What Is Weathering Steel?

The Composition

Weathering steel is a low carbon steel that includes more elements than many other alloys available. It includes chromium, copper, and nickel. The low amount of carbon inside, generally at less than 0.3 percent, is what helps to keep it tough and ductile.

The other elements are what helps to give the steel alloy strength as well as corrosion resistance.

The Grades

There are several grades of weathering steel available. Something you should know about the grades, however, is that many are proprietary. They may only be available from certain companies. For example, COR-TEN is provided only by US Steel. They also have two grades of it – A and B.

The different grades are based on the amount of carbon and other elements inside. One grade could work more effectively for you in comparison to another grade based on the specifics of your project.

If you’re not sure which grade to use, it’s best to do some research. A supplier could also assist you with answering some of your questions. Various tests, such as a Charpy impact test, could also prove worthwhile to give you more insight into the grades of the alloy steel.

How it is Used

Weathering steel is used in structural elements because of its strength. Most commonly, it is used when the metal is going to be exposed to external elements without paint or anything else going on top. It can be used in bridge building, construction, and even outdoor statues. There is no limit to how it can be used, as long as it is used correctly.

This type of steel is extremely corrosion resistant. It is capable of outlasting traditional carbon steel in outdoor elements. It doesn’t need to be recoated or repainted like other alloys. Over time, a rust-like finish is created. The protective rust coating will actually slow down the rate of corrosion so that the design is capable of lasting for many years to come.

Understanding all of the characteristics of weathering steel is important. When you plan on building something that is going to be kept outside without painting it, you have to be realistic about the types of metal that you can use. If you use a metal that corrodes, you will end up with holes and rust throughout the structure, which will also impact the stability.

If you decide that weathering steel is the material you want to use, it’s important to find a supplier that keeps it in stock. You can determine the grading and the sizing that you need for your project. Plus, you will want to seek the most competitive prices possible.

Clean Out Your Ear Chakra to Hear Your Angels Better

If you would like to hear your Angels better, here is a process for cleaning out your ear chakras.

You have many different chakras and if any of them are clogged, you will have trouble receiving what you want.

Even if you don’t know exactly what a chakra is, you can still visualize what we are doing and benefit from it. Here’s how.

* Relax. Take 3 deep breaths.

* Visualize that you have ear chakras. Imagine two violet-red disks just inside your physical ears. They are resting at a thirty-degree upward angle, pointing inward.

* Continue taking deep breathes, and envision bright-white light cleansing the inside of your ear chakras, one at a time or simultaneously.

* As the white light scrubs the chakras from the inside, mentally ask your Angels to surround your head. As they do this, become willing to allow the Angels to remove all the painful memories lodged in your ear chakras. Open yourself to the Angels’ healing power as they cart away old feelings, thoughts, and memories that block you from hearing God’s voice.

* Ask the Angels to lift any fears you may have about hearing Divine guidance. Do you have a fear of being startled by a voice, of being controlled by God, or are you afraid you do not deserve God’s time or attention? Ask the Angels to remove all those fears.

* Take another deep breath, see or feel the Angels shine on your chakras with love, like a beautiful bright light. Know that you have been touched by an Angel. Feel the healing taking place. Thank your Angels for all their help.

Now, you are open to hearing the voice of God through the Angels.

Thanks for reading.

Tail Lift Make Handling of Heavy Goods Easy

Keeping in mind the growing popularity and demand of the logistic sector, for fast, easy and effective loading and unloading of goods tail lifts are very essential. They play an integral part in trucks and vans used for the delivery of various products and goods. The goods to be transported to the various places can be easily and safely loaded and unloaded either by lifting or lowering the platform. In simple words tail lift is a mechanical device that is attached to the rear end of a vehicle, say a truck or van. They are constructed and designed specifically to enable easy handling of goods from a lower level to a higher level or vice versa.

Need for tail lifts:

The use reduces manual labour and eliminates unwanted risk of injury or any damage to the goods. It also excludes the need for use of any machinery to load any bulky and heavy items onto a vehicle or can be used as a platform to bridge the height gap between the loading dock and the vehicle load bed. These products are available either in steel or aluminium. They are available for both light and heavy duty vehicles. They are obtainable in different sizes and capacities ranging from 450 to 2500 kilos.

Types of tail lifts:

1.Column lifts: This is the most common type of lift used by most distribution companies. They are also most commonly installed on hire vehicles. These lifts are mechanically operated although they can also be hydraulic or pneumatic. They are operated on tracks which are fitted to the rear end of the vehicles. From the tracks, extends a platform which can be folded and can be moved up and down. These tail lifts are easy to fit and install and requires very minimal time. This type of lift is very beneficial to lift loads to a higher level than the load bed.

2. Cantilever lifts: This lift was first designed and constructed by Zepro. This is operated only with the help of hydraulic or pneumatic system and not mechanically. This lift works on the principle of a set of rams fitted to the chassis of the vehicle. These rams are in turn attached to hinges which enable them to move as they expand or contract. With the help of the rams the platform that aids easy loading and unloading of goods can be raised, lowered or even inclined. The major benefit offered by this tail lift is that it facilitates the tilting movement which makes the loading and unloading process much quicker and simpler.

Maintenance of tail lifts:

They should be serviced at least once in six months. Maintenance and repair work should be undertaken only by a competent technician using correct service techniques and procedures. The service technician will then certify and assure that the tail lift is in a perfect mechanical and electrical condition and safe for use.


They are suitable for a wide range of applications and are specially designed and meant for perishable and chilled goods. Nowadays they are also specially constructed for use in small vehicles also. Yes, tail lifts are robust, dependable, efficient and ideal for heavy loads. Buy one today and make handling of heavy goods an easy task.

Worry-Free Trade Show Booth Install and Dismantle Tips

When you work with an Install and Dismantle (I & D) company at your next trade show– and every exhibitor must hire an install and dismantle company– it is important to have full communications with them so that your trade show exhibit will remain intact. It is essential for the trade show exhibitor, therefore, to provide the installer with a written, descriptive, detailed breakdown of all trade show booth items and components.

This inventory list should not only include the number, size and dimensions of the trade show exhibit items, but also a description of what these pieces are. In fact, it would be helpful to have a photo of the inside of each crate. Providing specific and detailed information on your trade show display can make a huge difference in your trade show booth installation and dismanting efficiency and cost.

