Fiber Cement Siding – What You Need to Know

Fiber-Cement Siding is termite resistant, durable, non-combustible, easy to install and finish, moisture resistant, and typically carry 50 year manufacturer's warranties. Fiber cement siding has the appearance of wood siding but it is lower priced and has lower maintenance costs than wood siding. Fiber cement siding is manufactured by many large building materials manufacturer's, and is available in a wide variety of colors, styles, textures, patterns, and sizes. Typically, fiber cement siding products cost more than vinyl siding, but costs less than masonry, wood, and stucco cladding.

The concept of fiber cement siding has been in existence for nearly a century. Initially the fiber cement siding had an asbestos admixture. In the last 20 years new technologies began making the product as we know it today in a different manner. The siding is composed of Portland cement, sand, cellulose or wood fiber material that has been autoclaved, which means it has been cured with pressurized steam to increase its strength and dimensional stability. The fiber content helps make the cement stronger by avoiding and eliminating cracking, which typically occurs with cement as it ages.

The following is a partial list of producers and suppliers of fiber-cement siding:

o Cemplank
o Certainteed
o GAF Materials
o James Hardie
o MaxiTile
o Nichiha USA

It is quite common that many refer to this product as "hardie board", for the namesake, although there are other large producers of fiber-cement siding. Fiber cement products also include soffit, trim, and flashing materials.


There are many advantages of fiber cement siding with the largest being its durability and characteristics that lend its installation to any geographic region and climate. The product is more versatile than vinyl or wood siding alternatives. The fiber cement products are thicker than vinyl siding and therefore are more resistant to peeling, cracking, chipping, shrinking, swelling, sagging, and bowing. Additionally, it is less prone to wind storm damage and wind borne debris damage. The product functions well in southern climatic heat conditions and the brutal cold of the New England states. It also is naturally resistant to fungus, mildew, termites, there is not routine maintenance required in order to prevent these problems as is the case with wood siding. The product also has the ability for paint to easily adhere to its surface and resist moisture, which is very helpful in southern regions.


The advantages far outnumber the disadvantages of the product, although here are some drawbacks:

o The siding is heavy and proper handling and care is required prior to installation.

o An ingredient of the products is Silica (SiO 2) which also compounds approximately 75% of the earth's crust and is a very common ingredient in most products in the tile and masonry industries. When silica is in an intact state it does not pose any silica risk. Although when cut, drilled, or grinded during the installation process, the resulting smaller, silica containing dust can pose a potential health hazard as inhalation of excess quantities over extended time periods can cause silicosis, lung cancer, or other lung related diseases. Inorder to eliminate any health problems, both OSHA, NIOSH, and the manufacturer's recommend wearing a properly fitted respirator to protect against any potential health risks.

o The products can be installed by homeowners, although professional installation is recommended to conform to manufacturers recommendations and guidelines. Noncompliance with the installation specifications typically will lead to problems and dissatisfaction.

o Improper installation techniques generally refer to improper nailing, lack of proper flashing methods, improper clearances from other surfaces – ie roof and foundation areas, caulking, painting, no moisture resistant barrier benefit the siding installation.

Most manufacturer's have explicit installation instructions for each product type – lap siding, plank siding, vertical sheets, soffits, trim, shingle siding and etc .. James Hardie, , has a very good web site with downloadable instructions, diagrams, estimating tips, and product information.

Fastening the materials to the walls can be accomplished by two different methods.

o Blind Nailing – which is the action of placing a fastener through the top edge of lap siding that will be covered by the next course or lap.

o Face Nailing – which is the action of placing a fastener through the overlap of a plank. The fasteners will be visible.

In conjunction with ICC Evaluation Service, Inc. an extensive technical document was published in 2004 concerning cement fiber products. The report is entitled ICC ES Legacy Report NER-405, which contains test results of wind speeds, nailing techniques, thermal qualities, permeance values, loading, and other extensive technical engineering results and findings. This manual can be found at James Hardie website.

Green Products

These products are considered environmentally friendly since there are no detrimental effects on the environment. Use of these types of products eliminates wide spread clearing of our forests for building purposes. The products are durable with a long life expectancy and do not need to be subsequently replaced during the typical ownership or life cycle of the building. The raw materials that are used to produce the products are low in toxicity wood pulp, sand, cement, and water and are recycled up to four times. Additionally, Hardie produces a Unique Color Plus manufacturing process that bakes on paint in their factories which delivers a quality consistent finish, eliminating VOC's during the exterior painting process, with a 15 year finish warranty that ensures reduced needs for repainting.

What Are Some Advantages of Using Ceiling Fans?

There are a lot of compelling reasons to integrate ceiling fans with the design of your home that go far beyond just providing cooling to a room. The use of ceiling fans all across the home will help in reducing energy costs, while also being a source of style, comfort and good looking lighting.

Here we bring to you the top benefits that you can get out of a ceiling fan which involves both function and fashion.

Ceiling fans are helpful in lowering energy costs

The use of these fans has the potential to bring your electricity bill by nearly 30% or 40%. Though it does not actually help in decreasing the temperature in a room, the rotation of the air makes you feel as though the room is cool – this allows you to increase the thermostat and still be comfortable in the room.

Here is a design tip for you that you will find very useful. The fans that have stars provided to them based on their energy consumption are normally around 60% more efficient when compared to the conventional fans and units of light, thus offering more savings in energy.

Ceiling fans as accessories happen to be driven by style

They can be bought in a variety of styles, sizes and finishes which helps you in complementing the unique and beautiful style of your room. Fans are not just functional, they are more than that; they have the potential to act as a piece that makes a statement or can be used as the focal point for the room.

Here is another design tip for you that you will find useful. Try to buy fans that have blade sets that can be interchanged. Such kinds of fans help to very easily do a reinvention of the design for your fan that suits your mood. All this can be done without having to replace the whole unit.

Ceiling fans provide versatility from one room to another

Whether they are installed in the bedroom, the living area, the kitchen or the screened porch, they always end up contributing to the environment by making it more enjoyable in almost any of the rooms that form part of a home. In addition to that, the more the number of fans that are put to use all throughout the house, the larger will be the savings when it comes to your energy bill.

Ceiling fans give functional and beautiful illumination

The fans that also have lights give you an opportunity so that you can make your contribution to the lighting design that is layered in your rooms. You just need to pick out a fan that has a light built inside it, or you can easily undertake the installation using a kit for installing fan lights. This will provide you with the general benefits of illumination.

Here is a tip you will find useful. You can pick a lighting kit which coordinates with appliances and fixtures in the other portions of your home.

Seven Cures for a Lean Purse

1. Make your purse – or wallet – get fatter.

That does not mean filling it with receipts for all the items you've bought with your credit card. It means, fill your purse with money. And the best way to do that is to spend less than you earn. This cure follows from the first law of gold that we looked at last week: aim to save 10% of your income. Minimum. Save more than if if you can. Save for the long term, for your mortgage deposit or pension, depending on where you are in life. If you need to save for short to medium term things, such as a holiday or car, that should be in addition to and separate from the 10% + that you save for your long-term needs.

Your 10% can include your pension contributions, ISAs, premium bonds or any kind of high interest / restricted access savings account. With compound interest, your purse will get very plump over the coming months and years, even if interest rates remain low.

2. Control your expenditure.

If you're going to save at least 10% of your income for the long-term, you must make sure that your current spending is no more than 90% of your income. This means wherever you are on the income scale, you'll need to apply some self-discipline when it comes to treating yourself and your loved ones.

