Josiah Wedgwood – The Manager and Entrepreneur

Most of us have our favorites; be they sporting heroes, politicians, film stars, chefs, and so on. It's as if our selection of a particular person reflects positively on us-our perspicuity, insightfulness, and plain good taste. In the world of management, for example, we've had our flavors-of-the-moment. At one stage it was 'the celebrity CEO' (until we realized that they, too, were fallible). We even tried to escape leadership lessons from figures as diverse as Chief Sitting Bull, Attila the Hun, 'Stormin' Norman What'sHisName, and Winnie the Pooh.

Amid all this exploration it is inevitable that some people describing of recognition and their moments in the sun go unnoticed. One such person is Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) -master potter, founder of the Wedgwood Company, and grandfather of Charles Darwin.

Wedgwood employed work practices and introduced innovations hundred years before they became accepted parts of everyday organizational life. And in the process, he grows his 20-pound inheritance into 500,000 pounds.

Here are 10 of Wedgwood's qualities that have contributed to management as it now practiced. [1]

He embraced change
The Industrial Revolution bought with it strict social, industrial, and economic changes. In the early 18th Century, pottery had been functional, mainly crude vessels for storing and carrying. The pottery industry was dirty and squalid, and its people and work practices coarse and primitive: the industry was ripe for change. Wedgwood embraced many of the changes influencing the ways that his products were made and sold: craftsmanship, designs, processes, and innovation flourished.

The size and sophistication of the market developed through the 18th Century. Industrial wages were paid creating increased sources of wealth and disposable incomes. Stylish table accessories were in huge demand in the burgeoning industrial cities and increasingly wealthy colonies. The imbibing of tea and coffee joined the traditional pastime of beer drinking as a national characteristic.

The Industrial Revolution bought with it the opportunity for the pottery industry to replace traditional water-driven mills and windmills with coal-fired steam engines. In 1782 Wedgwood bought one of James Watt's steam engines. The rest of the industry was quick to follow his lead.

Wedgwood moved in liberal reformer society, too. He applied the principles of the division of labor espoused by his contemporary Adam Smith. He was an avid reader of Paine and Rousseau. He supported the American War of Independence and was an ardent member of the Anti-Slavery Committee.

He built and maintained productive relationships
Today, Wedgwood would be described as a 'Renaissance Man'. He was a master networker and collaborator. He valued and nurtured friendships and personal connections, many of which possessed quite diverse interests. For example, he collaborated with leaders in the Arts and Scientific communities towards even better designs for his products. His friend and business partner, Thomas Bentley, expertly read social trends that enabled Wedgwood to produce fine things that were in demand. The marketplace was amazed at how Wedgwood was able to read and respond to social trends that extremely satisfied in increased sales.

His collaborating with leaders in their fields at the time, enabled Wedgwood to replace (with confidence) the drab, coarse, and everyday with a huge range of beautiful and affordable products. He also worked with fellow Staffordshire potters to solve common technical problems. In 1775, for example, he initiated what was probably the world's first collaborative industrial research project.

He practiced MBWA
The term Management-By-Walking-Around (MBWA), borrowed from Hewlett-Packard and inspired by Tom Peters and Bob Watermanin in the first business bestseller In Search of Excellence , was practiced by Josiah Wedgwood almost two hundred years earlier. Wedgwood believed in and practiced being visible to his workers-mentoring and coaching rather than 'snooperising'. His practice of MBWA enabled him to produce a highly detailed 'Potters Instructions' developed from over the 30 years of his on-the-job experiences.

An initial drawback was a weakened knee-a leftover of childhood smallpox. When the knee began to hamper its ability to walk around the factory, Wedgwood decided to have his leg amputated. With that inconvenience deal with, he strapped on a wooden leg and continued his practice of MBWA.

He insured on WH & S
Wedgwood was conscious of health and safety, especially to the ever-present dangers of lead poisoning. He insured on proper cleaning methods, work attire, and washing facilities. Substance abuse was not tolerated. He instituted a complete ban on drinking alcohol. Punctuality was demanded. Constant attendance was encouraged. Fixed hours and a primitive check-in system were introduced. Wedgwood was scrupulous about cleanliness and avoiding waste. Workers were heavily fined for leaving scraps of material around.

He led by example
Wedgwood began work as a potter aged 11 (his father died when Josiah was 9 leaving him the youngest of 13 children). He knew all of the 'tricks-of-the-trade'. His 'Potters Instructions' covered detailed explanations of every process to be undertaken and every trick used by the work to cut corners.

Wedgwood was hard working, driven, demanding, intellectually curious question established practices, and always on the lookout for better ways of dong things. He was highly ambitious and fastidious about quality doing everything exceptionally well. And he expected the same from his workers.

Wedgwood's persistence is legendary. His favorite motto was 'everything yields to experiment'. Even though Edison's efforts in perfecting the light bulb is familiar to most people (although the number of failed attempts is open to conjecture), Wedgwood's persistence is almost one hundred years earlier in producing Jasper have gone very largely unrecognized. After more than 5,000 recorded experiments, Wedgwood (1775) produced Jasper, a product described as one of the most significant innovations since the Chinese invention of porcelain nearly 1,000 years earlier.

He pioneered productive work practices
When Wedgwood founded his main factory (Etruria), he set out to industrialize what was a strong industry. He applied the principles of the Adam Smith's division of labor by involving specialists concentrated on one specific element of the production process resulting in enhanced efficiency. Training and skill development were important features of this process. In 1790, nearly one-quarter of his work were apprentices, many of them female.

The factory system at the time had no tradition of foremen, clerks, or managers to exert discipline. In a precursor to what was to become Scientific Management in the early 20th Century, he produced highly detailed 'Potters Instructions' based on the regulations and rules he had developed over the 30 years of his experiences. be undertaken, every trick used by the work to cut corners, and instructions on how to reward high performers and reprimand poor ones.

Through their flexibility, the Wedgwood factories were able to produce short runs of highly varied goods, quickly changing color, fashion, style, and price as the market dictated. His production system minimized proprietary risk, reduced fixed costs, and maximized input from skilled labor.

He was fastidious about quality
Wedgwood was a visionary: he wanted to leave the world a better place as a result of his contributions. One of his boasts was that he 'made artists out of mere men'. To that end (and others, of course), he was famously intolerant of poor quality. He would prowl the factory smashing substandard pots and writing in chalk on offending workbenches, 'this will not do for Josiah Wedgwood'. Workers were fined for breaks of his demand for quality.

He was, however, committed to training his workers and providing them with the best quality raw materials. He supported an apprenticeship system, he invested in education, health, diet, and housing of his employees. In what today would be called 'global sourcing', he purchased clay from America in a deal stuck with the Cherokee nation, from Canton in China, and from Sydney Cove through his contact with Joseph Banks.

He used marketing to create demand and increase sales
Wedgwood provided the pièce de résistance of marketing to a world where 'take-it-or-leave-it' was the operative. He opened new showrooms in London and allowed customers' comments to inform design and production. He introduced self-service, catalog-selling, pattern books, free carriage of goods, money-back guarantees, regular sales, all aiming in Wedgwood's words' to amuse, and divert, and please, and astonish, and even to ravish the ladies '.

He assiduously bought patronage from aristocrats and politicians and exploited their orders as testimonials are used today. When Queen Charlotte, wife of George III, ordered a tea service in 1776, he trumpted the royal endorsement on his letterhead, in his showroom, and in his advertising. Calling his cream colored line, 'Queen's Ware', he excited the aspirations of its users. For the privilege, he charged premium prices, compared to those of his competitors, for those wishing to eat off plates fit for a Queen. On another occasion, he made a 932-piece service for Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. People (including royalty) cued outside his London store to see the sensation.

He chose open innovation over intellectual property
Wedgwood was inspired by the work of others and, to that end, he was flattered by others copying his work. He was less concerned about maintaining intellectual capital that he was about contributing to the development and enhancement of relationships, as this example illustrates.

One of the perennial challenges of making ceramics was measuring high temperatures in kilns in order to control the production process. Wedgwood invented a pyrometer, or thermometer, that recorded these temperatures. In true Wedgwood fashion, he did not try to retain the technology for himself. He also provided fellow scientists with specially designed experimental apparatus.

He was the master of logistics and infrastructure
No stone was left unturned by Wedgwood in his pursuit of excellence in product and sales. He devoted enormous amounts of time and money to improving communications and transportation, especially with the ports that bought him raw materials and provided his routes to market. He promoted the development of turnpike roads and was treasurer of the construction of the Grand Trunk Canal, an extra engineering feat 93 miles long, linking Staffordshire with the ports of Liverpool in the West and Hull in the East. It is estimated that following the completion of the canal, freight rates reduced by ninety percent.

1. Ockham's Razor , Radio National, Australia: 'An innovator for the ages', 14 December 2008, presented by Professor Mark Dodgson, Director of the Technology and Innovation Management Center at the University of Queensland, Australia.

Estate Liquidation – Pros and Cons of Tag Sales and Auctions

Executors faced with liquidating an estate’s personal property will quickly find that it is their most time-consuming administrative task. Executors who don’t perform their duties could be removed from office by the Probate Judge, so it is important that they single-mindedly pursue disposing of the estate’s property so that the bills can be paid and the estate settled.

What you’ll get from this article

Executors have three main liquidation options, and I will discuss the pros and cons of each in this article. Any company chosen to liquidate an estate should be vetted; I will tell you how to do this conscientiously, and I will also propose the best liquidation method. I assume that the twin liquidation goals of the Executor are to achieve the greatest cash benefit to the estate and to leave the house broom-clean so that it can be sold. Of course, there are ways to maximize the cash return for each type of sale, and I’ll tell you what they are.

