The Impacts and Effects of Specified Laws and Regulations on a Given Firm

Every country has its own regulations, laws and regulatory bodies or agencies governing the manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution of products within the country. Laws and regulations are purposely made for human beings and other institutions as a guide to bring order and sanity into the society. Because of this, it is likely that their application will impact upon the plans of firms; their effects on a given firm are also inevitable.

An attempt would be made to discuss specified regulations and laws with particular reference to aviation and airline, environmental regulations, stock market regulations, banking regulations, research (and development) co-operation regulations, stock options regulations, labour regulations, intellectual property and social security regulations industry by industry and effects on the plans of firms where necessary.

For example, the Airport High Density Rule (HDR) in the aviation industry was considered as controversial. This rule requires that no more than 155 flights take off and land at O’Hare Airport and at three other major airports in the country between 6.45am and 9.15p.m.That restriction was expected to keep number of airline operations at O’Hare during that timeframe and also to keep the amount of noise generated by aircraft. When this failed, a law was proposed to abolish the rule.

On the tobacco industry, for example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), an agency of the US government published a rule on tobacco in the federal register to regulate the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to children and adolescents based on the health consequences of tobacco use. The rule specifies that anyone younger than 18years of age should not be sold cigarette and smokeless tobacco. The rule further requires manufacturers, distributors, and retailers to comply with certain conditions regarding the sale, distribution and promotion of tobacco products. Thus, vending machines and self-service displays were banned; billboards within 1,000feet of schools and playgrounds were also prohibited. This might have adversely affected firms who engage in such businesses.

In financial terms, however, the rule is expected to produce significant health-related benefits, ranging between $28 billion to $43 billion each year based on the premise that many adolescents would not start smoking because of the rule; with the FDA estimating that the rule will impose one-time costs of around $187 million.

With firms of all sizes, access to capital is of great importance especially when it comes to start-ups.Laws and regulations may affect the amount of investment available either from foreign or local investors or financial institutions. The most important regulations on capital are usually set by governments. These rules or regulations mainly affect the development of venture capital even though they are meant to guard against defaults. In the UK for example, the introduction of the business angel networks by the government to co-ordinate the flow of SME investment capital is proving successful-a positive effect. Also due to lack of access to pension fund capital in the European Union there is a limited institutional investment. In the case of the United States, most capital venture firms prefer to make investments larger than $3 million, while most entrepreneurs are unable to obtain more than $250 000 from own source and close relations.

The impact of regulations on plans of firms especially those who are technology-based limits the venture capital funding for these firms and affect what they can or intend to do and eventually limiting their capabilities to employ new hands thereby affecting the socio-economic fibre of the society. For example, some government regulations even specifies the type of investors eligible to fund venture capital because of the high risks for certain classes of investors.

In some countries, most firms’ source of financing is through the stock markets. In the UK for example apart from the London Stock Exchange, there is Alternative Investment market( AIM); purposely established to assist SMEs. Quite often, the rules on the registration, listing and IPO in terms of size, age ,profit and management set up are too costly and unnecessarily complicated for small and start-ups. This is known to hamper access to finance for most firms and invariably making it impossible for certain firms to pursue their plans and invariably their growth needs. Ghana Sugar Estate is an epitome of firms which are denied needed funding as a result of controversial restrictions on listing to the Ghana Stock Exchange. The effects of this is seen in the overgrown plantations of the newly formed sugarcane company in the Eastern Region of Ghana, loss of about £2,000 a day in revenue to the company and loss of jobs, and raw materials for most industries which depend on processed sugarcane for their work. The impact on the firms planning process is that funds will not be available to pay and maintain most of its qualified personnel.

With technology-based firms like which need constant innovations, source of financing is key to their planning and so any regulations or laws meant to provide adequate source(s) of finance is welcomed.

The NYSE has come under intense scrutiny to reform as there had been spates of irregularities in the exchange in terms of trading practices. Up till 2001, stocks traded in fractions of eighths and sixteenths i.e. 12.5 cents and 6.25cents respectively enabling a specialist buying a stock to sell to make at least 12.5cents.That has narrowed to a mere penny. This is as a result of decimalisation; a rule set up to change trading from fractions to decimals.Decimalisation reduces spread. The largest specialist firm LaBranche & Co., has been affected with a reduction of its market capitalization being halved to $474million in the past year. The effect of this regulation on LaBranche’s plans could be felt in its budget as funds might not be available. It will also have effect on its investors.

Notwithstanding this, the impact of this decimalization rule is felt on NYSE which in the long term can tear the Exchange apart thereby affecting the very people the rule seeks to eliminate that is the brokers and specialists on the floor. The effect on NYSE’s plan is to start perform its 1.4b shares daily electronically. It is believed that if NYSE does not match its rivals like NASDAQ on automatic trading, investors can take their trades elsewhere and that means a lost of huge annual fees in revenue to NYSE and possibly lost of jobs.

Until recently when it was announced on the TV a proposed credit regulation to improve transparency, the credit or loans market has been shrouded with secrecy that most firms were paying too much interest which affects their operations. Even though to the large firms the unavailability of the transparent credit regulation seem to benefit them i.e. their profit, on the whole it costs the SMEs to the extent that the US government has introduced new types of regulations that requires banks to report their lending to SMEs which are ranked and publicised by the government as a guide for potential lenders. In addition, in the United States, reforms to reduce paperwork, speed up loan approval and reduce costs have led a number of commercial banks to create new departments specialising in the origination and sale of small business advice and other guaranteed loans. At the moment some 60% of SMEs now rely on some form of bank credit.