A detailed inventory list provided by the trade show exhibitor that includes not only the number of crates and skids, but also a detailed description of what is in each skid of the trade show exhibit helps guard against losing pieces that may get detached. Everything should be itemized including literature, giveaways, monitors, hanging signs, etc. If these trade show exhibition items are included in detail, there is less chance for error. By giving this information to your trade show exhibit installer, they will be able to do their job more efficiently, saving you time and money. Since everyone is in a hurry as the trade show move-in date gets closer, having a list on hand in advance will help ensure a worry-free trade show booth installation on the trade show floor.

According to John Taggart of Coastal International, a Sausalito, California based company that specializes in installing and dismanting trade show exhibits, the work his employees do relatives heavily on the information he gets from the trade show exhibitor.

Here are some of the installation guidelines that Taggart identifies as essentials for a worry-free exhibit:

Understand the trade show floor facility. Determine in advance where the electrical is positioned in that facility. Does the electrical distribution come from the floor or from the ceiling? If the electrical comes from the ceiling, you will need to hide the electrical hanging cords, sometimes inside a tower, and then spider the cords out on the floor and cover them with carpet. Knowing wiring requirements in advance will simplify the lighting and power process for the installer. This goes for all conventions sites when they are the McCormick Convention Center in Chicago, the Kaiser Convention Center in Oakland, the Moscone Center in San Francisco, the Santa Clara Convention Center or the San Jose McEnery Convention Center.

Coordinate the time schedules of all of your vendors. It is important to know how to properly pace the timing of your freight carrier, drayage and installer providers. For example, if you are exhibiting in the Hilton Hotel in downtown Manhattan, you will need to allow extra time for freight to be delivered. This is due to limited access to hotel freight elevators and the fact that the hotel has only two dock spaces. There is also heavy downtown traffic that can cause delays. Advise your freight carrier to check in to unload at the earliest possible time. They can avoid long lines by getting to the exhibit dock well in advance of the stated move-in time.

Provide a full scale layout of the specific exhibit display including a description where each panel goes. It is best to provide this layout 5 to 7 business days before the show. Why? Exhibitors may be traveling on airplanes and your I & D handlers would be unable to reach the exhibit rep via cell phone. If your installer has to make a call call, and it's a wrong one, you would need to pull electrical, carpet and other pieces and start all over. By knowing where each exhibit component is positioned, they will be able to accurately assemble the trade show booth without guesswork and then avoid costly re-dos and down time.

Provide specifics on outbound shipping of your trade show exhibit. When it is time to break down the exhibition,
be sure your I & D company has information on the correct outbound shipping address, repacking instructions
and proper bills of lading.

Remember that a descriptive and detailed inventory list can save you time and money and ensure that your trade show booth remains intact. The more information your I & D handler has, the faster they will be able to do their job. If you take the mystery out of your trade show exhibit assembly, you will win the day.

Grow Taller Quickly – 4 Easy Methods To Increase Your Height

Are you unhappy with your height? Of course you are, why else would you be reading this? Many believe that it is impossible to grow taller quickly or in fact that any increase in height is actually impossible. This however isn’t true at all! There are methods you can follow regardless of your age, sex and whether you are passed puberty or not that can actually help you make your way up the height ladder with a matter of ease. With enough determination and effort put into these methods you can add at least 2 inches of those impossible inches to your height which might be exactly what you’re going to be looking for.

  • Stretching

The target areas for growth in your body are the thighs, shins and the spine because these areas are areas that are able to stretch and increase your height. (it is scientifically proven that areas can stretch, for example the average baseball pitcher will have his pitching arm 2-3 inches longer than this other arm due to the strenuous activity he has to go under which means what stops it from happening to other areas of the body?)

By doing stretches that are targeted at these areas in the morning (such as the cat stretch, cobra stretch and the bridge) you will soon find yourself with a little bit of extra height.

  • Exercise

Exercises help stimulate your human growth hormone (HGH) and there are also some that help you strengthen and lengthen your shins (just as mentioned with the whole baseball pitcher situation above). The top exercises you want to look to do that are targeted with height increase are sprinting, swimming, hanging, kicking, cycling, jump rope and more. To grow taller quickly exercises should be done every other day due to having rest days between to make sure that you don’t do more harm than good to your body.

  • Rest

Some of you may know that rest is essential to growth and recovery when it comes down to body building, the same thing occurs in growing taller. You need to make sure that you rest with exercises and that you also get a good amount of sleep (8-10 hours). Rest is vital because HGH is released during this period so the more rest you get the more results you will see!

And you will also want to fuel your body with the correct nutrients through this, the two main nutrients to increase are protein (can be found in most meat products) and also calcium (found mostly in your diary products).

  • Posture

One of the vital ways that you can increase your height straight away is to improve your posture. The back undergoes a lot of stress during the day from supporting the weight of bags and how you sit which gives you a bad posture. By improving your posture you will start to straighten your spine which will give you a little bit more height straight away. The best way to grow taller quickly this way is with stretches to grow taller.

Ancient Greek Agora

From the moment people began to organise themselves into groups they had to have a place where they could meet and make decisions on matters of common interest. Such places demonstrate the existence of a community life: they were the public squares. We don’t know what they were called in pre-historic times; we do know that the Greek word for such a place is agora, from the verb agorevein (speak), which shows clearly its initial function. With the growth of trade and the use of speech in buying and selling, the verb agorevein lent its form to agorazein which acquired the meaning of “purchase”, to reflect new needs. Similarly, the movable table for transactions was then called “trapeza”, the modern Greek word for bank.

In pre-historic times, when the first settlement was established on the protected southern side of the Acropolis, the northern side was used as a necropolis, or cemetery. In a well from the neolithic period, a statuette representing a headless semi-reclining woman was found dating from the 3rd millennium BC. It is a marvellous example of primitive sculpture with the characteristic abundant flesh indicative of fertility. Many examples of Mycenean pottery were found in the same vicinity as well as a number of large jars (pithoi). Among the funeral customs of antiquity was that of enclosing the bodies of very young children in such jars, which were then buried; older children were laid straight in the ground. Only after puberty was the cremation of the body permitted. As the city grew, the graves were moved to the Dipylon area which was the potters’ district, Kerameikos, so that very few graves remained in the area around the Areopagus hill after 1000 BC.

