How To Apply A Shellac, Oil, Or Lacquer Finish


Shellac is made from the secretion of the lac insect. Proper thinning of the shellac is a vital part of the correct application. The concentration of shellac in alcohol is known as its cut. Most shellac on the market is 4 or 5 pound cut. The cut is indicated on the label. For almost all purposes, shellac will require thinning with alcohol. The proportions are the same if you are thinning a pint or a gallon. For example: “If you wished to thin a pint of 4-pound cut to a 2-pound cut, you would use 3/4 pint of alcohol to 1 pint of shellac”. A 4-pound cut is the best for general use. When thinning, use only pure denatured ethyl or grain alcohol. Before you use shellac, shake or stir it thoroughly. The first two coats should be thinned to a 2 pound cut and the final coat should be 4 pound cut. Shellac comes in three types: orange, ‘bleached’ or white and dewaxed. White is best for most work and orange is used for dark wood or darkly stained woods.


This finish is ideal for most furniture. Here are some pointers for applying shellac to obtain a satin rubbed finish:

1. Apply enough coats of shellac so the last one shines. (four or more) Allow time for each coat to dry. Test for drying by trying to make a thumb print.

2. Sand lightly with #400 grit paper. Dust with a brush and wipe with a cloth after each coat.

3.Allow several hours for the final coat to dry completely, then rub with 3/0 steel wool until there is absolutely no shine remaining. After the gloss has been removed by rubbing with steel wool, sprinkle the surface with dry 2/0 pumice and brush lightly. Dust and wipe off the surface and apply at least two coats of wax.


This finish is for high grade furniture that requires extreme smoothness and high polish. Surfaces should be completely smoothed with paste filler before the finish is applied. The steps are similer to the satin rubbed finish but usually six or more coats should be applied. When the entire surface has been completed, wipe it off with soft rags and allow to dry completely. When a highly polished finish is desired, it may be obtained by a final rubbing with rottenstone and a linseed oil mixture after the surface has been completely cleaned. Then apply at least two coats of wax.


An oil finish is one of the oldest for hard or close grained woods. The old-fashioned oil finish is accomplished by using a mixture of two-thirds boiled linseed oil and one-third pure turpentine. It requires from five to twenty coats. The process should be repeated until no dull spots remain. Allow at least two days between the first two coats and from a week to a month between later coats. Each coat must be dried before another coat is applied. Because of the time involved, most do-it-yourselfers would rather use the following method:

First coat: Apply one-third raw linseed oil and two-thirds turpentine. Allow 24 hours to dry.

Second coat: Apply pure boiled linseed oil. Dry for 24 hours.

Third coat: Same as second coat.

Fourth coat: Mix and apply on half ‘boiled linseed oil’ and one half japan drier. While applying, watch for tackiness and rub off with burlap. Complete the finish by rubbing with pumice and oil, then with 3/0 steel wool as described earlier.


Lacquer has replaced varnish ans shellac as finishes in the furniture making field because it is easy to spray and dries quickly for fast production. For the home handyman, the lacquer system isn’t widely used because spray equipment is necessary. If your shop is equipped with an air compressor and a spray gun, it’s fairly easy to learn. Lacquer offers a hard, durable, waterproof surface that will withstand high heat without becoming sticky. The surface is transparent and brings out the beauty of the wood grain when a natural finish is desired. Lacquer is the fastest drying finish ever developed. The drying time is 1 1/2 to 2 hours as compared to quick-dry paints, varnishes, and enamels, which require at least 4 hours.

Spraying Technique: The best spraying method requires a pressure of 30 to 40 pounds. As a general rule, using a spray gun at this pressure, you can get by with a single coat. Before beginning the spraying job, be sure the equipment is clean, and make sure it works properly by trying a test pattern on waste material. Apply the spray in even lines across the surface moving parallel with the work. Handling a paint sprayer is an art that comes with practice. Soon you’ll be spraying like a pro.

Roofing – A Guide To Installing Corrugated Iron Roofing

Corrugated Iron Roofing is durable, lightweight and easy to install. If a few extra precautions are taken with handling and fixing, the finished product will greatly be improved.

White Rust

Over half of the mistakes made while constructing a corrugated iron roof can be traced back to incorrect storage or handling. The iron has to be handled and stored correctly because the surface is very easily damaged.

Leave the metal roofing at the manufacturers until you are ready to start installing it. Aim for delivery the day before roofing starts. If the roofing iron arrives before you are able to fix it, you must ensure it is kept bone dry. It is a common mistake to assume that because they are roofing sheets, they can withstand moisture. If the roofing sheets are stacked together and they get wet, they will stain. White rust forms on the coating and it is very difficult to remove. If your roof sheets do get wet, separate each individual sheet. Use bearers to allow airflow around the metal. This will prevent the corrosion.

Gently does it

As for handling, care needs to be taken in order not to damage the paintwork. Sliding sheets across one another will damage them. When separating the roofing sheets, you should lift them cleanly upwards without scratching the one underneath.

Spend more money

Installing a roof can be time consuming and costly. The last thing you need is to have to keep spending money on maintenance. If you scrimp on the cost of fasteners you will forever be replacing loose nails and fixing leaks. Choose good quality roofing screws. These will provide a more secure fixing and last as long as the roofing iron. It’s important not to over tighten the screws. Just tight enough to lightly compress the neoprene washer is sufficient.


If you pre-drill the holes for your roofing screws on the ground, it will be safer and give the roofing a neater appearance. This is only possible if the purlins run parallel to the eaves and the roof is reasonably square.

Using a quality drill bit makes the job easier. The drill bit should be slightly larger than the diameter of the roofing screws. This will prevent stress fractures as the sheets expand and contract.

Take accurate measurements of the purlin centres from the eaves and mark the roofing sheets ready for drilling the screw holes. Don’t forget to add the drop into the gutter to your measurements, usually about 50mm. It’s better to use chalk for marking corrugated roofing iron because pencil may damage the surface.

Cut to the quick

Cutting corrugated iron roofing sheets with a disc cutter makes the job easier and faster. Unfortunately, it also damages the roofing iron beyond repair. Hot particles of steel imbed themselves into the surrounding metal allowing it to corrode. Nibblers will do the job adequately as long as you are careful with the swarf. It’s preferable to cut the sheet with hand shears or best of all power shears. A better finish can be achieved if you make two cuts. The first cut 50mm away from your finished edge allowing you to neatly trim to the line with your second cut.


If you find scratches on your roofing during installation resist the urge to paint it. The paint may well look like a good match from the tin, but after a couple of seasons weathering the patched paintwork will stick out like a sore thumb. Contact the manufacturer and ask for advice on making repairs to their product.

Laying the roofing

Before you start laying the roofing sheets check that the roof is square. If the roof is not square you can still achieve a good finish if you even out the difference, between the two barges. The difference will then be less noticeable as it will be covered by the barge flashing. Run a string line along the eaves, 50mm into the gutter and it will provide you with a straight edge for the roofing sheets.

Clean up

On completion it’s important to clear the roof of any loose swarf. Tiny particles of iron left on the roof will rust and ruin the surface. A soft brush will do the job or ideally a leaf blower can be used.

A well installed corrugated iron roof will give years of maintenance free service. If you take a little extra care with the preparation and fixing, you will achieve a superior finish.

