The Theory of Everything Finally Revealed – Secret Relationship Between Gravity and Electromagnetism

The theory of everything (TOE) is a theory that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena. Neverheless, this theory has not been found yet.

After Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity was published in 1915, the search for the theory of everything combining gravity with electromagnetism began. Although Einstein thought it was possible to find such a theory, many physicists thought the task was impossible. The "doubting Thomases" continue to this day.

Albert Einstein believed that a theory combining gravity with electromagnetism would have the ability to fully explain and link together all known physical phenomena. I agree.

Sadly, Albert Einstein died trying to find such a theory. Although he never found it, he left behind a very valuable hint. The hint lies in his mass-energy equivalence formula. Using basic physics, I'll attempt to conceal the theory of everything (TOE) that's buried deep within Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula.

EINSTEIN'S MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE

In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that mass is energy, and energy is mass. This relationship is expressed using the mass-energy equivalence formula

E = mc2

where

E = energy,
m = mass,
c2 = the speed of light squared.

NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

F = ma (force equals mass multiplied by acceleration) is the second law of motion proposed by Sir Isaac Newton.

F = ma teachers us that accelerating or enlarging an object increases its force.

For example, a car hitting a brick wall while accelerating to 100 miles / hour hits the wall more forcefully than a car accelerating to 10 miles / hour, if both cars have the same mass. Likewise, a 10-pound bowling ball hits bowling pins more forcefully than a 1-pound bowling ball, if both balls accelerate at the same speed.

F = ma can be written as m = F / a.

Therefore Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula "E = mc2" can be rewritten as "E = F / ax c2."

EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE

Albert Einstein's equivalence states states that acceleration and gravity are equivalent.

Two scenarios illustrate this.

First Scenario: Let's suppose you're standing in your kitchen holding a cup of coffee. You release the cup. The cup falls to the kitchen floor, spilling coffee on the floor.

Second Scenario: Let's suppose you jumped out of a highflying airplane while holding a cup of coffee. You're free-falling weightlessly. You release the cup. The cup floats weightlessly next to you; spilled coffee floats weightlessly next to you and the cup.

In the first scenario, you're under gravity's influence. You're gravitating instead of accelerating. In the second scenario, you're under acceleration of influence. You're accelerating instead of gravitating.

By substituting for gravity, acceleration can cancel gravity's effects. In fact, acceleration and gravity are the same thing! Now you know why astronauts float weightlessly within an accelerating space shuttle orbiting the Earth.

Using "g" to symbolize gravity, Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula "E = F / ax c2" can be rewritten as "E = F / gx c2."

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY

Electromagnetic energy is a specific type of energy.

Examples of electromagnetic energy are radio frequencies, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible radiation (light), ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays.

Using "EM" to symbolize electromagnetic energy, Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula "E = F / gx c2" can be rewritten as "EM = F / gx c2."

THEORY OF EVERYTHING (TOE)

"EM = F / gx c2" combines gravity with electromagnetism, meeting the criterion for being the theory of everything. So we can stop rewriting Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula. Since "EM = F / gx c2" focuses on electromagnetic energy and force per gravity, we can rename this formula "electromagnetic-energy and force-per-gravity equivalence."

This formula states that electromagnetic energy equals force divided by gravity multiplied by the speed of light squared. In other words, electromagnetic energy and force per gravity are equivalent – the same thing!

Theory of Everything: Electromagnetic-Energy and Force-per-Gravity Equivalence

Formula: EM = F / gx c2

where

EM = electromagnetic energy,
F = force,
g = gravity,
c2 = the speed of light squared.

Notice that electromagnetic energy and gravity are inversely related. The stronger the gravity, the winner the electromagnetic energy. The weaker the gravity, the stronger the electromagnetic energy.

GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT

You may be wondering, "Are electromagnetic energy and gravity really inversely related? And if so, why?" To answer your questions, we need to turn our attention to a phenomenon called gravitational redshift.

Gravitational redshift occurs when electromagnetic energy such as a light beam escapes from a gravitational field. As the light beam escapes, its color shifts toward red. Red means that the light beam has lost energy, has a longer wavelength, and appears to travel slower in time.

Gravity's ability to stretch a light beam's wavelength, causing energy loss, and its ability to slow down a light beam's speed does not make sense; because the speed and frequency of light can not be changed.

In fact, gravity can not really slow down a light beam of speed and frequency – but it can slow down time related to the light beam! And that's exactly how gravity makes a light beam appear slower with a longer wavelength!

The phenomenon of gravity slowing down time is called gravitational time dilation. The stronger the gravity field, the more time is slowed down within that gravity field. The weaker the gravity field, the less time is slowed down within that gravity field.

So the stronger the gravitational field, the stronger the gravitational redshift. And the weaker the gravitational field, the maker of gravitational redshift.

SUMMARY

In summarizing, the Electromagnetic-Energy and Force-per-Gravity Equivalence (EEFpGE) formula combines gravity with electromagnetism, giving it the ability to fully explain and link together all known physical forces. You can see that strong force, weak force, or any other force can easily incorporate into this formula.

The Electromagnetic-Energy and Force-per-Gravity Equivalence (EEFpGE) theory makes the following assumptions:

Assumption # 1: Electromagnetic energy and force per gravity are equivalent – the same thing!

Assumption # 2: Electromagnetic energy and gravity are inversely related.

Assumption # 3: The stronger the gravity, the more time slows down.

Assumption # 4: Since the EEFpGE theory combines gravity with electromagnetism, it meets the criterion for being the theory of everything.

Assumption # 5: The EEFpGE theory can fully explain and link together all known physical phenomena.