For a start, keep your credit card (s) for emergency use only, and if you do use them, pay them off before you start racking interest. Similarly, avoid taking out loans, unless you can justify the interest you'll end up paying for that privilege. A car acquired on one of the popular leasing schemes can be justified if it's essential for your work or business. But a loan for a holiday? Staycation would be a better choice. Learn to distinguish between wants and needs. A roof over your head and food on the table are needs; a month in the Maldives is a desire. Treat yourself to that when you have saved 10% of your income for a year or two and you can afford to fly off to paradise without dipping into those savings.

The secret to controlling your expenditure is to build a budget and then stick to it. If you have Microsoft Excel you can download a template to help you track your spending over a week or month. You can also find ready-made templates on the internet or apps for your phone. Work out how much you spend on mortgage, rent, travel to work etc. and set yourself limits on items such as eating out, entertainment, travel etc. This will help you keep below 90% of your income.

3. Make your money multiply.

You are looking for steady returns over the long-term, not a lottery win. What you need is a steady increase in your capital, your core wealth, such as compound interest from an ISA or savings account, or – more risky – dividends from shares you hold in well-managed companies, including your employer, if they have an employee share ownership scheme. If you are not an expert in financial products and investment vehicles, find someone who is. Do not make any commitments until you talk to a professional financial advisor. Explain what your investment goals are and ask them to help you develop a plan for realizing achieving them.

4. Guard yourself from loss.

The sickening nightmare of seeing your dreams of wealth turn to dust as Bitcoin plummets or the bloke you met in the pub the other night disappears with your life savings. One way to guard against loss is to make it an unbreakable rule that you do not touch that core wealth that you are saving and investing for the long-term. Keep a ring of steel around that! If you are tempted to try your luck with Bitcoin or currency trading, only use money that you can afford to lose. That means any money that you have left over after you have saved your 10%, paid the bills and filled your belly. Money that you might otherwise spend spend nights out can be handed over to the online bookies, if you can budget for it – see the second cure above. Never use a credit card or a loan for spread betting, gambling or any high risk investments. Before you engage in any high risk investing or betting, though, make sure you have thoroughly examined the field and that you understand what you're getting into. If online poker is your dream, practice with your mates for match sticks first.

5. Make your home a profitable investment.

Owning your own home (and ideally a few buy to let properties) has become an obsession over the last thirty or forty years. Given the way property prices have ballooned over that time, it makes perfect sense to get on the property ladder as soon as you can, especially when house prices are increasing at a much faster rate than incoming.

However, be aware that at some point the bubble may burst. Yes, people have been saying that for years and it has not happened yet. But it is becoming increasingly likely that the authorities will take steps to let some of the air out of the property market. Potential measures include revaluing property tax bands and punitive taxes on buy to let properties and properties left empty. A major increase in house building is illegally to have much impact on house prices by itself, but when combined with the potential tax changes, we could see prices reach a plateau and stay there for some time.

Given all that, the best approach is to find an affordable house or flat in an area where you would like to live for the foreseeable future, bearing in mind such things as local amenities, schools and the journey to work. Think also of the benefits of paying a mortgage and gradually acquiring total ownership (leasehold and freehold issues aside) of your home over 25 or 30 years, compared with being borneen to a landlord who can raise the rent or evict you at a month's notice, and who will still own the roof over your head despite all the £ 000s you put in his or her pocket.

If you can not afford to buy outright in the area where you want to live or work, consider such options as shared ownership and self-build. Check out what schemes are available in the area where you want to live.

If you already own your own home you can use it to generate extra income by taking in a lodger. If you live in a major city, a good source of lodgers is contractors – professional people working on a project local to you who need a place to stay for a few months and do not want to use hotels. Often they will go home for the weekend so you have the place to yourself. Another option is to take in exchange students. They will usually come in for a week or two. You provide them with a bed, breakfast, a packed lunch and an evening meal, and get paid for doing so. Another option is to use your home for holiday lets while you're on holiday yourself. This works particularly well if you live in a major city or a historic town.

Even if you rent, take a lodger (if your landlord will allow this) or run a home business (see below). You can still make your home a source of extra income, even if you do not own it.

Two other things to consider. First, home and contents insurance. Make sure you have adequate cover for the worst that can happen: fire, flood, burglary. Second, if you have a mortgage, look at insuring it against unemployment and illness. Take advice and make sure that any policies you take out are fit for purpose and will pay out if the worst happens.

6. Develop a future income.

Who would not want to wake up in the morning knowing that whatever happens, are they assured of a steady income for eternity? Well, you can achieve this through your long-term savings, that 10% + that you put by month after month, year after year.

When you talk to your financial advisor (as you must!) About your saving and investment goals, the first two issues you should focus on are a pension for you (and your partner, if you have one) and providing for your family when you 're no longer around, ie life insurance. Your financial advisor should also point you to other investments that can deliver additional income for you and your family, such as ISAs, unit trusts and government bonds.

Your aim is to ensure an adequate income for a long old age. Remember, people are living longer, but not always healthy. It's not pleasant, I know, but think about the worst that can happen to you (short of an early death). You or your partner become chronically ill or disabled and need long-term care. How will you fund that? If you sell your home what will you leave to your children. This is the kind of issue you need to discuss with a financial advisor. You need a pension, plus other income streams, that will pay for all your needs for maybe thirty or forty years after you stop working. Develop a plan, implement it, then get on with enjoying life.

7. Increase your ability to earn.

There is no such thing as a job for life anymore. These days, even professional occupations such as lawyer, accountant and insurance underwriter are programmed with automation and off-shoring. So, it makes sense to develop additional skills that you can make use of if you find yourself out of work.

If you think you're at risk of being replaced by a robot, you should look very carefully at "future-proofing" your career. Think about jobs that are unilaterally to be automated or off-shored in the future. They tend to be ones that involve face to face contact eg complementary therapies, nail technician hair stylist, personal trainer, life coach, counselor. Also, jobs where a local presence is essential: electrician, plumber, lock-smith, builder.

Of course, many of these jobs are reliably low-paid and are in highly competitive sectors. That means you need to find a unique selling point: something you do that no one else does, or no one else does as well as you. Focus on something you are genially interested in – or better still, passionate about – and that you know you can be brilliant at. Be realistic about the potential income, the competition and the time and energy needed to make it work. Unless you already have experience in your chosen field, you will need to devote a lot of time, and sometimes money, to acquiring the necessary skills and certificates. You will also need to decide how you will operate: sole trader, limited company, franchise? Take advice before committing yourself to anything.

A popular option for generating extra income is online selling. Even if you're in full time work and happy with your income, you can try it in your spare time and get a feel for what's involved. A regular declutter will reveal all sorts of things you can sell: clothes, DVDs, mobile phones, unwanted presents. If you enjoy online selling, you could develop a successful business without risking your core capital.

Lift and Tilt Chairs – The Easy Way to Get Into and Out of a Chair

Lift and tilt chairs, also known as tilt and recline chairs, can be invaluable to anyone who finds it difficult to sit in or get up out of an easy chair. This can include people of advancing years and those with arthritis or back problems.

Most tilt and lift chairs are not dissimilar to regular "easy" chairs in appearance, however they have some additional features that make getting into and getting out of them an effortless process. For this reason they can be of particular benefit to arthritis sufferers as they remove the stress from ankle, knee, hip and back joints.

