Fat Sick and Poor – Overcoming Barriers to Becoming Healthy and Well-Thy

Social Determinants of Health: Causative Agents that Determine Health Outcomes
In Australia, a social model of health has been developed by health professionals and policy makers, in order to study the effects of the social determinants of health upon given populations. Social policy drives a lot of health funding, in particular statistics indicate that the most socially disadvantaged group within a given population also has the highest rate of chronic health problems, and the highest number of risk factors leading to the development of chronic health problems (including cardiovascular disease disease, obesity, cancer, diabetes). The social determinants of health are the causative agents that are studied within social models of health, and examined by epidemiologists (health professionals who study the effects of various factors that cause disease within a particular population). This paper discusses how people's bad health is not a result of their accumulated poor choices; people's bad health is a result of socially determined agents, including a lack of health education, opportunities and lack of access to health facilities, particularly in rural and remote areas. A person can potentially overcome socially caused disease and illness, through the assistance of a health professional such as a nurse.

The Role of the Nurse As a Helper Towards Health
A nurse can work in partnership with a person in building their levels of health literacy, education, referral and help in building confidence towards making healthy choices, regardless of circumstances. Nurses are in particular well positioned to understand a person's social context, and help a patient to overcome the negative factors within the realm of causative agents. The most critical underlying factor in assisting a person to overcome the social determinants of their health is their level general perceived self-efficacy (their belief in their own ability to make and continue making healthy choices, and engage in health protective behaviors.)

How a Person Interacts Within the Social Health Model
An individual, within the social models of health, has the power of free agency, and can and does interact with the social determinants of health. Typically, the social determinants of health flow from upstream factors to the midstream, and finally to the downstream factors. Upstream factors are the furthest from the individual, and include the broad aspects of a society that a person belongs to. These include the culture of a society and social cohesion, the stability of the government, health policies and language and media. Midstream factors are more direct in their impact on an individual, and these include factors such access to education, where in the social gradient the person is, their access to health care, where the person is employed, their social network (or lack thereof) , the neighborhood they live in and the built environment in which he or she lives.

Health Professionals Seeing an Individual in Social Context
A health professional can not look at a patient's condition in isolation – a health professional should take into account socially determined factors – that contribute to a state of ill health within the person. When determining appropriate treatment and support for a patient, examining the person in their social context will assist in determining valid treatments, and providing education and referral to services that will assist in mitigating the socially determined circumstances that are contributed to the development or disorder of the disease or illness state.

Chronic Stress As a Risk Factor
One of the highest contributing factors to ill health is the effects of chronic stress. In a study by Pyter et al. (2014) the effects of abstract stress and social isolation were studied on mice. Social stressors negatively affected healing, increased bacterial load in the body, and also caused high levels of inflammation in the body of the subjects. Inflammation and impaired healing caused elevated levels of stress, particularly in chronic situations, leads to increased susceptibility to disease.

Examining Socio-Economic Disadvantage
The most disadvantaged parts of society – in Australia – rural and remote areas in particular, have high levels of unemployment and general disadvantageant economically. Statistically in demonstrated in the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012) paper, the most economically disadvantaged groups coincided with both rural and remote communities, and they had the highest incidence of both risk factors for chronic disease, and incidence of chronic disease.

Contributors to Chronic Diseases
With a combination of high stress levels due to social stressors and economic disadvantage and high risk factors, rural and remote areas of Australia are a melting pot for high rates of chronic disease. High levels of stress are specifically noted in rural and remote areas, for example, due to the high number of disparate suicides by men in rural and remote areas compared to men living in urban environments. A paper by Beaton (2012) outlines the statistics demonstrating that men are more likely to commit suicide who are living in rural and remote areas.

Self Medicating to Relieve Stress
When experiencing stress, patients are noted to desire to self-medicate using substances that produce mind-altering effects and moderate anxiety levels, such as alcohol and tobacco. Alcohol and tobacco use, in particular excessive alcohol and daily tobacco use, are two of the focus risk factors that are used in studying the risk of developing chronic diseases. Le, Funk, Lo, and Coen (2014) demonstrated that alcohol and nicotine are often taken together, and a cyclical relationship happens between excess drinking and increased tobacco use. Further evidence indicates that stressed people in a study self-reported functional addiction to alcohol and tobacco use as mood regulation tools (Snel, 1998).

Poorer Leads to Higher Risk Factors
The effects of daily smoking and excessive tobacco use are known high risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and lung disease, and some cancers. Statistically, in the paper by the AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012), the most socially disadvantaged individuals, in rural and remote areas, had the highest number of reported risk factors: daily tobacco use, obesity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol use, and lack of exercise; and the highest rates of chronic diseases. Comparatively, people in urban and regional areas with higher population density had fewer rates of disease, and also a lower incidence of risk factors for chronic disease.

Contributors to Stressful Environments
A number of determinants are thought to cause higher rates of stress within low socio-economic populations, including social isolation, high rates of stress caused by major life changes (such as family breakup, divorce, unemployment, lack of stability), and these leads to the use of tobacco and alcohol to self-medicate during times of stress (as per Snel, 1998). In rural and remote areas, Australia has traditionally had difficulty placing medical facilities due to isolation and cost of establishing large facilities in rural and remote locations. Generally due to lack of access to cheaper fresh fruit and vegetables, access to primary health care and prevention and health promotion services, inexpensive exercise facilities and incentives, the socially determined elements, among the rural and remote poor lead to high rates of chronic disease when compared to healthier and wealthier urban populations (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012).

