The presence of high sugar levels characteristic of diabetes mellitus in the blood leads to formation of plaques in almost all blood vessels of the body. Because of this, the function of blood vessels of supplying blood to different organs of the body is impeded – thus, the manifestation of the various systemic complications of the disease. Because of this, diabetes treatment is complex and varied.
Usually, the recommended treatment is geared toward solving a particular complication, therefore, differs from person to person. The below items are the possible diabetes treatment options geared at remedying, if not delaying, the fatal effects of a particular complication:
1) Reduced or absence of insulin production. Oral anti-diabetic drugs such as sulfonylurea are initially prescribed. When they fail to control blood sugar levels, insulin replacement therapy is initiated. In severe cases, oral and IRT is combined with oral drugs taken in the morning and insulin injected at bedtime.
2) Stroke. Blood glucose levels are routinely checked. Fast acting carbohydrate sources are avoided because they contribute to stroke. Aspirin is usually indicated and patients are monitored for bleeding.
3) Heart attack. Blood pressure is routinely monitored. Drugs such as oral nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers are prescribed.
4) Death of tissues. Integrity of tissues is checked daily for presence of lesions and pulse as well as changes in skin color. Keeping the skin clean with the use of mild antiseptics is recommended as part of the daily hygiene measures. Antibiotics are also prescribed.
5) Retinopathy. Activities that increase eye pressure are avoided such as lifting of heavy weights, bending down, and others. For treatment of the disease, laser therapy is indicated to prevent further growth of new blood vessels, thereby, preventing hemorrhage.
6) Nephropathy. Intake of sodium and protein is reduced. Drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme for diabetes treatment are prescribed for reduction of blood pressure, which leads to death of renal cells.