Tig Welding Certification – Tips For Passing Aerospace Welding Tests

Some of you reading this are about to take your first TIG welding certification test in the aerospace industry. Maybe you are transitioning from another industry like pipe welding where you welded stainless and carbon steel pipe, or food service where you welded stainless steel sheet metal. Either way, let me tell you a few tips that might help you get ready:

Everything is thinner and smaller. The tig torch, electrode, filler wire, and possibly even the tig welding machine will be smaller than you are accustomed to. In pipe welding for example, a 1/8 inch rod is considered the big tig welding rod. In Aerospace tig welding, a 1/16 inch rod is big.

Everything needs to be cleaned better. All joints are normally x-rayed in an aerospace tig welding certification test. Metals like titanium, aluminum, and magnesium are prone to porosity. Remember the 3 C’s …clean, clean, clean. Especially important is filing the sheared edge of metal that will be welded. That sheared edge looks pretty clean but it is a trap for oil and corrosion products. File it and when you think you have filed it enough, file some more.  

Everything makes a difference. Little things like the size of your tack welds, how you position the test plates in the fixture, how much flow rate is used on the purge gas, angle of torch, angle of filler metal rod, what kind of abrasive you use to clean the metal, how pure the argon or other shielding gas is…you get the picture.  Like my old coach used to tell me…nothing is fair, but everything  matters.  

Everything needs to be shielded better. The hot tip of the filler rod will put oxides in your puddle. You can get away with a little of that in pipe welding stainless and mild steel, but it will kill you when welding something like .020″ 15-7 precipitation hardening stainless or .032″ inconel 718. To keep the end of the rod perfectly shielded , use a tig cup that is at least 3/4 inch id. With a diffuser that provides a nice soft blanket of argon shielding to the puddle. ..and you need to test it on a scrap piece of titanium to make sure it is working before lighting up on your tig welding certification plates.  

3 more tips for passing an aerospace tig welding test…

  1. About 1 amp per 1 thousands of thickness welded will get you in the ball park. Set the tig welding machine amperage accordingly plus about 10 more amps just in case and use the foot pedal to adjust. This will keep you out of trouble by limiting your amperage. usually a bead width of 4 times the thickness welded will get the penetration needed for butt welds.
  2. Use the smallest electrode that will get the job done.  And sharpen it really good with scratches running lengthwise. long tapered works better for really thin (.020″) and less of a taper is better for thicker welds
  3. Use the smallest filler wire that will work with having to feed too much. Too big a tig welding rod will draw too much heat out of the puddle and will cause you to use more amperage than is required . Too small a filler wire will cause you to feed too much and you cant keep up.

Best In-Depth Guide to Dental Implants

I hope to compile the answers of some of the dental professionals that have had years of experience in the dental implant industry. Thank you for reading.

How Long Do Dental Implants Take?

What's the surgery time for Dental Implants and How many appointment's are involved?

After my research on the appointment and surgery times I've reached the conclusion that it definitely depends on the implant procedure that you are interested in. However, I was surprised to find out that for many of these procedures, there is a very short waiting period, a very short surgery time, and a fair short recovery time.

Here's a list of some very common dental implant procedures:

Single Tooth Implants – For single tooth replacement. The insertion of a single titanium dental implants followed by the attachment of a single crown.

Fixed-Bridge on Implants – For two or more teeth missing. Involves the insertion of two dental implant spread across two, three, or four teeth. This is followed by the attachment of a fixed bridge spanning two, three, or four teeth.

Over-denture – Almost like the All-on-Four ™ implant option but uses two implants of four and can still be removed with the assistance of a dental professional. For people who have lost all or the majority of their teeth.

All-on-Four ™ Dental Implant Procedure – This is the most drastic dental implant procedure. Involves the placement of four titanium dental implants either on the top of bottom of the jaw bone and are followed by the construction and attachment of a fixed denture that essential acts like a new set of natural teeth.

The Specifics:

Most dental implant procedures are done in two phases. The first, after an initial consultation, is the insertion of the titanium dental implant into the patients' jaw bone. For some treatments, this can involve as many as four dental implants (screw-like titanium embedded into the jaw bone). After there has been enough time for the jaw to accept and merge with the bio-compatible titanium implants (which usually takes 1-2 months), it's now time for the next step.

From that point on, an appointment is scheduled for the attachment of the crown or the prosthetic tooth / teeth. This actually only takes a couple hours or less. The newly fabricated denture or crown / bridge is then attached either another titanium screw or by screwing the crown into the dental implant. Overall, you're easily in and out of the dental office within 2-3 hours. After that, you can start eating with your new implants right away.

Many have noted that they have had sensitivity just after having the prosthetic tooth inserted but most recover after a week or so.

In conclusion, It's looks that the first part of dental implant procedures take about 1-2 months so that your jaw bone has time to accept and fuse to the titanium implants. The appointment after that is to insert the crown / bridge or fixed denture and then most are good to go at that point.

Why Replace Missing Teeth?

The most important question to answer in this case is what are the negative effects of missing teeth on your overall oral health.

The Negative Effects of Missing Teeth

The effects of living life without solving the obvious issue of missing teeth can have a great negative impact. Without replacing missing teeth you are at a great risk of having some serious oral health problems and will turn your beautiful smile into something that's not quite as pretty. You can often end up looking much older than you actually are. Allow me to explain …

Teeth are not meant to fall out. This is a fact. Yes, I know that children have their teeth fall out but I'm not referring to children but adults. When an adult has a tooth missing, the rest of your teeth and jaw suffer because there is something out of place. Now, with a large gap between teeth things tend to shift over time. Firstly, it affects the way your jaw closes, called the bite relationship. Secondly and more importantly, the remaining teeth slow slide, drift, and shift into new positions that are not comfortable or functional. It's a disaster. On top of all that, as teeth begin to shift and move, it opens the opportunity for food to get wedged into the new spaces between teeth and increases your risk of getting gum disease and serious tooth decay. All this can just be the very beginning of problems with TMJ.