In Ghana, the government has put in place certain regulations which are believed to be in favour of small firms like First Allied Loans and Savings Bank. This company posted a profit before tax of about $2m, a lot of money for a new bank. The impact on the plans of this firm is the recruitment of the best human resources in the industry culminating in a position to compete favourably with old and big banks in the Ghanaian banking industry.

However ,after deregulation in Britain, competition between banks and stock markets and among banks rose with loan increases to SMEs.Nationwide Building Society was one of such banks to benefit from deregulation. It can now compete favourably with other high street banks. Nationwide is creating more employment as a result of the deregulation law. The impact on the firm is that profit has increased and its members are satisfied and thus growth is imminent.

In a world nowadays with improved, challenging and competitive immense technology innovation and know-how, new businesses spring up in this sector as a result of its dynamism. It is also another sector that has a strong interest in research and development in co-operation. These technology-based firms or enterprises, however, are incapable to engage themselves for in-house research activities. To this end, therefore, there are as well numerous regulations most popularly the antitrust law. Known also as the Sherman Act, this is meant to prevent monopoly. Microsoft was accused of using its position in the software market to maintain its monopoly in operating systems. It was also accused also accused of using its operating system monopoly power to dominate the browser market and that Microsoft bundled its browser into its operating system to try to force Netscape out of the browser market. By antitrust standards, a judge gave an extraordinary ruling describing Microsoft’s dominance of the PC operating system market as “applications barrier to entry” and by that Microsoft held its prices substantially above the competitive level. The effects of this law on the plans of Microsoft is that consumers will now have more choice and so Microsoft will have to come out with more innovations to attract more customers and maintain its position in the industry now that there seem to become a competitive market place where all kinds of innovation can thrive. Regulators now appear more powerful and Microsoft will have to reconsider other related laws when planning. The impact on Microsoft’s plans in the long run will in my opinion be positive bringing about more improvements in the PC operating market.

Another area with regulations of concern is intellectual property laws or intellectual property rights (IPR).The reader’s digest word power dictionary defines intellectual property law or rights (IPR) as ”an intangible property that is the result of creativity, e.g. patents or copyrights.” Just as research findings are commercially traded by the owners or universities, patents and copyrights are also traded. Although, the filing of patents is generally known to be inefficient, slow and costly with the system usually in favour of larger firms, its absence could have brought about chaos in industry. For example a French court ruled against internet search powerhouse Google an IPR case for linking a trade marked search terms and ordered Google to stop. The impact on Google is yet to become significant but it is obvious that it immediately sent a message to them to review their plans on their IPO which will in effect affect their business plans leading indirectly to a fall in profit as a result of the effect of the restriction on the search services they provide.

It is widely accepted amongst academics and executives in the business world that, the main assets of most firms is their personnel in other word their human resources. There are a number of employee-related regulations and laws in terms of labour, on recruitment and hiring of workers; social security with regard to retirements, pensions and health benefits; and the newly introduced stock options to compensate employee.

The costs and benefits of such regulations are enormous considering the fact that employee-related issues are somewhat at the fabric of the organisation.In many countries the regulations ranging from fee-charging recruitment services, working hours to social benefits limit the freedom of business executives and entrepreneurs to operate usually in terms of hiring and retaining qualified workers. Some regulations on labour also restrict the recruitment and dismissal of personnel, payment of overtime and use of part-time and temporary workers. Coyne (1998) writes that The European Union Directive on the Organization of Working Time which establishes a maximum 48-hour working week including overtime is considered by smaller firms to be interpreted in an inflexible way thereby restricting their ability to make best use of their labour resources. These really affect the firms because they are unable to recruit the best of personnel they might be looking for which could indirectly affect its operation(plans) as most banks choose to deal with firms with most well- qualified personnel. However, to those on the other end of the spectrum, the limitation on the maximum hour regulation is of great benefit and has had positive impact on the plans of the firm. London United Busways Ltd. for instance has recently recorded its lowest accident rates as a result of the ceiling of EU maximum driving hours a day (and week as well) thereby preventing tired but money-seeking drivers from driving. The company can now rely on the services of recruiting agencies to cover for the extra hours. The long-term benefit to LUB is that it can employ few workers, give them overtime to cover the needed hours and save some costs on pensions and sick pay to workers. The impact on the plans of LUB is that customers’ confidence in the company will increase and enhances its corporate social responsibility stance.

It must be emphasized here that, the introduction of stock options, which are a new and valuable approach to compensate employees, are prohibitive, excessively regulated or heavily taxed in a number of OECD countries.However, as a result of securities rules governing it, the issuance of stock incentives and fiscal rules for their taxation makes it popular with most US small or start-up firms. It is widely used by firms like Yahoo and Google in the early stages to recruit and or keep employees in the company. Even though research into this area is ongoing, it is claimed that they have helped in the high growth of the IT and software sector at the Silicon Valley with particular reference to Google which has managed to keep its best human resources over the years, the impact on the firm is even on the brand image and attributes that it has acquired for itself giving it a competitive advantage over the likes in the IT sector and also generating employment for a lot of new ambitious graduates.

Certainly health insurance market is another area which is of great concern to most governments as a result of sandals and fraud.Recent studies into health insurance regulations have concluded that state regulation of insurance issue, renewal and rating in general either reduces health insurance coverage or, on net, has no impact on coverage. Some of these regulations, however, presume that regulations may change the risk distribution of the insured population, raising coverage among high-risk groups and individuals but lowering coverage among low-risk groups and individuals, with no significant impact on overall coverage. The studies also assumed that insurance markets are competitive, and therefore, that higher price is an inevitable effect of regulation. Smaller insurers with increasing returns to scale may respond differently to regulation than larger insurers with relatively constant returns to scale.

