This is the second in a series of three articles warning home buyers and sellers about the main tricks estate agents use to get hold of your money. These articles are aimed at helping you avoid being fleeced by your estate agent.
Selling to Buyers
Although we all know that agents are acting for sellers, many are experts in befriending buyers and getting them to feel that they are on our side, working to help us get the best property at the best price. If you're buying a property you should be on your guard against several sales traps including the block, stock-shifting, pumping up the price, the spider's web and the sealed-bid scam.
1. The Block
Of all estate agents' tricks, the block is probably the one people least expect. Most of us absorb agents want to sell properties to us and so it does not happen to us that they may be interested in preventing us from buying. There are several reasons an agent might try to block us from buying a property. The most obvious is that they've planned a slash-and-grab for themselves or one of their contacts and so do not want us to disrupt their plans by buying at a higher price than they're offering. Another reason may be that the agent has a buyer who is also taking out a mortgage through that agent or an associate mortgage agent. The agent can earn almost as much commission from flogging the mortgage as from selling the property and so may be less interested helping a buyer with cash or who has organized their own mortgage. In both these cases, an agent may withhold our offers from a seller or, if they do pass on our offers, they may discourage the seller from accepting them by suggesting that we may not be in a good position to buy. An investigation by one journalist found that of six offers made to estate agents, only two were passed on to sellers.
2. The stock-shift
Buyers may be looking for their ideal home, but agents can only sell the properties they have on their books. Moreover, they have to shift their stock if they are to meet their sales targets. Without an agent is lucky enough to have properties that perfectly match buyers' requirements, the only way they can get their monthly bonus is by convincing buyers to take whatever they've got to sell. So the art of a successful agent is to influence buyers to compromise and take what is available rather than hold out for their dream property.
There are various ways of getting buyers to compromise. The easiest is to use fear to push you into making an offer. An agent may tell you that they have the perfect property, that this has just come on the market, but that you'll have to move quickly before someone else snaps it up. Or if a buyer is hesitating, the agent will use the phantom buyer trick and claim that several other buyers are also interested. To add a little color the agent may also say that one of the phantom buyers is a cash buyer and therefore in a much better position than you. Or an agent may arrange for several buyers to view a property at the same time. This is intended to make buyers believe that there is competition for the property and can lead to buyers being infected by auction-fever – always a great way to spur them into action and push the price up. Typically an agent will say that prices in the area are going up so if you do not buy quickly, you'll end up paying a lot more in a few months time. And there's the sandwich – here the agent shows a buyer three properties with the first and the third being either unsuitable or out of their range and the middle one being close to what they want. This helps create the impression in the buyer's mind that there are few properties fitting their requirements and makes them more open to being fobbed off with something which is reasonably close to what they were looking for.
3. The price pump
Research has repeatedly shown that around 70% of buyers spend on average about 20% more for their homes than they had originally intended. So, whatever a buyer may say to an agent about their price limit, the agent already knows from experience that the large majority of buyers can be squeezed well above this if shown a property they like. The simplest way for the agent to push the price up is to claim that they already have several offers on a property, so if you're interested, you're going to have to put in a fairly juicy bid. Or else an agent may use the build-up – show you four or five properties, starting with the cheapest and moving on to the most expensive. Most buyers, when seeing a property they really like, will stretch their financial limit rather than letting the property go to someone else. Another tactic is to show you a home that is way above your financial limit. In comparison, any subsequent properties will seem reasonably priced. Or the agent could use the sneer – take you to an expensive property and then suggest that it's a pity that you can not stretch your budget to buy such a perfect home. This is particularly easy if the agent can use buyer's partner or family to pile on the emotional pressure.
4. The spider's web
In addition to sellers and property developers, agents have a wide web of people who can help them increase their earnings. For example, if an agent convinces a buyer to use a particular mortgage advisor or supposedly independent financial adviser, on an average loan the advisor will pocket about £ 2,000 and the agent £ 1,000 to £ 1,500. Even if a buyer has finance available, an agent may tell buyers that 'it's company policy' to ensure that all buyers get the best loan deals available and so, either you want it or not, the agent makes an appointment for you to meet a mortgage salesman with business connections to the agency.
Similarly, an agent will usually get generous kickbacks if they pass buyers onto lawyers and surveyors that they regularly work with. An added advantage of using lawyers and surveyors known to the agent is that they will tend to overlook problems with properties to enable sales to go through. In any town or even areas of a city, most agents, lawyers and surveyors will have worked together in the past and none will want to upset any of the others. So even when a buyer believes their lawyer and surveyor are representing their interests, it's likely that the lawyer and surveyor will be more sensitive about maintaining continuing a good relationship with the estate agent rather than worrying about the interests of a buyer that they will probably never deal with again. When I began to question both my lawyer and surveyor about things they had apparently 'overlooked', the lawyer paid me £ 6,000 and the surveyor £ 2,500 – this may have been because they were mostly nice people and particularly liked me; or it may have been because they realized their moral little arrangement with the estate agent had been rumbled and so were keen to avoid any possibly embarrassing statements. Any buyer who gets caught in the spider's web of the agent's business associates may find it a very expensive experience.
5. Sealed-bid scams
If there are multiple buyers chasing a property, the seller and agent may ask all the potential purchasers to submit their 'best and final' offer in an envelope by a certain date and time with the understanding that the highest bid will be accepted. This is a wonderful way of getting the price up as buyers' competitive natures can cloud their common sense. But the sealed bid process is open to abuse. For a start, the seller does not have to accept the highest offer – a slightly lower cash offer may be preferred to a higher offer from someone who needs time to arrange finance. Also, once the bids are opened, the agent can easily go back to the bidder with the deepest pockets and suggest that if they increase their offer by a certain amount, then the property is their. If they think a potential buyer has access to more money, the agent can also lie about the level of the highest bid or invent a phantom bid in order to push the price higher. Or, if they want to do a slash-and-grab to get the property for themselves, a developer, a family member or friend, then an agent may withhold some bids.