Thus were the Agora and Speech related. Plutarch reports that the Agora first began to function as a meeting place for the residents of the federated townships during the rule of Theseus, when a Prytaneion was established. The altar bearing the sacred fire of this first official building became the symbol of newly constituted state. Other important buildings were the Bouleuterion, the Eleusinion sanctuary and the temple of Aphrodite Pandemos. The latter was a tribute built by the municipalities to the goddess with the great power over human nature. There was a great deal of traffic in the area, making it suitable for the practice of the oldest profession; the women were dedicated to the goddess thereby giving the term “pandemos Aphrodite” its meaning of prostitute. We do not know the precise location of these early sites, although they must have been somewhere in the clearing between the Areopagus and the northwestern corner of the Acropolis.

After the monarchy was abolished and the citizens acquired the right to express their opinion, a need clearly arose for more public buildings and a larger place in which the citizens could gather. The level ground east of the Areopagus was regarded as being the most suitable location for the Agora which was to have several new sanctuaries and public fountains. While the Acropolis was devoted exclusively to religion, the Agora from the very beginning assumed the function of a civic and administrative centre. No trace of these first public buildings has survived up to our time, since they are underneath the present, densely populated district of Plaka.

The establishment of colonies, which the orator Isocrates would later refer to as the best possible solution to political problems, and the resultant growth of trade made it absolutely essential to have a more convenient place to do business. Thus, early in the 6th century, Solon selected the most appropriate spot for the Agora, i.e. the site we know today. The flat ground north of the Areopagus formed a triangle with its apex facing northward and its western side protected by a plateau. On the east was the main road which started at the Dipylon Gate, the entrance to the city, and ascended to the Acropolis. In addition, the roads from the outer townships ended in this lowland near a little creek called the Eridanos.

From the first moment, it proved to be an excellent choice. The plateau was named Agoraios Kolonos, and on its slopes the first public building was erected, very possibly a council chamber. Small temples followed, as did a Bouleuterion (Council House) and a Prytaneion. Solon chose the entrance to the city as the best position for a portico and gave orders for the written laws to be kept there. The Agora was beginning to take shape.

In the second half of the 6th century, during the tyranny of Peisistratos, the site was provided with a water supply and drainage system. A monumental fountain and rainwater duct were built. Like all dictators, Peisistratos was not especially keen on the idea of increasing space for meeting and voting; instead, he filled the city with projects to benefit the public. During the years of his rule, the great road followed by the Panathenaic procession took on its final form. On the south side of the Acropolis, the people’s courthouse of the Heliaia was built and, at the northern crossroads, the Altar of the Twelve Gods.

The Persian campaign left much of the city in ruins which began to be cleared away after 460 BC, when Kimon was in power. Many new buildings were put up then, including porticoes with shops, a large Bouleuterion, special places for meetings of military leaders (strategoi) and civic administrators (prytanes), as well as altars and monuments honouring local heroes. On the highest point in the Agora, the temple of Hephaestos, the blacksmith god, was built. This Doric temple preceded the Parthenon, and also housed a statue of Athena, goddess of wisdom. Thus were the two gods brought together showing the association between philosophy and art, teaching that intellectuals and artisans cannot live one without the other.

During the years that followed, the Agora became the true heart of the city. Although decisions were made in the Council of the Deme and in the neighbouring Pnyx, the draws to determine who would take part in the administration of the state were held in the Agora. The laws, their enforcement, the penalties imposed on violators, the minting of currency, buying and selling – all had their own particular spot in the Agora. Processions, races, auctions and feasts were all characteristic of this political, civic, cultural, commercial and sometimes religious centre. The streets of the growing city may well have been narrow and full of hazardous potholes and the wooden houses may have had but one ground floor room with perhaps a wooden addition above. The walls of these houses may have been brick and susceptible to thieves. Cooking fires may have been lit on the road and the lack of proper sewers may have been responsible for epidemics. But when the Athenian citizen entered the Agora, he felt that he was participating in and contributing to the miracle of his times. Philosophers, orators, politicians and citizens caused Demosthenes to say, in the 4th century, that the customary greeting between Athenians meeting in the Agora was: What’s new? At the end of the Hellenistic period, the Agora was crowded with buildings, including a recent graceful portico donated by Attalos of Pergamum. The Romans who followed began competing to build other edifices which caused the Agora to spill out beyond its initial bounds. Altars, temples, a library and gymnasium, porticoes and colonnades, all of which were open to the public, made Saint Paul say that the Athenian citizens and metoici did nothing but stroll around the Agora discussing politics. Athenaios from Egypt was also highly impressed, and wrote in his Deipnosophists that in the Athens Agora, one could find with equal ease: fruit, false witnesses, complaints, pap, pedlars, honeycomb with honey, peas, trials, lotteries, roses and irises, laws, hydraulic clocks, pimps, informers, myrtle branches…

The weakening of the Roman Empire brought barbarians. In 267 AD, the Agora was sacked by the Herulians who respected only the temple. A wall was built from the rubble of the buildings, but it could not save the Agora from Alaric’s Goths in 396. This total devastation was followed by reconstruction which kept the site functioning until 529. This was the year of the final blow against Athens, when the Byzantine emperor Justinian ordered the closing of the philosophical schools, which the new religion regarded with such hostility. The Agora was abandoned, its monuments fell into disuse and then decay, the site was gradually covered over by earth and mud because there was nobody to keep the drainage ducts cleared. During subsequent centuries, houses were built of the plentiful debris. On top of the buried antiquities, the lovely Byzantine church of the Holy Apostles was built in the year 1000. Meantime, the ancient temple of Hephaistos had already been consecrated to St George.