Repairing the Paint Job on Your Own Car vs Professional Paint Repair

Repairing a car’s paint job is not easy. It requires skill, tactics and a lot of patience. A car with a nice paint job is something to be cherished. If you have enough time to spend on your car and you are painting or polishing your own car at home then three components that treat paint surfaces are polish, cleaner and rubbing compound. All of them vary in aggressiveness. They work by removing unwanted dirt or paint, in small proportions, from the surface of the car. To choose any of these products you must examine the condition of your car carefully. If your paint has a dull look after car wash then polish will be the better choice. If paint is extremely dull then you need a cleaner and or rubbing compound.

Rubbing compound can remove entire paint where as polish removes only the smallest amount and a cleaner removes in-between. Removing paint is a serious job. You must choose product with right amount of aggressiveness. First you start with polish and if that does not get the job done or give enough effects then try the cleaner. If polish and cleaner both do not succeed then use rubbing compound. But do take safety measures while using rubbing compound, as it is a strong abrasive. If there is some minor fault or dull effects on your car then use polish. Polish helps you to remove contaminates on the paint surface that may include air borne pollutants, bird dropping or tree sap etc. Rubbing compound can easily scratch the surface of some cars, so extreme caution must be used.

In some cases painting your car with a spray gun is necessary to remove some blemishes or scratches. For that you need an air compressor and a spray gun. Before doing anything just take a spray card and paint it to examine the color match because once you paint the car change is quite difficult. Spray must have high quality solvents to guarantee high performance. If you avoid drying times, sanding times or flash times then this may result in very poor presentation. Even if you follow the instructions perfectly still you cannot replace a professional painter. It is highly advised to take help of their experience.

Mainly there are four basic steps that are required to paint a car and you must understand before going in for the process. They are prep, primer, blocking and spray job. You must also know that how to strip a car of all its trim, bumpers, mirrors, grills and other things that need to be removed before painting. You must strictly follow the instructions of mixing and spraying paint to get good results.

Nowadays a thin adhesive film is available in the market that comes in numerous colors. It is quite useful in creating large areas of color or graphics. It is just like masking. If you don’t have enough time and fine painting skills then please don’t ruin your car’s beauty at home. Just send it to a professional car washer and detailer and they will work for you. Only if you want your own satisfaction of doing it yourself, and you have a lot of time to practice and perfect your skills should you attempt to do any serious detailing to your own car.

How Do Cranes Work? Part I – The Science Behind the Construction

Have you ever marveled at modern technology? Although lots of modern technology and machinery are, in fact, very complicated, some are actually very sensible, once you weed out the bells and whistles.

The construction crane, for instance, is such a machine. The crane generally employs only three simple machines. The lever, the pulley, and the hydraulic cylinder.

In this article, we will briefly examine a very importance mechanism in the construction crane: the lever. Three subsequent articles, however, will investigate the role of the pulley, the hydraulic cylinder, and the concept of mechanical advantage, respectively, in construction cranes.

So, how do cranes work? To a greater or lesser extent, most cranes utilize the lever to lift exceptionally large loads. Almost all mounted cranes and many balanced cranes maximize lifting capacity with the lever.

These cranes use levers, or mechanical arms, that increase its strength. Although a complex system of ropes, chains, and pulleys usually accompany the mechanical arm, the lever itself is merely a simple machine.

The ancients have long used the lever in practice to build large temples, monuments, and fortifications. In fact, scholars contend that the Egyptians most likely used levers to construct the Great Pyramids.

However, most historians attribute the development of the geometric theory behind the lever to Archimedes. Archimedes, a Mathematician and Philosopher, lived in Ancient Greece around the third century B.C.E. Purportedly, he once quipped, “Give me a place to stand, and I shall move the Earth with a lever.”

The lever itself is a stable bar that rests on a pivot point, or fulcrum. You can press down on one end with some “effort” force to produce some resulting “work” force on the other end. The work force usually carries or holds the object being lifted.

Scientist classify all levers into three different groups. In class one levers, the fulcrum sits between the effort and work forces, as in a seesaw or crowbar. Class two levers are levers in which the the work force sits between the fulcrum and the effort force, like a wheelbarrow. And in class three levers, the effort force is applied between the fulcrum and the work force, as in tweezers.

But, again, how do cranes work? As we will see with the pulley and hydraulic cylinder, the lever manipulates a concept known as torque. Torque measures the distance over which a force is applied, or torque equals force times distance.

As Archimedes realized, manipulating torque provides greater lifting capacities. For example, consider a simple seesaw on a playground. The seesaw in ten feet long, and it pivots on a bar directly in the center of the seesaw board. One on side sits a 200 pound kid, and on the opposite side sits a scrawnier 100 pound kid.

The fatter kid will certainly push his side of the seesaw down to the ground, while the scrawny kid raises up. For the smaller kid, the must apply an extra 100 pounds of force to merely balance out the seesaw!

But what if he had magical abilities that allowed him to extend his side of the seesaw by 5 more feet. His ten-foot side of the seesaw, matched with his 100 pound weight, would allow him to balance the seesaw. And, theoretically, if he extended his side to a length greater than 10 feet, his side would slowly creep the ground, lifting the fatter kid off the ground.

Yet, again, how do cranes work? The lever, in part, manipulates torque allow cranes to lift very heavy loads. The more you spread the effort force over greater distances, the less “effort” force will be required to make the lift. Levers don’t only help scrawny children but also hundreds of engineers, architects, and construction workers who lift gigantic loads everyday!

Stay tuned for the next segment in our series “How Do Cranes Work?”, when we will explore the role of the pulley. Then we will move on to the hydraulic cylinder and the concept of mechanical advantage.

Do Married Men Who Cheat Stay With Their Wives? Many Do – Here’s Why

I often get emails from mistresses who are in a relationship with a married man and are petrified that he’s eventually going to return to his wife. Also, I sometimes hear from the wives who want to know what is the chances that their husband will come to his senses and realize how stupid he is acting so that he will eventually ditch the mistress and return home to his regular life.

Of course, it depends on the person and the man. But, men actually often do go back to their wives. In my experience, this is the rule rather than the exception. Sure, there are some husbands that fall in love with the mistress and never return to their marriage. But, from what I can tell from the folks who comment on my blog and in my own experience, this is relatively rare. In the following article, I will tell you why (in my opinion) married men often return to their wives after cheating.

Any Relationship That Is Based On Secrecy, Deception, And Lies Doesn’t Have A Huge Chance To Be Lasting And Healthy: Let’s face it. When a man cheats, he’s being dishonest, disrespectful, and acting in a very reckless and unhealthy way. This is not the behavior on which lasting and healthy relationships are based. And often, when a man cheats or has an affair, he is facing some type of personal crisis or self doubt. In plain English, he’s in a bad place. So, he’s typically not at a point in his life where he’s going to be able to develop a mutually satisfying relationship.

He’s very often struggling personally and between two relationships. In the beginning the cheating and the affair might seem like the answer to all of his problems. It might be exciting enough that it momentarily draws his attention away from what is really wrong. But this almost always doesn’t last. Usually, he will wake up, realize that his problems are not only still there but have multiplied. Now, he realizes that he’s only made it more difficult for him to recover from whatever he’s dealing with.