Barriers to Experiencing Wellness
In addition to the social determinants of health acting upon an individual, a number of barriers are potentially experienced by people when trying to improve their health status. A study in Sweden by Hammarstrom, Wiklund, Lindahl, Larsson, and Ahlgren (2014) studied a number of barriers to women who were trying to lose weight. They discovered that a number of social stressors, and difficulty with the self (adjustment to diet and self-belief) impaired the ability to lose weight. They conversely discovered that receiving social support, and determining goals and improving self-determination facilitated in weight loss and consequent improvement in health.

Hopping Over the Barriers to Health
In more studies of how improving self-efficiency and working in partnership with health professionals, it was demonstrated that an active improvement of general perceives levels of self-efficiency and motivation led to better health outcomes for the patient. These studies include Wood, Englander-Golden, Golden, and Pillai (2010), where self-empowerment and social support improved health outcomes for people experiencing substance abuse, and Mohebi, Azadbakht, Feizi, Sharifirad, and Hozori (2014) determined that patients 'levels of micronutrient take improved as they had better levels of general perceived self-efficacy.

Compassionate Health Care
Nurses have a vital role in helping a patient: advocating for the patient, using motivational interviewing, developing the therapeutic partnership, educating regarding specific health protecting behaviors, and encouraging the development of social support and increasing levels of self-motivation within the patient. Hybels et al. (2014). Benzo et al. (2013) discusses the importance and success outcomes of motivational interviewing to discuss behavior changes in patients diagnosed with COPD.

Empowerment to Be Healthy Happy and Strong
A nurse has an empowering role, and can point the patient towards developing healthy social networks, and making health protecting choices. The role of social support, such as in the study by Harvey, where it was noted that social support can improve health outcomes can not be understated. For people who are in faith communities, social support is evidenced by improved general biological health marks compared to other populations, this was studied by Hybels et al. (2014).
Nurses also have a unique position as health professionals to use motivational interviewing and therapeutic partnership with patients, in order to empower them and remove barriers to obtaining better health outcomes. Benzo et al. (2013) discusses the importance and success outcomes of motivational interviewing to discuss behavior changes in patients diagnosed with COPD.

Nurses and Advocacy
As members of the community in which they live, nurses have the opportunity not only to act as treating health professionals, and part of medical and allied health teams, but also to act as advocates in the community for the most vulnerable members of the community. Nurses have a role to play in building the ability of individuals in the most disadvantaged areas to build social capital and develop healthy social networks of supportive individuals. Nurses can be community champions, social role models and professionals who educate individuals, groups and communities that they can make changes, both as individuals and groups to improve their capacity to make health decisions, thereby improving the health outcomes for everyone in the community.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, AIHW. (2012). Health Determinants, the key to preventing chronic disease. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
Beaton, Susan and Forster, Peter. (2012). Insight into Men's Suicide. Retrieved 24th April 2014, from http://www.psychology.org.au/inpsych/2012/august/beaton/
Benzo, R., Vickers, K., Ernst, D., Tucker, S., McEvoy, C., & Lorig, K. (2013). Development and feasibility of a self-management intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease delivered with motivational interviewing strategies. J
Cardiopulm Rehabilitation Prev, 33 (2), 113-123. doi: 10.1097 / HCR.0b013e318284ec67
Hammarstrom, A., Wiklund, AF, Lindahl, B., Larsson, C., & Ahlgren, C. (2014). Experiences of barriers and facilitators to weight-loss in a diet intervention – a qualitative study of women in Northern Sweden. BMC Womens Health, 14 (1), 59. doi: 10.1186 / 1472-6874-14-59
Hybels, CF, George, LK, Blazer, DG, Pieper, CF, Cohen, HJ, & Koenig, HG (2014). Inflammation and Coagulation as Mediators in the Relationships Between Religious Attendance and Functional Limitations in Older Adults. J Aging Health. doi: 10.1177 / 0898264314527479
Le, AD, Funk, D., Lo, S., & Coen, K. (2014). Operant self-administration of alcohol and nicotine in a preclinical model of co-abuse. Psychopharmacology (Berl). doi: 10.1007 / s00213-014-3541-2
Mohebi, S., Azadbakht, L., Feizi, A., Sharifirad, G., & Hozori, M. (2014). Predicting of perceivable self efficiency in the amount of macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome – 2012. J Educ Health Promot, 3, 21. doi: 10.4103 / 2277-9531.127608
Pyter, LM, Yang, L., McKenzie, C., da Rocha, JM, Carter, CS, Cheng, B., & Engeland, CG (2014). Contrasting mechanisms by which social isolation and restraint impair healing in male mice. Stress, 17 (3), 256-265. doi: 10.3109 / 10253890.2014.910761
Snel, J. & Lorist, M .. (1998). Nicotine, Caffeine and Social Drinking. Australia: Harwood Academic Publishers.
Wood, TE, Englander-Golden, P., Golden, DE, & Pillai, VK (2010). Improving addictions treatment outcomes by empowering self and others. Int J Ment Health Nurses, 19 (5), 363-368. doi: 10.1111 / j.1447-0349.2010.00678.x

Plastic Model Airplanes

Plastic models are generally distributed as kits which will need to become assembled by the user. The plastic models are also known as scale models and they’re mainly bought for static display. Almost all of the plastic model airplanes are injection and cast in polystyrene, parts are connected together with the help of adhesive or perhaps white glue. You can even get special paints for application on these plastic models. Aircraft insignia and body decorations materials are also available and you could use them on your model to really make it look more realistic.