The effects and impacts of laws and regulations on the plans of businesses cannot be overemphasized as the above indicate. Recent insurance scandal in Britain’s oldest insurance company, Equitable, nearly caused its demise.Equitable’s crisis is alleged to have started as a result of loopholes in regulation governing British insurance industry when it emerged that it did not have sufficient funds to honour guaranteed annuity policies to a large group of policyholders. The immediate impact on the Equitable insurance was that a court ruled that it closes all new businesses meaning a fall in services leading to huge debts and also lost of trust and market position to the insurance community and public as a whole which will inevitably force the mutual company to change its business plans and operations.

Throwing more light on this article, a brief look of recent stories and reports might be appropriate.

An Oxfam report in Metro of February 9, 2004 edition, reports that some companies particularly Tesco, Taco Bell and Wal-mart were accused of exploiting workers especially women in the name of lower production costs with unpaid overtime, low wages and unhealthy conditions as a result of lack of regulations.

In the UK, the recent spate of financial scandals leading to loss of pensions for retired workers has prompted the government to put forward a bill in parliament to avoid future loss of pension funds to retired workers.

Another story filed by Georgina Littlejohn in Metro of February, 23, 2004, alleges that UK’s crumbling infrastructure is holding back British businesses. It is claimed that new Government measures announced in July 2004 to help boost transport efficiency in the road and rail sectors have failed to be an effective solution resulting in loss of “man-hours” with 37% saying that lost time has a significant impact on their businesses. This costs the UK firms at least 15 billion pounds each year with each firm losing an average of 27,000 pounds.

This is a pointer to the fact that regulations could also be costly to businesses and firms and can negatively or otherwise affect their business plans in the long run.

Nevertheless, it is important to say here that the empirical results presented here, rest on few observations of laws and regulations and it is suggested that further studies must be conducted to confirm these findings and opinions.

As the interests of business do not always coincide with the broader interests of society, governments might still have to intervene with laws and regulations to achieve goals other than profits.

Physical Therapist Assistant Jobs Guide

The current job market is flooded with people seeking physical therapist assistant jobs. Fitness centers, gyms, doctors and wellness clinicians are now employing physical therapists to assist their clients with basic health care issues. A typical day revolves around accident victims and those who have been disabled due to a certain fatal incident. Patients suffering from chronic back pain, heart diseases, head injuries as well as fractures are the ones that need help from physical therapists. Some therapists also work with handicapped children and adults. A therapist will help regain strength in muscles and joints that have been immobile for long durations. The assistant works under the therapist and is responsible for the progress of all the patients that are under the therapists care.

In order to secure a position in the various openings for this type of job one must have a formal certification or degree. A masters or a doctor degree that the assistant needs to secure a job revolves around biology, physiology, chemistry and physics. There are a number of specialized courses that one can choose from that enhance the applicant's profile. Those acquiring a Masters degree will invest 2 to 2.5 years to get their degree while doctorate programs take 3 years.

All those who are serious about taking up practitioners as physical therapist assistants must also clear the national and state level licenses to get their permits to practice.

The number of physical therapist assistant jobs is increasing by the day as the awareness of health care and wellness is increasing. Hospitals and privatized practitioners have specially equipped rooms to help patients with disabilities.

Most physical therapists work 40 hours a week however some may need to work in the morning, late evenings or even over the weekends in order to meet the client's needs. Statistics have proved that 27% of physical therapists work only part time while there is full time therapists work more than one job. Therapists also work under a doctor in a clinic and freelance in their spare time. Schools and rehab centers also employ physical therapists. This is another arena that therapists can seek employment.

The average annual earnings for physical therapists is $ 72,000. On the higher end a therapist can earn over $ 100,000 and $ 50,000 on the lower end.

Some of the main job descriptions of a physical therapists day include exercising with patients, massages, paraffin baths, traction, ultra sound therapy and electrical stimulation. The assistant helps the patients to prepare for their therapy. They assist the patients to the right rooms and also help the therapist by cleaning the room and preparing for the treatment that needs to be administrated.

As an assistant you will learn the different methods of healing and working with patients. If you are new to the health care industry then working under a therapist will help you gain experience. Look at this period as your internship. Go the extra mile to carry out jobs beyond your job description as it will help you to gain experience and will improve your personal and professional profile.

The Most Important Piece of Furniture in Your Home – Choosing the Right Mattress For You

Mattress Buying Guide

Your bed is the most important piece of furniture in your home. The average person needs between 6 to 8 hours of sleep a night. If you have an uncomfortable mattress, then that time can lead to restless nights, uncomfortable back problems, and fatigue throughout the day.

Choosing the right mattress for the job can be an overwhelming task. How do you know what to buy? Using this guide, you will discover the different mattress features to help you find the right mattress so you can sleep through the night.

A Mattresss Top For Every Occasion.

The comfort options when choosing your mattress are endless. Do you prefer a firm, supportive sleep surface? Or do you like to feel like you’re sleeping on a cloud? Spring Air offers many different mattress tops to match your comfort levels:

  • Firm Support Mattresses – A firm support mattresses offers more tightly packed coils and more surface support than other mattresses. This combination gives the mattress a supportive sleep surface that is ideal for anyone who suffers from back pain.
  • Plush Mattresses – A plush mattresses uses multiple layers of foam and fabric material to give the mattress a soft, supportive sleep surface. Plush top mattresses also offer enhanced edge support to help prevent roll off.
  • Pillow Top Mattresses – A pillow top mattress uses layers of foam or fabric material that helps cradle the body and prevent roll off. Plush materials woven in the top of the mattress give the pillow top mattresses superior comfort.
  • Euro Top Mattresses – Euro Top mattresses are built with an extra top layer that is sewn to the top of the mattress and filled with either memory foam or plush material. This means you get a full comfortable sleep surface that helps prevent a person from rolling off the edge.

