5 Iguana Facts Many People Don’t Know

Iguanas are a well known and are generally well-liked among the human population. However, unless you are a lizard lover or basically a iguana lover, there are some things you may not know about this interesting creatures. Listed below are five facts about iguanas that you may not know.

1. Iguanas are herbivores. This means they do not eat meat but rather plants. Some sources cite that iguanas are omnivores. Yet, iguanas should not eat animal product because their metabolism is better adapted to absorbing the proteins of a plant. Animal proteins are too multifaceted for iguanas, it won’t be used right. Basically, the proteins that animals have cannot be absorbed into the iguanas’ bodies for nutrients.

What, then, happens to the proteins not absorbed? It turns into uric acid that is very dangerous for an iguana. When a build up for the uric acid happens in the iguana, it turns into a gout. Animal proteins can be very hard for iguana’s digestive system to get rid of, putting pressure on the reptiles’ kidneys. In turn, causing the reptile to have kidney complications. Feeding an iguana animal products will indeed shorten the lifespan of the iguana.

2. Iguanas Are Trainable. For those who think iguanas would be nice to have but are pretty stupid, you might be surprised to learn that iguanas are just as smart as a dog or even a cat. An iguana can be taught to things like human beings. Some people have taught their pet to use the bathroom while others have trained their iguanas to do many tricks. If lost, some iguanas can find their way home.

This is just to show you that even reptiles can learn things, provided their trainers take the time to teach them. People often are too quick to judge other animals because they are lower than other animals.

3. Iguanas do grow. Just because you bought your iguana’s cage to fit him does not mean, he will always fit in that cage. Some iguanas have grown to six feet long. This is especially true if the iguana has a loving habitat and environment that will more than adequately let the iguana grow. When debating the size of the iguana’s cage, a person should always keep in mind how long the iguana can grow for and plan accordingly to avoid future issues.

4. Iguanas are arboreal. What does this mean for its owner. Remember that iguanas in the wild spend a good chunk of time in trees. To stimulate growth of the iguana, an owner should stimulate its habitat as well. Place some type of climbing material in the iguana’s home although you do not need to place “real” trees to create the official effect. Just something as simple as a post can let your iguana feel like they are back in the wild, perched on the tree.

5. Iguanas crave sunlight – Like most things that grow, iguanas need sunlight too. Not only to have the light but to also absorb it. An iguana will utilize UVA and UVB light so they can absorb nutrients correctly. The UVB light will trigger a chemical reaction in the reptile’s skin which will help make vitamin D3. What does D3 do? It processes the calcium within the bloodstream.

As you can see, care for an iguana is no easy feat. Yet, by learning more about them, you can assure your iguana will live a full and happy life.

How to Make a Sweet Tree

Materials Needed

  • Pink flower pot – or color / design of your choosing. I use a tin pot in this tutorial, but china also works well. Personally I find plastic ones a bit flimsy and light weight for this use.
  • Plaster of Paris
  • 30cm dowel rod
  • Pink curling ribbon
  • Brown florist tape (semtex or similar)
  • Approximately 60 mini packs of love heart sweets
  • Glue gun and glue sticks
  • 8mm polystyrene ball
  • hot pink tissue paper
  • butterfly embellishments (or similar)
  • narrow double sided tape
  • Oasis cylinder

Step 1 – Prepare the base

Mix up your plaster of paris in a small pot, as per instructions on the packet. For most varieties a ratio of 3 parts plaster of paris to 2 parts water does the trick.

Once the plaster of paris is mixed together, then pour this into your flower pot, so it is approximately two-thirds full.

Step 2 – Prepare the trunk of your sweet tree

Next, you will need your 30cm dowel rod and your oasis cylinder. You will not need the whole cylinder, as it will be too deep for your pot, so you need to slice off about 5cm from it, and this is what you will use.

Push the dowel rod through the center of the 5cm thick oasis cylinder. Put the dowel rod into your pot which is now full with plaster of paris, and push the oasis cylinder down into the top of the pot, so you now have your tree trunk in place.

Make sure that the dowel rod is straight, as you now need to leave the plaster of paris to dry. This should take 30-40 mins. But you can speed up the process slightly a little by putting it above a radiator or similar.

Step 3 – Decorate the trunk

Once the plaster of paris is dry you can decorate the trunk of your tree.

Wind the florist tape around the dowel rod until it is completely covered. Next, take your double sided tape and wind it around your tree, as pictured. Take the backing cover off of the tape and then wind your curling ribbon around the tree, so that it sticks to the double sided tape.

Step 4 – Prepare the head of the tree

Take your polystyrene ball and push it down onto the dowel rod until the rod is about half way into the ball. I usually pop a bit of melted glue from my glue gun on the top of the dowel rod before I do this, to offer a bit more strength.

Step 5 – Start sticking the sweets on

Get you glue gun at the ready, and make sure you have plenty of glue sticks on hand!

Put some glue on the end of one of the packs of mini love hearts. You want to make sure you have enough to stick, but do not get too carried away! Stick this on the top center of the polystyrene ball. Pressing down and holding the packet there for a few seconds while the glue takes. Repeat, with all the other packs! Continuing from the top and working your way down. You want to make sure that you place all the lovehearts as close together as you can, but do not worry you will probably have a few small gaps here and there – we will fix those later.

Step 6 – fill in the gaps

Now you should have something looking like a tree!

But now its time to fill in those pesky little gaps. Get your tissue paper and cut it up into small squares. The size does not matter too much! One at a time, scrunch a square up, pop some glue on it and push it into one of the gaps between the sweets. Carry on doing this with the other gaps, ensuring that you end up with a perfect looking tree!

Step 7 – Add some embellishments

Now you can pop some glue on a couple of your butterfly embellishments and stick them on the end of a couple of the love heart sweets.

Step 8 – Finish off the base

Now it is time to make the base look nice! Get some more of the tissue paper, and scrunch it up a bit !. Now put plenty of glue on top of the exposed oasis cylinder. Push the scrunched up tissue paper on top of the glue to cover up the oasis.

Now you need a few more love heart packs. Get the glue at the ready and stick these to the tissue paper you have just put round the base of the tree, arranging them nicely as you go.

Step 9 – the final touch

Now finally the last butterfly embellishments at the ready, stick these with some more glue to the a couple of the love hearts on the base of the tree.

Voila! One completed love heart sweet tree.

Indicators of Chinese Drywall

During the housing boom, more than 500 million pounds of possibly defective Chinese gypsum board was imported to the United States. Several sources estimate that enough material to build around 100,000 homes. The discovery of this product in your home or building may be one the largest issues since asbestos, lead based paints, and polybutylene piping.

