How to Improve Your Motorcycle’s Start and Warm Up, Idling and Acceleration

After listening to years of customer complaints about their inability to cope with poor Gold Wing performance symptoms and the ruthless exploitation by many repair shops back in the Eighties, we were compelled to study the problem. In 1990, a solution was presented in writing that was handed out to my customers without any obligation on the part of the reader to buy anything. We received hundreds of thank yous from customers and those who never purchased parts from us but took time to write. Those who made the replacement based on our solution and tuned up their engines, eliminated a whole series of problems, including the burning out of head gaskets and, over the years, we received many declarations of greatly improved gas mileage and overall performance.


The Air Cut-Off Valve is an extremely important part of the fuel / air intake system that is frequently missed even by competent mechanics, most of whom are not even aware of its existence or how it functions. Over time, air cutoff valves will harden up, perforate and/or disintegrate leaving your motorcycle in a permanently lean, low RPM range (0-2200).

Most early model Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki and Yamaha motorcycles use air cut-off valves. Every Honda CB650, CB750, CB900 and GL1000 has one, located in the air intake tube between the air cleaner box and the manifold. The GL1100 has four, located in the top air intake passage of each carburetor, and every GL1200 has one located in the plenum box below the air cleaner box similar to the GL1000.

These valves are “air blockers”, along with the carburetor o-rings, serving to restrict air flow, increasing the fuel-air mixture ratio when the carb slides are in the lower RPM range, up to closed so that the machine will start and idle smoothly with virtually no choking and accelerate rapidly, with no stumble or hesitation.

When typical starting requires heavy and prolonged choking to keep the bike running, when stalling and hesitation occurs even while “warmed up” and when backfiring pops while the throttle is shut off while cruising, most people will start fooling with the air screws to try to overcome the problem, only making it worse along with reducing their gas mileage.

Running with dysfunctional air cut-off valves can cause severe engine damage or failure. When the valves are dysfunctional, the engine pulls nearly total air into the low RPM range through the carbs and on to the combustion chamber. The fuel-air ratio is extremely poor with pre-ignition long before the normal 38 to 40 degree firing point, generating an enormous amount of heat, with no power, which is trapped a longer period of time in the cylinder before the exhaust valve opens.

This heat goes mostly up through the cylinder head, gradually incinerating the head gaskets and allowing engine coolant (antifreeze) to seep into the engine. You can easily spot when you are in trouble by a puff of bluish-white or white smoke on first starting the engine. Don’t leave it alone. Change the head gaskets immediately or you could take out your bottom end bearings, ruining the engine.

For those of you installing new exhaust systems, you will discolor your head pipes, either blue (lean state) or gold (rich state) if the signs are ignored. You an destain your pipes using Blueway or Blue-Off but be careful not to rub the chrome, just dab gently. These destaining compounds are usually found at a Harley dealer or Harley-oriented aftermarket shop.

Honda genuine pipes, like many Yamaha pipes, have a double wall for a portion of the head pipe which masks discoloration – but also masks a bad state of tune. Even if your pipes are original and still in good shape, don’t think you’re safe if your motorcycle has any or all of the dysfunctional air cut-off valve running and performing characteristics.

If your 1975 to 1987 Gold Wing is not getting 50 to 58 miles per gallon (20-23 kilometers per liter), you have one of the most obvious signs of trouble. It is likely your air screws have been backed out to try to overcome the effects of the poor running, stumbling, starting, stalling and quitting.


Refer to your Clymer, Haynes or Honda Workshop manual for location and installation procedures.

Replace your air cut-off valve/s then resynchronize all four carburetors to the #3 carburetor vacuum level using a mercury carb sync tool (carb stick) or vacuum gauge synchronizer tool. The number 3 carb is the constant fixed flow carburetor set at the factory.

DO NOT attempt to set by ear or just by guessing as the results can be anywhere from pathetic to disastrous.

DO NOT deviate from the book settings of your Honda, Clymer or Haynes manual. Wiser people than all of us designed this very effective and efficient intake and carburetion system.

To further insure against any additional vacuum loss, replace your inexpensive carburetor manifold o-rings. Vacuum loss can occur there and mimic the effect of a bad air cut-off valve. Paste a new set in with vaseline and make sure they are sealed with an ether check.

© Saber Cycle®

Scotty Cameron California Coronado Putter Review

Built for the putting purists out there who demand perfect balance and feel, the Scotty Cameron California Coronado Putter is a timeless blade design that is precision milled from 303 stainless steel which helps to provide a soft sound and feel that promotes precise distance control, and has a two-tiered flange that flows back into a pulled in heel, that Scotty likes to call a pintail.

The Coronado Putter benefits from the same successful technological enhancements to that of the Studio Select Putter line Series, and one of the main beneficial enhancements is the introduction of the new interchangeable weighting technology.

This technology uses circular weights that are screwed into both the heel and toe end of the putter sole, which not only helps to increase the sweet spot and moment of inertia for more stability, balance and forgiveness, but also enables Scotty to perfectly balance the putter head weight in relation to the 3 different shaft length options that he offers. which are the 33″, 34″ and 35″.