Throughout the 400 years of Turkish rule (1456-1829), the Athenians lived perched on the north side of the Acropolis, where the heart of the Polis had once beaten most proudly. Many houses were destroyed during the Greek War of Independence, especially during the siege of Athens by Kiutahi Pasha. But with the designation of the city as capital of the new Greek state, new homes were soon built on top of the ruins of older ones. The architects Kleanthis and Schubert, who had been assigned to reconstruct the capital, vainly proposed that the new city be built some distance away from the old one so as to leave the ground free for future excavations. Short-sightedness, pettiness and profit, however, proved stronger than reason. The first traces of the ancient Agora were revealed in 1859, when foundations for houses began being dug. Much later, in 1931, the American School of Classical Studies undertook regular excavations which continued until after 1945, with constant appropriations of property. It is estimated that more than three hundred thousand tonnes of earth and rubble were moved in order to bring the Agora to light. Today the ancient heart of Athens, spread out as far as permitted by the surrounding modern buildings, reveals its beauty, its eloquent ruins and its rich memories of days past, days of eternal glory.

The most impressive monument in the ancient Agora is indisputably the great Doric temple which dominates the site. Built on the top of a plateau, known as the Agoraios Kolonos, this temple is the best- preserved ancient building in Greece, having survived a great number of adventures, threats and changes including the alteration of its original name. For centuries, this temple was known as the Theseion, as it was believed to have been a temple dedicated to Theseus, a conclusion drawn from its sculpted decoration depicting the hero’s feats. This restless prince of prehistoric Athens was mythified by the Athenians, as the Attic counterpart of the Doric Hercules. Tales were invented about his birth, his achievements, his wanderings. It is said that he fell in love with the beautiful Helen when she was still a child and he an old man, and that this love pitted him against her brothers the Dioscuri, which forced him to seek refuge on the island of Skyros. There the local king Lykomedes killed him by throwing him off a cliff. After an oracle from Delphi, Kimon went to the island in 469 BC to fetch the bones of the founder of Athens and bury them properly in his ancestral city. A temple was built on Theseus’ grave and was called Theseion, which Thucydides mentioned as a place where hoplites would gather. Aristophanes used the mocking name “Theseion-frequenter” to denote people who, having nothing to do, would wander about aimlessly. Plutarch wrote that the Theseion was a refuge for slaves, but its precise location is unknown.

Pausanias refers explicitly to the large temple in the Agora as being dedicated to Hephaistos and indeed he even described the cult statues there: one of Hephaistos and one of Athena with blue eyes. The celebrated Roman orator Cicero greatly admired the bronze statues which had been sculpted by Alcamenes just after 421 BC, praising the artist for his skill in presenting the lame Hephaistos standing upright without showing his physical disability. This testimony is the only trace of these statues that remains today.

The temple was built after 449 BC, based on plans by an unknown architect, similar in size to the temple of Poseidon at Sounion and that of Nemesis at Ramnus, near Marathon. It is indeed remarkable that, despite all the disasters that befell the Agora during the years of the barbarian invasions, the temple was left intact. Later, under Byzantine rule, it became a church consecrated to St George. An apse was built on the eastern side, and a door was opened on the west. In about 1300, the original ceiling collapsed and was replaced with the present-day vaulted brick one, which stands in sharp contrast to the rest of the building. It may even have been due to these changes that the temple escaped destruction, particularly during the years of Ottoman rule. It used to be said that in order to permit services to be held in the church, the Turkish governor would demand the weight of the key to the building in gold. At that time, keys were huge and gold rare, which was why the building only opened once a year. Services were held solely on the feast of St George, a fact which lent the building its picturesque name: St George the Akamatis (Lazybones).

In the early 19th century, during the Revolution against the Ottoman Empire, the temple was called “thirty-two columns”; it was used to chant the Te Deum when King Otto arrived in the capital in 1834, signalling liberation from the Turks. A marvellous painting of the period shows us the young king being welcomed by the awestruck crowd, as he started out unsuspectingly along the road to his destiny. Services were held in the church for the last time in 1934, on the 100th anniversary of the new Athens; two years later its restoration as an archaeological monument began.

The temple of Hephaistos stands firmly on a foundation of three steps, the bottom of which is poros stone, the other two are Pentelic marble; the columns are of the same material, 13 on each of the long flanks and six on the facades. Outside the columns there are traces of pedestals of votive offerings and statues. On the east side, is a carved representation on the floor beside the columns which shows that some lazy people used to spend their time either playing something like modern board games or scratching the marble with the age-old destructive mania of bored people.

Although the external dimensions of the building are typical of the classical age, the interior was an unsuccessful effort to achieve the perfect symmetry of the slightly later Parthenon.

The pronaos which once existed had two columns which were removed when the building was converted into a church, and was more spacious than the corresponding opisthodomos on the west side. Another equally unsymmetrical element could be seen inside the temple, where the inner Doric columns, five columns on the flanks and three on the west, were very close to the outer walls, and appeared to diminish the space. In front of the three columns on the west side a base of grey stone shows where statues of the gods had stood. Nothing has remained of the initial marble flooring, since for some centuries now it has been the custom to bury famous citizens here. On the interior wall of the north side one can still see an Englishman’s gravestone bearing an epigram by Lord Byron.

The sculpted decoration of the temple has not been well preserved since for centuries it has been exposed to the weather and changes of season. The pediments have suffered most of all: on the east the sculptures have been lost altogether, while on the west some animal hoofs have remained which might have been part of a representation of the battle with the centaurs, a subject directly related to Theseus. The eastern metopes narrated the labours of Hercules while on the north and south side there are four relief slabs again depicting the feats of Theseus. On the exterior wall of the temple proper, there was a frieze on the facades alone, not on the flanks. On the eastern side Theseus was presented fighting against his kinsmen the Pallantides, who had disputed his hereditary right to the throne of Athens. To portray all these fighting figures, the sculptor used the entire width of the cella facade. By contrast, on the opposite, western side, the classical battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths occupied considerably less space.

Around the temple there were two rows of shallow pits at regular intervals. Even today, on the south side one can see traces of enormous clay jars half-buried in the ground; they were flower pots for the ornamental plants that adorned the site during the Hellenistic and Roman age. In a dry city like Athens, plants have always been welcome; we know that in an earlier age, Kimon himself had taken care to plant myrtle and plane trees in the Agora. There was once an enclosure round the sacred precinct of the temple, but not a trace of it remains. The same is true of the access point from the Agoraios Kolonos plateau to the lower level of the Agora; the grand staircase which used to be there has been completely destroyed.