In 2004 there was a shortage of gypsum board, because of the housing boom. Hurricane Katrina made the gypsum board shortage even worse, with desperate homeowners in the Gulf States wishing to rebuild their homes. U.S. homebuilders had already been importing Chinese drywall. Katrina accelerated the importation of this product. As a result contractors were forced to source materials from wherever possible. In parts of Florida, Virginia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Pennsylvania, DC Metro areas, New York, New Jersey, Washington, and the Western Provinces of Canada this product was introduced. The use of Chinese gypsum board was not for price or quality reasons, but purely caused by supply. Most of this product is thought to be in homes built between 2004 and 2007. Shipping records indicate that in 2006 alone, enough Chinese gypsum board was imported to build 340,000 homes.

To date, most of the gypsum board complaints have come from southern states, where a warm, humid climate encourages the emission of sulfur fumes. It is likely that gypsum board used in drier, cooler areas of the country, it could be years before homeowners begin seeing the problems associated with the material.

Gypsum board made in China includes several chemicals and compounds not found in gypsum board from other areas. The differences are the result of manufacturing and environmental reasons that are inherent in China. Chinese drywall is manufactured from the waste in coal plants, where the material that would not burn is made into drywall. The result of these chemicals and compounds is the slow release of gases from the drywall into the home’s air. The gases found in Chinese drywall, including strontium sulfide and hydrogen sulfide, are corrosive to copper and other metals and may cause health effects.

Gypsum board is made with fly ash – a waste product of coal burning – could possibly provide a clue. The process of “scrubbing” the smokestack emissions creates calcium sulfate, or gypsum, which can then be used to make drywall. In the U.S., gypsum board is also made from fly ash, but the material is taken from the smokestack, where it is scrubbed. This produces a cleaner product. But in China, the fly ash may have been obtained before it made its way to the smoke stack, according to the Associated Press research studies, this creates a “less refined” product.

Chinese drywall reportedly emits sulfur fumes that produce a “rotten eggs” odor. These fumes have been associated with respiratory and sinus problems. There is a great concern that the possibility of Chinese drywall is emitting excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide fumes and ammonia gas, which can cause extreme irritation, unconsciousness and perhaps death.

INDICATORS OF TOXIC CHINESE DRYWALL

o A home, condominium, or commercial building built or remodeled after 2000, but more predominant between 2004 to 2007.

o A rotten egg, sulfur-type, or acidic type smell in the building.

o Continuous failures of their air conditioning coils and HVAC units.

o Noticeable corroded, or black electrical wiring in their wires for properties built or remodeled after 2001.

o Building occupants and owners who have experienced mild to severe upper respiratory problems, nose bleeds, headaches, or other potentially serious medical conditions.

o Oven, or stove elements, or refrigerator coils may have failed in their homes or condo. A number of times.

o Silver jewelry or silver plated utensils may be tarnished.

o Have metals in your home, such as door hinges, doorstops, pipes, bathroom fixtures blackened.

o Corners of mirrors blackening

o Does any of the drywall in your home or building have “Knauf”, “Tianjin”, made in China, ASTM C36 stamped on the back.

In some limited preliminary research the Florida Department of Health has observed some drywall in several homes with no discernable markings. The origin of the unmarked drywall is unknown. The Department of Health also observed that homes marked Chinese drywall also contained drywall as made in the USA. It is unknown at this time how many sheets of the suspect drywall can cause problems. The Department of Health did observe at least one home with marked Chinese drywall with none of the associated corrosion or odor problems. Possibly, the bottom line should really be “does my home or building have any corrosion problems?”

At this time, no one knows if people exposed to Chinese gypsum board face long-term health consequences. The Florida Department of Health says more testing is needed to determine future health concerns. The Centers of Disease Control says prolonged exposure to compounds found in the gypsum board, especially high levels of carbon disulfide, can cause breathing problems, chest pains and death: as well as affecting the nervous system.

Due to the extensive nature of the toxic gypsum board threat to the citizens of Florida both Congressmen, Robert Wexler and Senator Bill Nelson have introduced legislation in Congress that would require the Consumer Product Safety Commission to study and establish an immediate ban on any gypsum board that poses a safety hazard. It is estimated that over 35,000 homes in Florida could contain this harmful material. It may take years for this issue to sort out all the details, potential risks and liabilities.

Valthirian Arc – Flash Game Review

Valthirian Arc is a complicated RPG type game, in which you must control a small school of magical students and train them to help defeat evil creatures.

You are introduced to the basic concept of the game, and eased into each of the different features by a step by step tutorial showing how to manage your students, view your statistics, quests available and your current achievements. The main objective is to complete quests, in turn this will grant you more gold which you can use to improve your academy.

Each student is different. Their skills vary and their aspirations determine the outcome.You must oversee their training and provide them with different exams so that they become qualified in different skill areas, then you can graduate them to increase the fame of your academy and fulfill the king’s expectations. Each students fame is determined by their stats and exams they’ve passed. Don’t get rid of all your best ones however…

Some quests require you to kill monster or bandits. You must take control of your group of students and navigate them around the map, defeating any enemies in sight. If things become to tricky you may use the teacher intervention to aid you along your mission. If you do fail it however, there won’t be any punishments and you’ll still earn LP for what you did accomplish.

There are two different types of game modes, sandbox mode and official arc. During sandbox arc, the game is infinite. The king will pose no expectations, leaving you to play at your own pace and will. However, in official arc, your decisions have to be much more precise, and you must think about every choice you make. If you fail to meet the king’s optimistic expectations at the end of the month it’s game over. Don’t be alarmed though, it automatically saves, you may continue your progress at another time if it becomes too much of a burden.

I won’t lie to you, Valthirian Arc is a complicated game. It takes a minimum of fifteen minutes to fully understand your goals and objectives, especially during a more relaxed version of the sandbox mode. However, with a huge list of achievements to be unlocked and a vast range of skills that you can teach your students, this game, like all addictive RPGs can prove to be very enjoyable and provide many, many hours of fun.

How to Install a Sand Trap Drain

If a property does not have the proper drainage system the result can be severe flooding of the yard, basement, and even the garage. Because soil particles come in a variety of sizes, soil permeability can vary. For instance, soils with small particles are called cohesionless soils. As well, there is soil with large particles such as gravel and sand. If you have problems with flooding of your basement or garage, you may need a specific type of drain called a sand trap drain.