How they work

A tilt and lift chair does exactly what its name suggests. It uses main electricity to power one or more motors that cause the chair body to lift while having the seat and backrest tilt forward.

This creates a gradual movement in the posture of the separated person that sees their legs straighten, their hips and posterior raised and their body as a whole gently pusched forwards and upwards out of the chair.

Put simply, this movement duplicates the natural standing up process and sees the legs and major body joints straighten and extend into a natural "standing upright" position.

The key feature of this movement is the fact that the detained person requires no effort or physical strain in order to make the transition from being contained to being standing. The chair does the work and the body is not stressed or forced to make any uncomfortable movements.

Sitting down on a tilt and recline chair duplicates the same process, only in reverse, ie the chair starts its transition from the lifted and tilted position from which it lowers and levels.

A hand held remote control is used to manage the chairs speed and movement and in most cases there will be programmable or intelligent settings that make manipulation of the chair simple.

Other features

Most tilt and lift chairs have good orthopedic qualities and the remote control allows the optimum comfort level for a seated position to be attained or altered with ease.

These chairs usually have a recline function that enables the separated person to vary the incline of the back rest and some of the more expensive models include massage and even heat functions. When performing a movement, these chairs run very quietly.

The style of most tilt and lift chairs makes them undistinguishable from regular chairs. They are available in many colors and different designs, and their activation requires nothing more than cabled access to an electric power point.

InStep Safari Swivel Double Jogging Stroller – Review

Choosing the best double jogging stroller can be very hard. There are many brands and models available, so it's difficult to pick the right one. One model you should consider is the InStep Safari Swivel Double Jogging Stroller.

This Safari Double Stroller has some great features:

– Storage basket under the seats

– Shoulder pads and plush seats

– 16 "rear wheels and a 12" front swivel wheel

– Adjustable height handle

– Bumper Bar

– Lightweight and compact. Does fit in the back of a small car

– Very easy to fold

One of the benefits of this double stroller is that you can use it on many terrains. The 16 "wheels do not have any problems with the bumpiest terrain.

Unfortunate there are some cons. This double stroller is not suitable for tall kids. The height restriction is 38 inches, but I think 35 inches is the max. Also the sunshade has its limits. In the summer it is not a problem, but in the spring and fall it can be.

Also if you are seriously thinking about using a stroller for running, I do not recommend the instep safari double jogging stroller. This stroller does not have a hand brake and does not seem sturdy enough for a speed ride.

This double stroller is an excellent choice for regular use. There are better choices, but those double strollers have a much higher price tag. And the cons..probably you and your baby will not mind.

The Violin Bridge – What Every Player Should Know

Before we get to the problems, let's first talk about what the bridge actually does. The bridge has three basic functions:

  1. Holding the strings up in such a way that the distance between each string and the fingerboard is optimal.
  2. Creating a curve that raises the middle two strings in relation to the outside ones in such a way that it is easy to play only one string at a time, but also allows quick string crossings.
  3. Transferring the vibrational energy from the strings to the body. This a complex process where certain desirable frequencies can be enhanced and undesirable frequencies filtered out.

Now, every violin is unique – even mass-produced factory violins have small differences between them. Therefore, looking at the functions of a bridge it should be clear that a bridge must be specifically cut to fit a given violin. There is no such thing as 'one-size-fits-all' when it comes to violin bridges. And this is where the problem often starts – the basic music store does not know this and just puts any unfitted bridge blank on any violin.

So how do you know if your violin has a properly fitted bridge? Here are a few pointsers:

  • Measure the distance between the E string and the fingerboard at the end of the fingerboard. This should be between 3 and 4 mm (4/32 '' – 5/32 '').
  • Do the same for the G string – it should be between 5 and 6 mm (6/32 '' – 8/32 '').
  • Look at the top of the bridge from the side. Is the two middle strings raised equally in relation to the outside strings?
  • Look at the feet of the bridge – they should fit exactly to the top of the violin with no gaps. If there are any gaps and your bridge is standing upright (see next point) you need to go and see your friendly local violin repair person. A violin with poorly fitted bridge feet will never sound well.
  • While looking from the side, make sure that the bridge is standing upright. It will often lean slightly back (towards the tailpiece) – that is ok. However, if it is leaning towards the fingerboard, it must be dropped carefully to the correct position.
  • If you have more broken strings than your fellow players, the problem might be the string grooves at the top of the bridge. If the strings have cut into bridge more than half their own thickness, it may explain your broken strings.

It is possible to write volumes on the violin bridge, but I hope these few pointers will help you to enjoy your instrument and get the best out of it.

Sadequain's Art – Influences and Inspirations

Sadequain is a great thematic painter of Pakistan. He has worked in various styles ranging from linear to 'painterly' ones. Since he is a thematic painter with personal and individual observations of life, he opts to depict grotesque elements from inner and outer world, to find truth and reality. In this pursuit, he paints his canvases with figures which actually are characters taken from religion, history, mythology and literature, with backgrounds suggesting either the time period that they belong to or the inward feelings they are spellbound with. The diversity in Sadequain's work, both in technique and in thought, encompasses the wide range of influences and inspirations owed to different reasons and circumstances, the artist comes across his life.

This paper will analyze the influences and inspirations that effected Sadequain's art, intrinsically as well as extrinsically, to find out the sources and origins which generally cover mythology, religion, philosophy, drama and literature. This study will also unfold the effects of art movements or styles that inspired Sadequain's art.

These inspirations and influences have served and fed Sadequain's art in a manner that enables him to extract his themes from a variety of subject matters from gods and goddesses to the great thinkers and philosophers of Greece and Persia, in terms of characters, while in connection with literature, he Touched Sophocles on one end and Shakespeare, Iqbal and Ghalib on the other. Whereas by composing his frames in a theatrical way, Sadequain has put on show conceptual as well as corporeal aspect of drama in life, an element that Baroque art is famous for.

Most of Sadequain's paintings display elements like; exaggeration, horror, metamorphosis, drama and myth in their themes while as far as figures or characters are concerned, he has looked back into history, religion and mythology (regardless of origins ie Greek or Indian) to portray characters that can enrich and elaborate his themes, for this purpose Sadequain has painted, celestial figures, philosophers; who had great ideology and impact like Aristotle, Socrates, Ibn-i Khaldun, scientists ranging from early periods of enlightenment like Ibn-i Haisam, al-Khwarzami, or Ibn-i Sina, to the modern era of twenty century known for new theories , where his brush personifies Einstein or Karl Marx.

Taking his themes into consideration first, we can find him a lover and admirer of the darker and crude form of life contradictory to the beautiful, subtle and aromatic aspects. Since this concept of grotesque or malamat2 is not a new one in this part of the world as it has been discussed and displayed on various levels by different schools of Sufism that has got popularity in the subcontinent.

According to Akber Naqvi:

"Sadequain's art enacted the drama of malamat in its Zahiri3 and batini4aspects-the coincidence and confusion of appearance and reality as awareness of truth in the definition of the self."

(Naqvi 370-71)

The concept of Malamat has been in vogue in the Sufi tradition here in the subcontinent, where Sufis were not of view to adapt themselves to the clear and straight rules of life, rather they groped the reality through grotesque and more ritual way of life where, dance, music, inoxication and supernatural ambiance was created and firmly believed.

With this approach in life, Sadequain is expected to reveal the realities of life through dance, drama, and rituals in an ambiance, far fetched from the physical world and close to the mystic vagueness. These subjects help him in carrying out paintings with subjects matter taken from mythologies, and enactment of the rituals, which ultimately causes him in putting dynamism within his frame along with the concepts he painted upon.