Just north of the temple, but at a somewhat lower level, traces were found of an enormous colonnaded structure which had been almost entirely hewn out of the natural rock. Archaeologists believe it to have been a 4th-century building that was either related to the Athenian army or, because of the large number of Panathenaic amphoras found there, a storehouse for sacred oil. But the existence of strongly- built walls and a system for collecting rain water in underground cisterns makes it difficult for scholars to identify this strange building and its function. There was another building, too, on the Agoraios Kolonos: the little temple dedicated to Urania Aphrodite, the ruins of which were discovered accidentally in 1890, during the building of the railroad that was to link Athens with Piraeus.

We know that Aphrodite was a very ancient deity. The personification of love and fertility, she began in Babylon where she was worshipped as the all-powerful Ishtar. In addition to temples, the inhabitants of Babylon with its mythical wealth, had dedicated even the main entrance of this heavily walled city to their powerful protector. This is the gate which we can see restored today in the Museum in Berlin. The same divinity was called Astarte in Phoenician regions while the monotheistic Semites feared her as Ashtaroth: a divine but extremely dangerous woman who made it difficult for them to observe the strict rules in their lives. Herodotus reported, in the third book of his history, that in the land of the Phoenicians the all-powerful goddess had another name as well: Alilat. The Sumerians called her Inanna and the Persians Anahita for whom she was protectress of the water, which in their dry country was life itself. The influence of this supreme goddess spread throughout the entire Mediterranean, carried by Phoenician seamen who brought her as far as the city of Eryce on the western tip of Sicily, where she was worshipped on top of a steep rock. In the other great Phoenician colony, Carthage, she was called Tanit.

This goddess with the many names was worshipped according to the needs of the society in which her sanctuaries were located. Not only were her names different, but so were her rites: orgies, sacred prostitution, even the sacrifices of first-born children, as was the case in Carthage in the worship of the bloodthirsty Tanit. It is worth noting that the symbol of this Carthaginian goddess can be seen in Delos, on the threshold of the house of the dolphins, like a magic charm to keep misfortune away from the householders.

From clay slabs found on the coast of Syria, we learn of the correspondence of an Ugarit chief with his counterpart in Alasia, as prehistoric Cyprus was called. These relationships explain the way in which the Eastern divinity was carried to the island of Cyprus, where as early as the 12th century BC, there was a sanctuary dedicated to her near Paphos. But here the insatiable goddess changed form. She became identified with the sea and was named Pelagic.

In his Cosmogonia, Hesiod wrote some strange things about how this universal heavenly power came to be in the Helladic world. He said that Kronos castrated Uranus and threw the immortal parts of his divine father into the sea somewhere near Kythera. On that spot, a great foam was created out of which emerged the beautiful goddess. This accounts for her name in Greek, as Aphrodite means “arisen out of the foam”. The waves embraced her and brought her gently to Cyprus where she acquired yet another name: Cypris.

Associated with humankind’s most powerful emotion, Aphrodite was worshipped everywhere with zeal, as her cult conquered one region after the other. She enchanted both gods and mortals, accompanied by a retinue consisting of the mischievous Eros, the Graces, Desire and Lust. She was by her nature a fateful goddess, who could not stand to be spurned; she punished the unloved harshly, as she did Hippolytus, son of Theseus. The proud goddess tormented him and led him to his doom because the rash young man dared to prefer to worship the virginity of Artemis. In Sparta, Aphrodite was worshipped as a martial goddess, in keeping with the paramount local values, and in Athens she was exalted as Urania, heavenly protectress of the noblest form of love. There was of course the other sanctuary, in her Pandemos form, but it was as Urania, her refined form, that she was honoured on the Agoraios Kolonos, alongside the temple of her husband Hephaistos who had gone through so much during their married life. Pausanias referred to the sanctuary of the goddess and to its cult statue, a work by Phidias from choice marble, but today only a few stones have been saved on the slope of the hill beside the train tracks. In order to build this central communications line, the ruins of the greater part of this ancient building were sacrificed.

The Difference Between a Casio Baby-G and a Casio G Shock Watch

Are you looking for the perfect watch that can stand up to your tough lifestyle? There are two that come to mind: the Casio Baby-G and the Casio G shock. These two watches are remarkably similar. They are both tough and durable. They can withstand large falls and impacts that other watches would crumble under. They can both be used in water, and they both have sleek designs that set them apart from other watches.

Their similarities make sense, though. After all, the Baby-G is just a smaller version of the G shock. Despite their similarities, however, there are a few unique differences you should consider before you decide to make a purchase.

Analyzing the Differences

  • Men vs. Women – One of the biggest differences between these two watches is that the G shock is made for men, and the Baby-G is made for women. The sizes of the straps and the watch’s face are different because of this. The Baby-G’s face is generally about the same in length, but it is usually not as deep as the men’s version of the watch.
  • Water Resistance – A G shock watch is generally (although not always) water resistant for up to 200 meters. While some Baby-G’s are as well, many are only resistant for up to 100 meters. Unless your favourite activity is snorkelling or deep sea diving, however, this should not be a problem.
  • Colour – The men’s version of this watch generally comes in very few colours, like black, red, silver, gray, and white. The women’s version, however, is much more colourful. You can find these watches in red, pink, green, white, purple, black, blue, and silver. This allows women to pick and choose different and vibrant colours to match any outfit they put on.

What do These Watches Have in Common?

Aside from their sleek look and unmatchable durability, these two watch styles have several features in common, including:

  • Temperature resistance – Some of the watches can withstand temperatures as low as -20 degrees Celsius.
  • Electro-luminescent backlight – The backlight on these two types of watches allows you to enjoy them anytime- no matter what time of day it is.
  • Auto-Calendar – These Casio watches are programmed so you will not only know the time, but the date as well. While the number of years the auto-calendar is programmed until will vary, depending on the exact version you purchase, some are programmed all the way until 2099.
  • Long Battery Life – The Casio G shock and Baby-G both come with long-lasting batteries. You can use these watches for up to two years before you need to replace them.
  • Stopwatch – Are you in training or simply trying to lose weight? These watches can help with one hour countdown timers, complete with an auto-repeat option, and a one hour stopwatch.

Whether you are a man or a woman, you are going to enjoy all of the unique features available to you from Casio’s line of G shock watches. If you are a woman, you can enjoy the traditional G shock gives a masculine flair and has all the bells and whistles you need, and if you are a woman, you can enjoy all the same great features, but with a more feminine and colourful accessory.