Mattresses of All Sizes

Mattresses come in five different sizes; Twin, Full, Queen, King, or California King. Before deciding on a mattress size, measure the room and make sure that you have plenty of room around all sides of where you are going to put the bed. Refer to the list below for the different mattress sizes.

  • Twin Size Mattresses are ideal for a child’s room. They are small enough to give your child plenty of play room, and large enough to give them plenty of space to sleep.
  • Full Size Mattresses work best in a teenager’s room, guest room, or dorm room. They are slightly bigger than a twin size bed, while remaining small enough to fit in smaller rooms.
  • Queen Size Mattresses are the middle ground for mattress sizes. They are perfect for smaller master bedrooms or apartments.
  • King Size Mattresses are built with two sleepers in mind, and work best in homes with large master bedrooms.
  • California King Size Mattresses are narrower and taller than a King Size Mattresses. They are perfect for abnormally shaped rooms, and recommended for large master bedrooms.

Start Sleeping Better!

After you select the perfect mattress, you will start to notice a difference in the way you sleep. Mattresses with proper ergonomic and lumbar support let you sleep through the night without the tossing and turning that causes restless sleep. This means that you will have less back pain, wake up feeling refreshed, and won’t feel tired in the middle of the afternoon! You deserve better sleep, and we have the right mattress to help you accomplish that goal!

Specialty Merchandise Corporation Review Exploring Its Potential

There are many people who dream of being freed from the bondage of financial crisis. For more than sixty years now, Specialty Merchandise Corporation has been able to partner with thousands of members to make the vision of Abe Levine come true. The company was popularized by late-night infomercials and business magazine advertisements. Specialty Merchandise Corporation made it possible for members to buy their items at discounted prices. This allowed the members to resell the products for a profit. The company is considered a drop-shipping company where the products are shipped directly to the customers of the members. This arrangement lets vendors rest easy on inventory and processing orders for delivery. This is a business opportunity that can generate significant revenue when taken seriously.

A quick look on the company

The products and services of Specialty Merchandise Corporation are exclusive to its members. The company is considered a drop-shipping wholesaler. They have an automated warehouse in Fontana, California that houses an inventory of over 3,000 products. The storage and shipping are all done here. Their items vary in nature. You may find items for home decor, gift items, collectibles, toys and much more.

The membership is not really that expensive. A member is given two payment options that were designed to fit the budget of any aspiring member. The initial fee will give the member access to all of the products sold by Specialty Merchandise Corporation. The member will be given different product catalogs where he could choose the items that will be sold in his business. These catalogs can be customized to accommodate the name or logo of the retailer’s business.

The startup kit of the new member will include materials that may help him start up his own business. The membership entitles the member to tutorials from a business coach who can help him choose a program that will be most effective in selling his products. The materials that will be given by Specialty Merchandise Corporation can be customized as well.

Members will be given relevant information on how to effectively sell the products of their choice. The products can be sold through online auction sites, flea markets, direct mail, home parties and even through home shopping television. Specialty Merchandise Corporation is capable of providing support for all of these programs.

Specialty Merchandise Corporation as an income generator

Specialty Merchandise Corporation is a business venture and it does not promise to be an overnight get rich scheme plan. Just like any other regular job, the output of income will depend upon the input of the vendor. This means that the more time and hard-work the member puts into his business, then the more that he will generate income. With the regular jobs, an employee will not get paid if he is absent from work. Being a partner of Specialty Merchandise Corporation works the same way. Members will keep getting paid just as long as they are able to sell products. People who have the talent to sell have the potential to earn big income with Specialty Merchandise Corporation. Those who made money selling Specialty Merchandise Corporation products were the ones who were able to tap into their target market and were able to research their competition.

Eating Habits – Do You Seek Comfort in Food?

At times we eat for the right reasons. When we are hungry is the first example that comes to mind. As simple as it sounds, you may be surprised by how often people eat when they think they are hungry when it is a craving instead.

Since we are naturally inclined to make mistakes, there are also times where we eat for the wrong reasons. An extreme craving is worth noting. More importantly, the most anxious moments are when we eat out of boredom or worse; when we seek comfort in food. We have all been there, so you are not alone. But if you are still guilty of doing this from time to time, it is time to make some changes.

Emotional eating is not healthy. It is dangerous. You begin to lose control the moment you start. Predictably, those who eat for emotional reasons also tend to develop health problems. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are two common consequences of emotional eating since it often leads to weight gain and high blood sugar readings.

If you seek comfort in food, it is time to stop. To be fair, there is a chance you do this unknowingly. Reflect on your eating habits and where your health currently stands. If there is anything in regards to the former hard to admit and anything about your health that is concerning, there is a good chance you are guilty of seeking comfort in food to some extent. To stop this behavior, you need to realize food is not primarily a source of pleasure. While it can be pleasing to eat, especially when you are hungry, you must eat for sustenance to provide your body with what it needs to function. You can of course still eat for pleasure. You don’t have to forego your favorite foods. But you do have to stop unrestrained eating and learn to moderate your portions.

Moreover, many people eat for emotional reasons because food acts as a source of relief. You can change this by doing other things more productive and beneficial to your health.

Are you stressed? Unwind by reading a good novel before bed. Feeling a burden? Exercise it off, and follow-up your workout with a satisfying, but sensible meal. What you must stop is mindless eating, because it raises your blood sugar and expands your waistline.

Do not eat when you are not hungry. A good test for this is to ask yourself if you could eat an apple whenever you think about food. If the answer is no or if you would prefer something else, it is because you are not hungry enough, or are just looking for an emotional reward.

Lastly, it should help you to drink a glass of water each time you think about eating. Chronic thirst can lead you to eat for comfort when you should be hydrating yourself instead.

