According to recent estimates, almost a third of all schools in England and Wales are faith schools, and almost a quarter of all children are educated in a faith school. These types of schools were a key plank in the labor government's strategy for education, and the Coalition has indicated that it will continue to increase the amount of educational services which are provided by religious groups.
There are three types of faith schools: voluntary aided, voluntary controlled and independent religious schools, and different rules apply to each of these.
Voluntary Controlled Faith Schools
These are schools which are funded by the state and where the state is responsible for the day-to-day management and control of the school. The buildings and land are owned by a religious group, and that religious group has the right to appoint the governors and often the head teacher, but other teachers are employed by the local education authority. The appointment of these teachers is subject to the same conditions as teachers in regular state schools and there is no requirement that the teachers profess the same faith as the religious group which established the school.
In voluntary controlled faith schools, the admissions policy is set and administrated by the local education authority. This means that these types of schools are usually open to all students and there is no requirement that the student has an attachment to the faith held by the religious group which established the school.
Voluntary Aided Faith Schools
These are schools which are funded by the state but are managed and controlled by a religious group. The religious group owns the land and buildings, appoints the governors of the school and selects and appoints teachers. All teachers are directly employed by the religious group, and it is legal for the religious group to require teachers to profess the same faith and to discipline staff for breaking religious principals or acting in a way which is inconsistent with the schools ethos.
In voluntary aided faith schools, the admissions policy is determined and enforced by the governors of the school. This means that very often prospective students are required to demonstrate some adherence to the religious principals on which the school is founded.
Independent Faith Schools
These are schools which are entirely funded and controlled by a religious group. The religious group appoints the governors and employees all of the staff as well as setting the admissions policy. Independent faith schools often require both teachers and students to be professing members of a particular religious sect or denomination, and can discipline both staff and students if they act in a way which is inconsistent with the schools ethos and religious values.
Teaching in Faith and Religious Schools
Both voluntary aided and voluntary controlled faith schools are required to teach the national curriculum, and students will cover the same subjects as pupils in other state maintained schools. The only exception to this is in the case of religious education, where faith schools are allowed to set their own curriculum which will usually focus on the religious beliefs held by the charity or church which founded the school. Volunteer aided and voluntary controlled schools are also entitled to insist that religious education is taught by a professing member of a particular faith or denomination.
There is no requirement for independent faith schools to teach the national curriculum and these schools will set their own subjects and studies.
For a variety or reasons, ranging from smaller class sizes to higher standards of discipline many faith schools have better league table results than other state run schools and this makes them very desirable. Many parents will consider legal challenges to admission criteria to try and get their children a place.