There has been a pattern among producers to offer airplane kits which usually require a shorter period and expertise to assemble them. Therefore now fully detailed kits have been introduced for the benefit of enthusiasts. These kits require only normal gluing and assembly. Another kind of kit can be purchased wherein you just will need to snap the various parts together and this demands also smaller time and expertise.

Plastic models are created in scale. Usually these models have complete detailing and come in reasonable dimensions. Typically the most popular scales that are available for plastic model aircraft are 1/24, 1/32, 1/48, 1/72, 1/100 and 1/144. Of those 1/48 and 1/72 promote the most around the world.

The flip side of plastic models is that the very high cost production. Resin castings are widely-used on models however when the models become bigger in size the price too increases significantly. Vacuum forming was once popular nevertheless the assembly is really difficult. Extremely lately the manufacturers have started producing models that have really fine detailing that are ideal for resin kits. The grounds behind the sale of plastic model airplanes has changed over the years. Previously these have been distributed as toys to young kids the good news is they are mainly bought to always be kept as collectibles. Technological innovation too has advanced a whole lot and the models that come out there today are extremely innovative in comparison to the old models. It has also raised the price tag on the kits by several notches nevertheless that cannot be aided really in this period of competition.

The very first plastic model airplanes was created in the 1930s’ and these had been manufactured by Frog in the United kingdom. Ten years later several American companies like Lindberg, Hawk and Renwal accompanied the band wagon and began to produce plastic model airplanes. Through 1950s the big players came into picture like the AMT, Monogram and Auror4a in US, Airfix in United kingdom and Heller SA in France. It was only in the 1970s that plastic model airplanes became more and more well-liked in Asian nations and makers began to rise coming from this region too. Timiya and Hasegawa through Japan, AFV Club, Trumpeter and DML coming from China have started taking over the industry with more recent engineering. Today you also find brands through Russia, Central The european union and Korea stacked way up in the local hobby retailers.

As you can imagine these models have created a distinct segment for itself and have adorned the house of many as collector’s items. The purchase price will always end up being a factor for the common people however with passing time and much better technologies these models would end up being within the reasonably priced range of the customers.

Let’s Make Home-Buying a Little Less Tricky

Buying a new house can be a daunting experience and one needs to make the right decisions to maximize the outcome of the same. Here are a few steps you can follow to make your home-buying process efficient and effective.

  • What kind of living space suits your needs?

You can invest in a traditional family villa or an apartment. While both options come with its pros and cons, this choice is mostly determined by the purchase price of the property and the buyer’s affordability.

Individual homes give buyers a higher level of comfort, ability to renovate & expand whenever required and a sense of individuality. An apartment on the other hand comes with the advantage of the security, access to innumerable amenities, better neighbourhood and involvement in clubs or social circles.

  • How to find a home or someone to guide you through the purchase?

Make sure to take advantage of all the available options for finding homes on the market. Including using your real estate agent, searching for listings online and driving around the neighbourhoods that interest you. This will give you a sense of the housing trends in specific areas.

Although, not usually recommended a good real estate agent’s expertise can protect you from any pitfalls you might encounter during the process.

  • What specific features should your home have?

Home buying is usually the biggest purchase one makes amongst their list of purchases, since it relates to the place of ones ultimate residence and living space.

Therefore looking out for the availability of basic amenities must be a priority. Everyone deserves to have a purchase that fits both their needs and wants as closely as possible. Make sure your list includes basic desires, like neighbourhood and size all the way down to smaller details like bathroom layout and a kitchen that comes with trust-worthy appliances.

An apartment with many floors would require an elevator for easy commuting, car park space to avoid congestion etc. Amenities like a garden area, swimming pool are extra additives and not completely necessary to facilitate your basic living.

  • Do you need to decide funding in advance?

Yes, the best way to start home buying is to get pre qualified for a mortgage/loan. Therefore, before you start looking for a home, you will need to know how much you can actually spend.

In order to acquire an idea about your mortgage amount, you will have to collate all the necessary documents, proofs and get an understanding of how much savings can actually go in as payments.

This way you will get an understanding of the price range of the homes you should be looking at and the duration of the mortgage you can apply for.

15 Business Etiquettes Professionals Should Know

“A man without a smiling face must never open a shop” or so the Chinese proverb goes. Truly, smiling goes a long way to lighting up the mood for a friendlier, more understanding conversation. This is true in business as well, especially when trying to make a business partnership. However, there are more business etiquettes beyond smiling and demonstrating these will show others that your customers and your business are worth respecting.

* Introduce everyone, even when in doubt – There is a proper way to introduce people to each other. First, introduce the person who is the most senior, using their full name and their job title or responsibility. Next introduce that person to the person who has lower authority. Make sure to also mention his or her full name. To end, you may mention some details about each other as a topic of common interest. When being introduced to someone, always stand up if you are sitting.

* A firm handshake – The way businessmen shake hands more often than not sets the tone between them. Giving a good, firm handshake will set a good first impression as it may eventually end up in a successful business partnership. If you are the host or the senior member, you should be the one initiating the handshake.

* Admit if you forget their names – Forgetting the names of people you were recently introduced to is not uncommon. If it happens, admit it and ask for it again as this shows that you give them importance.

* Sitting down for a meeting – Whether the meeting is in a restaurant or in an office, in a group or a one-on-one, it is best not to pull out the chair for anyone. In a business setting, everyone should dismiss social gender rules and treat everyone equally. When seated, never cross your legs as it may be distracting and disrespectful.