If you prefer a more heavier weighted putter that gives you a more solid and heavier feel, the Scotty Cameron California Coronado Putter offers 2 heavier shaft length options with the 34″H and 35″H shafts.

Similar to the rest of the Scotty Cameron California Putter Series, the California Coronado Putter benefits from a high toe setup, which helps to reduce the common error that many golfers have which is to raise the toe end of the putter head up at address, which results in aiming left of target, and comes complete with a distinguished honey dipped finish that looks absolutely great in natural light and helps to reduce glare from the top line.

There are 5 Putter Models in total in the California Line each named after Scotty’s favourite California Towns and with their own unique design, and each featuring his new draft sole design that keeps the putter head square at address and promotes accurate alignment.

Responsibilities of an Apartment Manager

Being an apartment manager is a serious task. It carries with it responsibility, patience and hard work. Your responsibility is not only to the building but to the owner and tenants as well. You will find yourself doing several duties the whole time. A property manager works either for a company or for a direct owner.

Here are some responsibilities of an apartment manager’s to serve as your guide. This can help you especially if you are new to this field.

• Routine inspection. Inspecting the building itself and its grounds routinely is a must that needs to be done often. This is to make certain that the apartment is well maintained and out of harm’s way. Make sure that maintenance is carried out regularly and safety concerns are dealed with immediately.

• Check first before showing to potential tenants. Vacant apartments should be inspected first. This is to make necessary enhancements or fixes to make your apartment more attractive to would-be tenants.

• Advertise. If you have a vacant apartment or a tenant has just moved out, advertise without delay. It is the manager’s responsibility to maintain the income of the building.

• Credit and references. As the apartment manager, it is your responsibility to check on your prospective tenants’ financial background. This is done so to avoid rental skip outs and revenue loss.

• Rental agreement. Have an agreement signed first before the tenant moves in. Don’t hesitate to enforce the terms and conditions stated in the agreement. It is a part of your responsibility as long as you don’t violate any law.

• Resolve complaints. Problems and complaints are parts of business. When these things occur, address it immediately. A meeting may be required with tenants involved or all occupants to resolve any problem or misunderstanding.

• Financial transactions. Always embrace the possibility that you will be tasked with the financial aspect of the business. There are owners that ask their managers to collect rentals and so with other duties that involve money. But other owners prefer to do it themselves.

• Purchaser, negotiator and enforcer. Being an apartment manager, you often do multi-tasking. For necessary repairs, it is the manager who will purchase the supplies and equipments. You will be the one to negotiate with service providers such as electricians, plumbers and other services needed. It is also your responsibility to effect lease terminations or evictions in accordance with company policy and law. Make sure that you have kept all records of financial and administrative transactions.

The Real Key to Achieving Flat Abs

You can be a belly dancer for an entire lifetime, but if your digestion is not optimal your abdomen will still not look its best. There will still be a pooch hanging around. By the way, belly dancing is an excellent option to implement into your exercise routine. You can try belly dancing by learning through a video or local class. But, the important point is that healthy digestion is the key to having a better looking abdomen.

Fiber, Essential Fatty Acids, and Water for Achieving Flat Abs

Improving your digestion consists of following a healthy diet. It is a must to consume enough fiber to get your digestion moving. You can get fiber by eating your favorite fruits, vegetables, or grains. It is better that you eat the fruits, vegetables, and grains you know you love instead of being told exactly what you must eat. The goal is to improve your digestion by consuming more fiber. Just start adding fiber-rich foods with each meal. Consuming 25-30 grams daily is ideal. If you don’t consume the ideal amount, then start slowly to avoid bloating. For example, have oatmeal and strawberries for breakfast, add some broccoli or a leafy green salad to lunch, and a slice of whole grain bread to your dinner.

Fiber improves blood-sugar regulation, binds and eliminates toxins, and decreases appetite because it makes you feel full without increasing body fat or weight. This leads to flatter abs.

Essential fatty acids and water are vital to the lubrication and improvement of your digestive system. Essential fatty acids replace the bad fats stored in your body, including fat stored in the abdominal area.

Among the best essential fatty acids are Omega 3 found in fish and fish liver oil, and in flax and flax seed oil. Fish oils also benefit your heart and your brain. Flax seed oil helps with weight loss and arthritis related pains. Flax can also be taken in seed form and therefore besides lubricating the digestive system, ends up helping to move along the digestive process because of its fiber content. Many vegetables contain essential fatty acids.

Since our body does not manufacture essential fatty acids, and it is often hard to consume enough, I recommend you take fish oil in capsule form. You do have to be careful that the oils you are taking are not rancid. They should contain Vitamin E and you should refrigerate them to prevent spoilage. If there is a severe fishy smell when you cut one open, then it is best to consider it spoiled. With much success, I use the Nordic Naturals brand of Omega 3 fish oil.