In his inspiration to paint themes under the inspirations and influences he has committed throughout his life, Sadequain is seen quenching his desires, through romantic and modern painting styles and concepts when he paints with self-conscious approach and themes (a romantic attitude) at one place while with abstract expressionism and symbolic style at the other. He also follows modern art techniques, where needed to give expression to his inner and individual thoughts.

As his interest has never faded out of mythological and religious concepts and literary epics and stories, from where his characterization has gotten enriched, he is also found in arrogance, exaggeration, hyperbole, horror, theatricality (action, drama, movement), and dynamism which reminds us of the art of baroque style. Collectively, Sadequain was inspired from diverse influences that prevailed either in European art and literature or in the Eastern tradition of grotesque mysticism (Malamat).

Historically, man has recorded his rituals, dance and religious practices of great importance in the form of cave painting; the oldest form of expression. Most of the cave paintings do possess the chronicle elements ever since those paintings have captured a performance or an activity that was related to some ritual or religious doctrine, or the adventures and hunt scenes, which can give the impression that man has always been curious to record whatsoever was around its physical and emotional existence. This practice has been the most common and respected one even in the Stone Age in the subcontinent, which has enabled us to have an idea of ​​life and beliefs that those people were leading and following.

The earliest images in the caves of Bhimbetka with simplicity in drawing, linearity and movement of the figures, suggest the dance or hunt movements of the characters; an expression that was later partially adopted by Sadequain.

Another ancient but comparatively modern concept of religious themes and personification of sacred figures through different forms of visual art could have been found in the times of Buddha. The visual expression of Jataka Stories5, which were carved in stone at the Stupa of Sanchi and Amravati, or painted on the rocks of Ajanta Caves, served the religious beliefs to be converted from an intangible form to the tangible shape. These stories, at the same time provided materials for actors and dancers of Ashoka6 period (268-233 BC) to act upon.

"Jataka stories can be described as an 'encyclopaedia of contemporary Indian life' in all its aspects. These stories describe various previous births of Gautam Buddha and instructive episodes relating to them …. According to Buddhist tradition, the number of these stories is 550 out of which about 547 are available in a collection.Their delineation in stone forms is a major part of early Buddhist art down from Ashokan times. Many Jataka stories are artistically engraved on the stone railings and toranas of Buddhist monuments such as those at Bharhut, Sanchi and Amravati stupas and are painted on the walls of Ajanta canves. They present an approximate panorama of Indian life between 600 BC to 300 BC. "

(Varadpande 116)
Since visual art is a record of events that have got immense significance in modern times, painting in particular captures figures, scenes, subjects or emotions that have been in existence prior to the moment of their rendering by the artist; so, there is possibility of overlapping of characteristics from one genre to the other. Therefore, the mythological and religious stories, characters, and moral values ​​can get place in the paintings whenever they are rendered regardless of time. Art could adopt its characters and atmosphere from the religious doctrines, mythological concepts, literary ideas and folklore, which would be in fashion at the time, that art has been produced. As the extrinsic references have shown this quality of art as inevitable, Sadequain's art, on specific ideas of mythology (Indian or Greek), religion and poetic expressions of Iqbal7, Ghalib8 and Faiz9, clearly indicating the contrast and diversity of nature in connection with social and religious life, related to certain circumstances.

Characters have always been the main feature in visual expression, in painting; they embody tragic and joyous emotions, representing life itself. But owing to its strong appeal and gripping nature, tragedy has got pivotal place in the life of human beings and a strong motivational force for any kind of natural expression.

Aristotle argued in the Poetics that tragedy:

"is a representation, not of men, but of action and life, of 'happiness and unhappiness' and that 'happiness and unhappiness' are bound up with action"

(Aristotle 39-40)
As tracedy, according to Aristotle, is the most important factor behind any creation or expression which leads one to 'catharsis10' and enhances the total impact of 'happiness' or 'unhappiness', the embodiediment of these emotions are; characters who represent these emotions through their gestures, facial expressions and movements. Any kind of expression in art gives so much importance to the characters that are going to represent the subject or the theme of the artwork. In painting, characters are represented through figures and portraits, which reflect the desired emotions and convey them to the audience through the formal quality and variation of color, texture, chiaroscuro, line and composition.

What importance of human expressions, in visual art, is well defined as under by Goodman:

"what is expressed is metaphorically exemplified"

(Goodman 85)

Through an art such as figurative or portrait painting, expression is achieved by imitating a figure or portrait of a well-known or ordinary person or character. Keeping in view the fact that human concerns are always behind any kind of artwork, one can assume the subject matter of a certain era.

Sadequain has dealt with his paintings in terms of characters, facial expressions, distortion, movement, texture, chiaroscuro and a planned and directed atmosphere, created through the collective representation of all the mentioned elements on a larger scale. His characters, in most of his paintings are 'alive' and dynamic in nature, busy in their work or duties. They do not seem to be posing or idle for the sake of painting only. He has also used facial expression of his characters within the frame to enhance his expression of the theme that is behind that painting. By distorting figures and other elements of the painting, Sadequain has always tried to get the desired effects of human struggle, and has put his idea or theme on a high pedestal in a loud style; as on stage, with the distortion of sound effect, the director of an act creates ambiguity to clear or promin his theme or subject. His figures are actually characters of his themes and individuals full of energy, painted to convey movement or activity, according to the subject. Sometimes in his desire of conveying his concept or theme to the viewer with energy, Sadequain has also added symbolic expression with little or more exaggeration which has, in many of his paintings and drawings, created an 'abstract expression' based on ones innate and psychological experiences that can put his work under the label of 'modern art' while his self-centered approach has fashioned 'romantic' approach at the same time.

Texture and chiaroscuro are the vital elements of a painting to create the atmosphere or ambiance, Sadequain with his cross hatching brush, using dark and light areas, creates low degree of chiaroscuro. His paintings do no possess the dramatic light effects or light and dark contrasts as of some baroque style paintings by Caravaggio11, but even then his textures create an effect of 'light and dark' to suggest the positive and negative aspects of his themes. He is a romantic at some place, and modern at the other or both, at the same time. If we take him as 'romanticist' first, he is found to fall in this category due to some reasons.

As Jacquez Barzen states:

"As against poetic diction and 'noble' words, the romanticists admitted all words; as against the exclusive use of a selected Graeco-Roman mythology, they took the Celtic and the Germanic; as against the uniform setting and tone of classical tragedy, they studied and reproduced the observable diversities known as 'local color.' As against the antique subjects of and the set scale of pictorial merits prescribed by the Academy, they took in the whole world, seen and unseen, and the whole range of colors. "

(Barzun 59)

By analyzing these qualities of romanticists, we come to a point that romanticists were against restrictions and geographical boundaries, first in terms of information and knowledge and later, in their expression, they were with an opinion that myths, legends, poetic expressions, pictorial merits and concepts were universal and they had nothing to do with a certain ethnicity.

By these standards, we can call Sadequain a romantic, as he adopts everything whatever he thinks to fulfill his pictorial and conceptual requirements. He goes for the mythology regardless of its origin; he takes on the journey to diversity ethnicities and variation while painting his canvasses. He is also an observer of the whole world and universal pains, the humanity is exposed to, and rather than classical set patterns, he has also taken up the 'observable diversities' in creating his 'local color'.