Structures built on cohesionless soils can eventually undergo severe structural damage from flooding which will result in a costly repair job. These drains are designed for soils with low permeability. Permeability is the property of the soil pore system that allows water to flow. When it comes to permeability, the general rule of thumb is the smaller the particle size, the lower the permeability of the soils. A sand drain is a hole drilled in a cohesive soil and filled with sand. Because the sand has bigger particles, its permeability is much higher; therefore water will flow through it much more easily allowing it to drain properly.

The following is a general guide on how to install a sand trap drain:

1. When installing this drain, the height of the concrete foundation above the floor should be about 5- 6 inches. It is important to make sure you have adequate height above the floor before you begin the project.

2. Once you have the accurate height measurements, at the spot where you are installing the drain, make a line with a pencil around the area’s perimeter. Use a utility knife to cut through the lines on the drywall. Once you have cut through take out the pieces at the bottom.

3. The bottom of the drywall needs to be replaced with plywood. About 2 or 3 inches of the drywall should sufficient. Install the plywood. Any drain pipes will have to be secured above the drain pipe that will be going into the side of the sand trap. As well, the pipe going into the sand trap should be secured a minimum of six inches above the bottom of the trap. An elbow piece has to be attached to the sand trap drain in order to help transport the water through the drain system and carry the water away from the area that is prone to flooding. Remember, a 2-inch vent is required for the sand trap.

4. Install the sand trap drain and construct troughs that are about 4 to 6 inches wide on each side that slant into the trap.

Extensive rain and melting snow can cause excessive water to accumulate if you do not have proper drainage. If you are a homeowner with excess water accumulation, a sand trap drain may be the solution. If the sand trap drain is for the garage, a metal grate secured over the drain will permit people to walk or drive over the trap without causing damage. Many experts recommend building a custom sand trap drain; however you can buy them as pre-made sand trap drains.

Timber Sash Windows and Other Types of Windows For Your Home

It goes without saying that timber sash windows are among the most popular styles for UK homes. Here's some information about these and other styles of windows available to UK homeowners.

Double hung windows: Very common in the UK and USA, this type of timber sash window consist of 2 sashes (glass panes in wooden frames) that slide up and down and past each other in a vertical track in the window frame. Sliding sash windows may also have a rope-pulley-and-counterweight system (older models) or a spring balance (newer models) that assists in operating the window. A window is said to be double hung if both poles are capable of sliding in the frame.

Double hung tilt windows: A significant improvement over standard double hung windows, at least as far as cleaning is concerned. In this type of window, one sash can be removed via a tilt mechanism for cleaning from the inside, eliminating the need to clean the window from the outside.

Sliding windows: This is another type of timber sash window, although it can also be made from PVC or aluminum. These windows slide in horizontal tracks. Like double hung windows, either 1 or both sashes may be capable of sliding. Sometimes a roller mechanism facilitates sliding and the tracks are perforated so rainwater does not accumulate in them. Sliding sash windows are usually tall and somewhat narrow. This gives them an elegant look.

Casement windows: A type of window that opens like a door. Hinged on one side, this type of window can be opened as much as 100% using crank-and-gear mechanism. Casement windows are more weatherproof than other types of sash windows. Outward opening casement windows typically have screens that mount from inside the house while inward opening casements have screens that mount from the outside.

Bay and bow windows: As the name suggests, these windows project out from the house's exterior wall. These elite wood sash windows can have 3 or more panes that allow a view to the side as well as to the front. In most cases, the side windows open while the larger center window remains fixed.

Awning windows: These wooden sash windows are hinged along the top sash and tilts out to open via a crank mechanism. Screens fit the window from the inside. They can be left open in wet weather with no worry of rain getting in. A variant known as a hopper window is hinged on the lower sash and tilts in to open.

Jalousie windows: Resembling a venetian blind, these windows consist of a series of narrow panes that open and close as a group when the crank is operated.

The windows are an important part of any UK home. Although timber sash windows are most common, there are a variety of others from which to choose when shopping for replacements.

Lumbar Spondylosis With Myelopathy

Lumber means lower parts of the body including the ribs and the hip bones and myelopathy is the name of a disorder in which the tissues of the Spinal Cord are damaged or diseased. So the lumbar myelopathy can be defined as the problem in the lower back and its surrounding regions.

Lumbar Myelopathy has been observed in those patients of Spondylosis who are older than 40 years and this age factor is one the reasons of this disease in fact. The structure of backbone gets disturbed and the vertebrae become narrow due to the continuous degeneration and deformity of spine. So the space between the spinal joints becomes smaller with the passage of time. It has a direct stress on the nerves of the patient that dysfunction and tightens the adjoining parts.

People who have lumbar spondylosis with the myelopathy feel it difficult to move the affected parts and the pain may spread to the muscles of the knees, hipbones, buttocks and the legs. As a result, it has a negative effect on the growth of these parts of the body. The lumbar myelopathy may arise due to some back trauma, protrusion of the disc tissues or it is possible that the patient is already suffering from Spinal Stenosis.

The patient of spondylosis myelopathy feels weak and is not able to walk freely rather he can hardly stand for a long time. Sometimes he feels pain when he is going to lie down on the bed. He may sometimes lose his balance while standing because of the problem in the nervous system and lack of coordination of affected regions.

Lumbar Myelopathy can also affect the areas above Lumbar Spine as well as the Cervical Spine and Thoracic Spine because of the tightening of vertebrae. It may happen that the patient feels abnormal skin sensations in hands and legs such as tingling, tickling, itching or burning. The reason is its association with the peripheral nerve damage. By the time, he loses his control over the bowel and urinary bladder. The flow of the blood is not normal, but lesser than in an average person.

According to an estimate made by National Center for Health Statistics, a number of people in the United States who visit to the doctor for Lumbar Myelopathy and backache in lower portions every year is 13 million. Special attention should be paid if you feel the signs of Lumbar Spondylosis with the Myelopathy. Do not ignore it to avoid from any kind of further complication.

Know the Best House Positioning of Each Planet on the Birth Chart

In a birth chart, the houses play an important role in which characteristics of the planets will be highlighted. Each house has a specific nature and along with the appearance of the planets contribute to you individuality. Find out which house the planets are at it’s best in the following.

The most desirable house placement of each planet are the following: Sun – 1st house, Moon – 11th house, Mercury – 8th house, Venus – 7th house, Mars – 6th house, Jupiter – 5th house, Saturn – 3rd house, Uranus – 9th house, Neptune – 4th house, Pluto – 10th house.

Sun – first house

The presence of the Sun in the first house means a strong sense of identity, versatility and have high self confidence. You have the determination to be unique and use this quality to mingle with others. You are highly optimistic and enjoys a very happy disposition in life.