For flax, liquid flax that has been cold pressed and kept refrigerated at the store selling it, is best. I use 1 to 3 tablespoons daily of ground flax meal by Red Mill. It is delicious with cereal or mixed with a cup of milk, orange juice, or apple juice. It has a mild nutty flavor.

Yet another reason Omega 3 helps our belly is that it helps heal inflammation of the intestines. Taken in capsule form, the Omega 3-rich oils can be mixed with each other and with Omega 6 and Omega 9 containing oils such as borage oil or evening primrose oil. Oil Smart by Renew Life is an excellent soft gel capsule that contains a mix of borage, flax, and cold water fish oils and, therefore, delivers all three of the essential fatty acids.

The standard recommendation for Omega 3 is 1000 – 2000 mg daily. If you are taking blood thinning medication, please check with your doctor before taking fish oil. If you feel that your LDL (good cholesterol) levels will rise due to taking fish oil, taking garlic can prevent that.

Water consumption will also help your digestion. Distilled water is delicious and healthy. If you cannot stand to drink water all day, just drink diluted fruit juices, low sodium V8, green tea, or herbal infusions. Six to eight glasses of 8 ounces of fluids are the general recommendation. Drinking tea counts as half of the ounces that you actually consumed since teas have a diuretic effect.

Detuning High Voltage Lines in New York

The path was cleared for a new electricity transmission line in New York that that could not be energized until interference problems with a Rensselaer, N.Y., AM radio station were resolved to the satisfaction of the New York Public Utility Commission.

After extensive onsite and computer analysis, engineers determined that 8 of 33 tall power towers on this line in the proximate area of station WGDJ-AM would disrupt the stations licensed coverage pattern and require installation of detuning systems.

The transmission towers carry a 345 kV electrical power line from a 635-megawatt natural gas fired power plant constructed in Rensselaer by Empire Generation Co. LLC. The distribution system has 70 towers in all, the last of which were erected last summer. The question was how many of them near East Greenbush, N.Y., would cause signal interference with broadcasts of the AM station. The interference would have created a violation of FCC rules governing the integrity of broadcast signals.

Transmission towers often are a height that makes for efficient radiation of medium wave AM signals. The broadcast AM signal is intercepted from the environment by the power tower and “reradiated”. This reradiated AM signal interferes with the designed coverage and interference of the AM broadcast antenna system. The Federal Communications Commission licenses AM station antenna systems to very tight tolerances, and only a few percent reradiated powerline signal can seriously impact the licensed pattern performance.

The proper evaluation and remediation of power line reradiation can be complex. The multiple transmission towers and the coupling between them through lightning shield wires can be a challenging analysis, but also spread the impact much more broadly than would a single tower. These interconnections form conductive loops which have vastly different electrical properties than single towers. Normally, a technique called “detuning” is applied, along with modifications of lightning shield wires. The recent practice of embedding fiber optic cable in these wires has made these mechanical modifications quite a bit more complicated.

To evaluate and resolve the New York problem, an engineering firm was called in by CH2M Hill, an international consulting engineering firm based in Colorado. The eight disruptive transmission structures were subsequently identified through field measurements and software modeling. Their negative impacts were remediated by an AM protection detuning process, allowing the project to proceed. The offending structures were detuned using custom-engineered hardware along with modifications to the new power line. Modifications were carefully designed for safety and usability in conjunction with CH2M Hill and the owners, and implemented by LG Constructors. Necessarily, all detuning hardware was constructed, installed, and documented to rigorous utility standards.

The process has been employed hundreds of times to detune cellular industry towers with AM radio interference problems of their own. While technological applications vary in each case, they are rooted in the same family of engineered solutions. This was an important design consideration, as renting transmission tower space to wireless carriers is an important revenue source for utilities. In the event the detuned towers were to be rented to a carrier to support their antennas, the AM dutuning documentation would also support the carrier’s FCC AM protection requirements.

Interactions between high voltage transmission systems and AM stations are expected to grow in future years. Thousands of miles of powerlines are planned to support the smart grid, wind turbine, and photovoltaic power generation. Many of these will pass near AM broadcast antennas. It is vitally important for utility planners to have proposed routes reviewed by an RF engineer early in that process. If lines can’t be rerouted, then detuning can be incorporated in the design process, at great savings over construction stage delays or modifications.

Understanding Condensate Drain Lines

The primary condensate drain lines normally drains into the household sewer system through an open connection to an active p-trap. In some cases, these active p-traps are the bath tub or bathroom sink p-trap; should this be your case, be sure to read the special instructions in maintenance, below. Should the evaporator coil’s primary drain line become clogged or should the primary drain develop a leak, condensate should overflow or leak into the emergency drain pan thence into the emergency drain line. The emergency condensate drain line, drain line, drains to a conspicuous place outside the home. Water dripping from the emergency drain line is a warning indicator that something is drastically wrong with primary condensate drain system. You should not delay in calling a service technician.