Cheating Husbands Usually Eventually Realize That It’s Not Their Wife Who Is The Problem: In the initial stages of cheating and affairs, men will sometimes project their personal problems onto their wife. They will blame her for their unhappiness and for the fact that they aren’t fulfilled. They may even initially think that the mistress or other person has something that the wife does not have.

This typically is short lived though. In the beginning, everything with the other person might be fresh, new, and exciting. But this can’t last forever. All of the fairy dust and magic soon comes to an end. The other woman will usually show herself to be very wife like, with similar demands and expectations. And the husband will eventually realize that he’s gained nothing. Now, the mistress usually will be very careful in the beginning. But soon she too will begin to question what’s in it for her.

These things usually come to a head and the husband looks around and realizes that the wife is the only one who seems to be living in the real world and is the only one who offers any stability. It’s around this time that he realizes that he’s been sold an impossible bill of goods and he’ll typically just want his regular life back. He also will typically realize that he’s been so unfair to his wife, has taken her for granted, and was wrong all along.

Husbands Who Have Had An Affair Often Realize That What They Were Looking For Is The Woman At Home Who Knows Them Better Than Anyone Else: At the end of the day, cheating husbands usually come to realize that they were attempting to live in a fantasy world that could not possibly last or be healthy. There will usually come a time when he will realize that the problem he was running from has not gone away and that now he has even more problems. It’s usually at this point that it becomes crystal clear that he would have been much better off staying home and working through his issues with his spouse like a mature adult.

He realizes that the relationship with the mistress of other woman has no real foundation and no real history. He can no longer deny that the two of them are virtually strangers and yet here he is, risking what he has worked so hard for and held so dear over something so silly. Where he used to retreat knowing that his wife knew all his weaknesses and vulnerability, the affair will show him that the wife’s knowledge of him and ability to stand with him is something that he should have appreciated and surrendered to rather than running away from.

So yes, many married men who cheat do return to their wives. Whether their wives will take them back or not is a completely different question.

Managing the Chiropractic Associate – The Contract

I am often surprised at how many associate type arrangements that I come in contact with, either through a chiropractic friend, though a client or in a story about a chiropractic business owner where there essentially is an employer/employee or at least an owner/independent contractor (IC) relationship, and there is absolutely zero contract in place.

Now I will admit, early in my career I too operated without a ‘written’ contract. My assumption at the time was that if the doctor I had the arrangement with didn’t want one, then I would be better off not being ‘locked in’ either. Well, in that situation it all worked out well, but since then I am constantly witness to so many associate/partnership arrangements gone bad. Truly, the minor work involved in setting up a chiropractic associate contract will almost always save a ton of trouble and money down the road. And, it benefits both sides to know exactly what the arrangement and expectations are.

So, suffice it to say, there should never be a work type arrangement between a clinic and an incoming doctor that is not laid down on paper. Granted, there is such a thing as a ‘verbal contract’ but the facts within those ‘contracts’ always become clouded, and then it is essentially your word verses mine. At the minimum the exchange of emails can solidify at least the outline of an arrangement and can be considered legal. But, nothing will stand up as well as an actual attorney prepared chiropractic associate contract. (I should mention too that you do not need an attorney to write up the agreement, you can prepare a document yourself and it can be just as binding, however, almost always I have found that a good attorney will bring to light issues that you have overlooked, and will word things in the way as to be of much greater protection. Therefore, I always use an attorney or attorneys to prepare the final draft of my contracts).

However, either way you need to be able to put together the basics of what will be included in that chiropractic associate contract. If you leave it up to the attorney completely I guarantee that he will miss issues that are very important to you and to the arrangement because they are industry specific, and it is doubtful that he will have prepared a large number of this specific type of contract to have that knowledge.

So, let’s get started on what your considerations should be.

The first consideration is whether to hire this new associate as an employee or bring him on board as an independent contractor. This is a VERY important distinction, from a variety of standpoints. I will go over the basics concerning the pros and cons and let you decide for yourself which legal distinction will work for you.

From an expense standpoint, both the owner and the associate chiropractor (if he is an astute businessman) would benefit more having the arrangement be that of an IC. Reason being, the owner will save a lot of money on employment taxes, which are.765% of the gross salary. If you pay an associate 80K in salary and bonuses (other benefits aside) you are in reality paying $86,000+. This also benefits the owner who would not be expected to pay any other benefits either, i.e., health insurance, sick days, vacation days, retirement, and so on.

Initially the average associate chiropractic employee might be under the assumption that this will cost him more because they will be responsible at the end of the year for withholding all their own taxes. In actuality this is a very beneficial situation because if the doctor sets himself up in the proper legal entity and then arranges his pay as business income and therefore pays expenses out of these funds and pays himself a combination of salary and bonus, he will come out much better in the end.*

Now, from the standpoint of security, the IC arrangement might not be as good of a situation for the owner. Reason being, if an associate is an IC, then by virtue of what that means he would also be able to work elsewhere at the same time if he wants (think, for example, hiring a plumber). And even though you will have non-compete language in your contract, this might be much harder to enforce if your associate is an IC.

As well, from the owner’s point of view there is another risk when it comes to hiring an associate chiropractor as an IC. The IRS actually has very strict language as to who can qualify as an IC and who cannot because they don’t want people realizing those tax advantages described above. Therefore, in reality, as an associate chiropractor it is pretty hard (but not impossible) to comply with the IRS rules. Here is an article that will better lay out the aspects that the IRS considers when deciding whether or not the worker in question is an IC or an employee: (IRS link provided at the bottom of this article). Now, all that being said, most people in the IC situation may forever operate under this IRS radar, enjoy the tax savings, and still maintain a viable non-compete in their contract. However, I have witnessed more than a few instances where the hired IC associate chiropractor became disgruntled and then reported the owner to the IRS, saying that they were actually an employee and not an IC. If the IRS determines that this is true, that they were actually an employee and not an IC (and it takes them really nothing to make this determination) then you not only become liable for all your back taxes on that ’employee’ but also that employee’s share of those taxes too. So, it is worth the risk? Only you can decide that.

As you can tell, this is a very in depth topic and I am not a lawyer. I just wanted to provide you some basics so you can discuss these issues with your accounting and legal counsel. The language you use in your chiropractic associate contract will differ significantly depending on whether you chose to hire your new associate chiropractor as an IC or an employee. This is further reasoning behind enlisting the assistance of a business attorney.

The aspects of the chiropractic associate contract I want to discuss next will comprise the ‘bulk’ of the document. These are the common issues as related to everything and NOT specific to the deal you worked out with your chiropractic associate. For example, pay, bonuses, time off, etc., will not be in this section. As well, following this list I will delve more into the topic of the non-disclosure agreement, as I believe this is one of the greatest concerns a hiring owner has. However, this more general section I will basically outline below is more generic in nature (which is nice so that you can use it in future employment situations as well). The individualized chiropractic associate contract aspects will be placed at the end, in an addendum or an exhibit.

So, without going into extreme detail regarding all these core aspects, I will just list them so you will be sure not to miss them in your legal document:

1) Recitals: corporate name(s), owner’s name(s), associate’s name.

2) Agreements: incorporation of recitals, term, representations and warrantees of provider (services administered, licensure issues, disciplinary past, compliance with state laws, rules, participation in insurance plans, etc.)