Barzun has commented between classic and romantic as:

"In common speech certainly, the sentiments aroused by the word 'classical' are those of repose and serenity, while the connotations of 'romantic' suggest restlessness and disorder."

(Barzun 37)

If we apply the conditions of restlessness and disorder on Sadequain's art and personality, the same result we can find which may advocate us to call him a romanticist. As we find his work against the static and acclaimed standards of academic art (even in developing country like Pakistan), disorder, especially within his distorted figures, crudeness of form, and the dynamism, and the shades of restlessness, force us to label him as 'highly inspired by romanticists' if not a romanticist himself. Sadequain's own conception of life, which is also very much individual; the grotesque or malamati, has caused a great deal of self-centeredness when he paints self-portraits within a painting or a drawing. The symbol of 'cactus' he has used for his life also refers to the individuality covered by the ego of a self-centered individual, who sees inspired of the romantic approach of inner and individual expression. The admiration of restlessness has made him quoting Iqbals concept of true Muslim (Mard-e Momin) in pictorial way; a well-known aspect of Sadequain's work regarding inscription based painting. Other than Iqbal, he also painted upon the ideology presented in Ghalib's verse, which is a direct extract from the Persian tradition of egoistic literary expression, of which Ghalib has been proud.

In other words, contrary to the statutory and idle attitude (which is demarked as 'classic' in the west), Sadequain prefers movement and dynamism, and for that, he even goes for the associated disorder, that is obvious in his figurative dispute, this practice has proved him immensely inspired by the impatience romanticists are known for.

Moreover, Sadequain is also a modern artist, one of the reasons for this is his period, as he was born just after the World War I and saw World War II in his youth in a colonial country where agitation was on its peak by that time . He started work when the entire world was experiencing revolutionary changes, as as well as geographical, with new economic and philosophical theories were helping Communism12 and Socialism13 to spread around the globe. Individuality and self-respect was the new world order and it was farewell to slavery. Either it was physical or intellectual. Freedom of thought, expression, and beliefs made self-consciousness a common and accepted doctrine that strengthened the concept of 'abstract expressionism' and individual perception.

"The first striking trait of the modern ego is self-consciousness, I say self-consciousness rather than self-awareness, because I believe that in spite of much heart-searching, the modern ego is more concerned with the way it appears in others 'eyes than with learning fully about itself and admitting its troubles fearlessly. The romantics were introspective, too, but they did not fear ridicule as we do, which is why we accuse them of indecently exposing their innermost souls. "

(Barzun 117)

So, Sadequain is influenced and inspired by the modern ideology of self-consciousness as well. And if we could try, in the light of quoted paragraph, to put him under the category of self-consciousness or self-awareness, he would fall in the former one. But since he accepted so many diverse influences, it will be hard to categorize him under one label, but keeping his time in consideration and the approach he adopted towards life, we could say that he was more inspired by the romantic and modern ideology of painting at the same time while his work was a crucible of different inspirations and influences, regardless of origins and ethnicities.

Other than his paintings, the drawings and sketches in 'pen and ink' could also be categorized with the same qualities that could be identified as extracted from historical, mythological, religious or literary backgrounds. In his sketches, one might not find the chiaroscuro or the 'painterliness' due to the linearity of the technique, but the entire range of pivotal conceptual elements, he has used in his paintings, could be found in extremely skilled fashion.

A drawing in pen and ink under the title 'Some other things to care about (1966)' displays probability and action in its composition which, in two groups, exhibit the arrangement of an atmosphere where something is going to happen. The artist has given proper space between the two groups that may suggest the likelihood for some action as two figures are arranged in the right corner and three webbed figures in the left, but all in such a perspective that the space inside and around them is visible to the onlooker. The webbed figures put on show the drama and the grotesque approach of the artist who seems concerned in depicting the pain of human beings since their birth to the eternal abode. A religious and mythical concept mostly illustrated and depicted in scripts, mythologies and literature or in the form of holy ritual dance or the proper theater in Athens performing Sophocles' play.

Another painting 'Two Graces (from aesthetics) 1970', in pen and ink is like gratitude by Sadequain to the great western painting 'Three Graces'. As the idea of ​​this painting is the same as the mythological painting by Rapheal in the early sixteenth century or by Picasso, later in the twenty century. The movement, drama, and the characterization come by design within the frame. The stretch and the elasticity of the female bodies are approved as well as captured by arranging them in dance-like postures. The festivity and the lyricism have made this drawing a rhythmic performance. This work speaks high of the Western influence, Sadequain may have been under as one of many inspirations he has been exposed to.

Another pen and ink 'The snake charmer (from observation 1970)' displays the aboriginal subject but Sadequain has, with folk subject and sensitive rendering, attracted the viewer. Moreover the combination of female body and the twirling snake, the concept of Vishkannya14seems obvious behind the painter's imagination. The character of Vishkannya is associated with dance, while the curling, twisting and creeping movements of the snake, along with the venomous myth regarding Hinduism, helping in creating a conceptual story as soon as one looks upon it. All these aspects make this painting 'Thespian15' in its physical as well as conceptual approach. Sadequain's involvement in the Hindu myth and the grotesque attitude towards life, attracted him towards horrificing, dynamic and exaggerated topics and themes (a semi baroque influence), especially when he was not illustrating poetry as his first choice.

Two more pen and ink drawings 'Soul and Body (from society and the stranger 1970)' and 'The Webbed (1966)', also demonstrate the dramatic drama and the symbolic rendering by the artist. In 'Soul and Body', the painter by personifying the non-corporeal subject of soul into corporeal existence of body through conceptually abstract and practically practical practice of painting, has successfully put forth a vibrant show which may be considered a step towards self-realization or self-consciousness, as a romanticist, while through exploring the depths of inner world with reference to the outer one, he could be seen as an artist inspired by the modern theories of 'expressionism' based on the Freudian16 theories of psychology.

'The Webbed' is also a drawing with an overstatement by the artist, being caught in the desolation. Here too the painter has embodied an abstract feeling through a concrete symbol of web. The human struggle has been put in focus with the suggested movements through the cognate linearity. His understanding of life is on a minority point where he wants to give voice to his gruesome experiences, for that the painter is found busy in painting distorted figures, putting voice to his innate feelings and experiences, the artist has always been vulnerable of.

Akber Naqvi has stated this experience of Sadequain in these words:

"He deal with truth and illusion at more than an aesthetic level; he remained engaged, through his life, in pain and in sickness."

(Naqvi 365)

Other than his sketches and drawings, his paintings also display influences of diverse origins as stated in the beginning of this paper. One painting 'Quest for knowledge (1959)' presents distorted figures, dramatic arrangement (composition), and movement. Especially the characters clad in Egyptian robes on the horse back, going after the book of knowledge, depict an exaggerated approach of the artist which absolutely has added dynamism within the frame and the effect that the figure on a galloping horse will just get out of the frame from the left side, imprints an event being enacted. Symbolic, romantic and expressionistic approach could have been seen at a time while Sadequain's work seemed very inspired by mentioned art movements.

Another painting 'The eternal female (1962-63)' with distortion of the female body into a monstrous creeping creature advocates the mythological characterization, especially with reference to the aboriginal Hindu culture where the gods, goddesses and demons are depicted with distortion and exaggeration in human or animal anatomy. The mythological treatment put on show the dramatic rituals, which have been part of sacred Hindu traditions as the Hindus have depicted almost every and every myth of Ramayana17 or Mahabharata18 in the form of famous dance-drama like Kathikali19 or Bharatnattyam20. The rudiments of 'Natak21', with supernatural characters and the element of horror, as the bizarre theme behind the painter's mind, are obvious in this piece of work. Moreover, metaphorical and exaggerated approach and theatrical mode help us understanding the linkage of Sadequain's perception with Indian traditions of expression and the forms of expressions all together, at an intrinsic and extrinsic analytical level.