Bone Resorption and the Deterioration of the Jaw Bone

Another important problem to address is the deterioration of the jaw bone when there is no tooth in place to stimulate the bone. Many times when people are missing multiple teeth, their jaw is affected by what is called, "bone resorption." Essentially, bone resorption is the thinning and deterioration of bone in the jaw because there is no longer any teeth to stress part of the jaw bone. When the jaw bone is not stressed with some sort of force, it starts to weaken and shrink. You lose the stress against your jaw bone when you lose a tooth or lose multiple teeth.

Over longer periods of time without replacing the missing teeth, your overall face structure changes and makes you look older than you really are. It often makes you look as if your face is shrunken in.

As you will soon discover, replacing missing teeth is one of the best ways to keep your whole mouth healthy and maintain your facial structure.

Tips for Better Oral Health

Always replace teeth as soon as they are lost. This will ensure that you will not have any of the problems that are listed above and will keep you happy and healthy for the years ahead.

How much do Dental Implants Cost?

Most Dental Implant practices do you a great favor and make the first consultation free. That is a given. When you're not sure about your exact needs, it's so important to be free from having to pay a consulting fee. There may be some really stingy dental practices out there that will charge a fee, but most will not.

Next, to accurately determine if you qualify, that is – if you have enough existing bone in your jaw, you are required to have a mouth examination and an x-ray. This can end up costing you somewhere between $ 100 to $ 200.

The rough costs of any single dental implants, not an All-on-Four ™ treatment, can cost you about $ 1000 t $ 3000 just for one tooth. I know, it's pretty expensive. But in the event that you've lost a lot of bone or your sinus is elevated, those implants can cost upwards of $ 15000.

Luckily, there are many other treatment options for missing teeth but it stands to be true that dental implants are the only tooth replacements that guarantee the overall well-being of your dental health and results the majority of shifting and decreasing of the jaw bone.


Due to the fact that dental implants are such an expensive cosmetic surgery, implant dental offices most often provide financing options or easier way to pay for your dental implants over time. Some work with insurance companies and others have their own credit program that functions pretty much like a credit card. In the end, you'll need to consult your dental office to see what financing options they provide but most of the time, there are great options available.

Crowns / Bridges

As mentioned before, there is a waiting period wherein you're jawbone accepts the titanium implant and the two fuse together. After this waiting time, you're able to have your crown or bridge added on top of the dental implant. Crowns and bridges will end up costing you an additional $ 500 to $ 3000 for every tooth.


If there's one thing that I've taken away from all the information provided here is that Implant Dentistry is not cheap. But I've seen a handful of people get them and the result is so close to the real thing that it makes sense that they would pay so much for it. Consider the fact that you get a new tooth that looks and functions just like the one you had before. That's a miracle and something that is priceless in some people's eyes.

3 Secrets to Finding the Best Extrapone Nutgrass Product

Are you looking for an extrapone nutgrass product for getting rid of age spots, lightening or soothing your skin? Since you're looking for a natural option you probably already know that harsh bleaching chemicals like hydroquinone may harm your skin. But there are other things to look out for as well if you want to find the very best skin lightening cream.

1. Eliminate Possible Dangers

When looking at the list of ingredients on the product make sure it is free of risky ingredients like parabens, dioxane, ureas, and fragrances. These things are commonly found in lightening products but they are not proven to be safe in the long-run. Recent scientific studies have shown that parabens for example may cause cancer.

To eliminate all of these dangers turn to truly natural products completely free of chemical preservatives and additives.

2. Soothing and Smoothing Ingredients

For the Extrapone nutgrass products to be really effective you also need other beneficial ingredients in the mix. Look for naturally enhancing and healing ingredients, like natural oils, antioxidants, repairing proteins, and vitamins. Natural vitamin E, Phytessence Wakame, and cynergy TK have proven to work excellently in synergy with Extrapone nutgrass.

3. Is There Enough?

Most products you find in regular store do not contain enough active ingredients to be effectively lightening. The companies want to save money and only add small amounts of the best ingredients. Then they put a lot of money into marketing and the consumers believe they are buying a great product.

The best concentration for effective skin lightening is 0.5% of Extrapone nutgrass in the skin cream. This has proven to reduce melanin with over 40% in clinical studies with human volunteers. This means it effectively lightened their skin. The other active ingredients should be added abundantly, so that the product has over 50% active ingredients all in all.

Why is Education a Must For Everyone?

Each of us must have a good education. It is a requirement for us to do better in life. We all know about the quote that says “Education is the key to success.” This is true, in a sense that we are capable of being successful and will reach high in life if we are educated. Starting our childhood years, we are being educated. From primary education, to our high school years, then comes college, and even higher degrees. After we have our careers, we still continue to educate ourselves by researching and other activities.

Education is what broadens our horizons for us to have a better and wider understanding of the world around us. It will help us know how things are working, and how they should be operated. Being in a civilized society, we need to have more knowledge on what the modern world has to offer. If not, then we cannot live our daily lives the way other people do.

Also, we are in need of education because the economy encourages us to have the chance of contributing to it. We can develop talents that we can use in helping out country. The intelligence we can acquire from the people who educate us will give us the ability to be better citizens. We can all see how advanced our society is today. It was all the contribution from earlier people who were once just youths that educated them so that they gain knowledge of the world around them. Everything we see not that we are using is based upon what they have learned, and the ideas they came up with based on the things they learned.