Investing ten minutes into reading this article could save an Executor many hours of work.

Option 1: Have An Auction On-Site

Benefits of an On-Site Auction:

Auctioneers are very competitive lot. It should be an easy job for an executor to find an auction company willing to take the estate liquidation job, and commissions will be competitive. A strong argument for an on-site estate auction is that when the auction is over, there will be very little clean-up. If you like, the real estate can be auctioned as well, since auctioneers are licensed to auction the real estate and other titled property. In one day, the house, car, boat, RV, and all the household goods could be sold.

Negatives for an On-Site Auction:

Auctions are driven by competitive bidding. Consequently, it is necessary to have a lot of people at your auction. Big crowds require nice weather, plenty of parking, bathrooms, food, and refreshments to keep the people from leaving. Online bidding can be included to boost attendance, but it is the local crowd that builds excitement and drives the prices up. To attract a crowd, the estate must have collectibles and other quality goods. Run-of-the-mill goods that can be purchased at the local thrift store are insufficient to attract a good auction crowd.

Suggestions for an On-Site Auction:

If your estate has many large collectibles, like antique furniture or a piano, an on-site auction may be your best choice. Summer weekends, when the weather is warm and dry, are the best times to hold an on-site estate auction. The auction company you hire should be equipped with sound equipment, canopy tents, display tables, and plenty of help for fast checkout.

Option 2: Auction Gallery Consignment

Pros for Auction Gallery Consignment

If weather is a concern, you may want to consider consigning your items to an Auction Gallery. Consignments at an Auction Gallery are grouped according to the type of item in order to maximize turnout and get the best prices from their collectors. For example, there may be an auction dedicated to art and home decor, or musical instruments, or ceramics.

Cons for Auction Gallery Consignment

There are quite a few reasons for not consigning to an Auction Gallery. For starters, many Auction Galleries will take only the best items from the estate. Ninety percent of an estate is made up of items that are of little interest to the auctioneer, which leaves the Executor to deal with the remaining ninety percent of the estate property. Lastly, when an Auction Gallery spreads the merchandise out over several auctions, it can take months for all the items to sell, delaying the closing of the estate.

Tips for Auction Gallery Consignment

Before you consign to an Auction Gallery, ask the auctioneer how your merchandise will be distributed between auctions; get a guaranteed settlement date. You will also need a plan for disposing of all the remaining estate merchandise.

Option 3: Tag Sale On-Site

Pros for Tag Sale On-Site

Tag sales have several advantages over an on-site auction. For those that are not familiar with tag sales, the sale is held on the premises and in the house. Companies that specialize in tag sales are less common than auction companies. At a tag sale, everything in the house is priced, much like at a yard sale. Shoppers will browse through the house, and choose the items they wish to buy. When buyers arrive at the house, they take a number, and are admitted into the house when their number is called. Tag sales usually start on Friday evening and end Sunday evening, so there is no need to provide food or bathroom facilities. Tag sales can be held rain or shine and in any season

Cons for Tag Sale On-Site

The biggest disadvantage in hiring a tag sale company is that tag sale companies are not held to the same legal standards to which auction companies are held. Auctioneers and Realtors are bound by law to the estate by a fiduciary bond. A fiduciary relationship binds the agent by law to act at all times in the best interest of the estate. Fiduciaries are licensed by the state, must pass tests, be bonded, must hold all funds in an escrow account until distributed, and has to settle the account with the estate within a specific time frame.

Fiduciaries must also keep accurate records and follow certain protocols. Failure of a fiduciary to follow procedures can result in fines or loss of license. Tag sale companies are not held to the same legal standards, although they certainly have a moral obligation to the estate. Tag sale companies can handle the details of the sale and the distribution of the money any way they see fit.

Another problem with tag sales is that typically there is merchandise left over after the sale. Often, there is a LOT of merchandise left over. When a lot of items are left over, the executor then has a clean-out problem, because the house must be left “broom-clean” before a realtor will list the house for sale. Unlike an auction, where prices go up with each bid, tag sale shoppers want to negotiate a lower price for everything, which is not only time consuming but costs the estate money.

Tips for Tag Sale On-Site

When working with a tag sale company, read the contract thoroughly, make sure settlement dealines are included. the operator should have a solid pricing plan, adequate staff, and a solid track record.

What about Internet Sales and Retail consignment?

Internet sales work well for items that can be shipped easily, like small collectibles, books, and artwork. Before you decide to sell these items online, remember that having a nice assortment of collectibles at your auction or tag sale is what will attract the buyers to your event. If you sell all the good collectibles online, you won’t get very good attendance at your sale. Dont even consider a retail consignment; they will take too long to sell your items.

How do I know if I am dealing with a reputable company?

Unfortunately, asking for references doesn’t always work; no one gives a bad reference. The Better Business Bureau lists ratings for some, but not all, companies. With an auction company, most states have an occupational licensing board which can give you the status of an auctioneers license and tell you if they have any complaints on file. Checking up on a tag sale company is a lot harder, because there is no agency keeping track of complaints. One website that is helpful is When at the site search the name of the company you wish to investigate; also type in the owners name to see what that brings up.

Hire a company with a solid internet presence

These days, it is imperative for a company to have an online network. A company that is well-connected in the online world is likely to be a company that is well-networked in the local area. It’s unlikely that a company with a poor or no website will be able to use the internet to generate sales for your event. Doing a Google search of the company’s name or web address is the best way to to see how well connected they are. Go to Googles search bar (not the address bar at the top of the page, but the search bar in the center of the page) and type in the companys web address starting with www. How many search results are returned that pertain directly to the company you are investigating?. If the company is a national franchise, disregard the results for the general franchise and only count the results where the local company is mentioned. Ranking well with the search engines doesn’t necessarily mean the company will be the best one for your needs, but it is a good indicator of the professionalism of the company. Typically, companies that have lots of returned results do so because other organizations want to associate with experts in their field, so they link to the experts website. A large number of linking companies is like a “vote” for the company being linked to. A company that displays lots of Google results is usually one that is recognized as being expert in their field.

So, what’s the best way to liquidate an estate?

The best type of sale for estate liquidation is to hire a licensed fiduciary to sell the estate property in one day, to the bare walls, any time of year. To achieve this would require an event that is part tag sale and part auction, run by an auctioneer. Since Tag Sale operators are generally not licensed auctioneers and auctioneers usually hate to do tag sales, that’s a tough solution to implement. There are auctioneers that combine these services, however. Finding such a company will give an executor the flexibility of having a sale any time of year, the ability to sell down to the bare walls with nothing left over, and the assurance of dealing with a state licensed and bonded fiduciary.

High School Wrestling: Becoming a Super Wrestler

Steve Austin, astronaut, a man barely alive. Gentlemen, we can rebuild him, we have the technology. We have the ability to make the world's first Bionic man. Steve Austin will be that man. Better than he was before. Better. Stronger. Faster. – from the opening sequence of the television show The Six Million Dollar Man

Can we build a wrestler that is better, stronger, and faster?

What is the best type of conditioning for a wrestler? Even though I am no longer competitive, I still grapple with this question. The information I find seems confusing and contradictory at times.

Even though my competitive days are probably behind me, I have continued to be interested in wrestling technique and in wrestling conditioning. I still amazed during my adult life what conditioning could produce the ultimate wrestler. I did a lot of research on the internet and in books and began to piece things together.

What insights did I gain? Let's explore.


I was somewhat familiar with the concept of periodization as far back as the 1980s. I believe that I first read about periodization in a bodybuilding / fitness magazine. I do not remember the exact details of the article, but it left an impression on me.

I did not start using the internet regularly until around the turn of the new millennium. Through some research I came upon two articles that were specifically about periodization for wrestling. I believe the first article was simply entitled Periodization and was written by Ethan Bosch.

The second article was entitled Year Long Periodization Schedule and was written by Richard Fergola. These articles fascinated me very much. The articles described what type of training to do at each stage of the calendar year. It was very exciting to find an actual blueprint of how to train year round to be in the best condition to wrestle.

Strength and conditioning coach Mark Ginther contends that peak condition is impossible to retain for more than a couple of weeks at the longest and, therefore, some form of periodization is essential to successful conditioning.

Basic linear periodization often involves three Phases: preparatory, competition, and transition. However, there are many other kinds of periodization.

Energy Systems

During high school I read an article explaining how different types of weight lifting could lead to strength. power, or muscular endurance. This confused me a bit, because I figured that a wrestler needed all three attributes. I'm not sure when I learned about the difference between aerobic and anaerobic sports. That concept was a bit confusing too, because I could remember breathing hard and feeling my heart pound after a wrestling match. And yet, wrestling was not really like running a few miles. It involved strength and power. During the early part of the new millennium, I also learned about the three energy systems and how to train them.

The ATP system provides enwergy for approximately 0-15 seconds. The glyco-lactic system provides energy for approximately 15 seconds to 2 minutes. The aerobic system provides energy for 2 minutes and beyond. I was still a little confused because a high school match lasts for six minutes. But, those are not six minutes of continuous steady state activity. A wrestling match is punctuated by many powerful bursts of activity. So, wrestling uses more energy from the first two systems and is definitely aerobic. And, knowing that allows you to train accordingly.

A very good article I came across by Mike Frey was Cardiovascular Training for Wrestlers . In part two of that article he writes, "The whistle has blown marking the end of the first period of your match. to. So why are you tired after only 2 minutes? "

"Yes, why is that?" I thought.