* Meeting in a restaurant – Contrary to business instincts, do not use your knife to break bread. Tear it off with your bare hands as this signifies your openness to your potential business partner. When finished with the meal, never push your plate away nor stack the plates. Try not to have any left overs as well. If your guest orders appetizers or dessert, you should be ordering as well. This avoids the potential awkwardness of having other people in your party eating and you have nothing on your plate. If you are the host, you should pay for your guest unless he or she insists otherwise or is against their company’s gifting policy.

* Dress properly – The way someone dresses is a form of nonverbal communication. Dressing appropriately for a meeting shows an automatic sign of respect for either the guests or for the host. Additionally, always check the dress code for an event as some events may require either more or less formal attire.

* Keep cellphones in your pockets – Never place phones on the meeting table and don’t use them during the meeting. Only answer calls that are urgent and excuse yourself from the meeting and take your call outside so you don’t interrupt the meeting.

* “Please” and “Thank You” – These two phrases show politeness in any conversation and it is all the more important in a professional setting. Saying “please” can be used as much as needed. “Thank you”, however, should be used once or twice as saying it too many times may lower its impact. As much as possible, give thanks to everyone individually after a meeting.

* Stay sober – Businessmen have lost reputations and careers because drunken behavior. Although none of the things said or done while drunk were meant, it is a clear sign of disrespect towards either the host or guests. Don’t embarrass yourself or your business. Know your limits and control your pace.

* Be genuinely interested – Always make eye contact in a conversation and make sure to pay attention to every detail the guest says. Take the time to ask questions as this shows that you were listening and interested.

* Double check emails – Simple mistakes can be made to derail a meeting or blow a deal. You may have date and time wrong for a meeting, left out some paperwork to be signed, or worse, your emails were sent to the wrong person and may potentially endanger the company.

* Use professional photos – When using your or anyone’s photos for business matters, always use a proper headshot. Businesses would need to look credible to other businesses.

* Greet everyone anywhere – Regardless of seniority, always greet people. You may never know that he may actually be your next business partner. When people greet you, it is imperative that you greet back.

* Don’t forget to smile – Just like the Chinese proverb, smiling works wonders in any occasion, whether in a meeting, during introductions, or in a business social gathering.

End on a polite note – When you need to leave, make sure you exit politely with either, “It was nice to meet you” or “See you at the next meeting”.

Plastic Cutlery For Restaurants

Plastic cutlery for restaurants is now available in a variety of attractive models. These are convenient for use, lightweight and disposable. Beautifully designed plastic cutlery adds to the appeal of the dining table.

Use Plastic Cutlery to Save Your Valuable Time and Money

Plastic-cutlery helps restaurants save valuable time and money. If restaurants have a good customer base, there is bound to be hectic work in preparing and serving food items. But dishwashing is the most time consuming and tiring job that comes after serving food. Including plastic cutlery in your tableware would be a great option to eliminate such issues. You can conveniently throw away these products after use.

Unlike other types of cutlery made of stainless steel or wood, plastic-cutlery can be bought at economic rates. You can also save considering storage space in your kitchen with this disposable cutlery.

Plastic Cutlery in a Variety of Designs and Features

Knives, spoons, forks, soup spoons and a host of other plastic kitchenware are required for food preparation and serving activities. Today, they are available in a variety of colors and designs. As per your requirement, you can go for bulk packs or single packs. For parties and other functions in your restaurants, there are special heavy weight plastic cutleries available with the appearance of real silverware. Small, medium, large size or whatever be your need, there are suitable models available in abundance in the market today.

Purchase Products in Bulk from Good Wholesale Dealers

As plastic cutleries are needed in bulk amount, it would be very beneficial to get them at wholesale rates. Georgia Pacific Dixie, Maryland Plastics, Generations, Comet Waddington, and Boardwalk cutlery are the popular manufacturers of these implements. Quality products from these manufacturers are now supplied through different wholesale and retail dealers. You can browse the internet to locate a good dealer. You can register at their database and receive immediate quotes for plastic cutlery for your restaurant.

An Oversight of PCB Manufacturing

The demand for PCBs (printed circuit boards) will probably not decrease in the near future; futuristic mobile phones, BluRay disc players, plasma TVs, electric cars and the like have all made certain of this. PCB manufacturing technology is also not relinging and is up to date with modern electronic goods requirements. As an electronics manufacturer we simply can not be ignorant of modern PCB tech – the varieties of PCBs being as many as they are representative of the numerous modern PCB techniques and processes only recently developed. The design and manufacture of PCBs should be left to companies equipped with the latest of PCB equipment used in the prototyping and actualization phases.

PCB manufacturing can be divided into manufacturing the boards with or without components. Blank PCBs can be single or double sided. Different PCBs have different capacities. We can have multilayered PCBs manufactured via techniques such as PCB milling, copper etching, screen printing etc. Most PCB fabrication companies also offer prototyping services – this involves developing a working PCB model before actual mass production can remark.

The raw materials used in PCB manufacturing are varied but copper is the basic material. Copper is always covered using a tin-lead combination to protect it against oxidation. The industry standard for PCB contact points is copper covered with this lead-tin combination, plated with nickel, and finished off with gold to maintain excellent conductivity. The quality control considerations that the manufacturer works by are a point to look out for. This involves the various visual as well as computerized scrutinies of the printed circuit board manufacturing steps from the conception to shipping stages. It also details the steps taken to rectify flaws and faults in the process.