Problems- With primary condensate drain lines stem form plant pollen, fungus spores and other particulate matter entrained in the air stream passing over the wet evaporator coil. They are captured by the condensate draining off the coil and are carried into the drain system. There they produce algae, mildew, and fungus growths which can clog the primary drain system. While the emergency drain lines are normally dry and clear, they are open to the atmosphere. Wasps, called “mud-daubers”, are known to nest in these open drain lines, there by rendering them useless; always at the wrong time.

The larger diameter pipe of the household sewer system yields two results. First, it usually precludes problems with condensate. Second, the maintenance and repair beyond the open connection to the p-trap is outside the scope of the air conditioning technician. Some older systems drain into an inactive p-trap; this can lead to the long term build up of sediment, dried algae, etc… in the trap and result in an overflow of the plumbing drain system. If the active p-trap also services a bath tub or bathroom sink, clogs can be caused by hair, soap scum or other material draining from the tub or sink. Clogs in the household sewer system require the services of a licensed plumber.

Maintenance- Test both the primary and emergency drains with water. If a restriction is detected, he or she clears the obstruction with compressed air. Blowing out a drain line will usually open a clogged drain line, but it cannot remove growing algae or other deposits from the pipe wall. Our technician will place algicide tablets in the primary drain pan. While algicide is used prevent algae buildup, algicide kills any existing algae. The dead algae may slough off the pipe wall and pass into the sewer system or drift down stream to a restriction and accumulate there resulting in a clogged drain.

Special Instructions- Bathtub or bathroom sink p-traps. If the active p-trap in your system is the trap for a bath tub or bathroom sink, there is the possibility that material flushed from the condensate drain system may combine with bathroom debris already in the trap, to begin formation of a clog. Should one of these plumbing drains clog, condensate will fill the sink or tub and overflow without any warning such as water dripping form the emergency drain line. After any work on your condensate drain system, the drainage of the sink and tub should be observed. If either drains slowly or backs up, plumbing maintenance is needed.

Other measures our technician my recommend are the installation of a float switch in the emergency condensate drain pan and an Easy Klear clean out valve. Should both the primary and emergency drain systems fail, the float switch functions to turn off the air conditioning system, stopping the production of condensate until the clog is cleared and the drain pan emptied. The Easy Klear helps improve drain line maintenance.

Despite all of these precautions, there can be no guarantee that your condensate drain system will remain clear. Your condensate drain system can become clogged at anytime and should be watched closely after it has been serviced, especially when algicide has been applied. Older systems with accumulations of algae can become clogged anytime algae breaks loose from the pipe wall and drifts downstream to a restricted point. At a restriction, algae will accumulate and grow unit it blocks the drain pipe. These restrictions can grow into a fully clogged drain line in less than one month.

Should a problem occur or our technician detect a problem with the p-trap or plumbing drain line (household sewer system), he or she will recommend the services of a licensed plumber. In our opinion, blowing out a large diameter plumbing drain line is not and effective repair. The household sewer system, beginning at the open connection to the condensate system, is the domain of the licensed plumber.

Liabilities- Whenever the air handling unit of an air conditioning system is located in an attic or the upper stories of a building, the risk of water damage due to drain stoppage and condensate overflow is inherent and unavoidable. Proper design and installation coupled with timely and consistent maintenance can minimize the probability of an overflow, but cannot absolutely prevent it. Therefore, our warranties specifically exclude liability for water damage due to condensate overflow, and special, consequential or incidental damage caused by stoppage of a condensate drain system.

Your homeowner’s insurance should include coverage for water damage resulting from condensate overflow or other water leaks. We suggest you confirm your coverage.

Communication Cables – Coaxial, Drop, UTP and Fibre Optic Cables

There are numerous types of Communication Cables available in the market today, but we depend on some types of Cables like Coaxial Cables, Drop Cables, UTP Cables and Fibre Optic Cables more often. These Cables are applicable in different types of data transfer in our day to day life.

Coaxial cable is called “coaxial” because it includes one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded (after a layer of insulation) by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. The outer channel serves as a ground. Many of these cables or pairs of coaxial tubes can be placed in a single outer sheathing and, with repeaters, can carry information for a great distance.

PVC jacketed Bus Drop Cable is intended for use as drop cables from overhead busways and allows easy relocation of plant equipment.Resistant to oils, lubricants, acids, alkalies, ozone, water and abrasion. Individual grounds per conductor. Conductors, grounds and filler are cabled for flexibility then wrapped in a separator to aid strippability. Rated for use in wet or dry locations.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable contains 4 twisted pairs of wires, a total of 8 wires. The strands that constitute each wire will either be a single strand or multiple strands, usually referred to as solid or flex. Typically the solid is used to run through walls and ceilings and the flex is used to make drop cables (the cable from the wall plate to the desktop computer) and patch cables (the cable from the patch panel to the hub). Whether the exterior portion of the cable that contains the 4 twisted pairs, the jacket, is Plenum grade or Non-plenum grade is very important, it refers to the Fire Codes.The pairs of wires in UTP cable are colored so that one can identify the same wire at each end. Furthermore, they are usually color coded by pair so that the pairs can also be identified from end to end.