The Frey writes, "Running long distance conditioning works the body's aerobic energy system to use energy over a long period of time, where with wrestling we are required to sustain high levels of energy very quickly and recover in a short period of time."

You see a wrestler needs not only aerobic endurance, but anaerobic endurance. Mike explains many ways to improve one's wrestling endurance. It's a very enlightening article and made quite an impression on me.

Mike concludes part two of the article by saying, "Cardiovascular training for wrestlers is more that just running 2 miles or riding your bike around the block. providing a good solid foundation for cardiovascular training but it's the anaerobic weight training and conditioning that will carry you to the top of the podium. "

GPP / Work Capacity / Strongman Training / Olympic Lifting / DensityTraining / Kettlebells / Plyometrics / Miscellaneous

I grow up on a farm. I used to carry bales of hay and pails of corn every day. I lifted and transported bags of lime and feed. I dug fence post holes. In other words, I did plenty of physical labor. This was my way of building general physical preparedness (GPP). A concept is closely related to GPP is work capacity.

I believe it was articles written by Matt Wiggins that first bought my attention to the concept of work capacity.

With greater work capacity, one can do a greater volume of conditioning. Having greater work capacity is like having a bigger "gas tank." If you have great work capacity, then you will not gas out toward the end of a wrestling match.

A wrestler will absolutely benefit from improved work capacity. He will be prepared for intense work and will be able to recover more quickly.

Strength and conditioning specialist Ross Enimait states, "All athletes can benefit from improved work capacity. This is particularly true for combat athletes." In addition he writes, "Improving work capacity is one important step to enabling the body to train harder and more often."

Strongman training involving pulling weighed sleds, swinging sledge hammers, and flipping tires has become quite popular among combat athletes. Look into it.

Some trainers believe that Olympic lifting (eg power cleans) is beneficial for a combat athlete while others do not. The same can be said of plyometrics.

I've heard good things about kettlebells, clubbells, and Indian clubs.

Density training often involves trying to do more work in the same amount of time or the same amount of work in less time. How many push ups can you do in ten minutes? Try to double the number of push ups you can do in ten minutes. Think you will not be in better condition? Or, you could keep doing the same number of push ups but reduce the amount of time you rest between sets.

You should read up about density training.

I guess the bottom line is that there are many ways to condition your body and a variety of tools and techniques one can use.

Traditional Cardio / Intervals / Sprints

Aerobic base training has been a principal ingredient of training programs (including those for wrestling) for decades. This type of training (think long slow bouts of jogging) is purported to increase mitochondrial size and density as well as muscular capillarization, which results in increased blood flow to the muscles and improved muscular endurance.

Sounds good, right? However, a growing number of conditioning experts are claiming aerobics (traditional cardio) is useless and sometimes even dangerous.

For instance, some claim that aerobic training can make you slower, cause adrenal stress, and worsen one's testosterone / cortisol ratio.

Interval training is recommended as an alternative. Interval training involves alternating bouts of high-intensity exercise with that of low to moderate-intensity exercise. For instance, one might sprint for 40 seconds and then jog for two minutes and repeat this for several sets.

On the other hand, in his article A Basic Primer on Endurance Training Charles Staley writes, "Note: Many conditioning specialists eschew the concept of developing an aerobic base, feeling that a highly developed aerobic capacity is counter-productive to the attainment of speed and strength. However the anaerobic system is based on the aerobic system, so at least in principle, it seems logical to develop the system which will promote lactic acid clearance during high intensity training efforts later in the cycle. an issue of how much aerobic work is done, and where it is placed in the training cycle. "

Several conditioning experts are advocates of sprinting (including hill sprints).

In the journal article Physiological and Performance Changes from the Addition of a Sprint Interval Program to Wrestling Training , Farzad et al. (2011) state, "Our results indicate that repeated sprint-interval runs with short passive recovery periods, over a 4-week period are useful in increasing both aerobic and anaerobic performances.

The total testosterone of the participants performing the sprint protocol increased significantly. Pretty cool, huh?

Lactic Acid Training

Wrestling is considered to be primarily an anaerobic sport. Earlier I mentioned the three energy systems. One of the energy systems that wrestling relations heavily upon is called the lactic acid or lactate system.

The lactate system can be linked with the burning sensations felt during high intensity activities. Therefore, if a wrestler can train his body to tolerate and effectively use lactate he will become less fatigued and will be able to wrestle at a higher intensity longer.

According to Strength and Conditioning Specialist Jonathan Siegel, "In terms of improving the use and re-use of lactate in our muscles, lactate threshold (LT) intervals encourage fast-twitch muscles to produce an enzyme (MCT-1) which is important to transport lactate into muscle cells where it is converted into pyruvic acid for further exercise. The more MCT-1 you have, the greater the rate of lactate conversion and the greater the muscle endurance. LT intervals also increase the number of mitochondria (cellular energy power) plants) and capillaries (blood highways). "

According to Owen Anderson, author of Lactate Lift-Off , one method of increasing one's lactate threshold and ability to clear lactate is to perform an exercise he refers to as lactate-dosers.

The lactate-doser understands alternating two minutes of close-to-max-speed running with 4 to 5 minutes of easy jogging until you have completed 5 to 6 of the 2 minute bursts.

The blasts bathe muscle cells in lactate, and the recovery jogs allow muscle fibers to clear the lactate which has been produced. Over time, this kind of workout should dramatically increase MCT concentrations, lactate clearance, lactate threshold, and performance capacity.

In an article at the Science Daily website entitled Lactic Acid Not Athlete's Poison, But An Energy Source – If You Know How To Use It , exercise physiologist George Brooks and his UC Berkeley Exercise Physiology Laboratory collections Takeshi Hashimoto and Rajaa Hussien are mentioned and their research concern lactic acid is discussed.

According to the article at Science Daily :

"The world's best athletes stay competitive by interval training," Brooks said, referring to repeated short, but intense, bouts of exercise. "The intestinal exercise generates large lactate loads, and the body adapts by building up mitochondria to clear lactic acid quickly.

In a journal article entitled The Physiological Basis for Wrestling: Implications for Conditioning Programs, Kraemer, Vescovi, & Dixon (2004) recommend circuit resistance training as one part of a wrestling conditioning program. They state, "The main purpose for circuit resistance training is to develop a tolerance of high hydrogen ion and lactic acid concentrations, which will significantly enhance the acid-buffering mechanisms within the body."

Circuits are simply a series of exercises performed in a fashion in which one moves from one exercise to the next with little or no rest. A good description of circuit resistance training specific to wrestling can be found in the journal article mentioned above, in online articles, and in the book entitled Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science: Strength Training for Sport .

Pavel Tsatsouline / Strength

Pavel Tsatsouline, Master of Sports, is a former Soviet Special Forces physical training instructor and the author of Power to the People: Russian Strength Training Secrets for Every American and several other books and articles.

Pavel believes in lifting heavy weights for low reps. Bodybuilding has no place in most athletes training in his opinion. He states, "The punch bag who came up with the light weights / high reps formula for martial artists did not have the slightest clue about either strength training or martial arts."

He also says, "The best training training formula for a fighting man is heavy, 80-95% 1RM, weights, and low, 1-5, repetitions."

Any combat athlete, including wrestlers, can become tired and sore from following a high rep weight training program. If you have no energy left for practice, what's the point? Pavel concludes, "If they go to low rep, heavy, non-exhaustive training – three sets of three or five sets of five – they would not get sore."

Strength training should never interfere with your wrestling practice. If practice itself makes you tired and fatigued that's okay. You can not practice your wrestling skills well if you're sore from weight training. You can not shoot good takedowns if you're tired and sore.

If wrestling practice itself makes you tired and fatigued that's okay. However, your training training should not. Strength training is not for conditioning. You should get plenty of conditioning during wrestling practice from drilling, live wrestling, calisthenics, etc.

Strength training is also not a way for you to prove how tough you are. Save it for the mat. Nobody cares how much you can bench press if you walk out and get pinned. Lift heavy weights, but keep the overall volume of strength training low.

Strength training is merely there to give you a possible advantage over an equally skilled opponent.

Barry Ross / Strength and Speed

Strength and conditioning coach Barry Ross is mainly known for his work in the area of ​​track and field, especially sprinting. Ross helped train sprinter Allyson Felix in high school. Allyson Felix has gone on to become an Olympic silver medalist and world champion sprinter. You may wonder what this has to do with wrestling.

Well, the interesting thing about Ross is that he came across a study by research physiologist Peter Weyand. According to Ross, "Weyand and his associates proved that simply gaining strength is not enough. marely the amount of force applied to the ground that increases stride length; it's the amount of force in relation to bodyweight. "

Ross realized that increasing mass-specific force mean getting stronger without adding bulk. Do not most wrestlers want to get stronger without gaining bulk? I think so. How does one do this? Ross had his sprinters lift heavy weights for low reps and focused primarily on the deadlift. In his article The Holy Grail in Speed ​​Training Ross writes, "The deadlift was not a favorite in our eyes either until we aware an interesting and strongly stimulating fact: World and European powerlifting records show that the deadlift and the squat records are within 10 % or less of each other across all weight classes, both for men and women. deadlift led to the complete restructuring of our strength workout. "

Ross never has his athletes train to failure (exhaustion). He simply gets his athletes very strong. He believes in the philosophy, "Do as little as needed, not as much as possible." This is similar to the philosophy of strength and conditioning coach and trainer to boxers and UFC fighters Steve Baccari. Interstingly, Baccari is also a fan of deadlifts. Baccari says, "In my opinion, easy strength training is the only productive way for a competitive fighter to force train. anymore, because I think it is one reason why my fighters win so much. " Baccari also says, "Low rep slow strength work is like putting money in the bank to collect on the fight night."