PCB board manufacturing can be a very harmful process both to humans and the environment. This is especially so where the element Lead is present. A PCB manufacturing plant should be able to clearly define the safety considerations it has in place to deal with toxic matter, ways of disposing off obsolete PCBs, the recycling processes, and the modern human and environmentally-friendly equipment and processes they have in place.

The manufacturing process deployed is a crucial as the working of the PCB and therefore the different equipment used in PCB manufacturing are complex and sensitive. The fabrication environment is also a controlled one so as to prevent the PCBs from any contamination. Your PCB firm of choice should be able to guarantee this even for the final product packaging process. Ignoring this is equal to putting your company and its electronic products' reputation in jeopardy.

Different Kinds of Art

There are many different kinds of art. Some of the different kinds of art include original art, modern paintings, and art from the Impressionist era. Art that is original, by definition, is work that is one-of-a-kind and it can be any kind of art, not just a painting as long as it was created by the real artist himself or herself. Modern art is, by definition, art "of the present times." Finally, impressionist artwork is work in which the artist paints the picture as if he or she has just something very quickly. Art is one of the best ways to lose yourself in your thoughts, either when creating it or when viewing it.

Original art is the one-of-a-kind painting or work done by an artist. Original art is anything that is done by the artists themselves. Replicas of famous paintings like the Mona Lisa have been created, but it is easy for art connoisseurs to know what the real piece looks like. The best form of art is in its original form. Usually the original pieces of famous paintings can be found in museums all around the world. For example, the "Mona Lisa" is located at the Louvre in Paris, along with other Da Vinci works.

The contemporary art era is defined as any kind of modern art created from the 1900s to the present. This type of work wave artists the freedom to call almost anything art. It also created an escape from political and social turmoil through the ages. Some of the different categories of modern art include expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. Contemporary artists include artists such as Andy Warhol, Georgia O'Keefe, and Pablo Picasso, to name a few. Contemporary art sees to be a form that people either really love or really dislike. Probably the most interesting thing about contemporary art is that it can be anything. Before contemporary art, there were strict rules about what could and could not be art. After the modern art came along there were no boundaries anymore.

Surprisingly enough, impressionism is a form of contemporary art. Impressionist art is supposedly to be an image of something as if the person had just seen it briefly. It began in France, during the nineteenth century. Impressionist art features bright colors and scenes from outside. Impressionist art also focuses on real-life images and does not focus on the details of painting. Impressionist era painters include famous artists like Paul Cezanne, Claude Monet, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

These kinds of art are only three of numerous different types of artwork. Original and contemporary art have only recently become popular, where impressionist art has been consistently popular ever since it's beginning in France. Anytime you are able to see great art by visiting a museum, you should take advantage of the opportunity. Viewing different kinds of art allows you to see what type of person you are. Creating art and viewing art are also great ways to lose yourself in your thoughts.

Got Shopping Mall Anxiety?

Development in the retail market has resulted in the growth of a huge number of shopping malls and departmental stores all around the world. Even small towns are getting their own malls alongside the cities. We have become so addicted to shopping in these shopping malls that we visit these places very often. People throng these places for buying the daily groceries and essentials as well. This factor does result in quite a congested scenario as a huge number of people throng these malls. In turn, this huge development often fuels the people’s anxiety in shopping malls.

It is very common to trace people suffering from anxiety in shopping malls. A very common reason for this anxiety is the prospect of being intimidated by a number of people as soon as you enter through the gates of the shopping malls. Henceforth wherever you move to, a number of people confront you, be it the shoppers or the salesmen. Sometimes the anxiousness makes you seem completely lost in the vast sea of people. You may seem to get disoriented while everything suddenly turns black around you! Panic attacks inside elevators in malls are quite common instances. Sometimes you just keep on roaming around blankly without any idea what you are doing. You gasp for fresh air and always stay alert as you see a number of unknown faces roaming around you. People suffering from anxiety in malls even think that everyone is looking at him or her, which often makes them tipsy in their gait, ending in an embarrassing situation.

So what to do about anxiety in shopping malls?

Is there any anxiety disorder help that is available? Well, every single thing on this earth has a solution. Man has only to find that solution out. One of the remedies is Cognitive Behavioral Treatment. Here the psychiatrist sits with the person with the anxiety condition and together they chalk out ways to cure this anxiety disorder. This treatment is not very prolonged as all the patient needs to do is stick to the goals set by him and his doctor.

In 12 -16 sittings you’ll start showing remarkable symptoms of anxiety solutions. Usage of proper therapy manuals online can also help you achieve success in overcoming this anxiety, and exhibit symptoms of anxiety solutions. But these solutions can also trick you into making you think that you have recovered; when you have not. So just see how patiently you can handle the situation, how calmly and comfortably you can confront a group of people. As these prospects brighten up, so do you and your anxiety disorder recedes with time.

The Difference Between Digital and Offset Printing

Like most people out there, I used to let my local printer decide what the best means to complete my job were. I quickly found that this type of decision making was compared too bringing my car into the shop and letting the well-educated, experienced mechanics give me an assessment on the condition of my car. Usually this assessment is more beneficial for the mechanic then for your bank account – the same can be said about your local or international print companies.

The most basic knowledge you need to have when deciding on what type of print company you're going to utilize is simple – digital or offset. Both types of printing are very effective depending on the kind of printing you need, and instead of letting the print companies decide whats best for you – you decide whats best for you.