Studying for 1Z0-497: Oracle Database 12c: Essentials

Passing the Oracle Database 12c: Essentials exam (1Z0-497) will earn exam candidates the Oracle Database 12c Certified Implementation Specialist certification. It will also make them an OPN Certified Specialist in Oracle 12c if they are employed by a company that is part of the Oracle Partner Network (OPN). Partner companies with employees who are certified as OPN specialists gain a higher level of specialization in the OPN program. As such, this credential makes you a more attractive employee to companies that are part of the Oracle Partner Network.

The 1Z0-497 exam is a standardone test and is not part of any track. To earn the related certification requires only passing the exam. There is no required training or other pre-requisites. The 12c database will be Oracle's flagship product for several years to come and this exam will be a popular one for some time. This exam covers many of the same topics as the 12c database administrator track but does not require the same depth of knowledge. That said – it also does not provide the same level of prestige. While this certification generally would not be a direct stepping-stone to a position as a DBA, it may lead to a job with an OPN company that you can use in working towards employment as an Oracle DBA.

As with any Oracle certification exam, your first step should always be to visit the topics page on the Oracle University website. The OU topic lists are always complete and will provide you with a roadmap of exactly what you need to learn when studying for the test. The exam will never cover any material that is not in some way related to the subjects listed there. The 1Z0-497 exam has fifty-two topics broken into twelve different subject areas. The areas covered by the exam include the following:

  • Oracle Database Software
  • Administration & Configuration
  • Oracle Database 12c New Features
  • Maximum Availability Architecture
  • Backup and Recovery
  • Monitoring
  • Administering Users and Security
  • Software Installation and Maintenance
  • Oracle Data Structures
  • Oracle Database Instance Architecture
  • Oracle Multitenant Architecture
  • Oracle Network Architecture

The exam has eighty-five multiple-choice or multiple-answer questions. You will have a maximum of one-hundred and twenty minutes to answer all of the questions. The passing score is seventy percent. Oracle exams have no partial credit for multiple-answer questions, they are either right or wrong. Questions that are left unanswered are counted as incorrect. For this reason, you should always answer every question on the exam – even if that means picking an answer at random.

Available on the Oracle 12c documentation website is a 2-Day DBA manual. Reading this book would make a fairly good start in preparation for the exam. Much of the information in that book is on topics relevant to the test and the coverage level is similar to what you will be asked. The Oracle Learning Library has several interactive tutorials that go hand-in-hand with the 2-Day DBA manual that can also be useful in preparation for the exam. Candidates who know absolutely nothing about Oracle might want to read the Oracle Concepts manual first in order to get a firm grounding in the various elements that make up an Oracle database.

This exam covers a number of subject areas to a fairly shallow depth. The exam does not require candidates to have an extensive knowledge of any single objective. Once you have obtained the topics from the Oracle University website, use them as a checklist while you prepare. Focus on learning a reasonable amount of information about each topic rather than trying to become an expert on any single topic or group of topics. Only after you are comfortable that you understand them should you schedule the exam. Good luck on the test.

What is a Morton’s Toe and Why is it Important to You?

Everything that I write about in this article is based on the lifetime work of two important physicians. One who was President Kennedy’s White House doctor. I will write more about these doctors in another article; but for now please allow me to introduce you to the Morton’s Toe.

“Morton’s Toe” means having either one or both of two abnormal, inherited conditions of the first metatarsal bone of the foot.

1. The first abnormal condition, and the most noted one, that can cause Morton’s Toe is where your first metatarsal bone is shorter than the second

2. The second condition is when your first metatarsal bone is not as stable as it should be, and as a result, it has too much motion. Because of this excess motion, it can cause pains all over your body. This abnormal motion of the first metatarsal bone is known as “Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone.”

Do You Have a Short First Metatarsal Bone?

Look down at your feet. Socks off please! If your second toe seems longer, (and I mean even just a hair longer) than your first toe, you may have a short first metatarsal bone.

Another way to check to see if you have a short first metatarsal bone is to hold your first and second toes down. Right behind the spot where the toes attach to the foot, you will see bumps pushing up from the top of your foot. These bumps are the heads of the first and second metatarsal bones. Using a pen, lipstick, or marker, draw a line where the bumps end (flat area) and meet the top of the foot. This spot is the very end of both of the heads of the first and second metatarsal bones. Look at both lines. If the line of the second metatarsal head is farther down your foot toward your toes than the first metatarsal head, even just a very little, then you probably have a short first bone.

Sometimes it is not necessary to draw a line on top of the foot because the length of the metatarsal heads easily can be seen. If this is the case, you can see without difficulty that the second metatarsal head is farther down the top of the foot than the first metatarsal head.

Frequently, people with short first metatarsal bones will also have a webbing between their second and third toes. They will have a flap of excess skin that sort of looks like a “bat wing” in between the second and third toes. If you do, have this webbing of the toes, it is a good tip off that you do have a short metatarsal bone and probably have a Morton’s Toe.

Do You Have Hypermobility of the First Metatarsal Bone? Unlike the short first metatarsal bone, there is no simple reliable way that you can determine on your own if you have hypermobility of the first metatarsal bone.

Why is it important to know, if  you have a Morton’s Toe

I have been treating Morton’s Toe for over thirty years. Moreover, what I do know for sure is that it can be the missed reason for the following aches, and pains not only of the feet, but also of the whole body.

