile. For example, some Far Eastern and Afro-Cuban populations seek a nose job to adjust a softer nasal contour, a wider bridge, or a narrower bridge of the nose, which may be a common genetic trait shared by the population. This requires precision and skill to properly balance the nose to achieve natural-looking facial symmetry, and it’s best to find a surgeon with advanced training and specialization in ethnic rhinoplasty.

4. Post-Traumatic Rhinoplasty

The nose is one of the most commonly broken bones, and following an injury to the nose, the resulting damage to the cartilage and bones can alter one’s appearance. Rhinoplasty is commonly performed to repair damage caused by traumatic injury. In many cases, a nose job isn’t required, as the nose can be set non-surgically up to a week following the injury. Yet, if the nose isn’t set quickly enough, surgery is often the only option for reversing the damage. One reason: Bleeding caused by trauma can cause clotting within the nose, which can kill the cartilage. This loss of cartilage can cause deformation – a condition that’s sometimes called “boxer nose,” which requires surgery to repair.

Introducing Assemblies

 Assemblies  are primary building blocks of Microsoft .NET framework. Every application in .NET Framework is  assembly .  Assemblies  are single block of code that contains all the information about the implementation of classes, structures and interfaces. Every  assembly  contains metadata called Manifest. It includes the name and version number of the  assembly , security information, information about the dependencies, and a list of the resources that constitute the  assembly . Hence an  assembly  is partially compiled .NET code.

An  assembly  is self descriptive and consists of:

* Manifest: It contains metadata information such as name, version, culture, resources, referenced  assemblies  and security requirements. In single file  assembly  the manifest is incorporated into the PE but with multi file  assembly  a standalone manifest file can exist or the manifest incorporated into one of the PE files in the  assembly .

* MSIL: It is Microsoft Intermediate Language Code. It gets generated when you compile an application by using the .NET compiler.

* Required Resources: These include the resource files for the application.

 Assemblies  are of two types:

1. Private  Assemblies 

2. Shared  Assemblies 

A private  assembly  is used by only one application while a shared  assembly  is shared amongst different applications. By default an  assembly  is private. Private  assemblies  are always placed in same folder in which application resides. Private  assemblies  are intended to be used for single application. And this frees the developer from naming and versioning issues.

But the shared  assemblies  available on a system are stored in the Global  Assembly  Cache. It is the central storage of shared  assemblies .

This store is located in the :WindowsAssembly folder. Private  assemblies  are used by one application only; they do not have versioning or identity issues. But due to common location the shared  assemblies  must be unique, combination of a file name, a public key, a version number and culture (locale details) gives an  assembly  a strong name, which is guaranteed to be unique.

 Assembly  Benefits – Many deployment problems have been solved by the use of  assemblies  in the .NET Framework.

Microsoft introduced the concept of  Assemblies  simplifying the application design and deployment. These are self-describing components that have no dependencies on registry entries,  assemblies  enable zero-impact application installation.

 Assemblies  have ability to store and execute multiple versions of an application or component on the same computer. You can have multiple versions of the runtime, and multiple versions of applications and components that use a version of the runtime, on the same computer at the same time. Side-by-side execution gives you more control over what versions of a component an application binds to, and more control over what version of the runtime an application uses.

All managed code in the common language runtime receives the benefits of code access security. Basically, Code access security allows code to be trusted to varying degrees depending on where the code originates and on other aspects of the code’s identity. This allows the trusted code to execute. Using code access security, you can specify the set of operations your code should be allowed to perform as well as the operations your code should never be allowed to perform.

Guidelines for Mounting Accelerometers

Accelerometers measure shock and vibration by providing an output signal proportional to the object to which it is attached. There are many methods of attaching accelerometers (magnetic, tape, epoxy and studs/screws). Where possible and practical, screw or stud mounting is preferred because this method provides the stiffest connection with the object under test. Accelerometers manufactured with holes or flanges for screw/stud mounting provide end users with the most effective way of attaching these sensors to obtain best quality of data possible. However, even the most experienced users end up with bad data because they forget or ignore one or more of the basic mounting guidelines below.