Moon – eleventh house

The placement of the moon in the eleventh house ensures a harmonious and productive relationships within a group, no matter how different their goals may be. You are highly popular and have a have a good relationship with people around you. You are aware of others feelings.

Mercury – eighth house

When Mercury is in the eighth house, it denotes a person’s resourcefulness. You tend to go deeper in every challenges and always come up with a comprehensive solution for each problem. You always strive to seek for the truth, and in relation to that people in this situation excels in professions that deal with investigations.

Venus – seventh house

The placement of Venus in the seventh house takes pride of his/her social skills and enjoys a satisfying married life. You take a great value on marriage and friendship to a point that you exert all that you can for the success of relationships.

Mars – sixth house

Mars in the sixth house denotes your productiveness and diligence to work. You have no room for idleness. You have a good drive and persistence that may influence the others around you. You strive for perfection and leave no minor details unnoticed.

Jupiter – fifth house

Jupiter on the fifth means nurturing your hidden abilities and along with strong character can aid you in walking though life leisurely. A very good fortune awaits you. Alongside with leisure, is the duty to make a great contribution to the society. People in this scenario, often excel in political and scholastic fields.

Saturn – third house

The presence of Saturn in the third house correlates to high intellectual discipline and practical ideals. You have a very cautious nature and have good sense of judgment and you always speak with veracity.

Uranus – ninth house

The placement of Uranus in the ninth house suggest a progressive and higher level philosophies in life. Your outlooks are insightful and sometimes grandiose. Your direction is not common, instead you look into other options and accepting new visions while enjoying the whole process.

Neptune – fourth house

The presence of Neptune in the fourth house suggests a strong personal and familial security. You have strong, emotionally-bonded familial ties. The lesser the domination of your parents shapes up your unique personality.

Pluto – tenth house

Pluto represents restructuring and regeneration. The position of the planet in the tenth house indicates a person strong will to succeed in his chosen goals. The person is very career-oriented and most especially excel in many field in science.

These arrangements are just guides. It’s still you who has complete control on your destiny.

Woodworking: The Best Wood For Beginners

Woodworking: Know Your Wood

Wood is made of cellulose fibers, held together with a property called lignin, and is classified as hardwood or softwood, depending on the type of tree from which it comes. In addition, sapwood or new growth wood on a tree is still alive, while heartwood refers to the part of the tree that is no longer functioning. These two stages of wood also have different properties and uses. Knowing something about the different woods can help you determine which to use, how to work it, what problems to watch for, and how to care for the finished product.

There are hundreds of different types of trees and wood, with a wide range of colors, density, grain, figure, and other characteristics that affect its workability and application to different types of uses. The following is an alphabetical listing and description of some of the more popular woods used in woodworking. Types such as ebony and ironwood are not listed here, as they are not typically used in woodworking, at least not by beginners. The focus is on woods that work well and are common in woodworking.

The following legend provides a guide for symbols included with each type of wood.

Cost: $ = inexpensive, $$ = moderate, $$$ = expensive

Ease of working: E = easy, M = moderate, D = difficult

Ash, white $, M

A strong, inexpensive wood that is lighter in color and bends well, white ash is often used in sports equipment such as bats and canoe paddles. It is also common in pool cues, tool handles, and other products that require durability and strength.

Balsa $$, E

One of the lightest hardwoods, balsa has been used for canoes, model building, life rafts and other situations where a light, buoyant wood is needed. It is usually white in color and priced moderately. Because it is exceptionally soft, it can be worked well with hand tools, but has poor durability.

Basswood $, E

Basswood is an inexpensive and versatile hardwood that is often used for woodcarving. It is soft, light, fine textured and ranges in color from soft white to brown. Other uses include turning, toys, kitchen utensils and crates.

Birch $, E

The birch known as paper birch, is the white tree growing in the forest with its bark peeling like paper. Inside the sapwood is creamy and darkens toward brown at the heartwood. It is inexpensive to purchase and consequently is one of the most popular woods with beginner furniture makers. It can also be used for cabinets, toys and plywood but is not durable when left unfinished.

Butternut $$, M

A course-textured wood that is light to medium brown, butternut is moderately priced, and is a common choice for veneers, woodenware, and church alters.

Cedar, aromatic $, M

Known for its red coloring and pleasing, somewhat spicy smell, aromatic cedar or red cedar is a popular woodworking material for containers and closets. It has alternating lines of dark and light color and may also have dark knots, making it visually appealing as well. It is relatively inexpensive.

Cherry, black $$, E

Cherry sapwood is light colored, but the heartwood can vary from light brown to a dark red color that many find appealing. It has a fine grain and tends to darken in color as it ages. It is used most often in cabinetry and furniture making and is moderately priced.

Cottonwood $, E

A white to pale brown colored wood that is part of the poplar family, cottonwood is light and tends to be soft, which makes it good for carving. It is also used in making furniture, toys and woodenwares. Many carvers prefer the bark of the cottonwood tree because it can be found in large pieces and has a soft, workable nature.

Cypress $, E-M

Cypress wood has an oily texture, resists rot and decay and is often used in outdoor furniture and docks. It is light yellow in color and is inexpensive compared to other woods.

Elm, white $$, M

There are many elms, and most tend to be easy to work with and bend well. The white elm is soft yellow in color, and if used by beginners, it is usually in a furniture project. This tree is affected by Dutch Elm disease, so it is becoming more difficult to find, and thus a bit more expensive.

Mahogany $$, E

A reddish colored, dense hardwood that is durable and easy to work, Mahogany, (especially that from Honduras) is often used when making various grades of furniture and cabinets. It is moderately priced.

Maple, white $$, M-D

Maple has white sapwood and reddish brown heartwood. The grain can come in different patterns including wavy and birds eye. It can be difficult to work, but is used to make furniture, cabinets, flooring, and small projects such as cutting boards.

Oak $$, E-M

In the oak family, white oak is perhaps the easiest to work and is highly durable. It has a light tan color with a straight grain. It is moderate in price and used for furniture, cabinets, and is a favored wood for building barrels.

Pine: Ponderosa, white, yellow $, E

Although the different kinds of pine have varying specific features, it tends to be a softer, light colored wood that is used in many construction settings. It is also a popular wood for woodworkers, especially beginners, because it is inexpensive, easy to find, relatively easy to work, and holds up well (except for white pine). Often selected for birdhouses, flower boxes, benches and other beginner projects.