It’s Wildfire Season, Are You Ready?

It’s time to start thinking about wildfire season and getting prepared!

On July 3, 2012 our family was headed to Warm River, Idaho, for a family reunion. Due to her work schedule our 18 year old daughter remained at home.

Just after 2pm I received a frantic phone call from her saying she could see a large fire burning in the mountains behind our home and she wanted to know what she should do if she had to evacuate. My first reaction was, how bad could it be? She snapped a picture and sent it to me and yes her alarm was justified.

This wildfire, known as the Quail Hollow fire, consumed almost 2900 acres and caused the evacuation of 500 homes. At the time, it was the highest priority fire burning in the United States due to the perfect fire conditions and the dense population it was threatening.

I am ashamed to say that we had never discussed this as a family. So now, hundreds of miles away, we were putting a plan in place. We told our daughter what she needed to do in the event our home was in danger and, most importantly, that if she was asked to evacuate, she would do so immediately.

We let neighbors know that she was home. I did have emergency survival kits and items in storage ready for a quick evacuation, but we never discussed the plan formally as a family. That was a big mistake. For some reason, I had always imagined that I would be the one at home and able to put our plan into action.

We were not one of the 500 homes evacuated, but I know several who were. In talking to them, they had very little time to evacuate due to the swiftness of the fire. It was very fast moving due to drought conditions and the wind. Many only had time to grab a personal item or two and leave.

Even though we were sure our daughter was safe and far enough away from the fire, we should have been better prepared. We were just plain lucky that day.

Our plan was flawed in a couple ways: (1) I left out a step by not communicating the details of the plan to my family, and (2) it lacked contingency plans for unexpected events. As Robert Burns wrote “Even the best laid plans of mice or men go astray.” Things will not always happen as we plan and planning for multiple scenarios is crucial.

So what did I learn from this experience? You NEED to have a plan. Why?

  • Emergencies happen without notice, especially wildfires.
  • Your family may not all be in one place, as was the case for us.
  • So everyone knows what to do in an emergency and where the supplies are.
  • So you are not planning during the emergency – not the best idea.

Where should one begin?

  • Recognize what your risk is for wildfires
  • Create a plan
  • Create or restock your emergency kits
  • Communicate and practice your plan


Depending on where you live your risk of wildfires will vary. Understanding the risks help you formulate a plan. If you are at risk, then find out

  • How your local government plans to handle a wildfire situation
  • How will your local government will communicate with the community,
  • What are the evacuation routes (sometimes roads are closed down to facilitate emergency vehicles).

Knowing the inherent risks can help you minimize some of the risks for you, your family and your property.

Maintaining your home:

  • Keep gutters clear
  • Remove fire prone materials from around your house (i.e. woodpiles)
  • Landscape properly so that fire prone landscaping is away from important structures.

This can be the difference between receiving fire damage or not.


Communication is the key to any successful plan.

  • Decide how you will communicate with one another, especially in the event that normal communication lines are unavailable.
  • Predetermine common meeting places if you are separated. Depending on the circumstances, it may be a meeting spot outside your home, local school, church, or a relative or friend’s home in another town.
  • Collect contact information for your family, friends and other important or pertinent emergency contact numbers. Make sure everyone has a copy of this information.
  • Have access to a radio or other types of communication and know where you need to go to get alerts. Keeping yourself informed will help you exercise your plan.
  • Incorporate contingency plans for different scenarios.
    • When you need to evacuate
    • If you are trapped
    • Maybe you need to stay put where you are
    • Your family members are in different locations
  • Involve your all members of your family in the planning


Like I mentioned earlier, wildfires happen quickly and unexpectedly, often leaving you no time to put a bag together. Having an emergency survival kit that is ready and easy to grab is a must have in an emergency evacuation situation. A kit that can provide food, water and supplies for 72 hours is highly recommended. Depending on the magnitude of the emergency it can take emergency service groups some time to get in and provide services, especially if they are not able to immediately access the area.

You can purchase an emergency survival kit or create your own 72 hour kit. Here is a recommended supply list. Feel free to customize based on your own personal needs and your plan of action.

Food and Water to last for 72 Hours:

  • 1 Gallon of water per person per day, for washing, drinking and cooking.
  • Non-perishable foods. (MRE’s, survival food bars or canned food work great in a kit). Items that do not need cooking are best. If you use freeze-dried foods you will need to increase your water supply.
  • Emergency water filters and purification supplies. This may not be needed but it will extend your water which could be very important during the hotter temperatures of the wildfire season.

Cooking, Heating, and Lighting supplies:

  • Cooking: Utensils, Cups and Dishes. Portable cook stove if your food needs cooking. I still recommend food that does not need cooking.
  • Warmth: Emergency Blanket, Hand Warmers, Sleeping Bag, Tent.
  • Lighting: Battery or Hand Crank Operated Flashlight (LED Flashlights last longer than conventional bulbs), Glow Sticks.
  • Extra Batteries.

First Aid Kit and other Special Needs:

  • First Aid Kit
  • Pet, Child, and Elderly care needs
  • Feminine Hygiene products

Medications and Prescriptions:

  • Enough medicine to last enough time until you can get some more, especially in the event your home is destroyed.

Emergency Weather Radios:

  • An Emergency Radio preferably a hand crank radio is very important to keep you up to date on the latest news
  • Two-way radios are especially helpful for communication


  • It is always good to have cash on hand in small denominations
  • Credit Card
  • Phone Card

Clothes and Bedding:

  • Sleeping bags, Blankets
  • An extra change of clothes including additional layering items if located in colder climate or gets cold at night

Important Documents: (not all are a necessity but certainly nice to have)

  • Your Disaster Plan for each emergency survival kit
  • Listing of compiled emergency contact information; this can also include possible evacuation routes and predetermined gathering locations
  • Copy of Identification papers (license, passport)
  • Insurance information
  • Maps, GPS, or travel information in case of evacuation

Sanitation Supplies:

Too often we neglect the importance of hygiene and sanitation in an emergency.