3) Duties of Provider: hours, duties, records

4) Relationship: IC or employee and the ramifications of those

5) Office Space, Personnel and Admin Support

6) Assignment of Fees; Billing and Collection: agreement of assignment of collections in their name to the corporation

7) Consideration for Services: referring to Exhibit or Amendment attached at end.

8) Insurance: who is to pay for

9) Control of Work: Warranties: (more for the IC relationship)

10) Confidentiality and Non-Disclosure/Non-Solicitation: (covered in more detail following this list)

11) Termination: reasons the employee can be let go immediately, as well as the notice that has to be given, on both sides, for ending the relationship.

12) Effects of Termination: how things like the books, records, personal items, etc., will be handled upon termination.

13) Miscellaneous: Assignment, Incurring Financial Obligations, No Third Party Beneficiary, Binding Nature, Governing Law, Entire Agreement, Notices, Waiver, Counterparts, Severability, Additional Documents.

Now, of greatest concern is usually the non-compete language. This is usually what concerns the hiring doctor the most, and for good reason. No one wants the nightmare of hiring an associate chiropractor, training him and letting him get close to your patients, to then leave one day and open up just down the street, draining you of everything you have built over the years. It is sad, but believe me, this happens.

The first thing for you to know, and something you would not voluntarily reveal to your chiropractic associate, is that the main reason for non-compete language is to create a defensive deterrent. That is to say, you want the associate to always be aware that should they leave that they have agreed that they will leave and comply with these tenants of the non-compete agreement, or suffer these _______ repercussions.

The unfortunate truth about non-compete agreements are that, legally, they hard to enforce (unless of course your attorney has done an excellent job drafting the language just right). Now, even if the language is good you will also have the issue regarding cost. Granted, once we are taken advantage of by someone we placed trust in often times in the search for justice we will make an emotional decision to pay whatever it takes to correct this wrong. But, what we really need to do is take a minute, look at the situation subjectively and answer this one question: “If it is going to cost me $10,000 (for example) to go after this person, have they or will they actually cause me much more than 10K worth of damage?” I had a chiropractic associate one time leave and a few months later go to work for another doctor essentially right across the street. We were infuriated; however, after careful consideration (and the prospect of spending 10K) we realize that her being there was actually zero cost threat to us. In this situation the patients were not fans of her treatment and loved our new doctor, so she was not going to take any business from us.

If, on the other hand, things had been slightly different and she actively marketed to our patients and, over time, our numbers suffered substantially I promise you that legal action would have been taken.

Now, that being said, let me mention the main considerations when it comes to a non-complete: time and distance. See, any judge or mediator given the job of evaluating the situation is going to first decide if the contracted arrangement is reasonable (given the business) and if it is not too over-reaching in that it would limit the leaving doctors ability to make a living. Therefore, the terms of the non-compete need to be laid out wherein the doctor is not allowed to practice within so many miles radius for so much time. However, that needs to be followed up with language such as:

(i) Notwithstanding the foregoing subparagraph 11(b), if 2 years is determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be overly broad, then the period shall be equivalent to 18 months;

(ii) Notwithstanding the foregoing subparagraph (i), if 18 months is determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to be overly broad, then the period shall be equivalent to 1 year;

(iii) And so on

By adding language such as this you allow the judge or mediator the option of picking something that he or she considers reasonable. Is this ideal? No, but it does offer some protection.

Following this, your attorney would need to add language related to this such as Liquidated Damages, Injunctive Relief; Legal Fees, Severability and Scope.

Now, equally important is to also include the very same type language as it relates to Confidentiality, Non-Disclosure and Non-Solicitation. Essentially, this means they will not take what is private to you and how you operate your business and make use of it elsewhere – like for a competitor. This includes anything related to your business methods, patient files, patient lists, and your employees (like trying to hire them from you).

Now, the individualized part, the part everyone often thinks will be the hardest is often the easiest part. That is the part that deals with pay. Now that the overall framework is set down, a page at the end of the chiropractic associate contract is attached that just says it like it is, either as an exhibit or an addendum. They will get paid X amount on X dates. The bonus structure will be X per every X and so on. Usually this page has no more than 1 or 2 short paragraphs on it. You can make it as simple or as complicated as you want.

As you can tell, this is a pretty extensive topic and I know I have only touched upon it, but I think you can definitely see how enlisting a professional in this realm is essential. However, now you should at least have a good framework to make sure your attorney covers the bases. As well, a good consulting group or chiropractic placement agency should be able to provide very good versions of the 2 types of chiropractic associate contracts for you to use directly which will save you hundreds of dollars by giving your attorney a framework by which to alter slightly for your own particular needs.

-Dr. Troy Counselman

IRS Link:,,id=99921,00.html

Tips For Growing Basil in Containers

If you have limited garden space, then growing basil in containers will be the best way to have your own basil. You will have the best tasting harvest ever in comparison to those bought in your local grocery store when growing basil in containers.

Container Specifications

Before you jump start to growing this herb in containers, make sure you have all the requirements needed for proper growth and germination. Choose an area that will have at least 6 hours of sunlight. This herb loves the sun, and will do better when grown in a place that has a lot of sun and no shade. A container of at least 8 inches will do for your herb. You have the option of choosing between multitudes of containers, with the exception of ceramic pots. Your container must have drainage holes at the bottom, for it is easy to drown crops when growing basil in containers. The bottom of your container must be lined with broken pieces of terracotta pots, or pea pebbles to aid drainage.

Potting Mix for Growing Basil in Containers

Choose a soil that is made especially for container gardening. Never use ordinary garden soil for growing basil in containers for it is mostly made up of clay, does not drain well, and also hosts millions of dormant bacteria, virus, and fungus that can cause disease in your plants. Your potting mix is already pre-mixed with organic material, peat, perlite or vermiculite, as well as compost for proper growth. Adjust the pH of the soil to 6.0 to 7.5, although this step is just optional.

Staring your Cultivation

You can start growing basil in containers from seeds. Seeds can easily be bought online or from local gardening stores. The seeds are placed on the soil and covered with 1/4 inch compost. If you water the seeds well, keep the soil warm to 75 degrees Fahrenheit, your seeds will germinate from 7-10 days. Once the seedlings have 2-4 pairs of true leaves, thin the seedlings out when growing basil in containers so that you have at least 6 inches between each seedling. If you cannot wait long for growing basil in containers, you can start from cuttings or transplants. Be careful when taking the transplant out of its container for it does not want to have its roots disturbed. Dig a hole twice as big as the container that your herb came in and place a good amount of compost at the bottom. Place in your transplant carefully and make sure that the level of the soil is 2 inches below the lip of the container. This will give you room to water your plants. Afterwards, give them water until it flows out of the drainage holes.

Mulch the top soil for proper care of growing basil in containers. This will protect the shallow roots as well as prevent weeds from invading your pot. Fertilize your herb with 15-15-15 organic fertilizer or spray them with compost tea to keep away pests and disease. Harvest the leaves as you are growing basil in containers once they have grown to a size that is appropriate for you. When growing basil in containers, make sure to pinch off the top new shoots to promote lateral growth and to prevent your plant from being too leggy. You must also pinch off flowers as they can result to drab tasting herb. Keep the soil moist but not wet by giving them deep watering when the soil is dry. A moist soil should be left alone, but a soil that is dry up to 2 knuckles down need to be watered.

Growing basil in containers can be easy and rewarding. All you need would be plenty of sun, good amount of water, and adequate drainage for proper, healthy growth.