I think the lesson for wrestlers is that you should not wear yourself out by lifting weights to the point of exhaustion. Lift heavy weights for low reps (never more than five) and get really strong. Lactic acid training and conditioning have their place, but do not forget about the importance of pure strength.

Dan Gable and Rocky Marciano / Work Ethic and Conditioning

Dan Gable does not really need an introduction. He was one of the greatest American wrestlers to ever set foot on the mat and sometimes the greatest collegiate coach in history. Gable's work ethical and conditioning was legendary.

Gable enjoyed hard work from a young age. During his high school years he had the stamina to exhaust his teams. He would then look for a fresh partner. Some would have called him a fanatic in terms of conditioning.

Gable had this to say, "The obvious goals were there- State Champion, NCAA Champion, Olympic Champion. practice that someone would have to carry me off the mat. "

During his college years at ISU, Gable's goal was to work so hard in practice that he would not be able to leave the room under his own power. He came close at times, but always managed to crawl to his feet.

According to the book A Season on the Mat: Dan Gable and the Pursuit of Perfection , after losing his final collegiate match (after 117 straight victories at ISU), "For the next two years, Gable worked out three times a day, eight hours of running and lifting and hard wrestling, driving for Olympic perfection. " What did Gable do after he won the gold medal in the 1972 Olympics in Munich? According to the book, "The day after winning a gold medal in Munich, he ran four miles."

A year prior to that Gable had responded to winning in the same manner. The morning following the 1971 World Championships in Sofia, Bulgaria, Dan Gable was out running, already focusing on his next challenge.

Ben Peterson and his brother John were Olympic teams of Dan in 1972. They often worked out with Dan. Ben writes of Dan, "His favorite after a run, was taking turns doing push-ups using a deck of cards. number he complained. " Dan used to do that deck-of-cards workout by himself at times, seeing how many times he could go through the deck.

When Gable coached at the University of Iowa, he was no less demanding when it came to his team's conditioning. In fact, two-time NCAA champion Royce Alger said that he'd rather do prison time than ever again go through the workouts that Gable had them enduring during the time he wrestled for Iowa. How did Gable do at Iowa? During Gable's tenor, Iowa won 21 consecutive Big Ten championships and 15 NCAA team titles.

In his book Coaching Wrestling Successfully , Dan Gable informs the reader that conditioning is essential. He believes in maintaining a high fitness level year round. He writes, "Daily work adds up to a whole lot after a while. Five minutes a day does not seem like much, but it equals close to 31 hours of extra work when added up for a whole year."

Gable concludes, "A wrestler can develop from average to good or good to great with just a bit more time and effort each day."

Another athlete known for his work ethical and conditioning was boxer Rocky Marciano.

In his book Wrestling Tough , Mike Chapman writes, "When he retired as the undefeated heavyweight boxing champion of the world in 1956, Marciano had a record of 49-0, with 43 knockouts. Most experts maintained that Rocky's unmatched emphasis on conditioning, often considered extreme, was the key to his success. "

One of the ways that Rocky liked to improve his stupina was by running.

Charlie Piccento, Rocky's uncle, had this to say, "He does it (runs) every morning even if he does not have a fight … five or six miles. or seven miles on Christmas morning. "

Rocky himself said, "I'm in better condition than any of them. I can go as many rounds as I have to."

Gable and Marciano are just two of many athletes who placed a great emphasis on work ethical and conditioning. Obviously, for them it paid off.

Dave Schultz / Mark Schultz / John Smith / Technique

Dave Schultz is considered by many as one of the best technicians in the history of wrestling. Dave was a world and Olympic champion. But, those honors can only begin to give one an idea of ​​just how incredible he was. Dave Schultz was phenomenal.

Evan as a high school senior, Dave competed at the world level. In 1977, he wrestled for the United States in the Tbilisi Tournament in the Soviet Union. Dave won a silver medal at the Tbilisi Tournament, considered by many at the time to be the most challenging tournament in the world. In fact, some considered it to be tougher than the world championships or the Olympics. So, what Dave Schultz accomplished at such a young age was quite impressive.

Mark Schultz said of his old brother Dave, " He taught me how to take notes too. Everything he learned, he'd write it down so when I started wrestling I did the same thing and I had my technique notebook."

Mark Schultz too is known for his technique. In the article A Conversation with Mark Schultz , Marksays, "Anytime I learned anything, I wrote it down. I made my technique notebook and I divided my techniques by tie up. top of the page and write down all of the different technique I could finish with. I've got all the counters to the front headlock on the back page. there, lift, trip, spin, go behind, run the pipe, switch to another move, backing down to hip, go out the back door, etc. "

John Smith, four time world champion and two time Olympic champion in freestyle wrestling, is known for his technique despite more than any other American wrestler. In his article Smith's Six Titles Only Matched by His Perspective , Kyle Klingman wrights, "Drilling was the backbone of Smith's training regimen. Smith would drill techniques over and over and over again. The key was repetition."

Klingman concludes, "Wrestling was a year round the process for Smith. day. But once January came around, the pace picked up … and Smith kicked it into high gear. "

Are you willing to drill a move 40 or 50 times a day?

Martial arts instructor and personal trainer Brian Copeland writes, "Researchers have discovered that the elite athletes of the world regardless of the sport have accumulated over 100,000 – 300,000 perfect reps over the course of their lives." This is also known as the 10,000 hour rule, the best have put over 10,000 hours of perfect practice in. "

Universities / World Champions / Olympians

In his article Strength and Conditioning for Wrestling, John Stucky (1988) discusses the Oklahoma State University wrestling strength and conditioning program. He writes, "At Oklahoma State University, our goal is to help each athlete be stronger and in better shape than any opponent they will face." The accomplishment of such a task will develop more physical and more confident individuals, which will inevitably yield wrestling champions . "

In the article, he discusses the importance of training the ATP-PC and lactic acid energy system as well as the effectiveness of interval training.

Most of the universities known for their wrestling programs divide the training year into phases such as pre-season, in-season, tournament time, post-season, etc. Most programs have a wrestler lifting weights year round. Often, the wrestler moves from focusing on absolute strength developed by lifting heavy weights with low reps to focusing on power and explosion and endurance. Often circuit training is employed as well at some point in the training year.

At the 2011 FILA Wrestling World Championships, Russia won the men's freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling team titles. One may wonder what makes the Russians such great wrestlers. No one knows for sure.

Zach Even-Esh said in an interview, "I was talking about this with a former champion wrestler, coach and current Division 1 head strength coach, Ethan Reeve – he had investigated the same question, but, he went straight to the source and got a hold of world champion wrestlers from Russia. A huge part of their training was drilling, but this drilling was super intense and looked like an actual match, done at very high intensity. "

Olympic and world champion wrestler Sergei Beloglazov is considered despite the best technician the sport of wrestling has ever seen. He states, "I do not believe in talent." I believe in a coaching program, attitude, and commitment that is important in any sport, especially in wrestling.


  • Periodization is essentially just planning your training. Even if you use a conventional linear model – hypertrophy phase, strength phase, power phase, longer runs in the off season and then sprints during the season – well, you could do worse. Periodization can be beneficial. It does not have to be complicated. You could simply divide the year into pre-season, in-season, and off-season. Maybe you want to work on your strength over the summer. Perhaps you're already strong and want to place more emphasis on your condition by doing circuits. The point is to have some sort of plan. In his book Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia , John Jesse emphasizes the importance training year round. You can take a break from wrestling after the season, but do not take a very long break from your strength and conditioning. You want to come back a little stronger and better than the year before.
  • Always remember that wrestling is an anerobic sport. You're not training for a marathon. Train accordingly.
  • Remember the importance of work capacity. Build a bigger gas tank.
  • Most conditioning specialists believe that long cardio sessions (eg going on long runs) is not beneficial for a combat athlete and may even be detrimental. On the other hand, some claim it's good to build an aerobic base and that running at lower intensities for longer distances can aid in recovery. Going on some longer runs is not going to harm you. Dan Gable ran a lot and it did not hurt him. Of course, he also did sprints, strength training, and a lot of wrestling. Just do not overdo the long running sessions. As I stated earlier, you're not training for a marathon. You're a wrestler.
  • Interval training and sprints can be an important component in a wrestler's conditioning. But, do not overdo it. Intervals and sprints can be taxing. If you're already doing a lot of anaerobic skills training (eg drilling and wrestling in practice) than adding too much extra anaerobic work (eg sprints) could lead to overtraining.
  • Strength is extremely important. Lift heavy weights for low reps at least part of the year. It's possible to gain strength without gaining too much mass. Circuit training can be great for a wrestler. However, circuits do not do a wrestler much good if he is not fairly strong to begin with. He'll simply create a lot of fatigue and still be weak. So, do basic heavy lifting and use circuits sparingly.
  • Technique is probably the most important factor in wrestling. You can be very strong and well conditioned, but if you have poor skills you are going to get beat a lot. Make sure you are practicing proper technique. Watch videos if you have to. A stand up is simple, right? But, do you really know how to do a proper stand up? How many ways can you set up and finish a single leg? Do you have a technique book like Mark Schultz? Will you drill as much as Olympian John Smith

This has gotten to be a long article. Let me leave you with a couple of quotes.