  • Portable Toilet
  • Hygiene cleansing wipes
  • Toothpaste and Toothbrushes
  • Toilet Paper
  • Soap and Towel

It is best to store emergency survival kits and additional supplies in wheeled plastic containers. This will keep your gear more organized and easier to carry. Always start with the basics of what you will need and over time add to your kits.

Communicate and Practice the Plan

This is a crucial step as we found out. If your family does not know what the plan consists of, what their part is or where your supplies are none of the previous steps matter. Every person needs to know:

  • What each person’s responsibilities are
  • How each person is going to work together
  • Where all your emergency survival kits are stored
  • What and how to use all the items in your emergency survival kit
  • Practice as much of the plan as you possibly can, including contingency plans. Practicing will also show you flaws or inconsistencies in your plan.

Wildfires can strike without warning. Assess your risk for wildfire and take the necessary steps to protect yourself, your family, your pets, and your property. You will never regret having taken the time to prepare. Discuss the plan during family meetings. You may even want to have a fire safety week or month for your family during which you build the plan, make or buy the kits, and practice what to do in a wildfire emergency.

Quick, Easy and Delicious Appetizer Recipes to Stay Healthy

RECIPES – Appetizers


These recipes are only guides that should supplement your doctor-prescribed diets. Please consult your doctor / physician to get their advice if these food guides are suitable for you to follow.



TIPS : Most if not all of these recipes only take minutes to prepare.


These recipes are quick and easy to prepare. Most of it will only take minutes to prepare and well suited for home parties or even for any meal of the day. If you have a full time job and really can not spend too much time preparing food, these recipes will definitely help you to have a healthy meal on the table for everyone to enjoy.

This is the first of a series of food recipes that will help you prepare good food for you and your family OR even if you are single and preparing healthy food for yourself. Do take note that most of the food listed here are diabetic-friendly so they're pretty healthy to begin with.

If you are looking to supplement your fitness program whether its to balance up your diet or keeping the excess pounds off, these recipes are especially suitable. And as mentioned in the disclaimer on the cover page, if you have special medical needs, do consult your doctor first before trying out any of these recipes so that you have the assurance that it will not mess up your diet program.

Thank you for your time in reading through this PREFACE.


Veggie quesadillas


1/2 cup diced red bell pepper

1/2 cup canned black beans, rinsed and drained

1/2 cup no-added-salt canned corn, drained

1 green onion, chopped

1/8 teaspoon cumin

1/8 teaspoon garlic salt

Cooking spray

4 eight-inch whole wheat tortillas

1 cup shredded 2% Colby-Monterey Jack cheese blend


In a bowl, stir together red pepper, black beans, corn, onion, cumin, and garlic salt; Set. Heat a large, nonstick skillet over medium heat. Spray warm skillet with cooking spray and place one tortilla flat in the skillet. After 1 minute, use a large spatula to flip the tortilla over. Sprinkle even with half of the cheese, then with half of the vegetable mixture. Top with a second tortilla. Cover the skillet with a lid and cook 30 seconds, or until the cheese begins to melt. Carefully flip quesadilla over with the large spatula, cover, and continue cooking an additional minute. Transfer to a serving dish and slice into 6 pie-shaped pieces. Cover to keep warm or place in a warm oven. Repeat process to make second quesadilla. Serve quesadillas with Sassy salsa if desired.

Yield: 12 pieces. Serving size: 2 pieces.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 180, Carbohydrates: 27 g, Protein: 9 g, Fat: 4 g, Saturated Fat: 2 g, Sodium: 368 mg, Fiber: 3 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 1/2 starch, 1 nonstarchy vegetable, 1 fat. Carbohydrate choices: 2.

Veggie pizza


Cooking spray

1 tablespoon cornmeal

1 can (10 ounces) refrigerated pizza crust dough

2 teaspoons olive oil

1 cup shredded part-skim mozzarella cheese

3 plum tomatoes, thinly sliced

1 small onion, thinly sliced ​​and separated into rings

3 large mushrooms, thinly sliced

Half a 13.75-ounce can artichoke hearts, drained and sliced

Half a 14-ounce can hearts of palm, drained and sliced

1/2 cup pickled banana pepper rings

2 ounces provolone cheese, shredded or sliced ​​into thin strips

1/2 teaspoon Italian seasoning


Preheat oven to 400 ° F. Coat a 13-inch pizza pan or baking stone with cooking spray and sprinkle evenly with cornmeal. Place pizza dough on pan and, starting at center, press dough out with hands to cover pan. Using your fingertips or a pastry brush, coat dough lightly with olive oil. Bake 5-8 minutes, or until light golden. Remove crust from the oven and sprinkle evenly with mozzarella cheese. Cover with tomato slices, onion rings, mushrooms, artichoke hearts, hearts of palm, and banana pepper rings. Top with provolone cheese and sprinkle with Italian seasoning. Return pizza to the oven and bake 17-22 minutes more, or until crust is deep golden.

Yield: 13-inch pizza. Serving size: 1/8 of pizza.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 207, Carbohydrates: 25 g, Protein: 11 g, Fat: 7 g, Saturated Fat: 3 g, Sodium: 622 mg, Fiber: 3 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch, 1 1/2 vegetable, 1 medium-fat meat, 1/2 fat. Carbohydrate choices: 2.