For more information, visit

How To Stop Your Air Conditioner From Freezing Up


My air conditioner is freezing up almost daily. I’ve tried resetting the temperature and nothing seems to work. What would you suggest I to to stop my air conditioner from freezing?


There are several factors that could be the cause. The four main reasons for air conditioner freeze ups:

Refrigerant charge

Outdoor temperature

Insufficient air flow

Defective blower

You may have a low refrigerant charge which can cause the air conditioner to freeze up. The system needs to be charged correctly to enable it to work properly. You may have a leak in the refrigerant lines.

If the lines have been vibrating or rubbing other parts or objects the friction could cause a leak. In addition if there are loose fittings or weak solder joints it could be leaking from those areas. If you’ve determined the refrigerant lines are not leaking than it may just need to be recharged. If you don’t know how to recharge it you may need to contact a service technician.

In temperatures under 60 degrees outdoor air conditioning units tend not to function as well. When the temperature drops the system begins to not function properly and freeze ups can occur. The simplest method is to not use your unit when the temperature cools down and open your windows or doors. If that’s not a option you will probably need to have a ambient temperature control installed in your system.

The evaporator coils will become dirty over time. A dirty filter restricts the air flow making it lose air flow and eventually it becomes so slow that it freezes up, or at best, not cooling as well as it should. This results in dirty coils that will need to be cleaned. Depending on your air conditioner you may have to remove the coils to clean them. You should replace the AC filter yearly. For central air conditioning units another problem that occurs is when you have duct work that is undersized causing the unit to freeze up. If you feel that may be the problem you’ll need to consult a professional. Try replacing the filter first and it may do the trick.

Air conditioner freeze ups can occur when the blower is not running at the required speed and may need to be replaced.

These are the main reasons why air conditioners freeze up. If you’re lucky it may just be a dirty filter which you should be able to replace yourself.

Air Compressors – Learning the Basics of Air Compressors

Air compressor is a mechanical tool that is utilized in order to augment the force of atmospheric air. Majority of industries, specifically in automotive and carpentry areas, these machines are very useful. Bigger compressors are set as stable fixtures in some businesses wherein all the works are made on sire. You may use little air compressor around the house and you may carry it anywhere. It may be base-mounted, tank less or riser mounted, depending on the work required or the place where they are to be used. Several little tools

Main Uses

Air compressors have many uses; they make the work easier if you like to inflate tires, balloons or even swimming pools. In construction and automotive industries, air chisels are brilliant air compressors used in cutting metal from vehicles or in cutting pieces of metal used in installation. Several little tools now make use of the scheme of compressed air in order that the job is made easier. Painting of vehicles is done easily and smoothly with the use of the compressor.

The following are the different kinds of compressors having their own drawbacks and benefits:

1. Oil less compressors – they do not need oil in lubricating their valves and pistons. It has two benefits;

a) you can save a lot of money in maintenance

b) the high force air are not polluted with minute oil particles that may cause blemishes if sprayed on paints, cover glue, and some finishes.

2. Gas – normal gas compressor is excellent for wood workforce who often assembles or completes projects far from their shop.

3. Electric – this compressor is the best choice for those working in the shops.

4. Portable – this compressor is frequently called pancake compressor due to its pancake shape; this is important for workers who are working off site and ideal for woodworkers who need the power given by big shop-style compressors.

5. Large Stationary Air Compressor Systems – the whole machine schemes are built which depend on the specification if it comes into big industrial amenities.

Choosing the right air compressor must be based in the wood workings you need. However, affordability and power must be the determining feature for wood workers. If you want to make use of the compressor for many times, it is excellent to invest in more advanced models. It is therefore extremely significant to scrutinize your personal needs when considering the machine.

A Pillar of Internet Marketing

There is no mystery to making a lot of money online. Online income requires two parts, that is, a product to sell and a method to selling it! That’s it, job done, mystery solved! The required two parts are as follows:

Selling your own product

So, how do you source the product to sell? Depending on your circumstances, most persons will assume an approach from one of two different directions:

• The person has the knowledge and experience in a particular field or subject or

• The person has no particular subject matter in mind,

In the first of these situations, given your enthusiastic interest and motivation, it may be that you want to create a book, whether digital or printed. Before you do that, there is one critical question that you need to ask yourself, that is, is there a market for the product that you would like to create? If not, it is a good indicator that any sales strategy will not be effective. How do you do this? The most effective strategy would be to establish whether any interest is shown by researching what people on the internet are looking for.

Selling some else’s product

There is a possibility that a person has no desire to create their own product? You can achieve this by becoming what is known as an affiliate, which is to promote a product that has already been developed and introduced to the market. This method is preferred as you will spend less time and resources creating your own product and is an easier way to get started making money online, no doubt about that. So, you just need to find the product that you want to sell, and you do this by selecting it from an affiliate service provider. The above mentioned are two types of products that can be used to start an online campaign. You can decide what products to sell.

Stepping Up Your Game

It is essential to consider the option to extend their visibility by acquiring their own domain and hosting account to be considered as a serious online marketer or an online business entrepreneur. Search for a recommended list of hosting providers for the most affordable option, providers have various deals for various requirements. Once you have acquired a domain and hosting account you will need to decide what you will call your online venture and construct your own website.

The Savage Love Advice Column Advice – Understanding What His Column and Advice is All About

If you are not familiar with the Savage Love Advice Column, it is written by Dan Savage and is a nationally syndicated column that obviously deals with sex advice. Dan Savage himself is the author or several novels, is openly gay and is extremely controversial. His opinions are often criticized by those with conservative moral values.

In 1991, the world would never be the same as Savage had a friend that was moving to Seattle to start up his own publication. He made an off-hand remark that he needed to remember to have an advice column because everyone reads them and low and behold, Savage Love was born.

If you are looking for a column that is tame and tries not to offend anyone, you are looking in the wrong place. His column is a forum for him to tell it like it is. He will give up front advice to anyone looking for it, gays, straights, abuse victims, it doesn’t matter. Like it or not, there are no taboos with Dan Savage.

Some recent examples of his column have an older woman asking how she should deal with the fact that she recently has learned that her lover is into bondage. She does not get to spend a lot of time with him but is a little worried that he will become attached to a mistress and she will lose him. His advice is to more or less let him have his fun. His point in very understandable, as these two only see each other on occasion and he is not likely to give that up for a woman that he very rarely sees. As a matter of fact, since very few mistresses indulge in sex with their clients, this will keep him busy when she is away from him. Screwed up, but it actually does make sense.

Another column is dedicated to a man who is obsessed with his girlfriend sitting on his face and he wants to know if there is a device that he can purchase that will allow penetration. Again, he gives what would seem to be an informed opinion that there is not currently on the market, but gives him ideas on how to contact someone that could make such a mask.

In essence, the Savage Love Advice Column is a newer version of Doctor Ruth. If you read through past articles you will find just about every sexual topic that you can possibly imagine. Is this column for everyone, absolutely not, but it definitely has its niche and is far and away one of the hallmarks of The Stranger.

If you are interested in getting practical advice on how to attract beautiful women then visit my website and get your hands on the free report that has helped thousands of men become dating kings.