Strength and conditioning specialist Martin Rooney describes the best way for a combat athlete to train. He states, "Squats, deadlifts, bench presses, power cleans; the basics, combined with some sprinting and some stretching.

Alexander Karelin was a nine time world champion and three time Olympic champion in Greco-Roman wrestling. Some accuse Karelin of using performance enhancing drugs. He replied by saying, "The people who accuse me are those who have never trained once in their life like I train every day of my life.

How to Play Bible Baseball

Have you been to a baseball game lately? No? Then start a game of your own – Bible Baseball style!

Set Up: You will need 4 bases – one home plate, one 1st base, one 2nd base, and one 3rd base. You will also need one card of each of the following titles – Home run, Single, Double, and Triple. Place the bases on the ground in baseball diamond fashion and place the cards in a bucket.

How to Play: Pick one child from each team. Decide who goes first. Give the child a Bible review question. If he/she gets it correct, they now get the chance to pick a card out of the bucket. If they pick the single card they move to first base, the double card moves them to second base, the triple card moves them to third base and the Home Run card gives them an automatic home run. Place the chosen card back into the bucket. At this point of the game, both teams have had their first players “up to bat”.

The second child from the 1st team goes next and follows the same procedure. Whatever card he/she picks will also move ahead any of his team members that are already on another base. For example, if a Team A child is on 2nd base and another Team A child comes “up to bat” and picks a double card, the first Team A child now goes to Home plate and scores a run for their team while his teammate goes to second base.

The team with the most home runs at the end of your Bible review time wins.

Assertive Communication – 6 Tips For Effective Use

What IS assertive communication?

Assertive communication is the ability to express positive and negative ideas and feelings in an open, honest and direct way. It recognises our rights whilst still respecting the rights of others. It allows us to take responsibility for ourselves and our actions without judging or blaming other people. And it allows us to constructively confront and find a mutually satisfying solution where conflict exists.

So why use assertive communication?

All of us use assertive behaviour at times… quite often when we feel vulnerable or unsure of ourselves we may resort to submissive, manipulative or aggressive behaviour.

Yet being trained in assertive communication actually increases the appropriate use of this sort of behaviour. It enables us to swap old behaviour patterns for a more positive approach to life. I’ve found that changing my response to others (be they work colleagues, clients or even my own family) can be exciting and stimulating.

The advantages of assertive communication

There are many advantages of assertive communication, most notably these:

  • It helps us feel good about ourselves and others
  • It leads to the development of mutual respect with others
  • It increases our self-esteem
  • It helps us achieve our goals
  • It minimises hurting and alienating other people
  • It reduces anxiety
  • It protects us from being taken advantage of by others
  • It enables us to make decisions and free choices in life
  • It enables us to express, both verbally and non-verbally, a wide range of feelings and thoughts, both positive and negative

There are, of course, disadvantages…

Disadvantages of assertive communication

Others may not approve of this style of communication, or may not approve of the views you express. Also, having a healthy regard for another person’s rights means that you won’t always get what YOU want. You may also find out that you were wrong about a viewpoint that you held. But most importantly, as mentioned earlier, it involves the risk that others may not understand and therefore not accept this style of communication.

What assertive communication is not…

Assertive communication is definitely NOT a lifestyle! It’s NOT a guarantee that you will get what you want. It’s definitely NOT an acceptable style of communication with everyone, but at least it’s NOT being aggressive.

But it IS about choice

Four behavioural choices

There are, as I see it, four choices you can make about which style of communication you can employ. These types are:

direct aggression: bossy, arrogant, bulldozing, intolerant, opinionated, and overbearing

indirect aggression: sarcastic, deceiving, ambiguous, insinuating, manipulative, and guilt-inducing

submissive: wailing, moaning, helpless, passive, indecisive, and apologetic

assertive: direct, honest, accepting, responsible, and spontaneous

Characteristics of assertive communication

There are six main characteristics of assertive communication. These are:

  • eye contact: demonstrates interest, shows sincerity
  • body posture: congruent body language will improve the significance of the message
  • gestures: appropriate gestures help to add emphasis
  • voice: a level, well modulated tone is more convincing and acceptable, and is not intimidating
  • timing: use your judgement to maximise receptivity and impact
  • content: how, where and when you choose to comment is probably more important than WHAT you say

The importance of “I” statements

Part of being assertive involves the ability to appropriately express your needs and feelings. You can accomplish this by using “I” statements. These indicate ownership, do not attribute blame, focuses on behaviour, identifies the effect of behaviour, is direcdt and honest, and contributes to the growth of your relationship with each other.

Strong “I” statements have three specific elements:

  • Behaviour
  • Feeling
  • Tangible effect (consequence to you)

Example: “I feel frustrated when you are late for meetings. I don’t like having to repeat information.”

Six techniques for assertive communication

There are six assertive techniques – let’s look at each of them in turn.

1. Behaviour Rehearsal: which is literally practising how you want to look and sound. It is a very useful technique when you first want to use “I” statements, as it helps dissipate any emotion associated with an experience and allows you to accurately identify the behaviour you wish to confront.

2. Repeated Assertion (the ‘broken record’): this technique allows you to feel comfortable by ignoring manipulative verbal side traps, argumentative baiting and irrelevant logic while sticking to your point. To most effectively use this technique use calm repetition, and say what you want and stay focused on the issue. You’ll find that there is no need to rehearse this technique, and no need to ‘hype yourself up’ to deal with others.


“I would like to show you some of our products”

“No thank you, I’m not interested”

“I really have a great range to offer you”

“That may be true, but I’m not interested at the moment”

“Is there someone else here who would be interested?”

“I don’t want any of these products”

“Okay, would you take this brochure and think about it?”

“Yes, I will take a brochure”

“Thank you”

“You’re welcome”

3. Fogging: this technique allows you to receive criticism comfortably, without getting anxious or defensive, and without rewarding manipulative criticism. To do this you need to acknowledge the criticism, agree that there may be some truth to what they say, but remain the judge of your choice of action. An example of this could be, “I agree that there are probably times when I don’t give you answers to your questions.

4. Negative enquiry: this technique seeks out criticism about yourself in close relationships by prompting the expression of honest, negative feelings to improve communication. To use if effectively you need to listen for critical comments, clarify your understanding of those criticisms, use the information if it will be helpful or ignore the information if it is manipulative. An example of this technique would be, “So you think/believe that I am not interested?”

5. Negative assertion: this technique lets you look more comfortably at negatives in your own behaviour or personality without feeling defensive or anxious, this also reduces your critics’ hostility. You should accept your errors or faults, but not apologise. Instead, tentatively and sympathetically agree with hostile criticism of your negative qualities. An example would be, “Yes, you’re right. I don’t always listen closely to what you have to say.”

6. Workable compromise: when you feel that your self-respect is not in question, consider a workable compromise with the other person. You can always bargain for your material goals unless the compromise affects your personal feelings of self-respect. However, if the end goal involves a matter of your self-worth and self-respect, THERE CAN BE NO COMPROMISE. An example of this technique would be, “I understand that you have a need to talk and I need to finish what I’m doing. So what about meeting in half an hour?”


Assertiveness is a useful communication tool. It’s application is contextual and it’s not appropriate to be assertive in all situations. Remember, your sudden use of assertiveness may be perceived as an act of aggression by others.

There’s also no guarantee of success, even when you use assertive communication styles appropriately.

“Nothing on earth can stop the individual with the right mental attitude from achieving their goal; nothing on earth can help the individual with the wrong mental attitude” W.W. Ziege

How to Set the ISO For Canon EOS 5D Mark II

The technology of ISO settings on digital cameras replicates the rated speeds of the films of yesteryear. In very general terms, ISO is the sensitivity to light of the sensor in the same way that film speeds were more or less sensitive to light. But there are differences between film and digital sensors; specifically, as the sensitivity setting increases on a digital camera, the output of the sensor is also amplified. This was referred to as grain when we used high-speed films. So, although you have the option of increasing the ISO sensitivity at any point in shooting, the tradeoff in increased amplification or the accumulation of an excessive charge on the pixels is an increase in digital noise. And the result of digital noise is an overall loss of resolution and image quality.

Partly because the 5D Mark II has relatively large pixels on the sensor and because Canon has done a fine job of implementing advanced internal noise-reduction processing, the 5D Mark II stands out as the top performer even at high-sensitivity settings, particularly at exposure times of 30 seconds or less.

In this smart mode borrowed from point-and-shoots, Auto ISO controls the sensitivity of your sensor depending on the Shooting mode you ‘re in. In Full or Creative Auto, P, Tv, or Av, the camera selects between a 100-3200 ISO range. Switch to M, B, or add a Speedlite, and Auto ISO locks in at 400. Auto ISO is shown as an A on the LCD panel when selected and is located at the bottom of the scale by rotating the Main dial counterclockwise after pressing the ISO selection button.

ISO range and Custom Function options

The 5D Mark II offers a wide ISO range, including Auto and settings from 100 to 6400 in 1/3-stop increments or 1/2-stop increments, set by using the options in C.Fn I-01. The ISO range can be expanded to include ISO 50 (shown as L), 12800 (shown as H1), and an incredible 25600 (shown as H2) by setting C.Fn I-03 to On. Be aware that ISO 50 reduces the dynamic range in the highlights by approximately 1 stop, which makes this sensitivity less useful in high contrast light. ISO 50 can be useful in a studio setting by providing flexibility in aperture choice.

With the 5D Mark II, Canon offers an option to reduce or eliminate noise in long exposures.