Fiber Optic Cables use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information in copper lines.Light pulses move easily down the fiber-optic line because of a principle known as total internal reflection. “This principle of total internal reflection states that when the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value, light cannot get out of the glass; instead, the light bounces back in. When this principle is applied to the construction of the fiber-optic strand, it is possible to transmit information down fiber lines in the form of light pulses.

Monopoly and Mortgage: Playing the Game

Remember monopoly? Remember mortgages? You know, the text that’s written when you flip your title deed. Flipping the title deed means your property is on mortgage and you’ll get money from the bank.

Sounds simple right? Wrong. There’s much more to it than that.

Here are the things you need to know about the game and how to get most out of your mortgages.

The idea of the game is to buy and rent and sell properties so profitably that one becomes the wealthiest player and eventual “monopolist”. Starting from “go” move tokens around the board according to the throw of dice.

When a player’s token lands on a space not yet owned, he may buy it from the bank: otherwise it is auctioned off to the highest bidder.

The purpose of owning property is to collect rents from opponents landing there. Rentals are greatly increased if you put houses (those little green ones) and hotels (those dreaded red infrastructures).

So your best bet in winning the game is to put the most houses or hotels in your lots. (That’s assuming you don’t land in your opponents’ lots with houses or hotels).

To raise more money, lots may be mortgaged to the bank. Here comes the tricky part. That includes deciding which lots to mortgage and how you can get the most out of your mortgaged property.

Mortgages in monopoly can be done only through the bank. The mortgage value is printed on each title deed. The rate of interest is 10 percent, payable when the mortgage is lifted. If any property is transferred which is mortgaged, the new owner may lift the mortgage at once if he wishes, but must pay 10 percent interest.

If he fails to lift the mortgage he still pays 10 percent interest and if he lifts the mortgage later on he pays an additional 10 per cent interest as well as the main value.

Houses or hotels cannot be mortgaged. All buildings on the lot must be sold back to the bank before any property can be mortgaged. The bank will pay one-half of what was paid for them.

In order to rebuild a house on mortgaged property the owner must pay the bank the amount of the mortgage, plus the 10 percent interest charge and buy the house back from the bank at its full price.

When you mortgage a property, you can use the money for anything you want to, so long as it’s legal under the rules of monopoly. The only restriction in this regard is that a player cannot pre-mortgage a property to finance its own purchase.

For example, say a player wants to purchase Boardwalk but can’t do it with his or her current assets. That player cannot say, “I’m going to buy Boardwalk by mortgaging it, and then using the money I get for the mortgage to complete the purchase.” You must own a property before you can mortgage it.

Playing the game is fun and it will give you an idea of how it is in the real buy and sell world. There are also the Community Chest and Chance spaces which players land on. Instructions ranging from winning $25 dollars to $500 dollars are given. Sometimes players even land in jail! This game is definitely a clever and amusing entertainment.

Affordable Ways to Protect Your Car’s Interior

Protect Your Investment

So, you’ve plunked down some cash and buy yourself a car. Now it’s time to take a few easy steps to help protect your auto’s interior and your investment.

One of the most inexpensive accessories you can buy is a simple window shade for the inside of the windshield. Folding or collapsing window shades come in many sizes and shapes as well as colors and patterns so you can find one to match or compliment your interior.

Unlike window tinting, these types of protective window shades are not attached to the window so they are portable and need no installation. They will provide shade for your dashboard and steering wheel so they will help to protect your dashboard from cracking as well as keeping your interior a bit cooler.

Another inexpensive way to protect the interior of your auto is with floor mats. Like window shades, floor mats also come in many colors and designs so you’re sure to find a set that suits your taste.

They can play a crucial role in the maintenance of your car’s interior by keeping the carpeting of you car clean and free from all the mud, dirt and oil stains tracked in on the feet of you and your passengers.

Floor mats also come in a variety of materials, from carpet to rubber and vinyl. These days you can even find your favorite car logo or cartoon characters printed on them.

Lastly, investing in an affordable set of seat covers is a must-do.

If your car is new, using car seat covers keeps you free from having to worry about stains, rips or scratches in your upholstery.

If your car is a bit older, a new pair of seat covers can make your car look like it has new seats. They can brighten up your car while covering any defects like torn or shabby looking seats.

If you taxi around kids or pets a set of seat covers will give you peace of mind. If anyone has an accident or spills food or drinks on your seats you can either wash them or quickly and easily get a new pair.

Auto seat covers come in everything from zebra and leopard patterns to solids and Hawaiian print seat covers so no matter what the model or color of your car, you’re sure to find car seat covers you’ll enjoy.

It’s fun and easy to protect your new investment or spruce up an old jalopy with any or all of these affordable accessories for your car.

You can find Hawaiian seat covers for your car or truck at

Plant Stem Cells – Defying Age – Inside and Outside

They say that age is just a state of mind. Yet, some facts prove it is not, actually.