* back pain

* hip pain

* knee pain

* leg pain

* plantar fasciitis

* calf pain

* fibromyalgia

* arthritis

* corns and calluses

* bunions

* fallen arches

* ankle pain

* heel pain

* arch pain

* weak ankles

* hammer toes

* tired feet (all over)

* neuromas * burning feet

* shooting pains in the toes

* stress and march fractures

* night cramps (restless leg syndrome)

* temporomandibular joint pain (TMJ)

* diabetic foot ulcers

Millions of people suffer every day, with these torments and do not know why. I believe that in many cases Morton’s Toe is the explanation for this WHY, and the reason for aches and pains not only in their back, knee, and hip but also in a lot other places in their body. Look for more articles about the Morton’s Toe in the weeks to come

Muscle Building – How to Build a "Sweeping Shape" to Your Legs

Nobody empathizes more with the skinny-legged guy who feels self-conscious about his underpinnings than I do. I grow up with sisters who laughed at my legs whenever I put on a pair of shorts. It was not until we were both adults that one of my sisters confessed: "Scott, I was jealous of your skinny legs when we were kids." Well, thanks for telling me now, Sis. "Do you realize the childhood trauma you could have spared me if you've revealed that before I hit hit puberty?" I asked with irritation.

When I reached high school, I finally talked myself in to not caring about my underdeveloped "wheels" and decided to show them off when I was getting in shape for the wrestling season. I was on the first quarter mile or so of an after school jog when I saw two attractive females walking home together from our school. I overheard one of them say "look at his legs". Then they both burst out laughing. I felt my face turn so friggin 'red that passersby in cars probably thought I was a stop sign.

It was early experiences like these that motivated me to build my muscles. And yes, I was really hell-bent on getting some respectable lower limbs beneath me. In my early twenties, I read all the bodybuilding magazines that told me to squat, squat, and squat some more. And what did I do? Well, I followed this simplistic advice. I did free weight squats until steam was coming out of my ears and members at my gym were scared to death that they were going to get called on to be my spotter. I performed my squats as heavy as possible and with full range of motion. I became a squatting machine.

So what were my results? To put it mildly: not commensurate with my efforts. Oh, I did build some size in my thighs, but not nearly what I wanted wanted to personally distancing myself from the "bird legs" which had been a focal point of my pubescent self-consciousness. What I really wanted was that unmistakable "sweep" in the appearance of my thighs when looking at them straight on. I wanted muscular contour that shows, even while wearing a pair of jeans, that I've got some serious power in the foundation that's holding me up.

In my many years of natural bodybuilding, I finally discovered what I think is one of the most effective thigh-building routines. It builds sweep in the thighs by intensely targeting both the inner and outer quadriceps muscles. When performed diligently and consistently, it will soon give you a feeling that your quads are vibrating in muscular power with each impact your feet make with the ground when you walk.

But what do I mean when I say "performed diligently and consistently"? What I'm alluding to is the number one rule for successfully adding muscle to any area of ​​the body; adequate tissue breakdown and recuperation. No specialized routine or sequence of exercises will produce positive results if we just haphazardly go through the motions of working out and taking some rest days between those workouts. We must pay close attention to how much tissue breakdown we're inflating on a muscle and how much rest time that particular muscle needs to fully recuperate. This varies from one person to another and even varies within the same individual from one time to another. Nowhere is this principle more important than when working the thigh and glute muscles, which measure a lot of tissue that needs recuperation between workouts.

That said, let's get to the meat (or muscle) of the matter for building a nice "thigh sweep".

Exercise # 1: Compound Movement for the Entire Lower Body

I believe in starting an effective thigh workout with a compound movement. It can be full squats with free weights, machine squats, or leg presses. Regardless of which you feel most comfortable with, you need to work the entire area, including the glute muscles, for power, size, and balance in your lower body.

I shoot for six to eight repetitions on all leg exercises (usually six). Neither I nor my clients have ever reaped much muscle gaining benefit by going after the higher reps. Some trainers hypothesize that it works the slow twitch fibers by doing so (thereby building all fibers). I've found that it builds lung capacity more than muscle size. If you want to have impressive workouts more than impressive muscles (or you want to be able to sprint up a mountain), then by all means, go for fifteen reps.

On squats as well as the following isolation exercises, I recommend doing four to seven sets – only the last one going near to muscular failure.

Exercise # 2: Horizontal Leg Press Machine with Feet Apart / Toes Pointed Out

After the squats, I target the Vastus Medialis (inner thigh) with very controlled presses on an Eagle Leg Press machine. I like to believe that this machine offers more control for this movement, but maybe I just feel like doing a lying down exercise after performing squats. At any rate, I position my feet wide apart on the platform, point my toes forty-five degrees outward, and do not go deeper than parallel with my thighs. I also do not lock my knees at the top of the movement, thereby creating constant tension on my trembling inner thighs.

Exercise # 3: Inner Thigh Leg Extensions

Many trainers do not realize that they can really hone in on the inner and outer thigh muscles (respectively) by doing leg extensions in a specific manner. For inner thighs, move the leg extension seat as far forward as possible, point your toes straight up, and then try to face the soles of your feet toward each other. It should feel like you're positioned in a "pigeon-toed" manner. As you bring the weight up and extend your legs, lean your upper body while keeping your feet in the position described. You will feel this in the Vastus Medialis (inner quadriceps).

Exercise # 4: Horizontal Leg Press with Feet Together / Weight on Heals

At this point, I go back to the horizontal leg press machine and target the front quadriceps. In order to really hit the Rectus Femoris (front quad), you should put your feet together on the platform so they're touching each other, with your toes pointed straight up (no angle). Lift your toes up off the platform so that your heals are all that's touching the surface. To really hit those front and outer thighs, you need to take your weight off your toes and put it on your heals. This shifts the stress from your hip and glute region and puts it on the front legs.