Acupressure Mats Review – How to Choose Your Acupressure Mat

All around the world the demands on healthcare systems with finite resources is increasing. The resource which seems to have been forgotten is the power of the human body to heal itself. These methods are sometimes called “Alternative Therapies” although in truth they have been providing effective relief for centuries, long before the rise of “Modern Medicine.” One of the most effective of these treatments is the Acupressure and it is easy to see why. The treatment is non invasive and does not bring with it unwanted side effects. It can be performed in the comfort of your own home. Most importantly – it works – with results which can be measured from the first treatment and benefits which accrue with use.

Acupressure has proved to be popular and has gained a strong reputation amongst natural treatments and alternative medicine all around the world. The first use of the acupressure mat as we know it today was in Soviet Union in the 1980s and the name of the first mats was related to its inventor Ivan Kuznetsov. These mats are called Kuznetsov Applicators. Since their introduction many millions of Kuznetsov Applicators have been sold in the former Soviet States and the lives of millions improved as a result.

In the late 1990s, with the spread of liberation following the demise of the Soviet Union Acupressure Mats began to be popular in a wide range of former Soviet Block countries and beyond. Today we are seeing the popularity of Acupressure Mats spreading worldwide with their use sweeping across Scandinavia, Western Europe, America and Australia. This popularity of Acupressure Mats is explained by their extreme simplicity and fantastic effectiveness. Unlike most drugs, relief is usually immediate.

Acupressure itself is known to benefit health in a number of positive ways – including reducing stress and tension; increasing blood circulation; aiding in the removal of toxic wastes; providing relief from head, neck and shoulder aches; promoting healing; increasing energy levels; and increasing feelings of well-being. Original Acupressure Mats have provided effective relief in thousands of clinical cases and the success rate is 93%. It doesn’t seem to matter how severe the pain is or how long the person has suffered. Millions of Acupressure mats are being sold annually and as the reputation of the treatment spreads it is certain that more are will be sold in the future. There are dozens of different types, sizes, modifications and names of the Acupressure mat.

Mats are now marketed under a confusing number of trade names. They are variously called Tibetan Applicator, Russian Prickle Pad, Bed of nails, Hedgehog, Spike mat, Spikmatta, Piikkimatto, Shaktimatto, Shakti Mat, Yoga mat, Fakir Mat or Yantra mat. With such a variety to choose from choosing the right mat for your particular condition can be a puzzle. The main thing that should be considered is that this is a personal use device and it will be used in direct contact with our skin.

It is important to check that plastic spines are made of non allergic and non toxic materials and that they are securely fixed to the base fabric using a high strength, non-toxic adhesive. It is also important to check that the mat has got the necessary health and hygiene certificates. The material used for the base of the mat is also important. Ideally it should be 100% Linen or Cotton fabric which allows free air circulation to your skin. Linen fabrics, with their high level of resistance to fungus and bacteria, are exceptional Fabrics for Healing, Healthy Living and Well Being. It is also better if the fabric has natural colors and is not chemically bleached or dyed.

Factory production is much more preferable than hand made for higher hygiene standards and better quality control of the evenness of distribution of the spikes. Also factory produced mats allow closer spacing of the spines for a more even distribution of pressure. For maximum effect Acupressure Mats should be used on a flat and hard surface to maintain the best pressure from the spikes on acupressure points on the body. The use of foam backing is an indication that the mat has been produced with aesthetic rather than health considerations in mind!

Trying to repeat contours of the body reduces the pressure on the trigger points and thereby reduces effectiveness. Acupressure healing relies on the application of pointed pressure to the body trigging a series of complicated internal processes producing a Healing Response. Pain or injury acts to alert the body that damage control is needed, at which point the Healing Response begins and endorphins are generated to repair the affected area. This increases the heart rate and alters the blood pressure to speed up the elimination of toxins from the damaged area.

The research and clinical tests which proves the effectiveness of Acupressure used original Acupressure mats on a flat thin fabric base. Results for modified mats are unproven.

Independent experts have compared the most popular Acupressure mats on the market today. The mats tested were:

* Swedish Acupressure mat ( – 51

* Shakti mat ( – 26

* Fakir mat ( – 22

* Yantra mat ( – 26

* Tibetan Acupressure mat (promoted at ) – 65

Evaluation was carried out of seven important characteristics of the mats. The performance of each was evaluated using the 10 ball scale where 10 is a measure of ultimate performance. The total rating is shown on the bottom of the table.

Swedish Acupressure mat, Shakti mat, Fakir mat, Yantra mat, and Tibetan Acupressure mat:

Important characteristics

Quality of materials used: 9 6 5 6 9

Base fabric: 1 5 4 5 10

Production Quality: 10 – – – 9

Evenness of spine distribution: 10 4 4 4 9

Spine profile: 7 4 4 4 10

Clinical testing and approval: 6 2 1 2 9

Effectiveness: 8 5 4 5 9

Total rating: 51 26 22 26 65

Please remember that whilst this evaluation may help in your mat selection whichever Acupressure mat you choose and use will be better than not using any of them!

Bath Rugs: Why You Should Use Rugs In Your Bathroom

Your bathroom is not only a functional room, it’s also a place where we spend a great deal of time creating a relaxing in an atmosphere we’ve create why we soak in the bubbles or have a long relaxing shower to unwind from our busy day. Candles, decor, and flooring all play an important role in creating the atmosphere. Here’s why you should use bath rugs in your bathroom.

Change the color

If you are tired of the look of your bathroom and you want to give it a make over you can use bath rugs to help. If your walls are a neutral color your job is easy. Choose bath rugs that fit your new color scheme, buy some complimenting towels and accessories and in under $150.00 your bathroom will have an entire new look. You can even find full sets in your local department stores that come with everything to complete your whole bathroom.

Make your bathroom cozy

Most bathrooms have either linoleum or a tile floor which can look very good but is can be cold to the feet. A bit of a shock after crawling out of the tub or shower. Bath rugs can be strategically placed in front of the tub or shower and compliment the existing flooring while providing a warm and soft place for your feet.

Change the look

Modernize your bathroom or turn it into an antique haven. You can do a total character change. Choose rugs that a fun and funky or traditional Victorian for your room. Make a few other small changes to your decor and for under a $180.00 your bathroom can have a total makeover. Excluding the purchasing of a claw foot tub or jet spray tub.

Make a safer floor

Bathroom floors can be slippery when they get wet. Bath rugs can give you a level of safety when stepping out of the tub or shower while at the same time playing an important role in your room decor.

A Spa At Home

Calgon take me away. We’ve all seen those commercials where a woman is relaxing in her spa tub while the worries of the day disappear. Why not transform your bathroom into a luxurious spa where you can get away from it all. Imagine that deep plush pile bath rug in a rich jewel color, scented candles burning, lights dimmed, soft music playing while you soak away your days worries in your favorite scent. Under $75.00 and your room will be made over.

Fun for the kids

Is getting the kids to brush their teeth, wash up, or have a bath a chore. Are they constantly fighting you because there are other things they’d rather do? Then make your kid’ bathroom a fun place to visit. Decorate with bath rugs from their favorite characters, add a matching shower curtain, some toothbrushes, and cups. You can even buy soaps that follow the theme. The only fight you’ll have on your hands now is who gets the bathroom first. Under $75.00 and you’ll have a kid friendly bathroom.

The most important thing to remember when choosing a bath rug is that your bathroom deserves the same attention you would give to any other room in your home. Start by deciding what you want to accomplish in your bathroom, then choose colors and go shopping for the right bath rug.