Just imagine how the world would be 50 years from now if education will continue. The future generations would have easier lifestyles, greater success, and happier living. People might have longer life expectancies by developing modern medications or any science contributions. The governments might be more secured and strong. Technology can be in its peak. All of these things are coming from a single foundation and that is education.

Also, people that are well-educated are more confident. They are well respected by others. We can always gain the praises that we want when we get a proper education. It is our key to have a better life. Better, not only because we are secured financially, but also because we have the pride and self esteem that is built upon knowledge.

So before you think of quitting school and thinking you are tired of those study routines, think of what you might be letting go if you pause your education. Time never waits for you. We better act now.

Equipment Needed for Cattle Farming

Raising cattle requires a whole array of equipment, from cattle crates, to water troughs. Here is a list of basic equipment, with a brief explanation of what each item is and why it’s so important.

1. Cattle Crates/Crushes

Cattle crates, or cattle crushes as they are sometimes referred to, are cages which are used to hold cattle still for the purposes of examination, marking or treatment. They are generally constructed nowadays of steel, and are available in an assortment of sizes and and with a whole range of attachments. The main purpose of the cattle crate is to ensure the safety of both the animal and the person giving treatment, with the minimum of stress.

2. Cattle Race

The cattle crush is usually fixed to a cattle race, which is a corridor with high sides, which is the width of one animal. The purpose of a cattle race in to guide your stock from one area to another. The sides are high enough to stop the cattle from jumping over the edge and to prevent them from being distracted from events outside the run.

3. Cattle Drinking Products

Water troughs, usually made of galvanised steel, are the most common cattle drinking products. They are available in a range of sizes depending on the size of your herd.

4. Feeding Products

There are a variety of feeding products, although the most popular tends to be the feeding rings, which enable a number of cattle to feed at the same time. Troughs are another option, as are barley beef feeders, cattle feed trailers, calf creep feeders, feed bins, and high density feeders.

5. Cattle Handling Systems

These fenced systems are often used in conjunction with cattle crates and races and are used to keep cattle in a holding area. They can be either temporary or permanent systems, and are made up of hurdles and gates made of metal (often galvanised).

6. Weighing Equipment

Weighing livestock is an important part of any farmers job. There are a number of weighing devices available. These include weighing platforms, which are available in a variety of sizes and styles and are suitable for use with cattle crates.

7. Specialist Equipment

There is also equipment available which caters for specific types of cattle. For example, Highland Cattle equipment differs slightly from standard cattle equipment to make allowances for their different size and shape.

Of course, this is merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to raising cattle. Feed, shelter, ventilation etc are also hugely important, but having the right equipment will ensure yours and your livestocks safety.

Brainstorming Bowling Team Names

Creativity, originality and memorability (is there such a word?) Do not just happen. Especially when it comes to making up your bowling team names. If you are still looking for that striking (get it?) Name for your bowling team then what you need is a good old fashioned brainstorming session? There are some simple rules and strategies you can follow when creating your own team name. Rule number one for a fun bowling team names session is "no name is too lame". In fact the more the team groans at any suggestion the better the name.

Rule number two is write ALL bowling team names down because you probably will not remember them tomorrow because of rule number three. This is Pythagoras' theorem of team names, where the sum of the fun is equal to the sum of the square of the other two ingredients, beer and pretzels.

Rule number three is "always make time for a rhyme". Start with a word related to bowling and come up with as many cute or better still raunchy rhyming words as you can. Here are a few to get your poetic juices flowing.




Now I know what you are thinking and I just have four words for you. Remember rule number one and have another beer. I guess that's eight words so it's a good thing the machine counts the pins for me.

If you want to avoid cute rhyming then you could try the strategy of picking one or two of the above words and put them together with an adjective for a little more pizzazz. Go for something with a good ring to it, or a little alliteration. Such as;

'Strikes unlimited', (or more honestly, 'strikes every now and then')
'Crazy Pin Prowlers'
'Bowling Braves'
'Soft Shoe Shakers'

OK, OK but remember rule number one! I highly recommend you explore the puns and wordplay. A good start is to think of a common phrase that happens to use one of those bowling related words in the list. Simply reuse that phrase and you automatically have a bowling team name with a double meaning. For instance, "Spare Change", "Wildcat Strikes", or "Alley Ways" are regular phrases that work well for bowling team names.

If you want to get even more experimental and want a more complex pun, you can try thinking of words, phrases, movie titles, or celebrity names that sound similar or rhyme with bowling terminology. Top of my list would be, "Spare Wars", "The Umpire Strikes Back", "The Return of the Dead-eye", "The Magnificent Five". Or try swapping similar-sounding words in and out of a bowling phrase. Here are a few more ideas along those lines …

Thunder Bawl, Changing Lanes, Alley McBowl, The Mis-Splits, Bowlfinger, The Tenpin Commandments, Axis & Alleys, Split-finger Fast-bowl, The Pin Pricks The Incredibowls. Oh I could go on! Any, whatever bowling team you come up with the important thing is to remember rule number one and that bowling is not real life. It's much more important than that!

Breathable Car Covers Vs. Non-Breathable 100% Water Proof Covers: Their Pros and Cons

What good is a waterproof car cover if it doesn’t allow your car to breathe underneath it? There are a lot of things that can happen to a car if it does not have enough breathing space underneath car covers of your choice. Covers for cars are important especially when you do not have a garage. However there are some covers that are good for cars and then others that may further damage them. This is where the argument between which cover for cars is better, the breathable covers or the non-breathable fully water proof covers come in.

What makes the breathable covers better for cars? Why should you avoid the non-breathable waterproof covers for cars? Here are some pros and cons that each of these two kinds of car covers has. These might help you decide which among them to choose from when you decide on buying a good, high-quality cover that can thoroughly protect your precious automobile.