Again, only descend until your thighs hit the point of being parallel with the platform. Drive the weight back to the start top position and do not lock your knees. Try to keep continuous tension on the thighs.

Exercise # 5: Outer Thigh Leg Extensions

Similar to the inner quads, we can target the Vastus Lateralis (outer quads) with a bit of customized maneuvering on the leg extension machine. This time, move the seat back as far as it will adjust so that you're almost in a supine position as you reach your feet to the extension bar. Point your toes forward instead of upward. Keeping your toes pointed forward, extend the weight upward while putting out tension on your thighs, as if you are trying to spread your feet apart, but can not. This "feet-spreading tension" with your toes pointed as forward as you can point them while raising the weight will really isolate those outer quadriceps muscles.

So there you have it. Perform this front thigh workout (along with some leg curls for hamstrings) no more than once a week. Strive for higher weight volume levels through intensity of effort and adequate recuperation. With applied diligence, this routine will bring that coveted "sweep" to your upper legs.

Laminated Flooring – Easy to Install Stylish Home Floors

Laminated flooring is a popular option that many home owners use to spruce up the appearance of their house. It offers several benefits to those who choose to install it with minimal drawbacks. If you are considering home flooring renovations, here are a few things to think about when it comes to your floors.

Affordability

While hardwood flooring is still incredibly popular, laminate floor coverings give the same look as hardwood, without the price. Wood floors are the most expensive on the market so many people can not afford them, but laminate can be purchased and installed for a fraction of the cost. On top of being cost effective, the installation process is simple as well. Many people have found that installing laminate flooring is simple enough for them to do it themselves, but if you have any doubts, professionals can be hired to do the job for you.

When purchasing your laminate, take the time to check on warranties. Some manufacturers offer a 5 or even a 10 year warranty for replacement which can be a real money saver if something unexpected happens to your home.

Variety

Laminated flooring is also available in a wide variety of colors, styles and installation types. Laminate can be purchased that looks like wood, stone or tile which allows you to get the look of any type of flooring without the hefty price of real wood or the hassle of laying individual tiles or cleaning grout. Wood laminate styles can be found in a variety of colors from oak to cherry, while tile and stone styles can be found in almost any imaginable color.

There are also several different types of installation methods available including floating laminate installation. This method will allow you to reserve your original flooring without damaging it with nails, glue or staples because the laminate planks connect to each other instead of to the floor benefit them.

Drawbacks

While there are several benefits to laminated flooring there are also a few drawbacks to consider before committing to laminate. One concern is that some laminates may contain chemicals that can be released into the air in your home over time and cause illness like formaldehyde.

Another thing to consider is that laminate can be easily damaged or stained so it requires a decent amount of attention and cleaning. Areas that get a lot of traffic should be cleaned often to avoid scrapes from dirt and dust. Spills should be cleaned immediately to avoid stains and may require steam cleaning for full removal. Most people with pets or children often choose to cover their laminate floor coverings with area rugs to help avoid damage.

Although laminate floors do have some drawbacks, they certainly offer many benefits that make them worth while. If you have ever wanted to redo your flooring, but decided against it because of the cost or long and drawn out installation processes, then laminate may be the answer to your prayers. Whether you want your floors to look like wood, stone or tile, there are plenty of affordable laminated flooring options available.

Options For Pet Proof Carpeting

The task of choosing new carpet is a bit confusing with the numerous types on the market, and when animals are a part of the family it becomes even more perplexing for a number of reasons. Animals can be rough on a home, and particularly the carpet when they rough house. Their nails often catch on the fibers and cause a great deal of destruction. Cats occasionally cough up hairballs and then leave behind spots that are hard to remove. When shopping for carpeting, it is good to select those options that are stain proof and long lasting. The following information will help you choose pet-proof carpet that will stand up to roughhousing, long nails, and all types of stains pets leave behind. It is alike possible to obtain pet proof carpeting that will last for many years to come.

Selections that are Resistant to Stains and Pet-Proof. When shopping for new carpet it is important to choose a variety that is pet-proof and resistant to all types of stains. Do not assume that all carpets these days are stain-proof. Look for stain resistant labels and ask questions when thinking about the numerous available choices. However, stain-resistant carpeting will repel stains but it is not indestructible. The fibers will not as easily absorb stain-causing liquids, but this does not mean that spills and spots can be ignored. It is still cruel to blot up liquids and remove solid spills as soon as possible, and it is of the highest importance to follow product labeling concerning care and maintenance.

Steer Clear of Carpet that Snags. Stains are not the sole problems when animals are members of the family. Snags are a big concern, and Berber carpet is far from being pet stain resistant. This type of carpet snags more often than any other carpeting on the market, and once it begins snagging, like an unraveling thread, it keeps on unwinding until it reaches the other side of the room or until the snag is halted and the damage is taken care of. Carpet repairs can be very expensive, and Berber should be avoided at all costs when looking for pet-proof carpeting. Many pet proof varieties are available that will not snag or become seriously destroyed.

Color Selections. Taking into account the spots and stains that cats and dogs can and do leave behind, avoid light-colored carpeting when looking for a pet-proof alternative. If your pets have lighter colored fur, you should avoid dark carpet as it will better show shedded fur. Opt for mid-range colors, and considering selecting a variety that includes more than one color. When selecting carpeting, keep in mind that solid colored carpets are more apt to show stains while variegated or mottled varieties are not.

Tightly Woven Low Pile Options. The best choice when purchasing animal proof carpet is those carpets that feature short pile and have tightly woven fibers. Commercial grade carpets typically used in apartments and hotels are pet-proof and people-proof. Constructed to withstand use and wear and stain-resistant, these are the most optimal selection.