Think outside the box, try not to choose those traditional bathroom rugs everyone sell. Rather try something different like a braided rug, a Sisal rug, or an oriental rug.

Of course there are few things that are important to keeping bath rugs sanitized and looking fresh and new. Be sure to wash them regularly and don’t choose rugs are susceptible to mold or mildew because of the high moisture content in a bathroom. Make sure the rug you choose has dyes that are firmly set. A rubber backing is great to prevent rotting and slippage. But remember a rubber backing will be ruined by the dryer so you’ll need to hang to dry. If the rug does not have a rubber backing you can easily attach a piece and the benefit is it can be removed when you wash it.

Bath rugs are an affordable method of giving your entire bathroom a face lift. Just add some accessories and everyone will think you’ve been working really hard!

Adhesives – Seven Ways to Make Paper Craft Projects Without Using Glue and Tape

It is very easy to reach for my double sided tape or any of my various glues when paper crafting. One of the things I love about paper is that there are often many ways to achieve the result you want. Adhering things with glues and tapes are just one way of making your elements stay where you want them. Come with me to look at a few other ideas for making things stick!

You can make your project without any adhesives at all. Taking a challenge to do so is a fun way to inspire yourself. Here are seven ways you could make your project without adhesives.

1. Brads

If you have been a paper crafter for awhile, you are probably familiar with brads. They are made of metal and come with a split pin backing that can be pushed through layers of paper to hold embellishments together. You often see them used in the middle of flower layers. There is no reason why you cannot use them in other ways such as to hold mats in place, to place tags where you want them, to bind together a small album or booklet, to make a swing tag to cover hidden journaling, to provide an anchor for ribbon or braid or cord, or as an embellishment in their own right. Use an odd number of brads in a row to draw the eye to a place on your page or card, make a curved line of them, or use them as corner points.

2. Stitching

Hand sewing or machine sewing can add a great deal to your pages and cards as well as being a convenient way of holding your elements together. Stitch together layers of cardstock or designer paper using straight lines or decorative stitching. Stitch around a photo using straight stitch or zig zag or blanket stitch to hold it to its mat (use a paper piercer and grid template first to make way for your needle and thread when hand stitching). Sew buttons onto your layout to hold things in place. Sew pages of an album together to bind them, with threads or yarn or string. Make a folded paper book with a stitched spine. Sew on felt or other materials to make flowers or any other shape you wish and then stitch them in place. Sew ribbon to your page.

Hint: If you use your sewing machine for paper crafting, be sure to keep a needle just for sewing paper. Stitching through paper will blunt your needle a little and may cause snags on fabric items afterward.

3. Clips and Other Hardware from the Stationers

Fossicking through stationery stores can reveal wonderful items for you to use in your paper crafting. Paper clips, little bulldog clips, pins, coloured staples and the like can all be used in place of brads or glues or tapes. Manufacturers are constantly coming out with new little trinkets for the Office. Why not incorporate them into your paper crafting projects?

4. Paper Folding, Cutting and Paper Crimping

Clever ways of folding or crimping paper can help you get by without adhesives too. Make slits in your paper to hold photos or mats at each corner. Make a row of slits and thread through ribbon, paper or a feather. Fold layers of paper together a few times and then punch through to add a brad or stitching. Use origami techniques on your project, folding flaps of paper over and tucking them under other layers of paper. Crimp papers together with a paper crimping tool. Investigate the stationers shop again to find paper binding tools that do not use staples, cleverly cutting and crimping the papers together without metals.

5. Magnets

Using magnets on a metal board or to hold elements in place can make for an interactive display. Using a magnet to hold a small book of journaling on your layout means people can pick it off the page, read it and place it back where it belongs. (Use another magnet on the reverse side of the page). Make paper pins that can be worn for special occasions and use magnets to allow people to wear them on their clothes (check to make sure no one has a pace maker before allowing them to wear a magnetic pin or it could interfere with the mechanism).

6. Velcro

Use Velcro to close your tag albums, make childrens fun books with elements that can be pulled off and placed back on the page at will. Sew Velcro to your page or element to keep it in place. Use Velcro to close a small paper box. Use it to make paper pins that can be worn on clothing, instead of using magnets.

7. Sealing Wax

Back before they manufactured glues and tapes i such abundance, people sealed paper envelopes and scrolls together with wax. There were special stamps and signet rings for pushing into hot wax to make decorative or informative pattern before the wax cooled. Try your hand at using sealing wax to make a special paper project. Use the wax to seal wedding invitations, for example. You can also use it on your cards or scrapbook pages to hold small elements in place.

And there you have it – seven ways to adhere paper together without the use of glues or tapes! There are other ways of making cards, layouts and off-the-page projects without the use of tape and glues. I encourage you to challenge yourself to find new ways of paper crafting and to share your ideas with me if you know if another way or two to make things without adhesives.

Woodworking 101 – How to Properly Edge-Glue Boards Into Panels

There are several steps to consider in the process of edge-gluing lumber including (1) lumber selection, (2) cutting to rough length, (3) ripping, (4) jointing, (5) grain matching, (6) biscuit joining, (7) gluing, (8) clamping and (9) thickness sanding. Just how you go about these steps depends on the condition of the lumber, the capacity of your machinery and the final size of the glue-up.


If at all possible, try to have all boards in the glue-up out of the same tree. If that is not possible, select lumber that is of similar color and grain pattern. To my mind, the ideal glue-up looks like one, extremely wide board with the glue joints barely visible to the naked eye. Since this only an ideal, I always try to get as close to it as possible.

Another, less-important goal would be to have all boards in the glue-up of the same approximate width. I am not suggesting ripping the wider boards down to match the narrowest board as this would be a terrible waste of expensive lumber. I do suggest, however, ripping extremely wide boards in two to minimize the possibility of curling due to changes in humidity after delivery.

Straight or ribbon grain makes the best homogeneous final appearance while wavy or swirly grain makes for an interesting but more difficult glue-up. Swirly grain will require orientation of the individual boards to minimize the number of places that the grain line suddenly stops at the glue line rather than appearing to continue into another swirl in the adjacent board. This orientation is highly subjective.


I always rough-cut my lumber into lengths an inch longer than the length of the final product. This allows the entire glue-up to be neatly trimmed to size after the glue is dry. It also makes the ripping and jointing process a lot easier as I will explain below. The same is true for the width of the glue up: Make sure it is about an inch wider than the final product after trimming.


Kiln or air-dried lumber often decides to bow into a curve as it dries and this must be corrected before a glue-up can be accomplished. If my finished glue-up is only 3 feet long and it is coming out of a 14-foot bowed board, it will be far easier and economical to get the curve out of the 3-foot pieces than it would to remove the curve from the entire 14-foot board before cross cutting. This is one reason that you should always do your rough cross-cutting before ripping and jointing. Another reason is that a 14-foot, 2″ thick x 12″ wide board is pretty difficult to control on a jointer or table saw.

If there is a bow in one or more of your rough-cut pieces, those pieces should first have the curved edges ripped off on the table saw. The concave side of the board should always be towards the fence. Measure from the fence out to the outside of the end of the board that is nearest the fence and set the fence to cut this width. Once you have trimmed off the convex side of the board, flip it over side-to-side and find the point where the outer edge of the board is closest to the fence (somewhere near the middle) and rip the board to that width. When all boards have been ripped straight, take them to the jointer.