A large mural painting at the State Bank Building Karachi under the title of 'The treasures of time' displays the historical and chronological qualities. This painting looks a tribute to human achievements and evolution with portraiture of geniuses from history, covering time periods from the Stone Age to the modern world. The panel painting is divided into four groups exhibiting four different eras of enlightened humanity through merit and wisdom. In this painting, Sadequain looks greatly inspired by the revolutionary paintings of the modern art where the core reasons and the conceptual renderings were given more space.

Starting from the ancient world, Sadequain has painted the characters of Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Herodotus, Sophocles and Confucius. This group shows the philosophers busy in pondering, writers and mathematicians tiring for their goals, the atmosphere created by the background, suggest the city of Athens and some part of China. The whole painting looks like an act of the drama where the well-known thinkers and philosophers are performing, reminding the all famous line by Shakespeare;

"All the world's stage."

The second group in the same gigantic painting exhibits the famous Buddha and the Galileo, an astrologist. The painter has emphasized on the details in dress, architecture and texture, while the style looks very western in this panel since detailed realism is obvious.

Third group or act of this huge painting consists of the wizards from Arabia and Persian, the origin and cradle of the Muslim doctrine and ideology. With Avicenna, Al-Khwarzmi, Ibn al-Hasam, Ibn al-Hayan, Farabi, Firdausi, Al-Kundi, Ibn-i Rushd, Rumi, Al-Idrees and Ibn-i Khaldun, busy in their respect activities, the painter looks as if he is under nostalgic infatuations and trying to glorify the events and persons of the era bygone, here again the painter has adopted a romantic attitude and have also practiced it in a romantic manner, where he also looks looking for his own individuality within these great personalities. In this group, it appears that the composition, characters and their costumes have been changed according to the painter's own conceivable requirements. Here on the upper areas behind the figures, light is cast on dramatically to spot them and their importance, which reminds us of the dramatic light effects of Caravaggio in his biblical and thematic paintings of late sixteenth century.

In the fourth group of this panel, the painter has tried to cast his spot light on the genius of the western world, famous figures like, Leonardo da Vinci, Newton and Goethe put diversity and an evolved historical chronology of the European pursuit of wisdom through art, philosophy and science. The architectural background here changes as the set changes behind the performers while the theoretically postured figures put forward the idea of ​​change in embryonic time.

Keeping the pace alive, Sadequain paintings the sixth group with Iqbal, Einstein, Tagore, Karl Marx, Walt Whiteman and Darwin, as the spotlight is cast to highlight the 20th century modern theories of wisdom and philosophy around the globe. The whole panel, in figure arrangement, kinesics, postures, facial expressions, and the chronology, put forward a sense of dynamic composition and ambiance, within the whole panel and from one group to the other.

No artist could conceive an idea without prior concepts and knowledge that prevails through his mind and thoughts therefore, inspirations and influences are inevitable. One generation after experiencing diversity of life in thoughts and action, pass on the evolved wisdom and knowledge to its descendants. Sadequin was born when the entire world was on the brim of change in terms of economic and political scenario as two world wars have changed the shape and the course of the history and geographical boundaries of the globe. New theories, based on science and technology were in fashion and modern ideas in philosophy and psychology were challenging the centuries old traditions. All these elements were casting deep shadows on almost all branches of knowledge and all forms of art. Sadequain has witnessed the modern art movement at its zenith and the beginning of the post modern. But at the same time, owing to his own circumstances and geographical and conceptual links, he observed the indigenous traditions of expression, which were clearly rooted in the soil of Indus Valley.

Religious doctrines of Islam and Hinduism also inspired him with its association with the richness of Persian traditions and the rhythms of Vedic experiences, respectively. The diversity of cultures that the subcontinent absorbed to the maximum, with an acculturation of Arabian, Persian and local Jain, Hindu and Buddhist ethities, also inspired his concepts to a level of grotesque evolution. In view of the fact that subcontinent was under the British rule, Sadequain, under the western important art movements like, romanticism, modernism and tinges of Baroque elements like horror, exaggeration, metamorphosis and theatricality, moved on to blend the western influences with the indigenous concepts derived from the epics like Mahabharta and Ramayna, while the Persian poetical ideology of Rumi and Firdausi reached him through the versa of Iqbal and Ghalib.

So by painting myths, religious doctrines (despite through Malamat), poetic ideas, and epic characters, in symbolic, romantic and modern way and technique, Sadequain has given vent to varied inspirations and influences that were always behind his collective as well as individual consciousness . Even in his aboriginal approach, since he is a Bengali by origin, educated in India and settled in Karachi (Pakistan), he experienced all the shades of diverse cultures; he had been living in, from Bengali-Muslim to Hindu-Indian to Muslim-Pakistani. A crucible, he became, as an artist within his approach and thought. That is why his works do not present a single shade of one individual when seen collectively.

Unique Candle Chandeliers for Your Home

There's nothing quite like a candle chandelier to set the perfect backdrop to any occasion. Whether you are entertaining guests, curling up with a good book, or spending time with that special someone, a candle chandelier exudes romantic charm and provides an intimate atmosphere that is impossible to ignore. A candle chandelier truly represents the perfect compromise between form and function, and more people are being introduced to these marvels of interior design everyday. If you've ever considered unique candle chandeliers for your home, the following article should give you a better understanding of these decadent decorations, as well as provide you with the tips you need to make a smart buying decision.

While most of us have clearly seen similar candle chandeliers featured in movies and print (the large fancy type with what seem to be hundreds of candles flickering in unison), the modern candle chandelier has many different faces. In fact, many unique candle chandeliers for your home do not contain candles at all! These candle chandeliers actually contain "faux" candles (designs similar to a candle, but with a bulb providing the light source). But make no mistake: these chandeliers still work to turn any room in your home into a comfortable and inviting space. In addition, these chandeliers can be made using a variety of metals that cost a fraction of true candle holder designs.

If you think you might prefer a real candle chandelier (and who could blame you?), You will face a wide selection of outstanding designs to suit any taste. Arguably the most beautiful of all candle chandeliers are those made of glass or crystal. However, these require a great deal of maintenance and attention to ensure that the candles do not tarnish the beauty of the piece. (It should be noted here that candle wax should be cleaned from any holder, regardless of type). Another consideration of these elegant chandeliers is that they tend to be more expensive than those made of metals (bronze, wrought iron, etc.), but they certainly add an amazing effect to any room in your home.

There are also other things to consider when searching for unique candle chandeliers for your home. For instance, candle chandeliers come in a variety of shapes and styles, ranging from elegant to contemporary. The overall look and feel of your home will probably be your best guide when picking out a candle chandelier. You will also need to think about how many arms you want in a candle chandelier, and just how decorative you want them to be. Naturally, chandeliers with a large number of arms, and those with more detailed designs will tend to fetch higher prices.

As you can see, there are several options available when considering unique candle chandeliers for your home. Regardless of the candle chandelier you finally decide on, the piece is sure to grace any room in the home with a touch of elegance and class that you probably never even realized was missing.