Visit your local carpet retailer, and ask to see samples of commercial grade low-pile stain-resistant varieties. This particular style may not be your initial choice, but Berber, which is nowhere near as favorited as it used to be, and Frieze, which is regarded as the new shag carpet are not pet-resistant or an ideal choice. With appropriate care, the investment that you make in your pet-proof carpet will pay off with carpeting that lasts for many years.

Brick Paver Patio Maintenance Tips

Brick paver walks and patios are becoming more and more popular each year. Our customers like the appearance, texture and charm of the many styles and colors offered in brick.

As with almost everything, brick pavers do require some maintenance to stay looking nice. Each year we suggest our customers sand the joints in their brick. Sanding the joints will help prevent erosion between bricks. Erosion between joints exposures the compacted base material and can lead to settling. Without sufficient joint sand, they can and will settle over time. The expansion of ice and snow as it freezes during a Michigan winter is enough to cause movement in brick pavers. Remember, moisture and water can be detrimental to a brick paver walk or patio. If you keep the joints surely sanded you can help prevent brick movement and settling.

If settling does occur in your brick pavers – do not get overly concerned. They are designed to be reset and re-leveled as necessary. This is why bricks were so popular in road building years ago. If you do not want to tackle a project like re-leveling, we suggest you get serviced by a professional.

There are a few different types of brick sand on the market. Standard sweep sand is the most popular. All you need to do is pour the dry sand over your pavers and sweep it in place. If you are going to seal the brick, be sure to sweep any remaining sand off the brick faces.

Another sand that was very popular for a few years is called polysand or polymeric sand. Polysand has a binding agent (polymer) in it that helps keep it in place and offers resistance to moisture. As a quality control manager for a landscaping company, polysand can be a great product if it is properly installed. If improperly installed, it can leave a haze or film on the pavers. Polysanded bricks must be gently flooded with water to thoroughly hydrate the joints and to rinse the fine powder off of the brick faces. It is very important to remove any hazing before the brick is sealed.

Brick paver sealer or joint stabilizing brick sealer is highly recommended on all brick paver applications. A quality brick sealer will protect the brick from weathering and help retain its color longer. Brick sealer comes in gloss and matte finishes. Joint stabilizing sealer will seal and protect the brick while hardening standard sweep sand between the joints, locking the bricks in place.

What You Need To Know About A Fireplace

If your home already has a fireplace when you move in, you may not be familiar with all the benefits that come with owning a fireplace. They not only look exceptional when lit but they can also be the main source of heat if the power goes out. If you do not have a fireplace in the home, you may want to consider putting one in. It's fast and easy and you can design it any way that you want.

Fireplaces have been used for years. They were the only way of heating years ago. Fireplaces were created to include a firebox and a flue where the smoke and gas could escape. Fireplaces kept people warm when the cold was too much to handle. It was also used to relax and watch as the fire flickered in the night. Later on, a fireplace mantel made a fireplace more attractive and became a place to set lanterns, display art or place to decorative items.

There are different types of fireplaces. The masonry fireplace is made from brick or stone. Tiles could be used to line the flue which could keep the chimney from being corroded with soot from the fire. Manufactured fireplaces are another type of fireplace that is reinforced using metal pipe that runs up and outside of the chimney to ensure safety and to protect the lining of the chimney. The different designed fireplaces can range from the traditional square fireplace to a round fireplace with a large or small opening. Because the fireplaces are made to fit the home they do not come in a particular size. When the power goes out you will always have access to heat. You need to be able to keep wood close to the home that has been cut and split to fit inside your firebox. The firewood will need to be kept dry so you can use it immediately when you need it.

When you use a fireplace, make sure there is nothing around it that can cause a fire to get out of hand. To start a fire put newspaper or little bits of wood on the bottom of the fireplace. When you strike a match, put the match to the paper or bits of wood and wait until they are burning. You may need to fan the flame a bit in order to allow it to grow. Once the small flame is bigger and hotter it will allow the wood to heat up and catch fire. Although it may catch fire quickly, your fire is being maintained inside the firebox.

To avoid fire popping out onto your carpet or floor you may need to use a safety screen. This screen can be placed directly in front of the fireplace in order to keep the flames from jumping out if you are not there to watch it. You also may want to consider glass doors to keep closed while your fire is burning and while there is no fire in the fireplace to keep the cold from going down the chimney and out into your home.

4 Types Of Home Insulation

Inspecting your home's insulation is one of the quickest and most cost-effective methods you can undertake to reduce your spend on energy.

With a correct mixture of products and construction procedures your home can be protected against air leaks and moisture as well as reducing the impact of the temperature outside. In fact, studies have shown that proper insulation can improve your home's temperature comfort by up to 10%.

If your house is built before 1980; if you find it overly cold in the winter or hot in the summer; if your energy bills are extreme; if you find noise from outside disturbs you; if you are extending or building; then you need to examine your insulation.

The first place to start checking is in your attic, ceiling, exterior and cellular walls, floors and crawl areas to determine what insulation you have and if it comes up to the recommended levels for your area.

Insulation material is measured in R-values. The higher the R-value the product carries, the better the level of protection against heat transfer.

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has published a recommended range of R-values ​​for all areas across the country determined by local climatic conditions and cost of energy.

Although insulation is available in a wide variety of materials, it typically comes in four types; each with it's own characteristics.

1) Rolls and batts (or blankets)
These are flexible and made from fibers, like fiberglass, rock wool, plastic or natural fibers. They are fitted between studies, joists, and beams and suitable for using in unfinished walls, floors and ceilings.