The jointing process should now be fairly easy in that the boards have been ripped straight. Take shallow depth cuts to minimize the possibility of tear-out. In loose-grained lumber with a lot of swirls on the face side, tear-out is sometimes unavoidable. If this happens, try running the board over the jointer head in the opposite direction. If the tear-outs persist, you will have no other option than to rip the tear-outs away on the table saw. You will then have a sawn edge in your glue-up. If you have a clean-cutting table saw blade like a recently sharpened Forrest Woodworker II, this should not be much of a problem, especially if you plan on using a biscuit joiner to secure your glue-up. You probably won’t be able to tell which glue lines are jointed and which are ripped in the final product.


Lay out all the boards on your work bench and arrange them for best appearance. Obviously, if one side of the final product will show more than the other in a piece of furniture, then you will want to have the best-looking sides all on that side of the glue-up. Examples of this would be table tops and cabinet doors. You also must orient the boards so that the glue-lines are not accentuated, as discussed in the paragraph on lumber selection above.


Whenever possible, make sure that you biscuit-join your glue-ups. I say, “Whenever possible” because you will not be able to use a biscuit joiner on very thin lumber. On the other hand, very thin lumber (3/8″, for instance) does not usually have enough strength to pop open a joint. So, with very thin lumber, you will simply be using glue without biscuits. With regard to lumber ¾” or thicker, I have seen a number of table tops, cabinet doors and cabinet casings open up along a glue line after delivery. At this point, repairs are difficult or impossible so the extra step of biscuit joining is well worth the minor time and expense. Look on it as major headache insurance! If you don’t yet own a biscuit joiner, there are a number of great machines out there including Porter Cable, Lamello and Freud. There are also two good alternatives to using a biscuit jointer: Those are the Festool Domino floating tenon joiner and the Freud Doweling Joiner. Different methods, same result.

When you have your boards laid out the way you want them in the glue-up, make sure all the ends are flush and the edge joints are touching. Double-check to make sure the glue-up will be about an inch wider than the final product after trimming. With a builder’s square or a straightedge mark a pencil line in 4″ in from each end of the rough glue-up across the grain, crossing all glue lines but not continuing over the side edges of the glue-up. Make a similar pencil line across the grain at the mid-point of the boards. Make additional pencil lines half-way between the other pencil lines until all pencil lines are about 6″ apart.

Mark the boards on one end “A”,”B”,”C” or “1”,”2″,”3″, etc. so that you can put them back together in the same order when it is time to glue them up. Put the boards aside and nail, screw or clamp a stop board (scrap) to the bench top, left to right in front of you and about a foot in from the edge of the bench. As you are applying pressure with the biscuit jointer, while making mortises for the biscuits, this stop board will keep the board you are mortising from moving away from you. Make a mortise wherever a pencil line touches a board edge on every board.


There are two ways to clamp up a glue-up: horizontally on the bench top and vertically with the first board mortised-edge-up in a woodworking vise on the end or side of the bench. In the case of horizontal glue up, place pipe or bar clamps about 2 feet apart on the bench top with the clamp handles hanging slightly over the edge of the bench. Pre-adjust the clamps to an inch larger opening than they will be when tightened. Place the first board on edge on top of and across the clamps with the mortises facing up. Do the same with all the boards, in order. Make sure you have sufficient biscuits for the job ready.

A small dispensing glue bottle with sufficient glue for the job should be within easy reach. The type of glue is important: If the glue dries too quickly you will have big problems and if the glue dries too slowly, you will be losing valuable production time. I like to use Franklin Titebond Glue indoors or Franklin Titebond II for outdoor applications. These are “aliphatic resin” type glues that can be easily cleaned up with water. Ether formula gives a very strong joint and has a reasonable, 45-minute clamping time. Both of these glues are widely available in hardware stores, home improvement centers and woodworking stores.

Run about a 1/8″-thick glue line down the center of the edge of the first board, making sure that the glue drops into every biscuit mortise along the way. Then apply short glue lines on both sides of every mortise. This should result in sufficient glue so that it appears squeezed out of both sides of every glue joint after clamping. Insert a biscuit into each mortise. With 2″ lumber, you may need an extra glue line for the full length of the joint. There is no such thing as too much glue because you can wipe up the excess with a wet rag. There is, however such a thing as not enough glue and you will recognize that condition when you see that glue is not being squeezed out of the full length of both sides of the glue joint. That is called “starving the joint” and starved joints often open up later. Glue is cheap! Don’t skimp on it!

Lay down the first board with the letter or number up and the mortised edge away from you. Apply glue in the same manner to each succeeding board wherever there are mortises and place biscuits in the far edge of each board, except, of course the last board.

The board ends should be flush and the left clamp should be about 6″ in from the end. The right clamp should be about 1-foot six inches in from the right end. This is because you will be placing alternately spaced clamps on the top side of the glue-up so that there is a clamp (top or bottom) about every foot. The top, right clamp will be in about 6″ from the right end.

Once you have all of this in place, start tightening the clamp handles. Clamp all the bottom clamps finger tight, then the top clamps finger tight. Then, go down the row of clamps tightening them fully, bottom, top, bottom, top, etc. With a wet rag, wipe off most of the excess glue. Turn over the entire glue-up and wipe the other side. Look at your watch or clock and add 45 minutes to the time. This will be the minimum clamping time, any time after which you may remove the glue-up from the clamps. Mark this time on the glue-up with a felt pen. If you have multiple glue-ups, you can stand this glue-up against a wall to get it out of the way while it dries.

If you have been paying attention to the above, then you can figure out how to do a vertical glue-up in a vise which is suitable for smaller glue-ups and is easier to manage. The difference is that when it comes time to apply the glue, you will clamp the first board at its center in the vise with the mortises facing up. Apply the glue and biscuits. Apply glue to the mating edge of the second board and place it in correct orientation on top of the first board, and so on. Place the first clamp 6″ in from the end, in front, the second clamp a foot away from the first clamp, in back and so on.

Once your glue-up is out of the clamps, it is ready to be thickness sanded either in a drum sander or wide-belt sander. If you don’t have either of these machines, don’t worry. Most professional furniture-manufacturing shops in your area will be happy to thickness sand your glue-ups for an hourly rate. You might want to consider buying your own drum sander or wide-belt sander, if you can justify the expense.

It is best to know the maximum width capacity of the sanding machine you will be using: 48″-wide glue-ups will not pass through a 36″-wide sander. If you know that you will have this limitation in advance, simply make two, 24″ glue-ups and glue those together with biscuits after the thickness sanding is complete. The glue line won’t be perfectly even and so it will have to be sanded true with a random orbit sander. Your glue-up should be sanded to at least 150 grit. 220 grit is even better. Trim the glue-up on the table saw to its final dimensions, rout the edges, if appropriate, and then random orbit sand the final piece to 220 or 320 grit before finishing.

For some woodworkers, gluing up lumber may not be the most interesting part of the craft. It is one of the most important, however, because a glue-up done incorrectly can be a recipe for disaster. Furthermore, the way you orient the boards in the glue-up will have a lasting and irreversible effect of the beauty of the finished project.

Bob Gillespie


©2010 Robert M. Gillespie, Jr.