The older and more commonly used form of printing is offset printing. Offset printing was originally invented in 1875 and was used to print on the metal, tin. However, it was not until 1903 that Ira Washington Rubel created an offset press that could print on paper. To print on paper with an offset press is a technique that is more than 100 years old and is still practiced today.

What are the benefits of using offset as a printing technique?

  • Consistent High Quality Images
  • Quick production with printing plates
  • Plates can withstand more then 1 million impressions
  • Cost

As indicated above – there are many advantages too printing using the offset technique. The most beneficial and the one that any person considering printing offset should be aware of is cost. Offset is the most affordable printing method to produce very high quality prints in commercial printing quantities. This simply means – its' only cost effective if you plan on printing quantities in the thousands. For smaller quantities of printing you may want to consider offset printings semi-equivalent – digital printing.

Digital printing is the newest printing technique that printing companies have adopted and almost all printing companies offer digital printing as an option, not all printing companies offer offset printing as an option. This should be noted.

What are the benefits of Digital Printing?

  • Variable Data Printing
  • Less chemical and paper waste
  • UV and fuser fluid
  • Quick turnaround time

The most beneficial role that Digital Printing plays as a printing technique is its variable data printing. Variable data printing is one of marketing's best kept secrets and one that anyone that uses paper as a form of marketing should know about. With variable data marketing you could, if you so chose, print items targeted at specific marketing demographics, companies, or people. Which unlike offset printing is the future of paper print marketing.

When discussing and deciding what kind of printing is best for the job that you need done, it's best you use this practice.

If you need a lot of materials printed, you're not in a hurry, and want it all too look the same off choose offset printing as your method.

If you need a small or medium amount of printing done, and done quickly, with different pieces of information for each of your materials than choose digital printing as your method. Both digital and offset printing are extremely beneficial in their own ways, and by being educated on these two popular forms of printing you will be able to determine what the best method for you is in the long run.

Both saving you time, and money.

The Objectives of Plastic Surgery

Plastic surgery is surgery designed to change the appearance of the body, to alter or rejuvenate it in some way. It is performed often but not exclusively on the face. It can be purely aesthetic, or can be done to repair damage from an accident or from congenital defect.

There is also elective plastic surgery, when someone opts for surgery to change features they do not like about themselves. For instance, rhinoplasty or nose jobs where someone has the shape or size of their nose altered, are often performed as elective plastic surgery by patients who dislike the look of their current nose. Sometimes plastic surgery goes wrong, and then it can be considered bad plastic surgery.

Usually this is caused when the surgeon makes a mistake in surgery. Sometimes it is the result of poor choices before surgery, made either by the patient or the surgeon. The most obvious bad plastic surgery is facial surgery, since it is so obvious and so hard to cover up.

We have all seen examples of too-tight facelifts where the skin looks unnaturally pilled, or even asymmetrical. In some cases, there can even be paralysis of features due to nerve damage during surgery, accompanied by loss of sensation.

Some bad surgery can be corrected with corrective surgery. Some problems are very hard to fix, like botched nose jobs or rhinoplasty.

When you have a nose job to reduce the size of your current nose, if the surgeon removes too much it is then very hard to fix. A second surgery would only work if there is enough tissue left to use to correct the original mistake. For bad surgery that is not on the face, at least it is easier to camouflage the results.

A patient who has undergone botched plastic surgery may experience some very negative outcomes such as deformation, scarring, and even paralysis. This obviously does physical damage, but can also be quite emotionally and psychologically scarring. Patients tend to blame themselves and feel guilty and despent, since they made the choice of having the surgery. They may even feel punished for vanity.

Before you agree to have any plastic surgery procedure, it makes sense to check your surgeon's background. See how many procedures like the one you are contemplating that he or she has done successfully. Check to see if his former patients speak highly of their results. You also want to see if the surgeon you are considering has been the subject of any complaints or malpractice suits.

Introduction to Underfloor Heating

Many people believe that underfloor heating is a new concept. Actually, the ancient Romans had a variation of underfloor heating that they used. The Romans used a system of ducts and flues to circulate warm air beneath the floors of buildings, this radiated heat to the rooms above the floor. This system relied on an open fire to heat the air; fortunately, modern systems have come a long way.

Most heating systems create several vertical temperature zones in your home because heat rises so they will create zones that vary from very hot and stuffy at the ceiling to cold on the floor.

Underfloor heating systems heat evenly, since the warm air is radiating upwards from the lowest point of the room, you will find that the room is more evenly heated from the floor to the ceiling. Radiant heat, the type produced by underfloor heating, does not cause dust or debris to be moved throughout the home. This can be very beneficial to those that suffer from allergies or breathing disorders.

There are two different types of system: There are “wet” systems that produce heat by using hot water, and there are “dry” systems that heat with electric coils. Wet systems are typically installed when a structure is first built. They can be added after construction but installation of these systems can be quite costly after construction. The reason for this is that a wet system requires a series of pipes to be laid out under the floor. During construction they will actually be installed as part of the floor, this is why they are typically installed during the construction phase of a building.

Dry systems that operate by electricity are much less expensive, easier to install, and can be installed in any building or home at any time. The only drawback is that they do not create as much heat as wet systems. Dry systems may not be a good choice for large commercial buildings. The dry system comes in variations that range from bare heating cables, woven mats, ribbon heating cables, or heating films. For most applications, the mats are the simplest to install and use, they are also usually less expensive.