Best Gardening Tools for Turning Soil Over

You are not that young guy who used to never run out of energy any more. But your garden does not care about that and is still there requiring some solitude. Turning the soil over would be one. It helps mixing the soil nutrients, loosens it and provides the so needed aeration. Important stuff. Here are some tools to ease this task and therefore your life!

1. Broad fork

That's basically your own personal gigantic soil turning fork. It is sometimes referred to as U-tool. With its mighty tines you stab the ungrateful mother earth and pull out backwards in order to loosen the dessert soil. This provides the aeration, giving your soil the drainage a healthy law should have and, of course, the water will go where it's supposed to (no puddles). Easy peasy .

2. Hoes

Real men use hoes. If you're a woman just skip this paragraph. Hoes vary so there are plenty of choices here. Purposes of the use also vary and include weed control which comes from taming the soil surrounding your plants, making nice round seed planting trenches, hilling, slashing unwanted enemy plants and whatnot. No matter which one you choose, make sure it suits you and your hands well, because it can give you awful whelks! I'd recommend using gloves but you would not be a real man then, would you?

3. Pickaxes

This might sound Viking old school but there are reasons people use these. Rocky soils are one. If that's your case, prepare yourself! Using its pointy end will help a lot with removing tree roots as well.

4. Rake

Rakes can do a bunch of stuff. They are the manual version of the harrow. Perfect for lifting out soil, removing grass, slight loosing of the ground. There are also leaf rakes, designed specifically to help you with leaf cleaning, which are worship worthy if you have plenty of trees in or around your garden.

5. Shovel

Finally here it is. Behind every successful garden there is a shovel. Scooping soil has never felt as masculine. Shovels also have different types. Straight shovels are for denser soils and require a well-developed technique in order not to break your fragile waist while in the middle of turning the ground over. There are slightly bent ones that provide the opportunity of digging. Great for planting holes and some funeral related acts.

6. Spade

A cousin of the shovel, this guy will give you the best compost turn experience ever, as far as that is possible. You will dig beds with ease and you can even use this magnificent tool for edging! Oh my!

7. Rotary tiller

Now we're talking! This baby will do it almost by itself. Great for everything presented basically. It's rather easy and you will get quality results. I said rather because if it's a larger tiller, a degree of upper-body strength would be needed. You can also spread some manure over the top before tilling and thereby, fertilize the soil at the same time. When using this godly device, just be careful not to destroy the soil surface by doing too much till (because with a beast like this it could actually happen).

8. Spading fork

Very good for mixing compost, loosing ground and turning soil over. I mean, if the Devil uses it for his hell gardens (I'm assuming), then it must be quality stuff. It is similar in use to the spade, but practice shows you would prefer the fork in most of the cases, because its tines make piercing the ground easier (more area pressure, yey physics). It also spares your weed root, and stones are not such an obstacle as they are for the spade. If the tines are wider and flatter the fork would be great for harvesting potato root crops and others from the like.

9. Trowel

That's the hand size version of the spade. Use it for weeding, digging, breaking up earth and planting in small areas.

An Inexpensive Snow Blower – A Toro 38361 Power Shovel Review

When it comes to snow, it seems that people either love it or hate it. But everyone needs to shovel. Let me offer you another option – an inexpensive snow blower made by Toro – the Toro 38361 Power Shovel.

Quick Details:

  • A light weight electric snow thrower
  • Throws snow a distance of 20 feet
  • Clears a path 12 inches wide
  • Easily handles snow up to 6 inches deep
  • A 7.5 amp motor

More Details:

The Toro power shovel is a great tool for clearing snow off of smaller driveways, porches, decks, stairs and walkways. Because of its size, it is easy to maneuver. Because it is electric, you do not need to bother with gas and oil. It starts up right away despite the cold.

Because it handles snow up to 6 inches, it is best to keep up with the snow as it falls. Otherwise you will need to clear the snow in layers. Some current owners do this with no difficulties, others say that the machine gets heavy clearing the snow this way. Just like shoveling, you need to keep up with the snow so that you are not dealing with too much at one time. But unlike shoveling, there is no real effort executed when using the Toro Power shovel.

Blowing the snow a distance of 20 feet really clears the area you are working in. Be smart though and watch which way the wind is blowing or you could be blowing the snow right back where you just cleared. Since you can not control which way this power shovel shoots the snow (it shoots straight ahead of you), you do need to make a plan so that you do not end up throwing snow onto an area you already cleared.

One huge benefit that comes from using the Toro power shovel is the time that you save. Several people have told me how quickly this works – clearing snow in a fraction of the time it takes to shovel.

Many owners have been very happy with this little machine, saying it is a great product at a great price. This inexpensive snow blower will do a great job as long as you are not expecting it to do the job of a more powerful walk behind snow blower. This is not an industrial machine, it is a machine meant for the average home owner looking for a quick and easy way to clear the snow by their house.

Residential Dumbwaiters

A dumbwaiter is a, generally, small scale elevator used to move freight and materials between floors. They have been around for centuries and were incredibly popular in the Victorian era. Dumbwaiters have been extensively used in the food industry which may be where the word dumbwaiter comes from. In addition to being found in the food industry, they are heavily used in hotels, hospitals, and large office buildings. Residential dumbwaiters have always been prevalent in our society, but because of the cost and expense in constructing one, where only found in larger homes. In recent years the price of dumbwaiters has been dramatically reduced and they can be commonly found without having to have one custom built by a contractor.

In previous eras most dumbwaiters were basically operated. They utilized a series of pulleys, routes, and weights to lift or lower the devices. While the amount of work was significantly reduced by using the pulleys and weights, it could still be quite cumbersome to operate. Modern dumbwaiters typically use an electric motor to do the actual lifting which makes it much easier and does not put any undo stress on the owner.

Modern dumbwaiters use a series of call-send controls to send the dumbwaiter between floors. A simple push of the button is all that is required to send the unit to the next floor and it will automatically stop flush with the door. Most modern dumbwaiters use bi-parting doors that open vertically. They open in a manner that is similar to how an elevator door opens, but instead of going from side to side, open upwards. As a safety feature a quality dumbwaiter will not open without the doors are closed and it is important to not try to bypass this safety feature. The doors should also not open without the car is present at the opening, so if the door is open and the car is not present it is important to immediately contact the dealer.

While generally the track system will remain free from obstacles, it is possible that something may obstruct the cars path. A quality dumbwaiter utilizes a series of safety sensors and will stop if it encounters anything on the track. This is to prevent damage to the car and the track. Even with this safeguard it is important to not drop anything down the shaft. If something does fall contact a qualified serviceman to have the object removed. There are a wide host of safety features present in modern dumbwaiters that is intended to help prevent accidents and improper use of the device.

With the drop in price that dumbwaiters have undergone in the past few years has greatly increased their popularity in residential settings. Their popularity is not unfounded and is not based solely on the price, however. They add a whole degree of functionality to your home and are responsible for adding value to your home. If you have ever struggled taking clothes, floor, or other household objects up or down your stairs then a dumbwaiter may be for you.

Printing Plates Used in Offset Printing

The plates used in offset printing are slim (up to about 0.3 mm), and easy to attach on the plate cylinder, and they generally have a mono-metal (aluminum) or, less often, multimetal, plastic or paper structure.

Aluminum has been gaining ground for a very long time among the metal-based plates over zinc and steel. The necessary gaining of the aluminum surface is done mechanically either by sand-blasting, ball gaining, or by wet or dry brushing.

Today, almost all printing plates are grained inside an electrolytic technique (anodizing), that is, electrochemical gaining by using subsequent oxidation.