People age because their cells age too. Beneath the wrinkles and gray hair, there lies a unique mechanism that only our body can understand fully well-aging.

Cell aging has always baffled scientists and laypersons alike. Yet, after years of research, they have actually defined the two most important processes that appear as milestones in the life of a cell-mitosis and apoptosis.

Mitosis is the process of cell division. Different types of cells have different life spans and they divide according to the work that they do or the demand for their functions. For example, cells which make up the stomach, the lips and the intestines live for only 3 days. Our skin cells die after 20 days. Our red blood cells live for 120 days. Our liver cells live for 200 days. Brain cells have a longer life-30-50 years.

Yet, there are also factors which we have to consider which leads to faster aging. Hereditary factors, our diet and our environment are these factors. It is said that the color of your skin will affect how your skin will age. Dark skin is slow to age and fair skin is faster to age.

Next is the role of diet. A diet rich in Vitamins A and E is rich in antioxidants. These antioxidants are rich in fruits and vegetables. A hostile environment can cause the skin to age faster. Sun exposure and smoking are stresses which speeds up skin aging.

Cell death or apoptosis is beneficial because it makes old cells die and gives rise to the regeneration of new cells, which make the person be more youthful and fresh-looking.

There is another form of cell death which is termed as necrosis. Necrosis is not a natural way to die among cells. It is an accidental death or a traumatic death brought about when cells, who are not expected to die, experience a lack of nutrients or ischemia-a lack of oxygen due to a lack of blood supply. This stresses lead to the production of oxides and free radicals which when present inside the cell, control the cell’s processes and makes it die.

Having known these facts, how do we delay skin aging?

Synthetic drugs, creams, peeling and depigmentation agents cause stresses. They also lead to death of cells, and eventually regeneration, but through the unhealthy process of necrosis. Necrosis, as a traumatic type of cell death, can make the cells go “crazy”— and they emit signals which are misleading to other cells. Cell biological processes go berserk. The process may give rise to CANCER-which is a product of miscommunication and chaos among the cell organelles and processes.

We should promote a healthy type of death among our cells. And there is only one way to achieve this-natural therapy with the use of plant stem cells. Plant stem cells are derived from buds, young shoots and rootlets. These cells are very young and have never been exposed to stresses. They are delicate materials yet they have potent pure substances within them. We at PSC Plant Stem Cell Nutrition has applied the latest biological technology in processing these cells as carefully as we can, so that we can make them into therapies-for the modern men and women who are exposed to stress, air pollution and infectious exposure every day. We have a range of ointments and oral solutions to suit you.

While you are reading this article, some of your cells are dying. Are you sure they are dying a natural type of death, considering the food you have just eaten, your busy and sleepless lifestyle and the medicines you are taking? If you act now, you can encourage them to die a natural death and to regenerate new cells. New cells lead to a renewed body and mind. Act now before it is too late! PSC Plant Stem Cells Therapy is the answer.

Five Popular Clinical Documentation Audit Tools

Clinical documentation is the need of the hour today and it is used by the health care industry to assess the quality and standard of the patients. Here we discuss dome of the popular tools used in this process.

The primary focus of having clinical documentation in the health care industry is to monitor the quality and standard of the medical care that is provided to the patients. Responsibility of maintaining high standards and quality in the treatment process as well as accountability and responsibility to provide the best available medical resources is directly associated with clinical governance. Clinical audit is the main feature of clinical governance and it is done to maintain clarity and review performance, which automatically helps to improve the medical documentation procedure. Thus, clinical documentation plays a crucial role in the medical field.

The primary audit tool that is required for effective clinical documentation is the “Out of Hours Toolkit.” This tool was designed and developed by the Royal College of General Practitioners. The primary purpose of this tool is to perform out of hours services audits. It follows a fixed set of parameters for physicians, call receivers, treatment process, and patient handling. It provides results in point rate grading system to measure whether the patients’ needs were met or not i.e. it measures the output of each and every personnel. It includes rating scale from 0 to 2, where 0 indicates that the needs of the patient were not met, 1 indicates they were partially met and 2 indicates fully met.

Another important clinical documentation audit tool is the “IMRCI – Back Pain Audit Toolkit.” It was developed keeping in mind four crucial areas- exercise, active lifestyle, manipulation, and bed rest. The assessment done by this tool mainly focuses on initial diagnosis, psychosocial factors, treatment investigation, and medication. There have been several drawbacks of this tool because it focuses mainly on the initial visit and does not consider the whole treatment process. Treatment details reviewing place is absent, and there are no back pain audit standards set in the tool.

The clinical documentation software from Sigmund is a fully computerized system. It helps in maintaining records or documentation from the stage of admission to the discharge of a patient. It includes effective tools, which monitor accuracy, quality, and documentation time. It has e-signature, and automatic assessment of documents and task management, which streamline the process of documentation by reducing the patients’ waiting time and increasing the output level.