Installing Enhanced Hip and Ridge Cap Shingles

Installing professional looking hip and ridge shingles takes matching up the hip and ridge cap to the shingles that are on the roof. Using the 3 tab shingles that do not match the main shingle is a disservice to the homeowner and also makes the roof look bad or not trimmed out.

Using enhanced hip and ridge material will ensure the life match of the shingles warranty, will enhance the shingle appearance, and also complement the shingle color. There are five specially designed ridge cap shingles made to match GAF-Elk shingles, these are: Timbertex ridge high profile caps, Z Ridge ridge caps, Seal-a-ridge, Ridge glass ridge cap shingles, Grand Sequoia hip and ridge and vented Ridgecrest vented ridge cap shingle.

These entire enhanced ridge shingles count as one system component on Weather Stopper System Plus installations. All GAF-Elk cap products are also acceptable on Weather Stopper Golden Pledge Installations.

The Timbertex hip and ridge shingles are four times thicker and 1/3 larger than the standard caps for enhanced protection while at the same time adding extra dimension to the rooflines. This hip and ridge complements the color of GAF-Elk shingles. The warranty length matches all shingles.

Making sure the hip and ridge products are separated into three individual ridge cap pieces at perforations is vital to making sure they go on easy. You also need to prepare the starter course, for this step, piece and cut along the line between double thick layers. Place the 4″ x 12″ triple starter cap across the ridge, starting at the bottom of the hip or from the end of the ridge opposite the direction of the prevailing wind.

Begin laying full ridge shingle pieces 12″ x 12″. Apply with an 8″ exposure beginning at the bottom of the hip or from the end of the ridge opposite the direction of the wind. The inner edge of the 4″ wide laminated piece provides alignment for the next unit.

Apply ridging using 2 nails per piece 9″ back from the exposed end and 1″ up from the edge. Use only zinc coated steel or aluminum, 10-12 gauge, barbed, deformed or smooth shank roofing nails with heads 3/8″ to 7/16″ in diameter. Nails should be long enough to penetrate at least ” into wood decks or just through plywood decks. Nails must be driven flush with the surface of the shingle.

GAF- Elks installation warranties do not qualify these shingles for anything but a matched roofing system. Think of it like this: If you had a picture that was really important to you, how would you frame it.With a cheap or with a good frame? The same thought process should be used on you new Architectural or Designer Roof.

Paint Fumes Air Purifier – 5 Best Features For Effectiveness

The effects of breathing paint fumes can produce uncomfortable symptoms as well as serious health problems when exposure is continuous for long periods. Using an air cleaner to eliminate these hazardous chemicals is the most effective and here are 5 features the cleaner should have in order to work.

Carbon Filter — Carbon is recognized the world over as being superior in its ability to remove gaseous pollutants such as chemicals, gases, and odors. If you’re dealing with fumes from paints, this filter is a must-have.

A fairly large quantity of carbon makes it able to work well. And to be effective quantities should range from 7 to 15 pounds.

Additive to Enhance Carbon’s Capability — Noxious fumes such as those created by some paints, oil in particular, are tough for even carbon alone to completely eliminate.

So in addition to the carbon, there should also be an additive used to enhance its ability to effectively remove the VOCs. The most effective additive has proven to be potassium iodide.

Ability to Operate 24 Hours — The odor from paint can be noticeable anywhere from several days to a week. Even though the smell may be more subtle, it can takes weeks for this chemicals to stop. And just because the nose can no longer smell them doesn’t mean they aren’t still there.

Having a cleaner that can continually trap these odors keeps the air fresh and healthy all the time. In order to be able to operate continuously, a split capacitor motor is necessary.

Check the technical specifications or the owner’s manual to verify that the unit has this type of motor. If it does, you can relax knowing that these fumes are being removed 24 hours a day by the purifier without risking the safety of your family or your home.

Multiple Filtration Speeds — A unit with that will allow you to speed up filtration when the air is thick and cut back on the speed when all is well will save you money, and ultimately give you the most control over your air.

Being able to take the fumes out almost as quickly as they go into the air allows you to breathe the freshest air possible all the time.

It Can Go With You — Being able to have the unit move across the floor or across the country with you offers huge benefits.. A two prong plug assures you that it can plug in safely anywhere you need it to without requiring an adapter for the plug. It also means that you can relax knowing that regardless of the source of the airborne chemicals, clean air is always as close as the nearest outlet.

Description – If you are exposed to paint fumes on a regular basis, clearing the air of the volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that evaporate into the air is crucial if you are to maintain your good health. Here are 5 features that the air purifier must have if it is to be effective.

Electric Motor Repair Can Mean Small Or Big Repairs

In the world today there are many different electric motors. We all see equipment that is powered by motors, whether you realize it or not. It might be a pool pump that powers water through a swimming pool, to a lathe in a woodshop that is used to make bowls or pencils. These motors typically average in size to about 5 HP. Then there are the larger electric motors that are used like vehicle motors, airplane motors. And you'll hear of electric motors commonly used in business today that are commercial and industrial electric motors like those you might find in factories or warehouses and are used to power large machines. Electric motors are a big part of how businesses and factories are powered, but like everything today, there will be times when something goes wrong and you will need to have parts repaired or replaced on the motor.

Electric motor repairs usually need to be done by qualified repairmen or companies that specialize in electric motor repair. If you have an electric motor that is especially large and heavy, you will need to verify with the repair shop that they have the necessary equipment, like cranes, to be able to move your motor.

When your pool pump motor runs dry and burns up you know you can call your pool technician and he will repair the problem for you or if you need an electric motor repaired on any of your woodworking machines, you generally call in a repairman who works on small machines. When larger more powerful motors develop problems and need parts and repair work it often entails a larger scaled motor repair division found in companies that special in industrial and commercial machine motors.

These companies tend to have repairmen and technicians who are skilled in working on both A / C motors and D / C motors as well as motors that have a higher horse power. They will also have all the necessary tools and equipment needed to repair your motor back to a pristine state. Many of the large scale electric motor repair shops will have the ability to put a high build epoxy varnish treatment on repaired items as well as to do a Core Loss test, and equipment that can do vibrations testing on the electric motors and parts repaired.