Using the long-exposure noise-reduction option, available by using C.Fn II-01, noise is totally or virtually eliminated by processing in-camera that ‘s very capable but takes almost as long as the exposure to complete.

Setting the ISO and extended range ISO

To change the ISO setting on the 5D Mark II, follow these steps:

1. Press the ISO selection button above the LCD panel. The current ISO setting appears on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder.

2. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to set a higher sensitivity or counterclockwise to set a lower sensitivity. The camera displays the ISO settings as you turn the dial. If you have ISO expansion turned on by using C.Fn II-01, then ISO 50 is shown as L, ISO 12800 is shown as H1, and 25600 is shown as H2. The ISO option you select remains in effect until you change it again.

To turn on ISO expansion, follow these steps:

1. Press the Menu button and then tilt the Multi-controller until the Custom Function (orange) menu appears.

2. Press the Set button. The Custom Function screen appears, and the Custom Function number control in the top-right corner of the screen is activated.

3. Turn the Quick Control dial to set the C.Fn I number to 03 and then press the Set button. The ISO expansion control is activated.

4. Turn the Quick Control dial clockwise to select option 1: On and then press the Set button. ISO expansion remains turned on until you change it.

DIY Penis Rings for DIY Fun

In the world of male sex toys, the penis ring may well be the most popular and widely used. Even though dozens of manufactured rings are available, some men prefer to go with a homemade version. As long as attention is paid to ensure proper use and continued good penis health, homemade penis rings can be a fun DIY experience.

Why homemade?

There are a number of reasons why a man might prefer a DIY penis ring to one that can be purchased at a sex toy shop or online. Some of these reasons include:

1. Cost. There can be a wide variation in the cost for these special rings; a basic rubber model may be only a few dollars, but a more deluxe version with vibrating capability can easily go $20 or higher. Frugal shoppers may prefer a DIY method to save a few bucks to spend on a special date (or to stock up on condoms).

2. Embarrassment. Some men just don’t feel comfortable going into a store, standing in the sex toy aisles and then paying for a choice at the cashier. Even ordering online may be embarrassing for some men – or they may just not want to have it show up on their shared credit card statement.

3. Creativity. We are living in an increasingly DIY world; more and more, people like to individualize everything from their cell phone covers to their wardrobe choices, so why not their sex toys? A homemade ring gives a man the opportunity to let the toy say something special about him.

4. Trial run. It’s not a bad idea for a man to try out a ring with an inexpensive homemade version to see what he thinks before taking the plunge with the “pro” models.

What can one use?

A penis ring is a circular device typically slipped over the penis or (more usually) the penis and testicles. It restricts the flow of blood into and out of the penis; this can often increase both the firmness and the duration of a man’s erection.

Any object that can fit around the genitals and provides some tightness can be used. Some popular DIY options include:

  • Shoelaces or other strings. This is one of the easiest options. Simply tie up the genitals in the appropriate manner. Because it is tied, this option is easy to loosen or tighten as desired and usually easy to remove.
  • Rubber bands. These are also popular, although it’s usually a good idea to use a good lubricant when applying; otherwise, the rubber bands can be a bit painful when removing. There also is the risk that the rubber band may snap or become too tight.
  • Rubber bracelets. Many of the popular rubber bracelets found on the street are a perfect size for use as a penis ring. Again, proper lubrication is required.
  • Plumber’s rings. Many plumbing supply stores sell rubber or metal rings for various plumbing uses that are an appropriate size for genital rings. (Lubrication, of course, is a must.)

Use with care

As with any sex toy, appropriate care must be taken when using a penis ring. Sufficient lubrication is always a good idea. Other things to remember are:

  • Use only for a limited amount of time. Some men want to walk around with an erection for hours at a time, but this can cause damage to the penis. It’s best to use a ring when embarking on a sexual experience (solo or with a partner) and then to remove it as soon as the experience is over.
  • If there is any pain, discomfort or numbness that occurs with the ring, loosen or remove it altogether.
  • Consult a doctor before using with medications intended to treat erectile dysfunction.

A homemade penis ring can be an excellent introduction to this form of sex play; for some men, the ensuing sexual activity may result in a sore (if very happy) penis, so always use a high quality penis health cream (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) for after-care. The soreness of an overworked penis will respond readily to the benefits of a high end emollient such as shea butter and a natural hydrator like vitamin E. But make sure the cream also includes L-arginine, an important ingredient in helping to maintain proper penis blood flow.

Engine Mountings are What Hold Your Engine to the Car

In a vehicle, what powers the vehicle ahead is the engine. How will the engine provide all the power if it is not firmly held in place? This crucial job is done by the engine mountings that hold the power train in place while it generates all the power to help the vehicle cruise along the road. A lot of research is continuing taking place on this rather small but most significant part of any vehicle. The engines mountings hold the engine firmly to the main chassis of the vehicle, so preventing it from flying off once the accelerator is pressed in.

Engine mountings consist of two steel plates. These plates can bear the tremendous vibration of the vehicle as the acceleration increases. There is also a strong bolt that is screwed in to the plates – one end of the bolt is firmly sealed in the engine body, while the other end passes through the chassis into the second plate and is held in place with a lock nut. Between the two steel plates, is a thick rubber cushion known as bushing, which absorbs all the vibrations of the engine.

In fact, this is the primary shock absorber in the vehicle. As the engine revs up and moves the car forward, there is a huge power build up under the bonnet and the two mountings on the two sides of the engine holds this generator firmly in place. If there were, no engine mountings there would have been a huge noise under the bonnet, which would have been ripped off from the vehicle's body, and the engine would have lunged forward and knocked off. Such is the power of these mountings that it not only holds the engine in place, the huge generator is never allowed to vibrate endangering the other components in the vehicle. More the vibration, more would be the ensuing noise, and the wear and tear of the vehicle body would be faster than normal.

Engine mountings today are becoming more and more sophisticated with more difficult ingredients going into the hard steel to make it more load bearing and long lasting because the mounting is the last thing that any car owner would really like to worry about while driving. Mountings are made to last. They normally do not require a replacement through the life of the car. This of course depends on the type of roads and ruggedness that the vehicle has to pass through in the countryside.

Most American roads are sound and are made to allow fast movement of vehicles so in normal conditions cars are made to last a lifetime. However if you happen to live in the hilly terrains and have to commute between the city and your home every day that itself takes a lot of time, you would do better to keep a good check on the engine mountings along with all the other components of the vehicle. Get your car regularly checked by an expert mechanic who can locate cracks and the wearing away from the rubber bushings and advise replacements.

Why Liners Are Better Than Concrete For Your Crawl Space & Basement

History of Homes & Crawl Spaces

Since the beginning of home building, moisture under the home has been an issue. It was thought that putting multiple (cross ventilation) vents in to bring in fresh air and carry out the moist air was the answer, but that was not fixing the problem alone. Next the thought was that they would add plastic on top of the floor beneath the home and this would keep most of the moisture under it, but this proved to cause even more problems because, it never allowed the water or moisture under the plastic to dry, it was not sealed letting moisture, odor and gasses to enter the home and it promoted mold growth, causing huge problems with the home and homeowners Health.

Why Concrete Came About

Next they thought that the best way to seal the crawl space was pumping concrete in. This was the logical solution. Homeowners were sold on it by contractors because they would compare it to the garage floor, driveway or a slab. The difference is that the concrete pumped into a crawl space is not like that of a garage floor or slab. The concrete pumped into a crawl space has more water added to it so that the concrete can self level itself. What’s even worse is that when the concrete dries, it forms a chalky surface of silica dust that ends up in the home, not only making the home dusty; it is also a health concern. Choosing to have wet, porous concrete installed in the crawl space is like adding 300 lbs of water for every yard of concrete. Water is what you are trying to keep out! Water is Molds best friend! And where do you think that water goes as the concrete is drying? Since they put plastic down before they pump the concrete in, the water has only one place to go, UP! And when a wet concrete mix dries, it will crack allowing moisture, water, odors and gasses to enter the crawl space and then the home.

Crawl Space Liners

Pumping concrete may cosmetically look great, but installing a Zero Perm encapsulation system is the way to go. Zero Perm means that Zero water, moisture, odors or gasses can pass through (100% efficient). Most liners on the market are a 6, 12 or 20 mil and have a rating of.04 or.06 perms, this means that they are only 94% to 96% efficient.

Other advantages of Zero Perm encapsulation systems compared to concrete / others are:

– Qualify for “Cash for Caulkers” – big tax deductions come tax time

· 60mil thickness (keep out bugs & keep in heat)

· Stops Radon and other natural but deadly gasses from rising and endangering indoor air quality

· Moisture is mediated therefore mold has no food to grow with

· R-5 + insulation value

· Foil side reflects heat back into the crawl space and home while keeping the cold air out, saving on energy costs

· Permanently seals walls and floor

– Green Home Certified

What Is Considered A Junk Car?

The term is thrown around quite often, you hear it all the time in conversations or in anger for times when a car is not performing as well as it should, but what is actually considered a junk car? Many people picture an orange rusty old little car sitting on a lawn or in the driveway, I mean that was the first thing that used to come to my mind before I became so fondly familiar with this field. It never occurred to me that anything beyond that mental picture could be called, and let alone considered a junk car. Just some old parted out “thing” that had no purpose for anyone whatsoever, see I still can’t get that image out of my head, but in many peoples eyes a car can be considered junk because of numerous different reasons or conditions.