  • One of the pros of getting a breathable cover for vehicles is that it quickly dries up any condensation or moisture that forms in the car as it does its job of covering it. Moisture can easily corrupt the parts of the car that are made of steel, leading it to rust so easily. It can also slowly eat up the paint job on your car when the car is moist for a long period of time, perhaps even after the rain has gone. Any car owner would like to avoid this which is why they would choose to get the breathable car covers over the non-breathable water proof ones. 100% waterproof covers for cars do not have any room underneath it left for cars to breathe from.
  • A breathable cover does not protect a car from water or moisture like how the 100% water proof covers do. This is the only con for breathable covers for cars although many would still prefer these because of their ability to dry the moisture quickly before any type or kind of corrosion occurs in the car. Your car would still get wet even if you decide to go for the breathable covers.
  • 100% waterproof covers can lead moisture and condensation to form and remain on the car after rains, leading the these wet or moist portions of the car to slowly corrode. This is something that one needs to take note when choosing between a car cover that is fully waterproof and those that allow your car some breathing space. It is important to zero in on the moisture that may or may not form on your vehicle with its cover on because this is what easily destroys its paint job and such. You’ll have to choose wisely between these two kinds of covers when you want your car to continue looking new in the following few days, weeks and even months.

Now that you have learned moisture is an important factor to note when buying car covers, then you can start looking for the right cover to buy. When choosing between the two kinds of car cover, make sure that you know your car well and how moisture can affect it in a certain period of time. Getting any of these two covers can help you maintain the good condition of your vehicle.

Georgian Dolls Houses – How to Achieve a Genuine Georgian House Style

Influences and style

To achieve a genuine Georgian house style when building or decorating your own Georgian dolls house it is important to understand the influences and style during this period which spanned from 1714 to about 1830. During the Georgian period people really began taking an interest in fashion and interiors. The upper classes would often enjoy a Grand Tour of Europe for a year or two and during this time were heavily influenced by the fashion & interior design they saw on their travels. This influence also extended to the design and style of the Georgian dolls house. Other major influences included the architecture of Inigo Jones and the Orient.

The style of the time was all about delicate colour schemes and woodwork, dainty furniture, harmony, balance and a sense of light and airiness to the rooms.

Characteristics of a Georgian dolls house

The most popular color schemes evolved from the heavier burgundy, sage green and blue greys of the early Georgian period to much lighter greens, sky blues and dusky pinks. Floors of Georgian houses were typically bare boards covered with Oriental rugs. Or, if the property was more up market, the floor would have been a pale colored stone or marble.

For a genuine Georgian effect dolls house walls should be paneled up to the dado rail and then painted or papered above.

Repetitive patterns in wallpaper such as trefoils and far eastern designs were very popular. Wallpaper also reflected the trend for block printing towards the end of the Georgian era and featured simple, bold geometric patterns such as squares and stripes.

Cotton with a delicate floral pattern was the fabric of choice for soft furnishings . It was important to match the sofas, armchairs and curtains, and the latter were often adorned with pagoda style pelmets. Often armchairs and divans were protected with loose covers made from cheap, striped linen and these were removed for entertaining on special occasions. Georgian lighting featured chandeliers made from glass, metal and wood, as well as brass, silver, or silvered wood wall lights. In less expensive properties light fittings were often pewter or tin.

Furniture was delicate, for example wing chairs and chairs with hoop or shield backs.

The Georgians loved their fireplaces and the grander the house the more elegant and eye-catching the fireplace! Carved surrounds with swags and shells were an indication of wealth and status. Ornaments and pictures would usually be grouped around the fireplace to emphasize the importance of the fireplace as the focal point of the room.

Moldings on the ceilings often consisted of elaborate ribbons and swags, classical figures and urns.

Georgian front doors generally had central knobs positioned at waist height and no letterboxes. There was often a filigree fanlight with a canopy and pediments. Original Georgian properties had sash windows and shutters.

Find out more about Georgian dolls houses and miniatures at Julie-Ann’s Dolls Houses

Primeval Galaxies Trip The Light Fantastic Around The Milky Way

Our starlit spiral Milky Way Galaxy is very ancient. In fact, it is almost as old as the visible Universe itself. The most recent estimates indicate that our Galaxy is 13.51 billion years old – an elegant and majestic primeval pin-wheel whirling in the vastness of Spacetime. The galaxies that perform a twirling dance through the cosmos were born in very ancient times, and their stars began to light up the primordial Universe less than a billion years after its Big Bang birth almost 14 billion years ago. In August 2018, a team of international astronomers released their new discoveries demonstrating that some of the faintest satellites galaxies orbiting our own Milky Way are among the very first to be born in the Universe. With the birth of the first galaxies, the Universe lit up like a candle flame, bringing an end to what is called the Cosmic Dark Ages when it was an expanse of incredible and unimaginable blackness.

The new research was conducted by a team of scientists, including physicists Dr. Carlos Frenk and Dr. Alis Deason of the Institute for Computational Cosmology (ICC) at Durham University (UK) and Dr. Sownak Bose from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (US). Their findings suggest that the satellite galaxies dubbed Seque-1, Bootes I, Tucana II and Ursa Major I are over 13 billion years old.

Professor Carlos Frenk, Director of Durham University's ICC noted in an August 17, 2018 Durham University Press Release that "Finding some of the very first galaxies that formed in our Universe orbiting in the Milky Way's own backyard is the astronomical equivalent of finding the remains of the first humans that inhabited the Earth. It is hugely exciting. Our finding supports the current model for the evolution of our Universe, the Lambda-cold-dark-matter model in which the elementary particles that make up the dark matter drive cosmic evolution. "

The dark matter is a mysterious form of matter that is unlike the familiar atomic matter listed in the Periodic Table of the Elements. Many physicists suggest that the dark matter is composed of exotic non-atomic particles that do not interact with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation – which is why the dark matter is invisible. Despite its intriguing transparency, scientists are almost certain that the dark matter really exists because its gravitational effects can be observed on those objects that astronomers are able to see – such as stars, starlit galaxies, and clouds of glowing gas. The dark matter is much more abundantly than the "ordinary" atomic matter that composes the components of the Cosmos that human beings on Earth find familiar.