At times your motor will have become so damaged, often because of too much heat that damages the insulation or because the winding has been cut, that it will need to be rewound. Almost all electric motor repair shops have the equipment required to test for this and can offer you motor rewinding services. Most shops should be experienced enough to be able to rewind all types and sizes of motors, such as for both A / C and D / C motors. With any electric motor repair work done, make sure to check is the shop is a certified warranty repair facility for your type engine manufacturer. If your machine is still under warranty, it is going to be very important that you use a shop that can do certified repair work on your engine.

How To Deal With Water Logging Issues in Your Home

You have bought a beautiful house and everything’s working perfectly. But lo, it rains and your house is flooded with water! Yes, waterlogging issues can be an unforeseen problem that can arise after you have moved into your new apartment. Most common during seasonal rains, waterlogging can leave you stranded when you get out of your house. It’s true that most of us are still in the dark when it comes to dealing with this issue. Keep reading to find out some of the most effective techniques that you can use!

Understanding The Issue

Waterlogging in your house can be caused due to many reasons such as storm runoff, sullage, or damaged drain sewers. Apart from the short-term effects like hampering your daily routine, it also causes other serious damages like weakening the foundation of the entire house. When water mixes with other garbage and wastes, this can pose a great threat to your health. So, it is always important to understand these risks and deal strategically with water logging issues.

Effective Precautions And Strategic Troubleshooting

Once you know what the problem is, it becomes easier to take steps to troubleshoot. Some effective solutions to prevent water logging in your home are given below. Depending on the reach of the issue, you can employ any or all of the following solutions.

Solution 1: Rainwater Harvesting To Cope With Flood

It may be impossible to prevent the huge amount of water entering the premises during heavy monsoon rain or flood. But, it is possible to direct the flow of the water and treat the problem of waterlogging judiciously. Rainwater harvesting is the most effective way to cope with the issue of rainwater flooding your house.

Solution 2: Downspout Extensions For Basement Flooding

Installing downspout extensions is an effective solution to keep your basement dry. This helps in redirecting the water flow from the rooftops as well as basements to a safer location, such as a dry well or any other rainwater harvesting system.

Solution 3: Dry Well For Cheap Water Logging Solution

If you are looking for an economical way for solving water logging issues, nothing works better than a dry well. Standing water can be directed to the dry well using downspout extensions. The dry well is usually filled with stones, gravels, and pebbles so that water does not seep back into your lawn.

Solution 4: Installing A Sump Pump

Foreseeing the issue of waterlogging, you can install a sump pump that can pump out the standing water from your basement. This is a simple solution that can help you tackle waterlogging issues effectively.

Solution 5: Rain Gardens For Rain Runoff

Rain gardens are an ideal solution for apartments, schools, and other residential premises where run-off rainwater poses a major issue. Creating rain gardens in well-drained/sandy soils can be perfect for capturing storm water.

Solution 6: French Drains For Plain Surfaces

When you cannot judge the slope of your lawn to construct a dry well, a French drain, also known as the weeping tile is an effective alternative. A French drain is nothing but a trench filled with sand and gravel. It has pipes that drain the stagnant water and direct it away from the area.

Comparison Is the Thief of All Happiness

My morning ritual is pretty much the same when I’m home, the only thing that will vary is whether or not the bed gets made. I wake up, brush my teeth, wash my face, get dressed, and make coffee. Once the coffee is finished, depending on the weather, I will either sit on the couch or my balcony and catch up on what happened overnight. This morning was no different, except I didn’t get far into Facebook when a dear friend’s status update flashed on my screen; “Comparison is the thief of all happiness #gospel #doyou #themaskyoulivein”. It instantly got my wheels turning before I even finished my cup of coffee.

My friend is an amazing singer/songwriter, and I’m not sure if this phrase is the basis of a song or not, but as I sat on my balcony this morning and watched all the people going to work, I thought to myself I was so guilty of this phase. If you read my blog or if you know me personally, you know I have some major body image issues, I’m working on them, but it is a daily battle. I have spent a lifetime of comparing myself to friends, family, strangers and finally at 49 I had enough.

Comparison is the thief of all happiness. Because of comparison I never felt pretty enough, skinny enough, funny enough and because I spent all those years comparing myself to people who I thought were beautiful, funny and thin, I had no idea I was stealing from myself years of confidence and security. I look at pictures of the younger me, and I see an entirely different person. I see a beautiful human, she was smart, she was fun, she was funny, but she was afraid. When I was younger, I didn’t see what the older version of me saw; I was scared to be myself because I didn’t think I was any of those things.

Comparison is the thief of all happiness. When you spend years comparing yourself to other people, you never feel good enough; you never feel like you deserve anything, and you will always settle for the crumbs from the table of the people you are comparing yourself to.

Comparison is the thief of all happiness. Comparison made me settle in life instead of being the true me. Because I settled, I ended up being in a long term relationship with a married man. I never felt confident enough to realize I deserved more. It took an amazingly strong confident man to force me into realizing I deserved more and I now get to experience the feeling of love and acceptance every day.

Comparison is the thief of all happiness. Comparison stops me from wearing things I think are beautiful or comfortable or colorful. I always feel to fat or too old so instead, I wear a lot of black things that aren’t sleeveless, and I’m always hot and grumpy. That is until this weekend when I didn’t care anymore. I wore, out in public, a sleeveless shirt. It was a huge step for me, and I was comfortable and most importantly I was happy.

Comparison is the thief of all happiness. I started going grey when I was 24 years old. I come from a family that goes grey early, and they all look beautiful with their natural grey hair. However, because of my lifetime of comparison, I started coloring my hair at 24 because all the 24-year-olds around me had long beautiful brown or blonde hair. I stopped coloring my hair last year, and it was the most freeing thing I have ever done.

As I near my fifties and leave my 20’s, 30’s, and 40’s behind I am taking control of my happiness. It happened practically overnight that the word Confidence replaced the word Comparison, and I have surrounded myself with people who confirm my feelings. I am a beautiful 49-year-old woman, I am curvy, I have short, grey hair, I have a nontraditional job and most of all I am happy.

My point is this, once you stop comparing you gain your confidence back which gets you your happiness back. So ditch #themaskyoulivein and #doyou. You are beautiful, you are smart, you are funny. There is only one of you and it’s perfect.