The imaging, ink-accepting covering (light-sensitive coating, thickness around 1micro meter) is applied to the base material. This material is often polymer, or copper for multimetal plates (bi-metal plates).

Light-sensitive, diazo (photo-polymer) pre-coated aluminum printing plates at the moment are the predominant plates in print-shops. The image transfer is produced via the different attributes on the surface from this plates after they are exposed and developed. The remains of the first light-sensitive coating or the light-sensitive coating changed by the effect of light are the ink-accepting elements that create the image.

Chemical transformations occur because of the penetration of photo-effective (actinium) light (light containing UV rays), inducing the light-sensitive coating to react differently based on its type and constitution.

There are two types of photochemical reactions when producing the printing plate:

• hardening of the light-sensitive layer by light (negative plate-making),

• decomposition of the light-sensitive layer by light (positive plate-making).

With positive plate-making and standard printing plate production, a positive film is used as the original, that’s, the non-translucent, blackened sections of the film correspond to the ink-accepting surface elements on the plate.

For negative plate-making with “negative plates” a negative film is applied as an original, that’s, the ink-accepting image areas of the printing plate correspond to the translucent, light areas on the film.

For quality assurance and checking during plate-making, control elements are copied to the plates.

The most practical way for quality checking is to use a color-bar.This is an image that is placed across the offset printing plate, usually on the trailing edge, that contains targets to provide measurement areas for the solid ink densities, dot measurements and other control elements. These color-bars are provided as film and exposed onto the plates along with the image or they may be digitally derived in CTP (computer to plate) systems.

Also for producing and maintenance of plates there is a lot of chemistry we can use.

An Introduction to Wood Stoves

Wood stoves are like small fireplaces. They are inexpensive and can be built into a home or added later. Wood-burning stoves are great for either decoration or for home heating. These small cast-iron stoves have been used around the world for hundreds of years, providing aesthetic beauty and practical warmth where they are used. There are a number of advantages to wood stoves. They look great, are safe, can effectively heat an entire house, and are ecologically responsible.

There are countless designs for wood furnaces. Many of them are small, free standing structures with long, iron legs and elaborately designed bodies, featuring engravings and ornamentation. The wood stoves have a pipe that can either go through the ceiling or through a wall to expel any unwanted smoke. Wood stoves can be a great addition to a living room or den.

Wood stoves are much safer than many fireplaces, cooking stoves, or heaters that use gas. There is no danger of leaving the gas on and breathing deadly fumes or of starting a fire by lighting a match and igniting gas in the air. Wood stoves are easy to extinguish when they are not in use, and the smoke goes through a pipe outside the house so that people inside do not have to breathe it. Wood stoves are sturdy enough so that they will not tip over and set the house on fire.

A well-placed wood stove can heat an entire home. A wood stove located centrally in a house can provide heat to all of the different rooms, ensuring that everyone will be warm.

Another major advantage of wood stoves is that they are ecologically responsible. They do not run on gasoline, coal, or other nonrenewable resources. Wood is inexpensive, easy to find, and can be refurbished, unlike many other fuels.

Wood stoves are a great alternative to more common heating methods. Wood stoves are pretty, efficient, safe, and environmentally sound.

Tatung Rice Cookers – Better Than Aroma Rice Cookers?

In the low end price range market, Tatung rice cookers often come out on top. They offer many conveniences features while keeping operation very simple, and that is attractive to many consumers looking for a good product to cook their rice perfectly every time. While they are a good pick for cooks of any experience level, it is smart to take a moment and see how they compare to other reputable brands in the same price range, such as Aroma rice cookers.

Both brands are in the same lower price category and offer many of the same features. Actually, when you take a closer look there are more similarities between these two brands than there are differences!

Both models come in white or stainless steel designs that look great with any kitchen design. Both will cook rice to the correct consistency every time and will hold it warm until you are ready to eat. They come with necessary accessories, including a measuring cup and spatula. More importantly, both brands can be used as a crock pot to make other meals or as a steamer for vegetables, meats, or even seafood.

So what are the differences that make one better than the other?

The Aroma 10 cup rice cooker will make up to 20 cups of rice and offers a wider variety of models to select from. Each model has slightly different features, but essentially remains very similar. It is a good product at a very affordable price with great diversity in cooking potential.

The model getting the most attention in rice cooker reviews is the Tatung TRC-8FZ rice cooker. It has a very modern style with a unique design and spherical pan and heating system. An easy to read LED timing display and large buttons on the front make it very simple and quick to set the 24 hour timer. The 2mm pan comes out for easy cleaning and the stainless steel lid is easy to wipe down after use. It may not come in numerous different models, but it is very efficient when it comes to cooking all varieties of rice perfectly.

Tatung rice cookers have been around for generations and have earned respect as one of the best small kitchen appliances on the market. While other brands such as Aroma offer very similar products at the same price points, they may not hold up to the durability and time tested quality of a well known name like Tatung.

The Technology Behind Modern Furniture Designs

These days, technological advancement is seen influencing our lives, adding cutting-edge technologies, brand new ideas & lasting materials to everything from mobiles to modern furniture that we use daily. It has resulted in more comfortable, durable & safer modern office furniture & made our lives full of luxury.

It is no secret that modern furniture has a great demand in the international market & a growing number of people choose it to give their homes or offices a contemporary look. However, some people are of the view that the modern office furniture lacks new technology & ideas & appears more like the conventional ones. This is not found to be true.

To their surprise, more & more furniture manufacturers are using cutting-edge technologies & special materials to produce revolutionary, sustainable & portable modern furniture in attractive shapes & sizes. Most of these furniture makers maintain their own websites. So, people who want to go for a remodeling in their home or office can start searching for them on web.

A few decades back, we don’t have enough option in modern furniture except a few common types of dining rooms, bedrooms & wall units. The technological advancement in modern furniture design has now given us the freedom to choose from hundreds of contemporary modern office furniture in different looks, materials & sizes so as to make our offices look more beautiful.

In earlier times, wood was highly used in the making of all kinds of furniture. Therefore the traditional furniture was too heavy, dull looking & was susceptible to water, light & other weather conditions. In an effort to increase the acceptability of conventional furniture, researchers introduced new furniture materials like plywood, plastic etch. The furniture makers have started using these materials in the furniture making & made the modern furniture light in weight & lovely in look. Even today, some of the furniture models are made of wood with plywood in the sides. This makes the furniture to cost & weigh less & look classic. The furniture designers often make experiments with the furniture supplies including materials, using a combination of glass, wood, chrome & steel in the furniture making process. Many are aware of the deteriorating global condition & want to use eco-friendly furniture designs. That’s why the furniture for gardens & terraces are made from recycled materials. This is not all as the furniture makers are largely using a mixed variety of materials to produce more reliable & durable products. Now, heavy plasma TVs can be kept on fortified glass made wall hangings.

Modern home & office furniture needs a fashionable look to draw the attention of more number of buyers. That’s why the furniture makers keep on working with different colors, styles, patterns & shapes to bring an improvement in its value & functionality. Such transforming & sustaining furniture assures to give comfort to normal buyers who don’t live in plush bungalows or apartments. It is the sophisticated technology that helps convert your comfy sofa to perfect bed. Due to this technology, you can now purchase a convertible & smart looking dining table with multiple moves to accommodate your whole family & friends whenever necessity arises. Have you ever seen a modern armchair which can get transformed into a nice looking lounge with just a button press? This is all the result of technological advancement in the furniture making & designing.