The Concerto Orion clinical documentation software helps in the improvement of quality and accuracy. It maintains accurate documentation, which is based on HER and includes customizable templates. It is a great tool for audit and is widely used by health care industry professionals. Another prominent tool is the CdiTrax, which is also great documentation software in use nowadays.

Continuing Education Requirements for Structural Engineers in Illinois

Illinois requires continuing education to help safeguard life, health, and property, and to promote public welfare. To demonstrate continuing professional competency, the licensed engineer must earn 30 Professional Development Hours (PDH) per renewal period, which is two years in the state of Illinois.

Continuing professional activities which satisfy the professional development requirements are as follows (provided these activities are relevant to the practice of structural engineering): university sponsored courses, self administered courses (such as videotaped courses, or correspondence courses), seminars, in-house programs, teaching, authoring published papers, receiving US patents, and active participation on a committee or holding office in a professional or technical society.

The board does not pre-approve any Continuing Professional Competency activities. It is the responsibility of each licensee to determine if the claimed PDH meets these requirements.

The above listed activities are limited as follows. The licensee can claim a maximum of 2 PDH’s per committee membership or office held in a professional society up to a maximum of 10 PDH’s per renewal period. A maximum of 10 PDH’s per renewal period may be earned from completion of self-administered courses, provided each self-administered course includes an exam graded by the sponsor. A maximum of 10 PDH’s per renewal period may be claimed for in-house courses.

This is slightly different than the continuing education requirements for professional engineers in Illinois, as professional engineers aren’t limited to 10 PDH’s in the in-house and self administered course categories. Professional engineers are limited to a maximum of 8 PDH’s for participation in technical societies.

Continuing Professional Competency activities must meet general criteria to be deemed acceptable by the board in the event of an audit. The activity must contribute to the advancement, extension or enhancement of the professional skills and/or scientific knowledge of the licensee in practice of structural engineering. It must foster the enhancement of general or specialized practice and values of structural engineering, related sciences and engineering ethics. Finally, it must be developed and presented by persons with education and/or experience in the subject matter of the program.

Illinois allows licensees exemptions from the continuing education requirements under four specific circumstances. First, A non-career military licensee serving on active duty during a substantial part of the renewal period is exempt. Second, A licensee who has experienced serious illness or injury of a nature and duration which has prohibited completing the continuing professional competency requirements verified by a letter from a physician to the board is exempt. Third, A licensee with a physical inability to travel to the sites of approved programs documented by a currently licensed physician is exempt. Finally, Any other similar extenuating circumstance my be grounds for exemption. The board must be notified that the licensee plans to claim an exemption prior to license renewal.

The statutes provided by Illinois concerning continuing education requirements for structural engineers are confusing, but follow these three simple rules and you’ll pass an audit with flying colors. First, keep careful documentation of all of the activities you complete, and maintain your records for a minimum of four years. Second, do not claim more than 10 hours of in-house training, 10 hours of self administered courses, or 10 hours of technical society involvement in any given renewal period. Third, take advantage of continuing education. No matter which way you look at it, you have to complete 30 hours every two years. I’d recommend taking quality seminars provided by AISC, SEAOI, ACI, or any other reputable society to ensure you’re on top of the latest developments and trends in structural engineering.

12 Tips for Overcoming Anger and Gaining Peace

Anger appears when one is confronted with frustration, unhappiness or hurt feelings, or when plans don’t turn out as desired. It also shows up when coming against opposition or criticism.

Anger never helps anyone. It wastes your energy, and can hurt your health, spoil your relationships, and cause you to miss opportunities. Getting angry is acting against your best interests.

Things don’t always proceed according to plans and expectations. People not always act the way you wish them to act. You may not be always able to be in control of external influences and conditions, but you can certainly learn to control your attitude and reactions. There is no sense of allowing circumstances and people to pull your strings and affect your mind and feelings. You can choose not to let what people say and do affect your moods. You can maintain an inner attitude of emotional and mental detachment, and refuse to allow every minor event play with your feelings and evoke anger.

I often see people getting angry over unimportant and insignificant matters. Some insignificant remark or action, not getting a satisfactory reply to a question or just moodiness are enough to set fire and cause anger, snappy remarks, arguments and even physical fights. This is absolutely unnecessary. Life can be happier without this behavior.

Anger is a negative reaction, and if you wish to progress on the path of self-improvement or spiritual growth you should avoid it as much as possible.

Learning to calm down the restlessness of the mind and gaining peace of mind, is one of the best and most effective methods to overcome anger, and in fact, all negative emotions.

If you are willing to invest the time and energy, you will reap great rewards. Peace of mind will not only help you overcome anger, but also help you overcome anxiety and negative thinking, and enable you to stay calm, tranquil and self possessed in difficult and trying situations.

Peace of mind requires the development of an attitude of emotional and mental detachment, which is of vital importance for overcoming and avoiding anger. It protects you against being too affected by what people think, say or do, and is therefore highly recommended. Detachment is not an attitude of indifference and lack of sensitivity. It is an attitude of common sense and inner strength and leads to peace of mind.