Flipping Real Estate or Flipping Paper?

Flipping real estate properties is not for everybody but it is the fastest way to make a buck in the real estate business. Most everybody has heard of someone buying a “run down” house for a good price well below market value, fixing it up and selling it at a fair market price. Flipping a “fixer-upper” is definitely one way to turn a reasonably quick profit. I know some people who do it this way but they are more into the contractor and renovation business than they are of the investor mindset.

Some of these “fixer-upper” properties are in need of extensive repair and will involve electrical work, carpentry work, etc. If the investor gets involved and does some or all of this work then there could be enough profit there but if the investor farms out the required labour, profits could get eaten up quickly. For these types of flipping real estate investments, the purchase price needs to be at a huge discount and normally would be found somewhere in the foreclosure stage.

For the person that is in the mindset of investing rather than being in the renovation business then flipping real estate will only involve flipping the paper contract of the property without even taking possession of it. You can flip by entering an agreement to buy a property then sell the contract to another investor before close of escrow.

Using this technique won’t even require you to put your name on the title. Profits will generally be less than the fixer-upper investor but involves much less work and the whole process is much quicker. A fixer-upper investor would not be happy in making a profit of a few thousand dollars for a few months work on renovations but an investor that can just flip a contract for a few hours or days work would be.

Avoid disclosure of your profits to the new buyer by using a double closing.

After making a sweet deal and flipping a contract involving a juicy profit you may not want all these details to be revealed to your buyer. The solution is a double closing, transferring the property to you initially and then reselling immediately at the same lawyer’s office just an hour later to your buyer.

There is a drawback here and that is a double set of closing costs so you would have to weigh it out to see if it’s worth it to your particular situation or not. Further, you can use a title insurance company for the actual closings. For the issuance of the title insurance policy, the title insurance company will prepare the closing documents and close the transaction usually without an addition charge.

Why Tractor Engines Can Overheat and How to Correct It

Its farming time whether its tillage, plowing, or just normal farm work. It’s a hot day, and there are lots of things to get done around the farm. However, suddenly you notice that the temperature gauge is showing higher than normal temperature reading. At this time, it’s wise to stop operating the tractor, and if the temperature level is not at its peak level on the gauge, make a quick check of the engine area to detect any leaks or other obvious problems, and then return quickly to turn the engine off.

The older tractors will not have safety shut off devices. The newer computerized controlled tractors will have audible alarms and in many cases, these controls will automatically shut the engine down when excessive temperature readings are present.

A tractor’s cooling system comprises of several components. There is a radiator, a radiator fan, water pump, lower radiator hose, upper radiator hose, a thermostat, and a liquid that flows through the engine, to the radiator where it is cooled, and then re-circulated back into the engine to continue the cooling process.

The first step in diagnosing an overheating problem is to ensure that there is enough fluid in the radiator. This can be checked by looking in the overflow container. If that is filled, and there is no blockage from the radiator to the overflow container, then the engine must be allowed to cool. Once cooled, the radiator cap should be removed and the radiator checked for fluid.

If there is a fluid shortage, then the cause of the shortage needs to be identified. A damaged lower and upper radiator hose can be changed. The clamps on the system can be tightened or changed.

For fluid shortage, there should be visible leaks around the failed component, either the hoses, a leaking radiator, or broken water pump. Should there be no visible leaks and missing cooling fluid, then this can indicate a damaged cylinder head gasket that is allowing the fluid to either leak into the engine, or be pulled into the combustion chamber, burnt, and then exhausted.

The thermostat, a simple device, is located directly in the path of the flowing liquid. It contains a bi-metallic disc, that opens when immersed in fluid of a high temperature, and closes when the temperature of the fluid reduced below a predetermined level. Typically, most thermostats will fail in an open manner, thereby allowing over cooling rather that the opposite, overheating.

A simple way to test the thermostat is to put it into a container of water and bring that container to a boil on a stove, or hotplate. As the water temperature reaches boiling, the thermostat should begin to open. If it doesn’t, then it needs to be changed.

Other sections of the cooling system not discussed here are the water pump, and the radiator, gauges and radiator cooling fan systems.

Taking Care Of Your Furnace Room

The furnace room, or room where the furnace is located, is typically low on a homeowner’s maintenance list. Many times, the room is located in the cellar and rarely used. However, in order to keep your furnace operating properly, you will need to regularly clean and maintain the room where the furnace is located.

There are several reasons for this. First of all, cleanliness will reduce the risk of a fire. Secondly, a clean furnace room will make it easier to fix the furnace if repairs should be necessary.

The good news is that keeping your furnace room clean and clutter free is not a lot of work in the long run. Of course, if you have used your furnace room as a storage area, it may take some time to clean the area and make sure that it is safe.

Here is a simple list of things that should be done to keep your furnace room clean in order to minimize the risk of fire and to keep your family safe.

  1. Do make sure that there is enough space around the furnace so that it can safely operate. Some families have a tendency to pack the room full of unused items or use the room for storage. This can create a fire hazard and can interfere with the operation of the furnace.
  2. Do not hang laundry lines or clothes from your furnace to dry. Although the clothes may dry quickly, this is definitely a fire hazard. If you put the clothes on a drying rack in the furnace room, make sure that the rack is a safe distance from the furnace.
  3. Do not place your cat’s litter box near the furnace. The ammonia from the cat’s urine can actually corrode parts of the furnace. In addition, the smells from the litter box can get caught up in the vent system and circulate through your home.
  4. Do not store chemicals, cleaning products, or laundry soaps near the furnace. If you must store the items in the room with the furnace, make sure that the products are in an airtight container.
  5. Never store flammable products like gasoline, pool chemicals, kerosene or paint thinners any where near the furnace. These items can easily cause a dangerous fire.
  6. Do keep the area clean. Don’t leave your old dusty furnace filters or broken furnace parts lying around the furnace room. Not only does this clutter up the area, but it can also create a fire hazard.
  7. Do make sure to dust and vacuum the furnace and the furnace room regularly. This means dusting the area and vacuuming around the furnace and the floor in order to keep dust build up at a minimum.

Once you have given the area a good cleaning, you will only need to invest a few minutes a week making sure that the area is clean. Even if it does take a lot of work to clean the area at first, the peace of mind you will get is well worth the work.