2) Loose-fill
This is generally made of fiberglass, rock wool, or cellulose and comes in small particles. It is installed by being blown into the space using a special pneumatic blower. It is great for adding insulation to existing areas, oddly shaped areas and around obstacles.

3) Rigid foam
Whilst generally more expensive than fiber products, it is very effective in buildings with space limitations and where higher R-values ​​are needed. It is often used in unfinished walls; ceilings and floors; and un-vented low-slope roofs.

4) Foam-in-place
Is blown into walls and reduces air leakage. Good for adding insulation to existing completed spaces, irregularly shaped spots, and around obstructions.

There are many different variations of the four types listed above and literally hundreds of different products to choose form. Many homeowners are opting for a more 'green' approach and opting for natural products like wool. And many are even building homes using old techniques such as straw bale construction.

What ever the insulation option you choose, you will be impressed with the better temperature control and hopefully will even even impress with a reduction in your energy bills.

To Success In You Home Improvements

Bill Brennan

A Comparison Between uPVC Windows and Timber Frame Windows

uPVC windows, vinyl siding or rigid vinyl windows as they are often called around the world are made from unplasticised polyvinyl chloride. Whereas timber frame windows are obviously made of wood. Both window types have their drawbacks and advantages.

Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride is a plastic. And it is this fact that is at the heart of the problems with uPVC windows. Plastics are notoriously hard and expensive to recycle or dispose of safely. In many countries unwanted plastic just ends up in landfill sites. Vinyl windows are made from PVC. The US Environmental Protection agency classes the dioxins that are given off in the production of PVC as carcinogens. Furthermore, if vinyl windows are burnt they give off carcinogenic dioxins. This is worried news if you consider the possibility of house fires and also the reality that many fires occur in landfill sites where the majority of unwanted uPVC ends up.

In contrast timber frame windows are much easier to dispose of at the end of their life. The wood can be recycled, burnt to make energy or allowed to biodegrade. The only environmental problem with timber frame windows is that timber is a precious commodity and deforestation is a very real threat to the future health of the planet.

Putting aside the environmental issues surrounding uPVC windows and timber frame windows, it is clear that in other respects vinyl windows are better. Timber frame windows are subject to continuous damage by the extremes of weather. Too much rain will make the wood rot. Too much humidity will make the wood swell and too little moisture will make the wood shrink and crack. It is necessary to constantly be repairing timber frame windows to ensure they last.

Whereas, uPVC windows are imperfect to the changing conditions of the weather: they will last for over 25 years with minimal maintenance required.

Timber frame windows are bad insulators. They let out a lot of heat in the winter and allow in a lot of heat in the summer. In comparison uPVC is a good insulator. Installing uPVC window frames with double glazing will significantly reduce your heating and cooling bills.

Wooden frame windows provide a soft target for house breakers. It takes only a matter of seconds to open a timber frame with a pry bar. Compare this with uPVC windows which provide no place for a pry bar to gain purchase and are very difficult to force open. Furthermore double glazing is not easy to smash through. On top of that most new uPVC windows come with multi-point locking systems as standard.

Finally, in America, Ireland and the UK homes with uPVC windows are generally easier to sell and go for more money. In short because of the energy saving and improved security aspects of uPVC windows they make a house a more desirable investment.

Thus, it is hard to decide which is more important – the environmental concerns with uPVC windows or the obvious financial benefits that they confer. The future for these type of plastic windows may depend on such recycling processes as Texiloop developed in Europe and Vinyloop developed in Japan which can safely recycle plastic without releasing polluting dioxins into the environment. At the moment these technologies are very expensive. It is a shame because the insulating ability of vinyl windows means that they can be used to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from powerplants that burn fossil fuels to generate electricity.

Quarter Sawn Wood Furniture VS Plain Sawn

Furniture artisans such as Gustav Stickley, Frank Lloyd Wright and the Amish used and often preferred the look of quarter sawn woods, especially oak, over any other woods. In oak the quarter sawn pattern exposed is often informally known as "tiger oak", especially when the cut has created that amazing striped effect. Popularized in the Arts and Crafts era by Mission furniture designers, the quarter sawn look is timeless and intriguing.

What then is the difference between plain sawn lumber and quarter sawn? Why does each one present their own beauty and production issues in furniture making?

The various sawing techniques used on the timber will affect and cause a difference in the wood's appearance. The way it is sawn even affects the properties of the tree and eventually its final use. The efficiency of the plain sawing technique means the production yields more. It is much faster and more efficient to plain saw and leaves less waste that can be sold for much less. An important factor furniture makers must consider is that the nature of wood is to expand and contract depending on the grain. Plain sawing timber can typically cause the board to be less stable. Because of wood movement plain sawn wood has some disadvantages. Plain sawn wood, however, can even have a very thoughtful after and interesting pattern to its grain called cathedrals and really can not be recreated by any other method.

A real prize of any furniture craftsmen or collector is in the grains and the ray flecks, of the woods. A tree always display growth rings and rays but the more obvious the rays, the more character is in the wood. Irregular growth rings can actually enhance the character of the rays. The proper cutting technique alone will bring out these other hidden lustrous rays. The nature of the oak is always beautiful and strong but the true beauty, much like in a good diamond cutting, is arguably revealed in higher priced quarter sawn oak. A log is first cut into quarters lengthwise and then each quarter is cut again lengthwise with parallel cuts. These cuts run sort of perpendicular to the tree's natural growth rings. This style of cutting, while less cost effective to produce, has an advantage. Because of the properties of the grain quarter sawn lumber makes it less pre to warping and shrinkage. Plain sawn lumber's grain is in many directions so making it more vulnerable to these two common enemies of wooden furniture. Quarter sawn wood adds a certain stability to furniture. Also, because of the features of quarter sawn boards, furniture makers can glue together boards for large projects and the grain can be matched as if it were seamless. This can make larger high end quality designs a masterpiece of nature and man.