I would like now to suggest a few simple tips to help you manifest some inner detachment and peace of mind, so as to be in a better position to overcome anger.

1. At least once a day, devote several minutes to thinking on how much your life would be better without anger.

2. When you feel anger arising in you, start breathing deeply and slowly several times.

3. You may, instead of breathing deeply, or better still, in addition to it, count slowly from one to ten. This will delay your angry reaction and weaken it.

4. Drinking some water has a calming effect on the body.

5. Try to be more patient, no matter how difficult it might be.

6. Be more tolerant toward people, even toward people you don’t like.

7. Everyone is entitled to his/her opinion. You can disagree with people, but still maintain tact and diplomacy.

8. Choose to react calmly and peacefully in every situation. Try again and again, regardless of how many times you lose control and get angry.

9. Positive thinking makes it easier to disregard remarks and behavior that otherwise could cause anger.

10. Try to manifest at least some self-control, self-discipline and more common sense.

11. Don’t take everything too seriously. It is not worth it.

12. Find reasons to laugh more often.

The History of Home Insulation

Anyone who has sweated or shivered all night trying to sleep in a poorly insulated house knows that insulation is necessary to keep a home at a comfortable temperature. Insulation works by stopping the transfer of heat from one material to another. This keeps warm air generated by a heater from escaping through windows, walls, and ceilings, or keeps cool air generated by an air conditioner from being warmed by outside air entering the house.

Ancient Egyptians were the first to use asbestos for housing insulation and they also used it for clothing and table wares. Ancient Greek and Roman houses invented cavity walls for insulation. These walls are created by building two stone walls, leaving a channel of air in between. Air is a natural insulator, so this trapped air kept the heat generated by fires inside the houses. Strips of cloth were also used in the Middle Ages and again in the Great Depression in America to trap moisture and stop drafts.

Cavity walls were rediscovered in the 19th century and were used to build houses in Europe and America. Rock wool would be placed into the cavities to provide insulation. Asbestos was also used in this way until the 1970s when the harmful health effects of asbestos were discovered. Asbestos is no longer used in home insulation as it can cause a rare type of cancer.

Because energy costs were low in the earlier part of the 20th century, houses were sometimes built without proper insulation. Even in the 1950s, houses were often built with single layer walls of solid masonry and single pane glass windows. Without insulation, these types of buildings allow heat to escape quickly through the walls and windows.

Today, energy prices are much higher, so all houses must be built with proper insulation to keep energy costs down. Many homes use fibreglass or expanding polystyrene foam inserted into cavity walls as insulation. Fibreglass is so effective because it traps air in between the glass fibres and this air stops the transfer of heat.

With today’s emphasis on making homes as eco-friendly as possible, insulation is important because it contributes to energy efficiency. Materials such as paper cellulose, recycled cotton denim, and sheep wool are eco-friendly options that are used to fill cavity walls. Making sure that a house is properly insulated, with no leaks or installation problems, both saves on energy costs for the homeowner and reduces the demand for energy production.

Calcium Carbonate – Not Just For Your Health

CaCO3 or calcium carbonate in chemistry.

Does it make sense to you?

Although you hear about this chemical compound before and see it as one of the ingredients in calcium supplements, there are still things that you need to know beyond the finished product. Read on and the rest of this article and learn more about this chemical compound.

As mentioned earlier, it is commonly used as a supplement. But there are also other uses of this chemical compound, which will be discussed in the later part of this article.

Aside from the aforementioned applications, it is also a natural ingredient of various elements. It is one of the active ingredients in agricultural lime, as well as a natural substance that can be found on rocks all over the world. Furthermore, it is also one of the major components of sea shells and the shells of the snails. Even the shells of the chicken’s egg contain an estimated 95 percent.

Calcium carbonate that is used in the industry is sourced out from minerals or rocks such as calcite, limestone, chalk, and marble by means of quarrying or mining. Pure calcium carbonate which is used in processing foods or pharmaceutical applications is generated from a pure source, normally from marbles, and prepared by adding another chemical compound which is the carbon dioxide into the calcium hydroxide solution where it precipitates out of the chemical reaction.

As mentioned earlier, it is used on various applications. These are as follows:

o It is mainly used in the construction application, whether as a building material (marble for instance) or limestone aggregate for road building purposes. It is also an active ingredient of the builder’s lime together with the cementor.

o It also used as an extender in commercial paints, particularly in emulsion paints where thirty percent of the paint’s net weight is either marble or chalk.

o It is also used as a filler in plastics.

o Calcium carbonate that is in the form of fine ground is important ingredients in the microporous film used in baby nappies.

o It is also used on adhesive applications, particularly in ceramic tile adhesives where it contains seventy to eighty percent limestone.

o It is mainly employed as whiting elements in ceramics application.

o It is the main component of the blackboard chalk.

o It is now used as an alternative to kaolin with regards to glossy paper production.

It is not just for your health-it also serves other purposes as well. So do not be surprised if the chalk that you are using in your classroom has the same main content as of the supplement that you are taking everyday.