The End Of The Cosmological Dark Ages

The first atoms were hydrogen atoms – hydrogen is the simplest, as well as the most abundant and lightest, atomic element in the Universe. Hydrogen first formed in the exponential expanding fireball of the Big Bang itself (Big Bang Nucleosynthesis) . Hydrogen atoms that existed when the Universe was only 380,000 years old gathered together to create clouds – and then began to slowly cool off and congeal into small blobs, or halos , that were composed of the exotic dark matter.

This cooling phase is generally referred to as Cosmic Dark Ages, and it lasted for about 100 million years. As time went by, the gas that had finally cooled off within the halos became unstable – and, as a result of this instability, the first generation of fiery baby stars were born. These newborn objects were the first galaxies to inhabit the primordial Universe.

The birth of the first galaxies lit the Universe's fires, and brought the Cosmic Dark Ages to a brilliant end. The most widely accepted model explaining galaxy formation, the bottom-up scenario , suggests that large galaxies like the Milky Way were rare in the ancient Cosmos, and that they ever acquired their hefty more mature masses as the result of collisions and mergers of relatively small protogalactic structures in the ancient Universe. Most of the primeval galaxies were only about one-tenth the size of our own large Galaxy, but they were just as luminous because they were quickly creating myriad fiery baby stars. These very bright, albeit small, ancient galactic structures served as the "embryos" that extremely became the mature galaxies that trip the light fantastic in the Universe today.

In the swath of strange darkness that was the primeval Universe, opaque clouds of pristine gas met up with one another and then gathered along the awful, extremely massive filaments that weave what cosmologists refer to as the Cosmic Web . This strange web-like structure has also been likened to a natural sponge or, alternatively, a honeycomb. These massive filaments – that form the large scale structure of the Universe – are composed of the exotic dark matter . These dark matter filaments are the scaffolding that holds on to galaxies, groups of galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, that are all strung out along this strange cosmic web like glittering dewdrops on the web of some mysterious, hidden spider. The dark matter is much more abundantly than the so-called "ordinary" atomic matter. Even though "ordinary" atomic matter accounts for a puny 4% of the mass-energy of the Cosmos, it is the stuff that made life possible. Most of the heavier elements, that compose "ordinary" atomic matter, were formed in the searing-hot hearts of the Universe's billions upon billions of stars that were created tremendously heavier and heavier than atmospheric elements of lighter ones. The Big Bang only created the lightest atomic elements – hydrogen, helium, and tracks of lithium – but the stars created the rest. Furthermore, when massive stars ended their nuclear-fusing "lives" in catastrophic supernovae blasts, they created the heaviest atomic elements of all – such as gold. The iron in your blood, the calcium in your bones, the water that you drink, the oxygen you breathe were all created courtesy of the stars. We are star-stuff.

The primeval galaxies were dark, opaque blobs of pristine hydrogen gas, tumbling gently down into the hearts of dark matter halos , and these protogalaxies snatched up the first generation of stars. The dazzling stars and hot glowing gas lit up what had been a murky expanse.

Our Galaxy's Circus Satellites

Our Milky Way has several smaller galaxies that are gravitationally bound to it as part of our Galaxy's subgroup. Our host Galaxy, and its accompanying entourage of little satellite galaxies, are part of the local galaxy cluster, appropriately dubbed the Local Group.

There are 59 smaller galaxies known to do their cosmic dance within 1.4 million light-years of the Milky Way. However, not all of them are in orbit around our Galaxy. Indeed, some of these smaller galaxies may actually be orbiting other satellite galaxies. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are the only satellite galaxies that can be seen without the aid of binoculars or telescopes, and both have been observed with the unaided human eye since prehistoric times. Measurements obtained by astronomers in 2006, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) , indicate that the duo of Magellanic Clouds may really be traveling too fast to be in orbit around the Milky Way. Of the little galaxies confirmed to be in orbit, the largest is the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy , which sports a diamenter of about 8,500 light-years – or about one fifth that of our Milky Way.

Our Galaxy's satellites orbit from about 1,000 light-years of the outer edge of its disc to the outer edge of its dark matter halo at about 980 x 10 to the third power light-years from the Galactic center. The little circulating galactic satellites are generally depleted of hydrogen gas when compared to those that are in orbit farther away. This is due to the strict searing-hot gas of the halo of the Milky Way strips cold gas from the unfortunates satellites. Satellites that stay beyond that region still manage to keep a firm grip on copious depths of gas.

The tragic Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy is currently being devoured by the Milky Way, and it is doomed to travel through it within the next 100 million years. The Sagittarius Stream is a ribbon of stars that is thought to have been an orbiting dwarf galaxy disk that has been completely disrupted by our own Galaxy's powerful and merciless gravitational embrace.

Tripping The Light Fantastic

The team of international scientists who released their new findings in August 2018 identified two distinct populations of satellite galaxies circling our own.

The first population consistors of very faint galaxies that were actually born during the primordial Cosmic Dark Ages . The second population is somewhat brighter and is made up of galaxies that were born hundreds of millions of years later. This latter population of slightly brighter satellites came into being when the hydrogen that had been ionized by the intense ultraviolet radiation (hurled out into space by the first stars) was able to cool into more massive halos of the invisible dark matter.