1. The mass of the accelerometer must be <1/10 of the mass of the object under study.

2. Mounting surfaces need to be clean, free of any residue from epoxies, waxes, paint or other foreign materials.

3. Mounting surface should be flat.

4. The surface roughness of mating surfaces should be 32 micro-inches RMS (MAX).

5. The mounting holes need to be perpendicular – within 1 degree.

6. The mounting hole must be checked to ensure it is longer than the mounting screw so as to prevent “bottoming out”.

7. Use a torque wrench for tightening screws to the manufacturer’s specifications. Do not use electric tools as their frequencies may damage the accelerometer.

8. Spread mating surface with a light coating of silicone grease, heavy machine oil or bees wax to ensure contact is secure thereby maximizing the usable frequency range.

9. Secure the cable using clamps, o-rings, tape or other materials most suited to the application. Ensure that you have sufficient slack to allow for free movement of the sensor.

10. Inspect mounting holes and remove any debris, burrs or other foreign materials.

There are many applications where holes cannot be drilled into the structure or the design of the accelerometer does not allow for screw/stud mounting. In these instances, adhesive solutions are the most practical. For best performance, end users suggest using cyanoacrylate adhesives – a generic name for methyl-2-cyanoacrylate, which can be purchased under such trademarks as Super Glue, Loctite® or Krazy Glue®. Another form, 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (trade name Dermabond®), has many medical uses and causes less irritation to one’s skin than methyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Cyanoacrylate sets in less than 60 seconds, with full strength reached in two hours. For temporary installation, it is recommended to use hot glue bees wax or double-sided tape

The guidelines below are suggested when using adhesives to mount accelerometers.

1. Mounting surfaces must be clean and free of any residue from epoxies, waxes, paint or other foreign materials.

2. The mounting surface should be flat and even.

3. Prolonged inhalation of vapors can be harmful!

4. Avoid contact with your skin.

5. Use acetone to soften cured cyanoacrylate for accelerometer removal.

6. Cyanoacrylate is available for temperature ranges from -18° C through 125° C.

7. Use the thinnest layer of cyanoacrylate possible for best frequency response.

8. Exposure to moisture in the air causes cyanoacrylate to set. Store the material in an airtight container with a package of silica gel.

9. Use a razor blade to remove the accelerometer after the cyanoacrylate has been softened by acetone. Prying the sensor loose with a screwdriver may damage the sensor unit.

Cordless Impact Wrench Designs and Information

What is a Cordless Impact Wrench?

A cordless impact wrench is most usually a battery powered tool designed to tighten a nut or other fixing, although other varieties do exist. An impact wrench works by using a motor to spin a mass inside the tool called a hammer. The hammer stores energy which is rapidly transferred to the drive shaft of the tool, which is called the anvil. The power transfer occurs very fast and is deliberately intermittent. Peak torque can be very high, but as this transfer process only occurs for a short period of time very little of the energy makes its way back to the tools operator.

What Designs are Available?

The usual design for a light industrial cordless impact wrench is very similar to that used in automotive designs. That is to say that it is a small torque gun style of product. The difference between a battery powered tool and one powered by compressed air comes from the fact that the power comes from a batter inserted into the base of the handle, rather than a compressed air line.

These pistol style impact wrenches are the more powerful of the cordless designs available, but for jobs where access is limited they can be too bulky to use and so another format is required.

Angle head cordless impact wrenches are used where there is a desire for mobility and increased flexibility of use. A typical tool in this class can offer a number of head positions, not just 90 degrees and so can be used in a variety of positions as demanded by the work environment.

What are the Advantages of a Cordless Impact Wrench?

Cordless power tools are generally less powerful that their corded cousins, there is no denying it, but the gain in flexibility of use is great. If work is to occur at a distance from a power source then a cordless tool is a huge help as all that is required is a few batteries and work can continue with minimal disruption.

Cordless impact wrenches are also safer in the workplace as they leave no dangling cables to trip over.

Angle head tools are designed for ease of use in tight working environments and generally come with their own LED lights as natural light is often restricted in these cramped environments. While these tools lack the power of more conventional pistol grip designs they do have exception reach due to their elongated design and narrow heads. The can be excellent additions to an automotive workshop for this reason alone.

While cordless impact wrenches will never replace heavier industrial units in terms of power there is no doubt that they do offer increased flexibility of working. Surely any workplace that values safety of the workforce should consider replacing old cabled tools with a safer alternative that is a cordless impact wrench?