Crunchy Balsamic and Bleu Cheese Veggie Pocket


1/2 six-inch diameter whole wheat pita pocket

1 leaf green leaf lettuce

1/4 cup shredded purple cabbage

1 canned whole artichoke heart, quartered

2 teaspoons finely diced purple onion

1 tablespoon finely diced cucumber

2 tablespoons finely chopped tomato

1 tablespoon crumbled bleu cheese

2 teaspoons commercial lite balsamic vinaigrette


Wrap outside of pita pocket in foil or plastic wrap before filling (to prevent the pocket from splitting while stuffing). Place lettuce leaf in pocket, then fill with cage, artichoke, onion, cucumber, and tomato. Sprinkle with bleu cheese and drizzle evenly with vinaigrette.

Yield: 1 pocket. Serving size: 1 pocket.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 167, Carbohydrates: 29 g, Protein: 6 g, Fat: 3 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Sodium: 462 mg, Fiber: 4 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 1/2 starch, 1 non-starchy vegetable, 1/2 fat. Carbohydrate choices: 2.

Spicy Nuts


1/2 cup whole almonds

1/2 cup pecan halves

1/2 cup walnut halves

1 teaspoon canola oil

1/2 teaspoon cumin

1/2 teaspoon curry powder

1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper

Dash of white pepper


Preheat oven to 350 ° F. Toss the nuts with oil in a large bowl. In a small bowl, combine the spices. Add spices to the nuts, stirring until the nuts are covered evenly. Spread the nuts on a baking tray in a single layer. Bake the nuts for 10 to 12 minutes. Remove from oven and cool before serving.

Yield: 1 1/2 cups. Serving size: 1/4 cup.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 96, Carbohydrates: 3 g, Protein: 2 g, Fat: 9 g, Saturated Fat: <1 g, Sodium: 1 mg, Fiber: 1 g

Exchanges per serving: 2 fat.

Stuffed tomatillos


10 tomatillos or large cherry tomatoes (1 1/2 inches in diameter)

1/3 cup shredded, low-fat Cheddar cheese

1/3 cup frozen whole kernel corn, thawed

3 ounces Neufchâtel cheese, softened

1 green onion, sliced

1/2 teaspoon ground red chilies

Chopped parsley


Cut the tops off the tomatillos or cherry tomatoes and scoop out the center. Mix together cheese, corn, Neufchâtel cheese, onions, and ground red chilies. Stuff each tomatillo or cherry tomato with cheese mixture. Cover and refrigerate until serving time. Garnish with chopped parsley.

Yield: 5 servings. Serving size: 2 tomatillos.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 90, Carbohydrates: 7 g, Protein: 4 g, Fat: 5 g, Saturated Fat: 3 g, Sodium: 117 mg, Fiber: 2 g

Exchanges per serving: 1/2 starch, 1 fat. Carbohydrate choices: 1/2.

Simple fiber-up snack mix


1/2 17-ounce box Cracklin 'Oat Bran cereal

1/2 cup mixed dried berries (strawberries, cranberries, cherries, blueberries)

1/2 cup natural pitted dates, chopped

1/3 cup broken walnut pieces


Combine all ingredients in a large, zip-top bag and shake gently to mix. Store in zip-top bag or airtight container. For best quality, eat within 4-5 days (after 4-5 days, cereal softens some moisture in the fruit).

Yield: 4 3/4 cups. Serving size: 1/2 cup.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 190, Carbohydrates: 31 g, Protein: 3 g, Fat: 6 g, Saturated Fat: 2 g, Sodium: 78 mg, Fiber: 5 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch, 1 fruit, 1 fat. Carbohydrate choices: 2.

Baked lime chili corn tortilla chips


12 6-inch corn tortillas

3 tablespoons lime juice

1 teaspoon ground cumin

1 teaspoon chili powder


Preheat oven to 350 ° F. With clean scissors, cut each tortilla into 8 triangles and arrange in single layer on baking sheet. Pour lime juice into mister, and spray each wedge lightly. Combine cumin and chili powder in sprinkler, and sprinkle each wedge. Bake for about 7 minutes. Remove from oven and turn each wedge over. Remist with lime juice, and resprinkle with cumin and chili powder. Bake for an additional 8 minutes until the chips are crisp but not brown. Serve with salsa.

Yield: 10 servings. Serving size: 10 chips.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 78, Carbohydrates: 16 g, Protein: 2 g, Fat: 1 g, Saturated Fat: 0 g, Sodium: 59 mg, Fiber: 2 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch. Carbohydrate choices: 1.

Apple-cinnamon popcorn crunch


2 cups unsweetened dried apple rings, chopped

10 cups air-popped popcorn

1/2 cup walnuts, chopped

4 tablespoons margarine, melted (not reduced-fat margarine)

1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract

2 tablespoons light brown sugar

1 teaspoon cinnamon


Preheat oven to 250 ° F. Place chopped apples in a single layer in a 9 "x 13" baking pan and bake 20 minutes. Remove from oven and stir in popcorn and nuts. Set aside. In a small bowl, whisk together melted margarine, vanilla extract, brown sugar, and cinnamon. Drizzle even over popcorn mixture and toss well to coat. Bake for 30 minutes, quickly opening the oven door and stirring every 10 minutes. Watch carefully during the last 10 minutes and remove from the oven if apples begin to turn dark brown. (Apples should be crisp, but not overcooked.) Pour onto waxed paper to cool for 30 minutes. Store in an airtight container.

Yield: 11 cups. Serving size: 1 cup.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 144, Carbohydrates: 16 g, Protein: 2 g, Fat: 8 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Sodium: 59 mg, Fiber: 2 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch, 1 1/2 fat.

Carbohydrate choices: 1.