Redwood $$$, E

Redwood is known for its ability to hold up well in outdoor conditions. It is relatively easy to work and is used in outdoor furniture, decks, and other applications where durability outdoors is important. Despite the fact that redwood trees grow quite large and yield high quantities of boards, the price is on the higher end.

Walnut, black $$, E

A dark, tough wood that works well, black walnut is used in carving, making gunstocks, fine furniture, cabinets, and other items where strength and appearance are both important. It has a chemical in it that can cause irritation. Black walnut is moderately priced.

Willow $$, E

There are many different varieties of willow, but in general they are a soft, light wood with dull brownish heartwood and light colored sapwood. Because of its softness, it is popular with carvers. It is also used for caskets, Venetian blinds, and a number of other items.

Yellow poplar $, E

Yellow poplar is a strong, inexpensive hardwood that has a light color and sometimes is streaked with green, which can make it more difficult to finish. It is not a true poplar. Along with pine, it is one of the most common woods used today. Poplar is used in basic furniture, shelving, and boxes. It is also acceptable for carving.

How to Choose Between Sliding Door Wardrobes Over Hinged Door Wardrobes

Fitted wardrobes, whether sliding or hinged, are built floor to ceiling and, where appropriate, can in most circumstances be wall to wall. Also, usually both types of wardrobes are built without backs or sides so that you maximize the storage space available. However, some customers prefer to have backs and sides in their wardrobes, which will of course affect on the storage space.

Both sliding door wardrobes and hinged door wardrobes are made to-measure, so can fit almost any space. With both wardrobe options, you can choose from a number of interior storage options to accessorize with, including; long and short hanging, tie-racks, shoe-racks, trouser rails, draws, shelves and more, so this is no different in each case, however to help you choose:

Hinged Door Wardrobes

  • The depth for hinged wardrobes is usually up to 100mm less as their is no slider track.
  • Hinged wardrobe doors swing open so, despite the overall depth of the wardrobe is less than a standard sliding wardrobe, the space required is usually more to take account of the door's 'swinging' space.
  • Hinged doors usually have a maximum size of around 600mm (Approx. 2 foot), so as not to put too much weight on the hinges when they open.
  • Usually hinged wardrobes have a floor built-in at the height of a standard plinth of around 100mm, which will cut-down the hanging space marginally. However, where the ceiling height is around 2300-2400mm This does not normally pose a problem. Also, if necessary the floor height can be altered to suit the client's requirements, subject to ceiling height.
  • With genuine made to measure fitted furniture there are no standard door sizes – so outside of the above maximum size and a practical reason for not having doors too small, hinged doors could have made to any size.

Sliding Door Wardrobes

  • Unlike hinged wardrobes, sliding doors do not require space to open up into the room.
  • The standard depth of sliding door wardrobes is around 650mm (Approx. 26 inches), which allows for the running track for the sliding doors. This depth also allows for sufficient space so that the clothes are not worn by the doors, as they are slid opened or closed. However, if space is limited, then you can always have your clothes hung 'back-to-front' within the wardrobe, which is not as practical, but it does exceed a space problem and will reduce the depth required for the wardrobe.
  • With slider robes you have the option of going for larger doors and much larger mirrors. Sliding doors can be made up to 1,200 in width, with a choice of mirror, panel, sculptured, frosted or color glass. However, if cost is no object then slightly larger doors can be made too.
  • No standard door sizes – our door sizes are totally adjustable and made to fit your space.
  • There are no floors in sliding door wardrobes so you get maximum storage facilities.

Information Regarding Pin-On Diapers For Older Children and Teenagers With Bedwetting Problems

This article discusses information about cloth diapers for bed-wetting, specifically pin-on diapers. As mentioned in another article, many people consider pin-on diapers to be the best type of reusable diaper to use for bed-wetting because most of them provide the best absorbency for nighttime incontinence. In general they seem to be more absorbent than alternatives such as pull-on cloth diapers. Also the pin type closures are proposed to have certain advantages over other types of diaper closures.

For example I've read that alternative diaper fasteners such as Velcro can wear out and the snaps on snap-on diapers can break. Some people find that snap-on diapers and Velcro diapers are more convenient to use for daytime use when multiple changes may be required although some people use pin-on diapers during the day also. If you have an older child, adolescent, or teenager that wets the bed you might want to consider using pin-on diapers covered by plastic pants. A valuable source for information about diapers and waterproof pants is "The New Diaper Primer" which is published on the incontinentsupport.org website. What makes this source particularly valuable is that it is written by someone who suffers from incontinence. The section on pin-on diapers is particularly valuable for any parent who is thinking about using these diapers to manage their child or teenager's bed-wetting. This is a guide which talks about how to fold pin-on diapers to get the most effective protection from the diapers and avoid leaks, the different types of cloth diapers available, how to launder cloth diapers amongst other topics.

One of the key points to consider when wearing cloth diapers is wearing multiple diaper layers. This coupled with proper pinning techniques is provided to provide the best protection for problems such as bed-wetting. Additionally, most pull-on diapers do not offer adequate protection for bed-wetting. This is something that parents need to keep in mind if they decide to purchase reusable products to manage their youngster's bed-wetting. Adults with bed-wetting problems should also keep this point in mind. The main reason for the introduction of products such as pull-on diapers is the stigma associated with wearing diapers. Furthermore the label "pull-on diapers" is a misnomer as many products labeled "pull-on diapers" are not really diapers at all but extra thick underwear. One person said that the products that are labeled pull-on diapers are basically training pants which generally do not have the absorbency required to deal with heavy incontinence such as bed-wetting. As far as increasing absorbency of diapers, another method to consider is adding liners to diapers. One person on an incontinence forum who wore adult cloth diapers to bed said that he used the Gerber brand baby cloth diapers as a liner or "booster pad" for the adult cloth diapers. Gerber cloth diapers can be found at stores such as Target and Walmart in the infants section of the store. In addition you can purchase other diaper supplies at these stores such as diaper pins (known as safety pins), baby wipes, powder, and diaper rash ointment such as Desitin, Balmex, A & D ointment, in addition to other items. This would be a good time to talk about skin care. There have been a number of articles pointing out the importance of having a good skin care regimen when incontinent. Although wearing diapers do a good job of protecting both the person and bed they can also cause skin problems if you do not clean the skin carefully after waking up and changing out of the diaper.