Whichever type you choose to install they all operate on the same principle. All of the wires are interconnected and then connected to a thermostat. Some models will even have a timer to turn the heating coils on and off at certain intervals. These underfloor heating systems are plugged into a typical electrical outlet.

There are many benefits to underfloor heating. It is more efficient so it saves you money on utility costs. Your heating system is out of sight, there are no unsightly vents, registers, or ducts to ruin the decor of your home. They are maintenance free, dry systems are inexpensive and simple to install. If you are changing the flooring in your home anyway, then adding a dry underfloor heating system is simple. Most homeowners can do the job themselves.

Underfloor heating systems can be used under almost any type of flooring. They can be used under carpet, laminate, tile, linoleum, and most other types of floors.

Everything You Need To Know About Concrete Overlays And Stamping

Whether it's a driveway, a patio or even a pool deck which you wish to renovate, concrete overlays and stamped concrete are what you need. If you do not want to go through the trouble of installing entirely new concrete from scratch, overlays and stamping are ideal options to consider. Not only can they help repair the imperfections and flaws of your flooring, but they are also an excellent way to save on the costs incurred by new installations.

Here are a few things you need to know about overlays and stamping to renovate your floors.

Concrete Stamping

Stamping involves pouring fresh new material on your existing foundation which has been damaged by excessive use. Portland cement is commonly used to make this new concrete. The flaws and imperfections of your floors can be hidden when stamping is utilized.

The process of stamping is reliably straightforward. Once new concrete is poured on to the damaged floor, it is stamped using molds. The stamping technique helps create unique, appealing designs and textures which improve the overall look of the floor.

As in the case of ordinary flooring, the cement floors can also be stained after the actual stamping process. Often, after stamping and staining, the concrete floor mimics floors of different materials, including natural stone floors and wood floors. At times, it may seem like the surface has seams or cracks after stamping, but this is normal and should not be concern.

Concrete Overlays

Even though cement overlays, like cement stamping, are used to repair imperfections in your flooring, the technique used is different in a few subreg ways. Thin decorative overlays are placed on existing concrete flooring which gives it an elegant and polished look. What's best is that with the overlay, your floor becomes extremely durable in comparison to ordinary concrete. The overlay also allows your floor to withstand much more pressure than standard concrete floors.

Overlays are recommended when the condition of the existing floor is not too bad. Concrete overlays are available in a multitude of colors and designs which could make it easy for homeowners to choose an option which can best complement their house.

Even though both concrete stamping and overlays are used to improve the aesthetic factor of your floor, concrete overlays often require much more planning and maintenance than stamped concrete.

As you can see, there are different methods to achieve the desired results that you'd be looking for. Always keep in mind the price of ripping out the foundation compared to grinding and restoring the existing foundation.

Brake Pad Replacement: The Different Types of Brake Pads

Did you know that there are different types of brake pads you can install in your car? There are three materials that brake pads are made of and that each of them has their own benefits and flaws.

Ceramic brake pads – The name says it all: they are mainly made of ceramic material and have copper fibres embedded within the composition. Originally, they were made to prevent how much dust and noise was being made.


  • Quieter than semi-metallic pads because of the higher frequency being made impossible for us to hear.
  • They produce finer dust that doesn’t stick to the wheels. Dust in the wheel could alter driving experience that should be avoided.
  • They generally have a longer life span than the organic and semi metallic models. The material is so strong that it is difficult to wear away quickly.
  • These brake pads also do well under fluctuating temperatures from cold to hot without changing the way you drive.


  • Because of the strength they contain they tend to be more expensive.
  • Although they do well in different temperatures, they could fail in freezing weather. They also don’t absorb heat too well.
  • These brake parts aren’t fit for forceful and sudden braking in cases such as racing and industrial driving.

Organic brake pads also known as Non-asbestos organic (NAO). They contain glass, fibre, rubber, carbon and Kevlar all joined together with special resin.


  • They are soft and quiet making it a comfortable drive. They also produce less dust than semi metallic pads.
  • They produce friction without too much heat needed.
  • It is cheap and suitable for everyday driving under different weather conditions.


  • They work well in specific weather conditions but in extreme conditions you could be dealing with brake failure.
  • They wear much quicker than other types of materials.
  • They can’t be used for performance driving because high heat could damage the material.

Semi Metallic Brake Pads – These brake pads are made of steel, iron and copper. These metals are combined with friction modifiers and fillers and graphite lubricant.


  • Braking performance is better than that of the organic pads.
  • They can withstand higher heats because of the metallic content.
  • They last longer than the organic material.
  • It can be used for racing and everyday use.


  • They are generally quite noisy
  • They tend to produce the most dust which could damage your wheels.
  • They wear brake rotors relatively quickly.

A Brake pad replacement could be important when one of these flaws happen.

The Evolution of Slot Machines

Throughout the years, slot machines have become increasingly popular, allowing players to enjoy hours of fun whilst having the chance to win cash prizes at the same time. From the historical ‘One-Armed Bandit’ to the video slots that occupy a large section of many online casinos today, these games have witnessed a surge in popularity across the world.

This article will discuss the history of these machines and their progression from land-based games to internet gaming sensations.

When Was The Slot Machine Invented?

The first slot machine as we might know it today can be traced back to around 1891. Known as the ‘One-Armed Bandit’, this slot was invented in New York by Sittman and Pitt. With five drums acting as reels and a lever on the side to set them off, it had 50 card symbols to land. As is the case with modern fruit machine slots, they were commonly used in bars across the country.