The researchers were further encouraged when they found that a model of galaxy formation, that they had previously described, agreed perfectly with the new data. This allowed them to go on to determine the formation times of the satellite galaxies.

"A nice aspect of this work is that it highlights the complementarity between the predictions of a theoretical model and real data. A decade ago, the faestest galaxies in the vicinity of the Milky Way would have gone under the radar. present and future galaxy censuses, a whole new trove of the tiniest galaxies has come into the light, allowing us to test theoretical models in new regimes, "explained Dr. Sownak Bose in the August 17, 2018 University of Durham Press Release. Dr. Bose was a doctor student at the ICC when this research began and is now a research fellow at the CfA.

The powerful ultraviolet radiation, hurled out into Spacetime by the first generation of galaxies to dance in the Cosmos, destroyed the lingering hydrogen atoms by ionizing them – meaning that it knocked out their electrons. This made it difficult for this gas to cool down adequately to give birth to fiery baby stars. Although it seems counterintuitive, things have to become very cold in order for a hot new star to form.

The ancient process of galactic formation came to a screeching halt and no new galaxies were able to form for the next billion years. However, at long last, the dark matter halos grew so massive that even ionized gas was able to cool off. Galaxy formation resumed, ever creating brilliantly starlit and magnificent galaxies like our own Milky Way.

Dr. Alis Deason, who is a Royal Society (UK) University Research Fellow at the ICC commented to the press on August 27, 2018 that "This is a wonderful example of how observations of the tiniest dwarf galaxies residing in our own Milky Way can be used to learn about the early Universe. "

The new finds are published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Free Bathroom Remodeling Catalogs for Bathroom Renovation

When it comes to finding your dream home design, free bathroom remodeling catalogs are the perfect easy way to get inspired and find plenty of ideas for renovating your new bathroom design. You will get a sense of the best styles that matches your home size and the theme you are looking for.

That's why nowdays when looking for a remodeling contractor, it is natural to first search around and collect your own gallery of favorite renovation designs to choose from. So after your contractor observes your house and gives you an estimated cost and timing, they can also take a look at your collection and help you choose the best design that matched your house.

Whether you find your remodeling ideas and photos online or on paper, it is helpful to collect the best ones that catch your interest. Even if you only like a certain part of a picture, you can cut that part and keep it in your collection. You will be surprised how a mixture from various photos will end up making your dream design.

Where Can You Find Free Bathroom Renovation Catalogs?

So when you are searching to collect your own photo gallery of favorite design ideas for your bathroom, here are a few top places where you can find free ideas easily …

1. Design Ideas in Offline Magazine

Have you ever taken a look at home improvement, interior design or architecture magazines? If you have, you know they are simply a goldmine of various fresh creative remodeling ideas for not only your bathroom, but also the kitchen, basement, living room, or even your backyard.

So next time you are passing by a bookstore with a home improvement section, feel free to browse through the magazines and pick up the designs that you enjoy the most.

2. Simply Search for Renovation Ideas Online

Are you looking for a simple remodel design? Or maybe a simple theme idea? Could it be that you are more interested in a cheap affordable remodeling solution? Either way, you can easily find a large collection of pictures and galleries by doing a simple search in Google.

3. Free Online Bathroom Remodeling Photo Galleries

After doing some search, you'll be surprised how the easiest way to find a large photo gallery of the latest remodel trends, projects, designs and plans that you can view and save to your computer.

By checking out these free galleries, you can take a look at various bathroom renovation themes – from eco-friendly, antique, or modern … to Asian, contemporary and even abstract designs.

An Introduction To Hydraulic Excavators

Let us introduce you to a more defined and heavy exploration through specialized equipment working under the fluid mechanics. Hydraulics is an interesting subject to deal with and it's more interesting to know the way how hydraulic excavators work.

Hydraulic excavators are also called diggers. They are used for a variety of applications as they are used as high-performance excavators. These types of excavators are particularly useful in work areas that are more of confinement and less of acquiescence to conventional apparatus. Be it construction of roads and pipelines or huge processes like mining and the excavation of potential rocks.

The parts of a hydraulic excavator through which the wok is geared up, consist of hydraulic cylinders, an arm, a boom, and a bucket. The actual job of this equipment is of digging and loading. The fluid level plays an important role as Hydraulics is all about fluids and mechanics. Regulation of the oil level in the cylinder of the hydraulic excavator can influence the movement accuracy of the operational equipment.

Hydraulic excavators when viewed in action is always tenders us to compare the movements of this operational apparatus to the movements of an actual human arm. The boom part of the excavator matches more of the upper portion of a human arm, together with the elbow and the shoulder. The arm part looks like the portion of an arm starting at the elbow and ending at the wrist. What more? The bucket portion is comparable to a cupped hand.

To be realistic, Hydraulic excavators are more flexible and versatile. The replacements of the buckets in these equipments with that of drills, crushers or even scissors are the best example for its versatility. It is this level of usefulness and flexibility that makes hydraulic excavators so potentially useful in a large range of excavation processes.

Although the arm of the equipment does all the digging work, it is not the only imperative portion of a hydraulic excavator. Actually the heart of the machine will be the upper structure of an excavator. This credential is because it holds the engine, the pump and hydraulic tank, and the swing motors. It is true that without these important the excavator can not dig and load.

We all know that the upper portion of a hydraulic excavator is vital. So is the lower section of the equipment too. All the mechanisms that make the excavator move are comprised in here. There are hydraulic excavators containing either wheels for movement or others that have crawlers to move along the road, up a hill, or across a construction site.

Sync Workshop: Setting Up Your iPhone 5 With the Sync System

There's some frustration on the street with Ford Sync users since the release of the iPhone 5 – fear not, just take a moment to review a few things before you get started …

First of all, if you had a previously paired phone on your vehicle and you've got a new iPhone 5, then the first thing to do is to "re-pair" your system. Go to the "Phone Menu" on your Ford vehicle's dashboard.