The Health Central Network has an article called "Skin care and incontinence" which talks about the various products out there designed to minimize or prevent the occurrence of skin problems resulting from incontinence including moisturizing creams, skin cleansers such as aerosol sprays, foams, and wet wipes, as well as skin sealants and moisture barriers including creams and ointments. Additional sources of information about how to maintain healthy skin when incontinent include wocn nurses (known as wound, ostomy, and contraception nurses), urologists, your primary care physician, and your pharmacist. All of these individuals may also have suggestions regarding this issue. There are also a couple of organizations that you can contact – The Simon Foundation for Continence and the National Association for Continence. These organizations may be able to provide you with information about proper skin care when wearing incontinence garments such as websites, articles, and other sources. Finally incontinence forums could be an especially good source of information on this topic because these people have first hand experience dealing with incontinence and are well aware of the skin problems that can result from wearing incontinence garments and how best to deal with these problems. Some companies that carry skin care products for incontinence include Continence Connection, National Incontinence, and HDIS (Home Delivery Incontinence Supplies).

Right now I'd like to talk briefly about both getting a fit fit with cloth diapers and how comfortable the diapers are. The author of the New Diaper Primer in his discussion on cloth diapers says that the size and weight of the diapers are important factors in both how well the diapers fit and how comfortable the diapers are.

Another key point mentioned about cloth diapers is their wicking ability. The technical term for wicking is capillary action. This guide mentions two aspects of diapers that are important-absorbency and wicking. This is how wicking is defined- "Wicking is the ability of cotton (and some other fabrics) to pass liquid along from" particle "to" particle "and Wikipedia defines capillary action in this manner-" Wicking is to absorb something and then drain like a wick. Paper towels absorb liquid through capillary action, allowing a fluid to be transferred from a surface to the towel. sport and exercise fabrics use capillary action to "wick" away sweat from the skin. These are often referred to as wicking fabrics, after the capillary properties of a candle and lamp wicks. " Basically wicking allows multiple wetting of the diaper by dispersing liquid through the diaper.

The following analogy describes how wicking works: "Picture, if you will, adding multiple tables of water to the face cloth. liquid to dry parts.) When you add the next one, you see the saturation occurs again, just in the center where you added the water and then wicks into the rest of the face cloth as time passes. -saturated after time. Wicking occurs and the particles have transferred liquid to other, outlying particles. "Basically wicking allows time for the diaper to disperse or transfer liquid through the diaper allowing it time to dry, which in turn makes the diaper capable of absorbing more liquid later if the person wets again. Cloth diapers have superior wicking abilities which makes them a good choice for heavy incontinence such as bed-wetting because of their ability to handle multiple wettings. As I have mentioned, some bed-wetters wet multiple times during the night and the pin-on diapers seem like they'd be more effective in regards to protecting the youngster if they do wet more than once at night. This will enable the child or teenager to get a better night's sleep because they will not have to get up through the night to change themselves if they use reusable pull-on garments instead of pin-on diapers.

There are several different types of fabrics that cloth diapers can be made of. These fabrics are birds-eye, terry cloth, flannel, and gauze. The author of the Diaper Primer thinks highly of gauze diapers. Both Adultclothdiaper.com and Angel Fluff sell gauze diapers. According to the Adultclothdiaper.com website one of the advantages of gauze diapers is that they allow air to circulate very well which helps to reduce the likelihood of diaper rash. Additionally, they're real absorbent and are very comfortable to wear in hot weather. There are also different styles of pin-on diapers-prefold, flat, and contour. Contour diapers can have elastic in the waist and and leg openings and are usually more expensive than flat diapers. Flat diapers are not used much anymore and the only place that sells flat diapers near the US is a company based in Canada called Bear Bottom. Prefold diapers have a soaker strip in the center of the diaper. Prefolds are the most popular style of adult cloth diapers. For a more in depth discussion about the different styles of cloth diapers see chapter 7 of the New Diaper Primer. This chapter is called "Diaper Types" and talks about the different types of cloth diapers and the different kinds of fabrics cloth diapers can be made of. As mentioned at the start of this article the web address for this information is http://www.incontinentsupport.org .

One of the things that must be stressed is that picking an incontinence product is very subjective. In some cases there is a great deal of trial and error involved in picking a product that will best meet your needs. The factors involved in making this decision include the type and level of incontinence, whether your incontinence occurs during the day, night, or both, whether or not you want (or have) the time to wash diapers and plastic pants, etc. That is one of the reasons people prefer disposables-for the convenience they offer. If finances permit you might consider trying both disposable tape-on diapers and pin-on diapers and plastic pants to manage your youngster's bed-wetting. By trying both kinds you'll be able to determine what works best for you. Many people use both kinds of diapers. Some individuals alternate using different types of diapers-on some nights they wear pin-on diapers covered with plastic pants and other nights they wear disposable diapers to bed. There are also cases where people wear cloth diapers and plastic pants only during certain times of the year.

For example some people use the pin-on diapers and plastic pants to manage their bed-wetting during the cooler seasons such as fall, spring, and winter, where during the summer months they switch to tape-on style diapers (also known as disposable briefs) In addition some people with both day and night incontinence wear disposables during the day and pin-on diapers at night. It's good to be flexible and open-minded. That being said, some people might be inclined to stick with cloth diapers because of the savings and what many people consider to be the environmental advantages of cloth diapers. An advantage I see of using both disposable diapers and pin-on diapers is that you're washing the diapers and plastic pants less which means that theoretically they should last longer. Cloth diapers do wear out over time. If you do decide to use both styles of diapers you can have the child or teenager wear the pin-on diapers and plastic pants for four nights and the disposable diapers for three nights (or vice versa) not to use both kinds of diapers for their bed-wetting child or teen. Some of the factors that need to be considered when making this decision include your budget (do you want to spend the extra money for disposable diapers or do you want to save money by just using cloth diapers) and if the child or teenager feels uncomfortable wearing the pin-on diapers covered with plastic pants during the spring and summer months when the weather is real hot. . If this is the case, you should consider switching to disposable diapers during this time. Just like some parents use both cloth and disposable diapers for their babies, it might be a good idea to consider using both kinds.

A good way to get information about incontinence products is to go to incontinence forums and ask questions about various forms of protection. As far as pin-on diapers are concerned, there seem to be certain advantages over pull-on cloth diapers for bed-wetting. One person who used both pin-on diapers and reusable pull-on diapers said that the pull-on diapers wear out faster than the pin-on diapers. Another person mentioned that it's easier to put additional layers of material in a pin-on diaper to increase the absorbency of the diaper. With a pull-on diaper you can put extra material in the diaper to make it more absorbent, but if you move around a lot at night there's the possibility of the extra material in the pull-up shifting around and bunching up which can be uncomfortable in addition to causing leaks. This person also mentioned a few other advantages that pin-on diapers have over pull-on diapers, particularly for heavy incontinence such as bed-wetting. One is that the pin-on diapers have a more snug fit which is an advantage if you move around a lot at night. Also diapers that have a more snug fit are more effective at preventing leaks.