Besides the image ingrained in my mind from way, way back when, a car that simply doesn’t run anymore is considered junk by many as well. You could probably just imagine a person kicking the tire of their car because it just stopped working in the middle of a highway. It’s the car on the side of the road because the transmission started grinding and just broke down, or the radiator just blew because something caused the car to overheat, or the car in the driveway for some odd reason that just doesn’t seem to want to start. Also cars that have been in accidents can be considered junk cars too, especially when they appear to be beyond repair.

Generally, any car that has little or no value to its owner is considered a junk car. Whether the car won’t run, got wrecked in an accident, or the cost to fix a broken down car exceeds the owners perceived value of the car, it is considered to be a junk or salvage car. Besides peoples perceptions, many states have the power the declare a car junk, salvaged, rebuilt, etc as well. Normally this happens after a car has been in an accident and was sold by an insurance company to a dealer because the total amount of damage and cost for repairs exceeded 75% of the current value of the vehicle. Most people don’t know this, but when a car is bought from insurance companies it is considered totaled, and most if not all states will be declared junk and be branded with a junked, salvage, or rebuilt title, and to get a car with this type of title registered in many states requires a separate anti-theft inspection on top of all other state requirements which is not a fun task at all.

I hope you found this article useful and have discovered how many people, businesses, and even states can perceive a vehicle as being junk, salvaged, or rebuilt.

How to Specify an Overhead Bridge Crane

Specifying and getting the correct overhead bridge crane for your application requires upfront work but getting the right piece of material handling equipment for your facility will be worth the effort. Often putting a bridge crane into your new or existing building is an afterthought in the overall scope of work. Following is a list of questions to present to your architect, or crane sales person.

1. What type of crane do I need? If you are not familiar with the type of cranes below is a short list of the types. Each has their own advantages and disadvantages.

a. Workstation crane system. These type of cranes are typically used for lighter weights 2 tons and under although they are usually used in applications of 1 ton and under. Advantages include lightweight, pre-engineered, and relatively inexpensive. Disadvantages include limited capacities.

b. Top running single and double girder. These cranes are used in heavier applications. In a single girder application the trolley hoist runs on the bottom flange of the bridge beam. Advantages include reduced cost versus double girder and lighter wheel loading thus reducing building and/or runway costs. Disadvantages include less hook height possible, not as durable and trolley is in a suspended position versus running on top of bridge beams (on heavy applications premature beam wear has been noted).

For truly heavy duty designs then a double girder design should be considered. The trolley rides on top of two bridge beams on ASCE rail. This is a superior design for heavy applications such as steel service centers, concrete facilities, foundries, and aerospace to name a few. Advantages include superior durability and more options available such as walkways and cabs. Disadvantages include heavier wheel loads and cost.

c. Under running single and double girder design. Under running cranes are normally thought of as lighter duty than top running cranes. This is due to all of the running surfaces for the crane and trolley hoist are on the bottom flange of the beams and premature wear can occur with heavy duty cycles. Advantages include better hook coverage and it can be designed to hang from your building structure on new buildings. Disadvantages include typically lighter duty cycle.

d. Gantry Cranes. Gantry cranes can solve numerous issues when you are limited in building structure. They can be provided in numerous configurations and can run on one runway with the opposite end running on the floor, or be completely independent of your building. Some require special track or ASCE rail, and some can run on the floor trackless. Configurations include single girder and double girder.

Advantages include being independent from building structure in some configurations with disadvantages including moving legs on your shop floor, and not as mobile or fast as a crane on two runways.

2. What is the duty cycle of my crane? The duty cycle of your crane is as important as the type of crane you choose. CMAA has service classifications as follows:

Class A-standby or infrequent service

Class B-Light service

Class C-Moderate service

Class D-Heavy service

Class E-Severe service

Class F-Continuous severe service

Refer to CMAA Definitions of crane service class and load cycles as shown in Table 2.8-1 of CMAA Specification #70, Revised 1994 and Table 2.6-1 CMAA Specification #74, Revised 1994.

Numerous factors go into determining the correct crane class including weight of load, number of payloads at average load, how many lifts per hour, per shift, per day, travel distances of the hoist, trolley and bridge, speed required for each movement.

3. What type of power and control will my application require? Cranes can be provided as manual, air or electric powered. Cranes can also be a combination of manual and electric or manual and air. Depending on what you are lifting and what is available in your plant will help determine what you need.

Typically air is used in explosive environments or severe duty cycle applications at lighter capacities. Electric control is the most common and can be provided with simple single or two speed controls or precise variable frequency controls with control ratios up to 1000 to 1.

4. How will I control my crane? Cranes are generally controlled from a cab, pendant push button station or radio control. Depending on how you are going to use the crane will determine what type of control is best for your application.

5. Is there anything unusual about my application such as a special environment? If you have a special application such as molten metal, explosive environment, high heat, or some other special consideration then special care needs to take place in choosing your bridge crane.

Make sure and have a qualified crane professional help in specifying the correct bridge crane per applicable requirements.

These items will help you get started with choosing the

right piece of equipment for your facility. Using the above guideline as well as consulting with industry professionals will lead you to purchasing the proper bridge crane.

The Three Basic Types of Home Foundations

There are three basic types of foundations in use today in the construction of a home.

Slab Foundations

A slab foundation is a foundation built directly on the soil with no basement or crawl space. Slab foundations are common in areas where soil conditions are not suitable for a basement, and are the most common foundation found in warmer areas such as Florida, Arizona, California and Texas, or anywhere where the depth between the soil and stable under rock is very shallow. Slabs are the quickest and cheapest foundation because they require less labor, skill and materials cost. They consist of a concrete slab that is typically 6 to 8 inches thick. Embedded within the slab is a grid of supporting ribbed metal rods known as "rebar." Even in locations where foundations are prevalent, slab foundations are typically laid to serve as the base for structures like garages, pole barns, and sheds. Slabs are the least expensive of the three main foundation types but provide no storage or utility space, as the home actually sits directly on a large platform of solid concrete. Slabs have the disadvantage of being difficult and expensive to repair when they settle and crack, and plumbing lines that protrude from the soil upward through the concrete can also be expensive to repair. In areas where the underlying soil is thick or prone to excessive expansion and contracting, cables are embedded which can be tightened to provide better horizontal support and minimize the width of cracks.

Crawl Space (Pier and Beam) Foundations

A pier and beam foundation consistors of either vertical wood or concrete columns (piers) that support beams or floor joists above the ground. The areas between the soil and the bottom of the house floor is known as the crawl space. These foundations are built either at ground level or over a shallow excavation that varies in depth, but is commonly about 36 to 40 inches deep. The best crawl space foundations have a load-bearing concrete perimeter wall and concrete or steel piers, both having feet below the free line of the soil, along with a good barrier over the soil to keep moisture under control. Less expensive versions have no load-bearing perimeter walls, piers with shallow footings, and no moisture barrier at all over the soil. Crawl spaces that enclosed by a wall or by skirting must have vents on every side to allow air to circulate and help keep the soil dry under the home. These vents must be configured to prevent the entry of rodents and snakes. Crawl space foundations are most often used in areas where there is heavy clay content in the soil that can severely damage (crack) slab foundations, or in waterfront or flood PR building sites where the necessary floor height to prevent water penetration of the living space must be higher than a slab can normally provide. The primary advantages of crawl space foundations are that plumbing lines are readily accessible for repairs, and foundation settlement problems are easier and less expensive to correct than with slab foundations. A primary disadvantage occurs when these foundations are not properly maintained or are constructed without adequate ventilation, allowing water or pests to cause damage. Crawl space foundations without adequate insulation applied to the bottom of the house floor can be very energy inefficient in a cold climate.

Basement Foundations

A basement is a type of foundation which includes an accessible space between the soil and the bottom of the first floor of a home. This foundation provides living space below the home, below the ground elevation. It is basically a slab foundation with walls and a floor. Basements are most often built in cold weather climates such as the Northeast, Midwest and Rocky Mountains, and in places where the cost of excavation is not prohibitive. Basements start with a hole approximately 8 feet deep, however, some homeowners will opt for a 9 or 10 foot deep basement wall to increase height and volume of useable space. The floor and walls are built, then the house itself is built over that. Basement foundations have the advantage of providing useful space for utilities, mechanical systems, and storage not available in the previous two types of foundations. The primary disadvantage of basements is that because they are mostly below ground level, they are vulnerable to leakage, mold formation, and flooding. Basements in wet climates must always have a working drain and pump in the floor to combat flooding.

Tips On How To Care For Leather Bed Frames

It is often a challenge when instructions that come with furniture are not as situation specific and informative as owners would like them to be. Remember that maintenance for leather bed frames differ from caring for a wooden bed frame as well as classic beds. This guide serves to help owners in caring for any kind of real leather furniture may it be a bed frame or a sofa set.

Before starting the cleaning process, make sure you know what kind of leather furniture you have. This can usually be found in the tags that come with your new furniture or in the instruction manual. There are many types of leather used for furniture and not all are the same. To make sure you know exactly what kind of leather you have, it is best to do the search online as there is a process to test the leather to determine the its type.

Leather is very delicate material and extremely sensitive to heat. Make sure you place furniture away from fireplaces and direct sunlight. Neglecting to do so can dry and crack the surface of the leather. When you notice an area that is getting too dry than it normally would be, use petroleum jelly to cover the area and just wipe off the excess amount.

To clean your leather furniture use soap that is not too harsh and has a moisturizing element in them. Use a soft cloth with soap to wipe the surface to remove dirt. Do not put too much soap and do not rinse it with water. Leather absorbs water so it is important not to use water. Just wipe the soap off with a dry cloth and polish it after.