Since cost is a factor in many furniture designs plain sawn boards have been used by many furniture manufacturers for decades since they are less expensive. Depression era furniture is often identified by its plain saw cut woods, or by its slightly more expensive quarter sawn veneers. That said not all veneers mean low end furniture but in many cases it is a cost cutting measure. Like Gustav Stickley, honorary father of American Arts and Crafts Mission furniture, the Amish still carry on the use of quarter sawn white oak with no veneers in their Craftsman style furniture.

The Ideal House (Home Sweet Home)

The house was the place of the gathered and protected family from various conflicts that came from nature and from the disturbance of the bad hands.

Because of that so so we feel at home remained at home, then was needed by the atmosphere of the pleasant house.

Several characteristics of the Ideal House:

  • His atmosphere interior enjoyable.
  • The exterior had the environment that beautiful
  • The clean kitchen part
  • The clean TOILET part

In the house, the values ​​of the family and humanity was invested in a manner for generations to the individual.

As main means of a family, the existence of the house must become main attention.

Four conditions must be met to be able to be said as the ideal and healthy house.

  1. The house interior must be sufficient to be available the room for parents, the child and the guest. For the tropical area, better the attic was rather high, so as the volume of air in the room was enough. Air ventilation must be good, likewise room information must be enough.
  2. The house exterior in order to have the area of ​​the yard that was enough so as to be able to be planed the reforestation crop, the fruit, vegetables and the flower. The environment might not around the house be dirtiest pollution. Was available water facilities, electricity and continuity of the telephone. Had the road that could be passed through car to head means of the public's service like the market, the hospital, the school and the place of religious duties.
  3. The part or the kitchen of the processor of domestic food must meet the condition for the cleanliness. In this place food was processed. When the dirty kitchen, then food that was cooked dirty also and this was dangerous for the health of the member of this house of occupants's family.
  4. The condition for the four healthy homes was the existence of the clean TOILET.

Magic Tricks Revealed – How to Design Your Own Magic Tricks

You know what separates a great magician like Chris Angel or David Blaine from an ordinary one? They take a basic magic effect and design it into a master illusion. Now you can be the next Chris Angel. All you need to understand is basic magic design.

Most people think that there are thousands of magic tricks out there. In reality there really are not that many. According to Dariel Fitzkee, author of The Trick Brain, there are only 19 basic effects which govern all magic tricks and illusions.

All nineteen of those basic effects rely on some form of magical apparatus. Sometimes the items are real but the majority of the time the items are tricked or faked to accomplish some magical effect.

It has been my experience that there are only three basics that govern how all 19 magical effects work. All magic tricks are made up of one or more of the following:

1. Camouflage
Every magic apparatus from the smallest to the largest illusion makes use of camouflage. This is the most important fundamental in magic. Perhaps you want to produce a big item from a box. You can use camouflage to make the box look smaller so as to suggest the big item does not fit. Maybe a piece of apparatus has a secret pocket to make things appear and disappear, camouflage can hide the secret pocket.

2) Secret Movement
You can also make things disappear or appear or even seem to come alive with a secret movement. You see an empty box, as the magician closes the door a screen on the inside drops and when the magician opens the door again, it appears a horse, bicycle, or even an elephant has appeared. Perhaps you've also seen the recently popular trick, The Floating Card. The magician spins a playing card around his body, or perhaps he floats it between his hands. The power for this comes from a small and practically invisible thread and the movement of the performers body. The whole feat loses its mystery if the audience were to suspect the actual means by which the effect is produced.

3) Mechanical Transformation
The final of the three is the mechanical design to produce a visible transformation. Perhaps you've seen a magician take a red scarf and pass it through something and it comes out blue. Sometimes a silk that changes into a cane. Torn and Restored effects also fall into this category. Perhaps you have even seen in a comedy show a clown or other performer pull out a gun and when fired a sign comes out the end that says "BANG". Tricks like Metamorphosis that are done under cover are usually governed by some sort of secret movement and are not transformations in the true sense.

By learning the three basic concepts of design, you'll be able to create and make a magical apparatus that is unique to your magic act.

The Many Benefits of Pine Furniture

Have you ever given serious thought to the type of wood used to create your household furniture? Would you know the difference between a piece of pine bedroom furniture and cherry bedroom furniture? If not, you are not alone. Most people shop according to price and appearance without even considering the type of wood that was used to make the items. Yet, you have very good reason to start thinking about this.

The type of wood chosen for furniture will determine how strong the furniture is, how long it lasts, and whether it promises to split and break apart easily. It will also affect the color and appearance of the furniture if it is not painted. This is where knowing the difference between different types of wood furniture becomes important.

Out of all the wood furniture available today, pine furniture is one of the most popular options. Let's take a look at why it is so appealing to so many people.

Aesthetics

The natural color of pine is very appealing. It is a lighter shade of wood that can be stained or painted to virtually any other color that could be desired. Yet, many people who purchase furniture made from pine opt for the natural wood grain to be shown off. When it is properly manufactured it is a very beautiful wood that is very appealing to most people.

Furniture made from pine that has the natural coloring looks more elegant and gives warmth to the home.

Durability

Pine is a strong wood that creates very durable furniture. As long as it is cared for properly pine bedroom furniture will hold up to routine use for many years. You can even purchase furniture made from pine for use in a child's bedroom without worry that it will fall apart in a short period of time.