Second, the elastic waist bands on pull-on diapers are not sufficient to hold the pants up when they get wet. When pull-on diapers get wet, the pants have a tendency to get heavy and the elastic waist band will not be able to hold the pants up. Third, the pin-on diapers are generally of higher quality than the pull-ups. This, combined with the fact that it's easier to manage layering in a pin-on diaper, results in a thicker diaper that is more snug and offers better protection at night. The other disadvantage of pull-on diapers which was mentioned in an article on diaper types was that in general pull-on diapers are not absorbent enough to handle multiple wettings because they're not thick enough. If you wet all night while you sleep the pull-on type diapers will not be absorbed enough to deal with this type of problem. One article has this to say regarding pull-on cloth diapers – "Most are typically a thick pair of underpants with a soaker strip sewn in the crotch, which in some cases does not even extend from waist to waist. the pull-on is not a "full fledged diaper". "

Another point I'd like to mention regarding using cloth diapers to manage bed-wetting. If you do decide to use pin-on diapers keep in mind you must use waterproof pants to cover the diapers. The most widely used type of waterproof pants are plastic pants. Plastic pants such as the Gary, Suprima, and Comco brands have excellent reputations. Plastic pants have many advantages over other styles of waterproof pants including comfort, durability, and cost.

Some companies that sell pin-on cloth diapers for both youth and adults include Loving Comfort Diaper Company, Angel Fluff Diaper Company, Babykins (also known as KINS which stands for Kinder Incontinence Supplies), and Adultclothdiaper.com (also known as All Together Enterprises ) I was on the Loving Comfort Diaper Company website and they mention that they can custom design diapers to meet specific needs (for instance if you have a child or teenager that will not fit into standard size diapers or if you need diapers with a particular level of absorbency they can design diapers that meet those needs). I read on an incontinence forum that Loving Comfort might have gone out of business. If you consider purchasing pin-on diapers from this company I would try to contact them to make sure.

Whatever you do do not get discouraged if it takes you a while to find a suitable product to manage your child or teenager's bed-wetting. There's a lot of high quality products out there to deal with bed-wetting and other incontinence problems. As with everything else in life it's good to be well informed. This includes reading as much as you can and asking questions. With perseverance you'll be able to find a product that will make your older child or teen feel confident and secure.

Destined to Fail – Study of Brand Launch Failure in Healthcare OTC Category

Master Sun Consulting has done a study of the "Brand Launch Failures in the OTC Healthcare Category". The OTC products in the healthcare sector can be defined as the products which help in curing any day-to-day therapeutic ailment like cough, cold, fever, headache or body ache, weakness, tiredness.

Some of the brand clinics that were studied were the launch of Savlon, Disprin Plus (later Disprin Paracetamol), Chawan Junior, Duractin, Crocin Pain Relief, Crocin Syrup for Children, Dettol Plaster, Dettol Extra (almost a beauty soap), Vicks Cough Syrup, Gacidity (an antacid), Pediasure (an adult nutrition brand).

Some of the major reasons for failure observed by Jasravee Kaur Chandra, a Healthcare Branding Specialist were "Failure to understand usage of product by consumers, consumers' attitudes and beliefs, consumer's relationship with a brand and positioning of the brand vis-à-vis competition "He said.

One of the most notable failures was the Savlon launch campaign. Savlon, a Johnson & Johnson brand, could not succeed since it went against the grain of consumer beliefs about the category. It was broadly held that belief for an antiseptic to be effective it has to be perceived as making an effect- the sting of Dettol. Therefore Savlon's no-sting & sweet smell went against the basic consumer attributions to anti-septic category. According to Sarvajeet Chandra. Managing Partner, Master Sun Consulting, "The clinical smell of Dettol enhanced the perception that the anti-septic was working. war "

The other notable example was the failure of Disprin Plus by Reckitt Benckiser. The marketers extended Disprin brand into the Paracetamol category to launch Disprin Plus. Since Aspirin comes under price control the profitability of Disprin was very low. Even today the brand is sold at less than one rupee per tablet. To circumvent this issue, company launched Disprin Plus in 2001. It only had Paracetamol as the active ingredient (instead of Aspirin). The idea was to leakage the Disprin brand equity and also maximize the profitability of the brand (as Paracetamol is out of price control).

Again we see that the marketers dug their own graves without paying much regard to customer beliefs and attitudes. Jasravee observes "The core benefit of the brand was tinkered with a view to leakage the equity of the Disprin mother brand. work. By 2005, the writing was on the wall ". Again the results were akin to the Savlon disaster. Sarvajeet remarks light heartedly that "It was like introducing a Bacardi brand of beer." A similar mistake was initially made when Crocin was extended into pain relief to take advantage of the analgesic market.

Similar example of marketers not doing their homework properly was the launch of Chawan Junior by Dabur. The consumers could not connect with the product as one of the key ingredients of Chawan junior was Amla which does not go well with milk – a common knowledge which was overlooked by Dabur marketers. Jasravee observes "This is a failure at the product formulation stage and again stems from inadequate understanding of product usage by consumers". Certain beliefs that are deep rooted in psyche will well serve if expected.

In some cases the companies did not demonstrate adequate understanding of consumer purchase behavior. An example of this was the launch of pediatric range of Crocin. Crocin syrup containing 125 mg of Paracetamol for 5 ml was introduced for kids to cure cold, cough and light fever. The syrup was introduced directly as an OTC product. Crocin syrup was not very well accepted by the parent community as they did not have the confidence on the product. Jasravee observes that "As with all the pediatric drugs given to children, the parents always want to take any drugs only after the doctor's consultation. the doctor's advice ". The company had to remedy their strategy and ensure that Crocin Syrup was categorized as a prescription drug by GSK and doctors started providing prescriptions for Crocin Syrup for children.

The study also looks at various other case-lets of launch of Dettol plaster, Dettol shaving cream, and Dettol Extra soap (with moisturizer and a glycerine variant launched as a beauty soap). Sarvajeet observes "I am surprised that they did not launch a Dettol toothpaste to fight the germs in the mouth. bed ".

The Importance Of An Essential Oil Nebulizer Diffuser For Your Health

To truly get the most out of essential oils, using the best aroma oil diffuser you can get your hands on will help you maximize extracting all the purities within the oils that are beneficial for your health.

By simply diffusing high quality essential oils, you release the essential oil vapors into the air around you which you then inhale through your nose. The molecules you inhale move from your nose into your lungs with end up supporting your respiratory health. From there, the essential oil compounds that have been inhaled are dispersed into different pathways in your body affecting the different parts of your body system.