The First Automatic Slot

Not long after the invention of the ‘One-Armed Bandit’, the first automatic slot was invented by a man called Charles Fey in California, in 1895. With just three reels, this slot was widely regarded as running on a much simpler mechanism and only had five reel symbols.

Named the Liberty Bell, this first automatic slot could be seen as an influencer for some modern video slots today that still use three reels and a minimal amount of symbols.

Reel Symbols

Fruit symbols have long been associated with slots and this perhaps stems from 1907 and the invention of Herbert Mills’s slot machine. Called the Operator Bell, Herbert Mills created it to rival that of Charles Fey.

Despite the evolution of slot machines and reel symbols being comprised of just about anything, many video slots still choose to use classic fruit symbols. The likes of Double Bubble, one of the most popular video slots around, draws on classic features and symbols while still providing players with a modern spinning experience.

Slot Machines As We Know Them

In 1963, Bally Manufacturing managed to produce a slot without a side-mounted lever. As the first electromechanical slot machine, it could reward coins automatically without an attendant to help. Called Money Honey, this slot machine paved the way for electronic games of the future.

The Introduction Of Video Slots

Although Bally Manufacturing managed to bring electronic functionality to the slots scene around 13 years earlier, the first real video slots were invented in the mid-70s in California. Fortune Coin Co developed video slot technology in 1976, mounting a display on a slot machine cabinet and gaining approval from the Nevada State Gaming Commission.

Video Slots Today

The video slots we know today and their place in gaming can be traced back to the 1990s and the launch of the first online casinos. In 1994, the first online casino launched featuring a range of video slots to play.

There are currently hundreds of online casinos at which to play thousands of video slots. They’re provided by a number of software suppliers and seem to span across all types of categories and genres.

The chances to win huge cash sums are ever-present, more so with the introduction of progressive slots. With these games, some are linked up to wider networks, allowing prize funds to grow at a rapid rate and regularly reaching the millions.

How to Eliminate Weight Loss Failure by Lifting Weights: The Secret Everyone Ignores

Many times, when one begins a new fat loss regime; they focus on dieting (hopefully intelligent dieting, not fad diets or very low calorie diets) and hopefully an exercise regime. Most of the time, to accomplish fat loss, people seem to believe that aerobic (aka. cardio) training in addition to a moderate reduction in calories is the best course of action to accomplish this. The main goal is to create a caloric deficit through these methods so that the body must use fat stores to make up for the deficit, therefore accomplishing fat loss. However, many times people run into a plateau that is caused by the lowering of the metabolism due to muscle loss because of the new diet and exercise regime. This lowering of the metabolism is known as the starvation response. You’ve experienced this if you’ve ever tried to lose fat before and eventually, even though you may have tried very hard, you seemed to not be able to lose anymore fat.

Aerobic training is the chief way you will burn fat during exercise, and will greatly help to avoid the starvation response compared to changing the diet alone (dieting only, without any exercise will cause it to a much greater degree – but that is the subject for another article – you can find more information by clicking this link about weight loss). However, dieting and training aerobically can still eat away some of your muscle anyway – unless you know what you’re doing. When one weight trains in addition to cardio and intelligent dieting, the body signals a response to keep muscle. Because muscle is one of the major factors that dictates your metabolism at rest, keeping muscle will help you to steer clear of the dreaded starvation response.

In my opinion, the weight lifting part of your exercise program should be the core – it is the meat. While aerobic training is like the steak sauce that goes along with your meat. Cardio is not totally necessary, but it will increase your rate of fat loss in comparison to dieting and weight lifting alone. Weight lifting will increase your muscle mass (cardio does not), which increases your resting metabolism, which helps you to create a healthy caloric deficit. One pound of muscle will burn an additional 35 to 50 calories per day. So, simply gaining 4 pounds of muscle is approximately equivalent to walking for an hour each day. Also, during a weight lifting workout, you are burning calories anyway – don’t think that lifting weights does not use up your energy. Another spiffy benefit of weight training is its effect on the body after the workout. This is known as the glowing effect or EPOC – which stands for exercise post oxygen consumption. Essentially, your body must recover from the muscle tears you just imposed upon it, and that requires calories too.

One thing that strict dieting and aerobic exercise can do is cause people to lose so much fat and muscle (as stated before), that a skinny, yet unhealthy and unattractive look is created. In the sense of attractiveness, skinny may look better than fat, but when you have a low body fat percentage and also a healthy dose of muscle tone (male or female), you feel and look much more attractive and healthier (the healthier you look, the more attractive you look) to the opposite sex.

It seems that one reason that many women avoid weight training is for fear that they will become “bulky”. More than likely, this belief was created after seeing some overly (and sometimes manly) muscular fitness models on T.V. and in magazines. Well, 99% of those women probably take some sort of hormone or steroid compound; otherwise they wouldn’t look as manly as they do. They also follow extremely strict diet and training regimes to attain that level of fitness. However, if you are a woman you probably aren’t going to be doing or taking the things those people do. Even if you really wanted to, you would have trouble looking like that. Weight training will not do that to you – even if it did, you can easily stop or turn your weight training regime into a maintenance phase. You are in total control of how muscular you want to become.

If you’re goal is fat loss, remember to incorporate weight training into your exercise regime along with cardio and intelligent dieting. The combination of these three things is the key to achieving your goals and sculpting your body without hitting plateaus. You have nothing to lose by weight training except the fat. You can find more information on achieving your weight loss goals by clicking this link about “http://www.weight-loss-resources.com”.