Durability is one of the most important things to consider when purchasing furniture. One of the reasons people have to replace items in their home routinely is because they do not purchase high quality furniture made from durable wood sources. Plastic and metal furniture is often less expensive than a solid wood piece of furniture, but they also tear up much faster because the materials just are not as durable.

Pricing

Of course, you can expect to pay more for a nice piece of solid wood furniture than you would for something similar made from plastic or thin metal. Yet, there are ways to get affordable wood furniture. Pine is a very affordable wood source so you can often find high quality furniture made from pine that costs less than the same pieces made from other types of wood.

The quality is still there, but you will pay less in general for a nice piece of pine bedroom furniture than you would for the same furniture in other types of wood.

Pine Furniture Styles

Due to the light painting of natural pine wood, many pieces of pine furniture have a very country, warm feeling to them. You can use pine to create virtually any style of furniture, but it is often used to create furniture with a country or more traditional feel to it.

There is a reason why so many DIY woodworkers enjoy working with pine when they make furniture for their own home. They are able to save money while creating very stable, durable pieces that last for years and look amazing in the home.

The Eviction Process

Obviously, evicting a tenant is not a thrilling part of real estate investing for the tenant or the landlord. What follows is a description of the eviction process itself (especially as it pertains to what can be expected in Ohio), pepered with some of my personal comments with regards to how I typically handle evictions.

Generally, if I've not received rent monies from a tenant by the 8th or 9th of the month, I call the tenant. My leases stipulate that the tenant has a grace period until the 5th of the month to mail rent monies without being charged any type of late fee. As long as the envelope is postmarked by the 5th – no late fee. Asking 3 or 4 days (from the 5th) for a tenant's payment to arrive is pretty liberal and plenty of time to allow for the monies to be received from cross-town mail.

If upon a call to the tenant I believe we're going to have problems, I immediately deliver a 3-day notice to the property. A copy of the notice is made before delivering. The 3-day notice is posted (taped) on the front door of the property if the tenant or other occupant is not there when it's delivered. Any tenant that reaches this point (the starting of the eviction process), is advised that the 3-day notice is simply being posted as a way to protect my interests in the event the tenant does not make good on the outstanding monies due.

Attaching a 3-day notice to the tenant's door does not negatively affect the tenant's public record. It's not until the 3-day is basically filed that it becomes public record. The landlord can not file for eviction until 3 business days have passed from the point the 3 day-notice was placed on the property. Once the 3 business days are up, the landlord can begin the formal eviction process. How does this start? You will take your paperwork, including a copy of the 3-day notice, and file to have an eviction hearing. I use an attorney to process all of my evictions. Specifically, one specializing in handling evictions. I personally prefer using an attorney that will try to remedy the situation with the tenant before the case is even heard. You do not have to use an attorney – you can do a lot of this yourself and save a few bucks, but I recommend you use one. If you've never been to your local court system to witness eviction hearings, I highly recommend it. You'll soon get a flavor of what takes place during these hearings and will know what to expect ahead of time should you ever get to the point of processing an eviction on one of your own properties.

You can expect it to take approximately two weeks before your hearing is scheduled. It's important to note that I always keep the communication line open with the tenant through this whole process. I think this is extremely important. I want the tenant to know that I do not like going down this path just as much as the tenant does not. It's not my goal just to boot a tenant out of the property. In fact, I try very hard to work out payment arrangements or even payment assistance resources with the tenant in an effort to get him or her back up on their feet. Yes it may take a little hand-holding and some of your extra time, but I'll say eight out of ten tenants going through this extra hand-holding will appreciate your trying to help and will absolutely clear their overdue balances with you. You walk a very fine line here with the tenant in that he or she may also be taking advantage of you. It can be a tough call. At times it can simply come down to relying on your gut feeling with the situation.

If judgment is taken (in your favor) at the hearing, the judge will give you permission to "red tag" the door. A red tag is just that – it's bright red and has marked on it the date that possessions will be moved out of the property if the tenant has not vacated. The tenant has five days from tagging to get out of the property. It will usually take 2-3 business days after the court hearing for this tag to get placed on the front door of your property. Again, I keep the tenant abreast of my intentions during this process. You as the landlord call the shots with regards to whether or not any possible set-out occurs. I mention to the tenant that I still do not desire to set property out at the curve, and if payment arrangements can be made, the set-out can be averted. You will again have to make the call here. Do you want to accept only partial payment for what is owed and try to arrange a plan for payment on the extra monies? Or do you feel the tenant is just not going to make it, and in this instance, follow through with the eviction process?

The final step is the dreaded set-out. It's extremely rare that I ever have to get to this point. If it comes this far, frankly the tenant desires it. I've given them every opportunity within reason to try and remedy the situation or move out on their own accord. If the tenant has not moved out by the date stipulated on the red tag, you as the landlord have the right to order a set-out with the bailiff. Again, an attorney that specializes in evictions really helps here. In Columbus, Ohio, you only have a two hour window Monday-Friday to request and schedule a set-out. Additionally, the set-out must be scheduled within ten days following the red tag, or you have to order a supplement red tag (more money).

When the set-out is requested (it's generally a day and time agreed upon by you and the bailiff), you will be expected to have at least four people dedicated to setting furniture and belongings out of the house. You will also be required to have trash bags and boxes to pack items before removing them from the house. Good maintenance workers will be handy to have when you get to this point.

As you can see, evictions can be a rather drawn-out process that generally take a good three to four weeks to run their route. This is why I believe it's very cruel to always maintain good communication lines with your tenant and try and be as professional as possible in handling the situation. It will be frustrating! … but try and keep an open mind into ways you can help your tenant get through this. A good positive attitude can go a long way to making this process less stressful to both you and the tenant!