Organic essential oils have been proven to work on all levels including mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual. This very deep impact essential oils have on your emotions helps determine your behavior and mood both of which are critical to your daily life.

With smell being one of our five senses, it's often overlooked as being one of the major ones that we rely on heavily. Associated with a primal state, our sense of smell is so precise to a memory ability to be able to identify scents molecules as long as 70 years old. This is thanks to your limbic brain processes smell and enables an effect of up to 10,000 times more powerful than your senses over sight or sound. In fact, smell goes through your brain processor faster than sight or sound.

Once the aroma of organic essential oils is inhaled, the odor molecules travel from our nose to the olfactory bulb and then into our nervous system. The signals of scent travel through the olfactory neurons and end up in the amygdala where memories are stored.

And the most effective way for our memories to be stored is through the sense of smell which is why this side of the brain is often referred to as the emotional side of our brain. As the amygdala acts as a function for identifying threat or challenge, thus providing us with the well-known stress reaction of fight or flight, the amygdala is constantly on the lookout for emotional and physical safety with a sense of routine and familiarity.

Smell affects our behavior due to the hypothalamus regulating our body into balance. With this huge effect related to our fight and flight response based on our stress levels, the hypothalamus associates smell as an important factor for reaction. It controls our heart rate, our blood pressure, hormonal balances, and stress levels. Our brain then causes hormones to be released along with neurochemicals which help in changing the way our body behaves.

As a result, of this strong connection and effect, organic essential oils have such a profound psychological and physiological effect on our mind, body, and soul.

To truly maximize your health in all aspects of your life, be sure to incorporate aromatherapy into your home, your office, and during your transportation efforts. For example, using an aromatherapy diffuser for car traveling can help you feel relieve stress and anxiety while regulating your mood and health. After all, with most of us traveling around 40 minutes to an hour a day in a vehicle, it's good to know that we're improving our health in every way possible. Plus, the road rage and stress could do with some relief!

We recommend that you buy organic essential oils when looking for a high quality source to help boost your health and overall wellbeing. For those looking for the best aromatherapy oil diffuser in the market, be sure to invest in glass diffusers such as an essential oil nebulizer diffuser as these do not contain any dangerous plastics that will negatively affect your wellbeing.

Welding Pot Metal – Tips For How to Tig Weld it With HTS-2000, Aladdin 3 in 1, Or Durafix

Welding pot metal is not as hard as people say, but it is not as easy as you might think…unless you know the tricks.

Pot metal is used for all kinds of cheap trinkets like figurines, cookie cutters, hole punch handles and especially old automotive window crank handles.  The problem with welding this kind of stuff is that sometimes the effort that goes into welding it is just not worth it. But there are some things made from pot metal that are worth fixing. Some of the ones that come to mind are antiques, old classic car parts like trim and ornaments, and grandmas old cookie cutter that is not worth anything but has sentimental value.

 Pot metal is made from aluminum, zinc, copper and possibly a few other low melting point metals in various combinations. It’s also referred to as Die Cast metal.

It’s the zinc that makes it a pain  to weld because zinc has such a low  melting point and also tries to out-gas when tig welded. But It can be welded with few problems if you know how.

The 3 main welding rods are :

  1. HTS-2000
  2. Durafix
  3. Alladin 3 in 1 

These rods are advertised to be able to weld using only a small hand held propane torch. That is actually brazing, not welding, but the sales guys at boat shows are really impressive when they braze repair big holes in beer cans.

But these Zinc aluminum brazing rods can also be used to Tig Weld Pot Metal.

If you are pretty decent at tig welding aluminum, you can surely read this article and do OK tig welding this stuff too.

Generally,  pot metal parts are pretty clean so only a minor bit of grinding is required before welding. Usually the problem is that something just broken off clean. If that’s the case, a little grooving out of the crack will permit enough penetration for a strong joint. Remember, if it’s an ornamental piece, and its broken because someone dropped it, Its going to break again if its dropped again no matter how deep you penetrate the weld, so take it easy on the penetration.

You need an A/C tig welding machine with high frequency start.  Most  jobs can be welded with a small 1/16  inch tungsten electrode with a blunt taper on the tip.  Set the amperage to only about 80 amps and you probably wont even need near that much.

Tig weld it just like you would aluminum except that you will only weld for about 5 or 10 seconds at a time before stopping to let it cool. Just when it gets to flowing good. STOP! Its about to melt and fall in your lap. That is the best tip around for welding this stuff.

Stop often and let cool.

Fishing Tips Number 1 – Basic Knot Tying

Welcome to Fishing Tips! Glad to have you and hope we can give tips that will be useful to you and increase your fishing enjoyment. Since there will be a variety of experience in the folks who come here, we are going to start with a basic that experienced fishermen probably know. However, all you experienced fisherman should be patient – because we will be giving more advanced tips as well. Our aim is to reach everyone with our tips and to do that, we need a variety.

However, even the experienced fisherman could check the more basic tips and refresh himself. Even if you just get the confirmation that you are doing the basics correctly.

We are going to start with knot tying. You need to tie your fish-hook or lure or swivel to your line so it stays. Nothing is more heartbreaking than losing a big fish and discovering that your knot came undone! Believe me; you do not want that to happen. So, here is a basic knot that has many applications. It is easy to learn and after you tie this knot several times, you can even do it in the dark.

The knot is called the "Cinch Knot". Here is how to tie it. First, thread your line through the eye of the hook (or lure or swivel). Then wrap it around the line going to the hook, five times or so. Then put the end of the line through the loop in the line you made when you started to wrap. That loop will be near the eye of the hook. Before you pull it tight, stick the end of the line back under the last turn you made when you wrapped the line 5 times around. Pull the knot tight, but keep your thumb and forefinger on the knot to be sure it does not loosen or unwind. Make sure it is snug and test it to be sure it holds. After that, you can trim off the excess line right near the knot. When you first start making this knot, I suggest having your line a bit long as you tie it. The knot is easier to tie that way and you will always cut off the excess anyway. Now, with your knot tied correctly and tested by you pulling on the line to be sure it will stay tied, you are ready to go! Come on fish! You may not catch 'em, but at least you will be confident that your knot will hold!

Maybe a picture example of how to tie the knot will let the explanation be easier to follow when you can see it. There are very informative pictures of knots – in the course of being tied – in Google Photos. Just click on the search for knot tying photos and you will see great examples being tied. This is a good source for you to keep handy as you learn to tie a correct knot!