Always use a leather conditioner to maintain the glamour of your furniture. Good leather conditioners can be bought anywhere but make sure that you read what you are buying before purchasing them. For the best results use a leather conditioner that has been tried and tested. Rub the conditioner around and leave it in for some time so the leather can absorb it then buff after with a dry soft cloth.

Avoid spilling liquid on your furniture because leather may absorb it. A quick fix for liquid spills on leather furniture is to use a clean cloth to dab the wet area while being careful not to spread the liquid outwards. Dab inwards starting from the sides and keep dabbing until it is dry. Allow it to air dry.

Now butter, grease or oil stains are not to be panicked about. Just wipe it off with a dry cloth until everything is removed and leave it that way for a few days. In most cases, this will not be visible anymore by this time but if the stain is still obvious, use leather furniture cleaner to repair the area.

Ink stains can be removed by a simple piece of cotton or cotton bud that is soaked in alcohol or vinegar. Rub it over the stained area and that should remove the ink stains. However, if the stain would not come off, use an acetone-free nail polish remover to do the trick. Once done, use a hair dryer on low setting to dry the area.

Printed paraphernalia if left on your furniture can leave print marks. To remove this, use a can of aerosol hair spray on the affected area, spraying ever so slightly then wipe it off with soft cloth immediately.

A few reminders to ensuring you can avoid damaging your furniture are a few basic things that every individual already knows. Use your furniture appropriately. Do not sit on the foot end as it is not intended for this purpose and sitting on it can distort the shape of your furniture. Also, if you are a smoker, it is best to avoid leather furniture as cigarette burns on leather cannot be repaired.

Furniture of any kind such as a wooden bed frame, leather bed frames or classic beds are only a worthy investment if it can last. Buying new furniture due to neglect of the current set is a waste of money. So before purchasing any kind of furniture it is best to be aware on how it is maintained so you know if you can commit to caring for it. Furniture always needs love and care every so often and it is up to you to keep its beauty and durability as good as new.

Neoclassical and Rococo Styles After Baroque Period

Neoclassical and Rococo styles contrast to each other. Neoclassicism appeared in 1780s, following Rococo style. Neoclassicism was a reaction to fluffiness and elaboration of Rococo style. These two movements gave rise after Baroque, one of the most impressive periods in the history of art.

Rococo movement gave rise against Baroque at the end of the reign of the Sun King, Louis XIV. Baroque artists used geometrical shapes and aimed to give a dramatic and theatrical effect. It was complex and highly elaborated. Large scale designs were one of the basic features of Baroque. Scenes from Bible were used as Baroque themes. Baroque artists aimed to evoke a feeling of respect and fear and to emphasize the power of the Sun King. When the king died, the court artists moved away from formal Baroque art to a lighter and playful style, which was Rococo.

If we assume Baroque as a bottle of champagne, Rococo can be assumed as the foam on the champagne. Rococo art has some stylistic features of Baroque such as the complex forms, but the themes the Rococo artists are interested in were lighter. They did not deal with serious issues such as religious, moral or political themes. Instead, they focused on lively physical world, social life of aristocracy, personal amusement, romance and pleasure.Rococo style was characterized by asymmetry, curved lines and ornaments. Mostly, soft, pastel colors were used in Rococo style in contrast to dark colors of Baroque period. On the contrary to magnificent architecture and huge marble statues of Baroque period, Rococo style expressed itself mostly in small-scale interior designs, furniture, tapestries, porcelains and paintings. It is generally known as a decorative art style.

At the end of eighteenth century, Neoclassicism appeared as a reaction to the elaboration, lightness and bourgeoisie of Rococo style and focused on proportional and simple forms, virtual themes and Roman antiquity. Neoclassical artists cared for technical perfection, harmony and balance. Geometrical forms and columns were the main features of Neoclassical style. Sharp colors were used in contrast to pale colors of Rococo. Neoclassicism was a strong movement in literature and music as well as in architecture and visual arts.

Interest in Roman antiquity aroused with the archeological studies of the period. Discovery of antique ruins stimulated an admiration of civilization, art and glories of Greek and Roman era. The taste of art totally changed and ideal beauty of antique art was favored rather than nature itself. The neoclassical artists were inspired by noble simplicity of Greek and Roman figures. Meanwhile, it was the period of revolutionary movements and ancient Greek democracy was highly appreciated in this period. After serving to French Revolution, Neoclassicism had been the official art of the French empire when Napoleon took over power and aimed to show the magnificence of the empire with heroic figures. Neoclassical themes were based on virtues such as heroism, courage, honor, justice, devotion to duty and self-sacrifice. Neoclassicism dominated until the end of nineteenth century.

Neuromuscular Physical Therapy – Megan’s Case Study

In studying Megan’s case history and symptoms, key moments and events stand out in her time line of pain and dysfunction. Nine years ago, after the birth of her second child, was the first time that Megan noticed that her left foot was slightly wider and longer than her right foot. The timing of this is relevant as during the course of her pregnancy a hormone called relaxin would have been released into her system to loosen the ligaments of her pelvis in anticipation of childbirth. However, relaxin can also loosen ligaments elsewhere in the body and a longer and wider left foot would indicate the collapse of the main arches of the foot due to ligament laxity. This is one of the turning points in Megan’s history that has had a detrimental effect on her health ever since. The relaxed ligaments may never have fully recovered their full stabilizing strength and when she developed a tired aching sensation in her left medial arch a few years later it was probably as a result of this. A fallen arch will lead to over pronation and this will in turn put the tibialis anterior and possibly tibialis posterior muscles under undue stress as they try to stabilize and counteract over pronation. Stressed or overwhelmed muscles will form trigger points (TPs) within them and for tibialis anterior this can refer pain anteromedially as it passes the retinaculum. TPs in the tibialis posterior will refer pain into the sole/arch of the foot. Over pronation will lead to shortened peroneus longus which will further inhibit the tibialis muscles which will further exacerbate the problem in a continuous vicious circle.

The whiplash injury experienced last year would also add to Megan’s problems and since then she has experienced occasional headaches and neck stiffness. The whiplash injury almost certainly would have affected her sub occipital muscles, sternocleidomastoids (SCM), scalene and other stabilizers of the neck and spine. This whiplash would lead to improper neck movement which in turn would lead to TPs in the SCM and possibly the longus colli on one side (left) possibly due to the leg length discrepancy. TPs here would leave these muscles in a shortened state resulting in rotation of the head to the right hand side. If the longus colli is involved it result in kinetic chain problems and affect the peroneals on the lateral aspect of the lower limb further exacerbating the fallen arch. With the peroneus longus muscles in such an unhealthy state it is possible that it could have an effect on the sacrotuberous ligament of the pelvis and its ability to hold the sacrum in position. Megan states that one day last year she felt a twinge in her right sacroiliac joint while assisting an obese client up from a supine position. She experienced locking/jamming and diffuse soft tissue pain in QLs, multifidis and shooting pain into her hip. The fact that she was locked into torso flexion to the right suggests that the QLs went into spasm on the right side after insult and as we find out later her sacral base is an inch high on the right and there is posterior rotation of the right ilium with resultant postural imbalance whereby 2/3rd of Megan’s weight is pressing down on her right side. This extra load and postural imbalance has led to shooting pain in the trochanteric region and referred pain on the lateral aspect of the thigh due to TPs in the weakened gluteus medius and iliotibial band issues due to the over worked tensor fasciae latae.

With all this pain getting to unbearable levels, Megan turned to prescription drugs, codeine based painkillers, antidepressants, Zoloft, anti inflammatory tablets all of which would have exacerbated her problems through time by building up toxins in her system. She was also whilst under the influence of painkillers probably injuring tissue by doing activities that she would not have done if she had her natural alarm system of pain stopping her. The elastic support belt and the taping would have made the situation worse by encouraging atrophy of supporting muscle tissue.

Megan’s right shoulder is lower than the left possibly due to shortened latissimus dorsi pulling on the humerus and inhibiting upper trapezius and hypertrophy of the pectoralis minor muscle pulling the scapula forward and down.

As we consider Megan’s problems, symptoms, and case history, we can appreciate that she is suffering abject pain and dysfunction up and down her functional kinetic chain. From the pain in the plantar fasciae, spastic peroneus longus, inhibited tibialis, medially rotated tibia, medial knee pain, lateral thigh pain, trochanteric pain, lumbo – sacral pelvic pain and dysfunction, posteriorally rotated right ilium, lower left anterior superior iliac spine, 2/3rd weight imbalance to right hand side, lower back pain with QLs and multifidis in a shortened state, latissimus dorsi, neck extensors and flexors all giving problems we have to ask the question as to which functional kinetic chain we are dealing with. In my opinion, considering all areas involved, it would be the spiral oblique chain.

Megan would have to be informed that her treatment will be extensive and prolonged because some issues have been there for a while and would involve neural retraining for the dysfunction and imbalances present.

  • Medical screening.
  • Case history.
  • Postural assessment.
  • ROM testing / neural testing.
  • All shortened and restricted muscles would have to be relaxed / lengthened with TP therapy, METs, positional release / strain- counterstrain.
  • Inhibited muscles would have to be fired and strengthened with tapotement, METs and strengthening exercises.
  • Any areas of bind would need STR, cross fiber friction etc.
  • A consideration would be referral for PCIs to address the pronating left foot initially with a plan to strengthen that area long term.
  • Megan’s nutrition was not mentioned but I would be referring her to a specialist in that field to ensure that she has no nutritional deficiencies that would hinder the healing process.