With a sync system with the blue LED readout on the center console, just push the "Phone" icon on your steering wheel. The words "Phone Menu" will appear and in a few seconds it will change to "Phone Redial." then turn the right-side tuning knob until you see the words "Sync Settings" then push the OK button in the center of the tuning knob (or on your steering wheel.) Go to the Phone Menu and go to Bluetooth Devices and delete the old phone from your list of BT Devices. Then select Add Devices, and push OK to begin "Pairing a Phone." A 6-digit PIN number will be displayed.

If you have a touch screen navigation system, push the Phone hard button to the side of the touch screen, then go to the Settings button, it will take you to the screen for adding or deleting Bluetooth devices. Select the button with your old phone's name. Touch it, and then push the button on the right that says "Delete Phone." Then you can touch the button that says "Add Device." Push OK to begin "Pairing a Phone." A 6-digit PIN number will be displayed.

If you have a MyFord Touch system, push the upper left corner to access the phone menu, then go to the lowest button on the left side of the screen to access Settings, then on the next screen select "Bluetooth" and then another screen will show the list of Bluetooth devices. Touch the button with your old phone's name, then touch Delete. Then touch the "Add Device" button. Push OK to begin "Pairing a Phone." A 6-digit PIN number will be displayed.

Go to your new iPhone 5, to the Settings Folder and then Select the "General" Settings. Then be sure your Bluetooth switch is toggled to the "On" position. Your iPhone will begin "searching for devices." In a moment your phone will first see a "Handsfree" device and then it will turn into "Sync." Push the Sync button on your phone and within a moment or two a second screen will appear. Look towards your dashboard for the 6-digit PIN. Enter that into your iPhone and push the blue button on the screen that says "Pair."

When your Sync system asks you to enable 911 Assist, then push OK. Push OK to set your phone as the Primary Phone. When the Sync system prompts you to push OK to Download Phone Book, then push OK. This will take a few moments but after that is done then you are "paired" to the new iPhone.

No software upgrades are needed for Ford's Sync system to work with the iPhone 5 (or any iPhone for that matter).

Please note, Apple does use the MAP (messaging access protocol) to enable the Ford text-to-voice system. However, if you have an iPhone4S or an iPhone 5 then you are OK! Just push the "Home" button on the iPhone screen for a couple of seconds. You will hear "Siri's" voice on the vehicle sound system. Then just say "Read Text Messages" and she will read them to you. If you want, continue to speak to "Siri." Ask her to send a text and she will begin asking you questions of what text message and to what you would like to send it. When you are finished speaking to Siri, just push and hold the Phone icon on the steering wheel for about 5 seconds and she will be disengaged.

The iPhone with Siri seems to have the "best of both worlds" since it allows you to push the "voice" button on your steering wheel to make and review phone calls, to start streaming Bluetooth music, USB music and say "Mobile Applications "if you have a Ford equipped with AppLink. If you do not, then push the voice button and say Bluetooth audio, then go to your phone and push "Pandora" or some other app to begin streaming music through your dashboard.

Remember to do this tip once a week: Turn off your vehicle. Completely power down your iPhone for at least 30 seconds. Then start it back up. This helps your phone reset to your phone carrier's settings.

As far as "updating" your Sync software to handle the new iPhone, do not worry, because it's not necessary. The new iPhone 5 will work with existing Sync software without problems. So enjoy the new iPhone 5 and the Ford Sync System.

Choosing the Right Propeller

Your choices of inboard or outboard motor propellers for your boat will have a strong effect on how the craft performances. The size, shape, and materials used in the prop will determine your boat's top end speed, the engine RPM limit, acceleration rate, and degree of vibration you experience. Most boat manufacturers and boat dealers will have paired up the boat and propeller for good performance. You may want to make changes, though, to suit the type of boating you prefer. You might be happy to accept a bit more vibration for better acceleration or speed, for example.

One of the choices you may make is about the metal that the prop is made from. Most are either aluminum or stainless steel. Both are corrosion resistant, of course. The greater stiffness of stainless steel provides better acceleration, but also adds to the degree of vibration. Stainless steel will be more durable than aluminum, but is more expensive.

Another choice to be made is the number of blades. The fewer blades on the propeller, the greater efficiency and less drag, and therefore greater speed. Unfortunately, fewer blades means greater vibration and less comfort. To make the choice, there will be some compromised made in order to get the ride you are looking for.

There are a number of terms used to define the style of a propeller and all will have a technical effect on its performance. Pitch, diameter, cup and rake are all parameters that are engineered into propellers to achieve certain goals. Those parameters must be matched up with the boat's size, planning needs, engine size and power to achieve the desired ride.

Propeller sizes are given with two dimensions, for example 14 x 18. The first number is the diameter, and the second the pitch. Diameter is the distance across the circle defined by the outer edge of the prop when it has made one full revolution. Pitch is the distance forward the boat would travel with one revolution of the propeller with 100% efficiency (no slippage through the water). A lower pitch will give a lower maximum speed, but also a quicker rate of acceleration. As pitch is increased, the possible RPM's are reduced. When selecting a prop, you should always check that the RPM's your engine will achieve within the specifications for you boat.

Cup referes to the area at the tip of the blade. Increasing the cup will improve the "grip" of your propeller on the water. Increased cup will increase acceleration rates, while decreasing the revolution rate of the propeller.

Rake is a measure of the angle to which the blades are fixed in relation to the axis. An increase in rake will bring the hull higher in the water more quickly. This can provide a faster top speed as the hull being higher provides less drag. This, however, can also decrease control of your boat, and must be managed.

As you can see, there is a lot involved in picking the right inboard or outboard motor propellers. Your craft's maintenance, warranty, safety and performance are all at stake. Taking into account all the technical aspects is vital, and it is advisable to consult with your manufacturer, dealer or maintenance company to ensure that you are getting the correct product. You'll want to match up not just the technical parameters that fit your boat, but also communicate the type of boating you will be shooting for. There may be compromises you'll want to make in terms of speed and acceleration in order to improve comfort and efficiency. But with all the different types available, you are sure to find a prop that suits your needs.

7th Grade Student Science Fair Project Idea

This is a science project to test if fluoride actually protects your teeth from harsh beverages we eat and drink daily. Instead of using our pearly whites will test this theory on egg shells. This is an easy science project for your 7th grade student or middle school kid. An 8th grader or high school kid may also want to do this experiment as well. You can make it as in depth as you need to or as easy as possible.

You will need these supplies

  • 10 glasses
  • 10 eggs
  • Soda
  • Vinegar
  • Fluoride from a local dentist
  • Lemon juice
  • Coffee
  • milk
  • Paper towels
  • Graph paper

Experiment instructions:

Divide the glasses and eggs in half. Place one in front of each cup. Place 5 of them on side of a table or counter top and the other half on the other end to keep them separated. Pour soda in a glass at each end so that you will have two containers with soda in them, one in each group. Now place vinegar in two cups the same as the soda. Put coffee in the similar way and then lemon juice and finally put milk in the last two. You should have 5 glasses on each side that have different liquids contained inside of them and they are the same as the cups on the opposite end of the counter.

Now take the fluoride and wipe it on 5 eggs. Let them sit for about 1 hour.

Place the group with no fluoride into their glasses and after the 1 hour place that bunch into their cups. You may want to do this in the evening because you will want to let these sit overnight.

In the morning place a paper towel in front of each glass. Using a spoon remove each egg carefully and place on the napkin in front of the cup.

Using your graph paper make notes from your visual observations. Now carefully pick up the paper towels and pipe any excess residue from each egg separately. Notice the shell exterior of each and make notes.

Did any particular liquid change the structure of the shell? Did more than one beverage change the outside hardness and how?

Compare the fluoride eggs to those with no protection. Was there a difference in those covered versus those without?

This is where your research needs to come into play. If you notice effects of the shell, structure, or strength decide what could be in these substitutes to cause this. For the high school student your need to research the acidic values ​​of each liquid you used to determine its ph and acidic strength. If this is for 7th grade or a middle school science project just showing that eggs protected with fluoride were protected may be satisfactory enough or to state that one substance is strong enough to eat up the shell. Was the fluoride effective in protecting the outer coating?

Hope you find this 7th grade science project useful and get a good grade. Remember it is what you put in it.

Low Cost Concrete Floor Staining

This is not an article for those looking how to acid wash concrete. This is about getting the same look, for less than half the cost of acid staining!

First off you need to gather your supplies. You can find them at any local home improvement store such as Home Depot, Lowes, Ace Hardware, etc. You will need solid concrete stain; I recommend two colors that complement each other ie a tan and a dark brown. Concrete sealer which comes in different sheens so decide if you want a flat look to your floor or a slightly shiny look, and get enough to seal your floors 6-8 times. You will also need a cheap gallon spray, just make sure it has an adjustable nozzle. A long handled roller with a semi-smooth nap and paint tray. And of course you will need plastic and painters tape to protect your other surfaces. And a large piece of cardboard or test space that you will not mind messing up.

Second, remove all furniture from the room and make sure you prep your surface and surrounding surfaces well. I recommend covering 4-6 feet up the wall so you avoid over-spray and having to touch up paint. Make sure you vacuum or sweep really well because whatever is on your floor will be on your floor forever once you start the process.

Now, you are ready to begin! Mix up concrete stain because just like paint, it separates and needs to be mixed. Carefully, off your surface, pour stain in your sprayer. Replace cap and if needed pump spray to prepare for spraying. Test your pattern on some cardboard or some other space you do not mind messing up; I tried it on my garage floor. Make sure to keep the spray a few feet away from the floor, otherwise you will get puddles of stain when you are looking for splatters of stain. When you are comfortable with the look you are creating, go to work on your prepped floor. Keep in mind, you are not trying to completely cover the floor, you are trying for a natural stone look. When doing the edges I recommend aiming a couple feet up off the floor to get all the way to the edge and not puddle, but still get the splatter look you are going for. Make sure you work yourself out the door instead of into a corner … you do not want to stand around waiting for it to dry for 4 or so hours! Pour any left over stain back into it's original container, and clean out the spray so it's ready for your next color! The whole process should not take very long, my 130 square foot room only took me about 45 minutes to put one coat on.

Then, wait the recommended time before you start the second coat. After the first coat is dry, repeat the process from the first coat, filling in the areas you had less splatter in and covering the areas you had too much of the other color on. Again wait for the second coat to dry. If you are happy with the way your pattern turned out, continue on to sealing your floor. If you are not completely happy with your stain pattern, keep layering the different colors until you are happy with the pattern. The sealer will not change the look, unless you got a semi-shiny sealer, it will simply seal it so it does not scratch. I did three coats and for the third coat I used a hand spray so I could get a finer mist and a smaller area to worry about, because the bleach spray has a wider area it covers.

When you are ready, pour your sealer in a roller tray, get a good amount on your roller, just like you would paint, and start rolling the floor. Again, do not forget to roll yourself out of the room instead of into a corner! Then, wait the recommended time for the sealant to dry, then proceed with the rest of the coats waiting in between for coat to dry.

You're done! Remove your plastic and coverings, move the furniture back into the room and enjoy your space!