Tangy apple slices


3 tablespoons balsamic vinegar

1 tablespoon packed Splenda Brown Sugar Blend for Baking

1/8 teaspoon coarse ground black pepper (or more to taste)

2 Granny Smith or Red Delicious apples (about 6 ounces each), cored and thinly sliced


In a small bowl, whisk together vinegar, Splenda, and pepper; Stir until Splenda dissolves. Place apple slices in a large bowl, drizzle with dressing, and toss to coat well. This dish can be enjoyed alone or on top of salad greens (arugula is especially good) sprinkled with blue cheese and toasted walnuts.

Yield: 3 1/2 cups. Serving size: 1 cup.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 81, Carbohydrates: 20 g, Protein: <1g, Fat: 0 g, Saturated Fat: 0 g, Cholesterol: 0 mg, Sodium: 4 mg, Fiber: 2 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 fruit, 1/2 other carbohydrate.

Carbohydrate choices: 1 1/2.

Quick homemade logo salsa


1 can (10 ounces) diced tomatoes with green chilies, drained

1 fresh jalapeño, seeded and cut into chunks (more or less to taste)

1 small onion, cut into chunks

Half a 4 1/2-ounce can chopped green chilies, drained

1/3 cup loosely packed fresh cilantro leaves, chopped

1 teaspoon (or 1 clove) minced garlic

Juice of half a small lime


In a food processor, combined dipped tomatoes and green chilies with jalapeño and onion. Process until desired texture is reached. Transfer to a bowl and stir in green chilies, cilantro, garlic, and lime juice. Refrigerating for at least one hour will allow flavors to blend.

Yield: 2 cups. Serving size: 1/4 cup.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 14, Carbohydrates: 3 g, Protein: <1 g, Fat: <1 g, Saturated Fat: <1 g, Cholesterol: 0 mg, Sodium: 174 mg, Fiber: 1

Exchanges per serving: Free.

Hot bean and corn salsa


1/3 cup fresh-squeezed lime juice (the juice of approximately 3-4 small limes; do not use lime juice concentrate)

1 teaspoon (or 1 clove) crushed garlic

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon black pepper

1 can (15 ounces) black beans, rinsed and drained

1 can (15 ounces) pinto beans, rinsed and drained

1 can (15 1/4 ounces) no-salt-added white corn, drained

1 can (4 1/2 ounces) chopped green chilies, drained

1-2 fresh jalapeños, seeded and very finely minced (more or less to taste)

3 medium tomatoes, seeded and finely chopped

1 cup loosely packed, fresh cilantro leaves, chopped

2 ripe avocados, finely chopped


In a small bowl, whisk together lime juice, garlic, salt, and black pepper. Place remaining ingredients in a large bowl; Stir gently to combine. Add dressing from small bowl and toss gently to coat well. Cover and refrigerate at least 1 hour to allow flavors to blend. Stir gently and serve with baked tortilla chips or tortillas or enjoy as a side dish or salad.

Yield: 8 cups. Serving size: 1/2 cup.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 120, Carbohydrates: 17 g, Protein: 4 g, Fat: 4 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 0 mg, Sodium: 198 mg, Fiber: 6 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch, 1 fat.

Carbohydrate choices: 1.

Shrimp spring rolls with tangy citrus sauce


4 eight-inch circular spring roll skins

Warm water

2 ounces rice sticks

1 small (6-inch) cucumber

8 small shrimp (50- to 60-per-pound size), cooked and peeled

2 green onions

Handful of fresh cilantro sprigs

1/4 cup prepared duck sauce

1 teaspoon minced ginger

1 tablespoon unsweetened or fresh orange juice


Dipping sauce:

In a large pie pan or shallow casserole dish, place 1 spring roll skin so it lies flat. Pour in sufficient warm water to cover the skin by at least 1/2 inch. Allow it to soften about 2 minutes. Carefully transfer the skin, allowing excess water to drip off, to a serving plate. Repeat with each skin.

Fill a 2-quart saucepan three-quarters full of water, place over medium heat, and bring to a boil. Add the rice sticks and cook approximately 3-5 minutes until softened. Drain well and allow to cool. Peel cucumber and cut off 1/2 inch from each end. Cut cucumber in half horizontally. Cut each half lengthwise into strips, about 1/2 inch thick; You will need 16 cucumber strips total for the rolls. (Store any extra cucumber in refrigerator if desired or discard.) Cut each shrimp in half, lengthwise, and set aside. Remove root end from green onions with a sharp knife. Cut a 4-inch segment from the white part of each onion, and split in half lengthwise. Combine all sauce ingredients in a small bowl and mix with a fork or small whisk.

To make the spring rolls, start by placing approximately 1/4 cup drained rice sticks in a column in the center of each skin. Place 2 pieces of cut cucumber on either side of the rice sticks (4 pieces total per skin). Top rice sticks with 4 halves of shrimp, evenly spaced, and top with half an onion segment and 2 sprigs of fresh cilantro. Beginning at one edge, parallel to the column of filling, fold the skin over the column. Fold the top and bottom of the skin towards the middle to enclose the filling. Roll from the center toward the final edge of the skin, using your fingers to center the filling as you roll. Serve immediately at room temperature, or chill if desired. Serve with dipping sauce.

Yield: 4 servings. Serving size: 1 shrimp roll with about 1 tablespoon sauce.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 99, Carbohydrates: 15 g, Protein: 3 g, Fat: 3 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 18 mg, Sodium: 37 mg, Fiber: 1 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch, 1/2 fat.

Carbohydrate choices: 1.

Cheese cookies


1/2 cup margarine labeled no trans or saturated fat, melted

1 teaspoon Tabasco sauce

1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

1 egg

2 cups all-purpose flour

3/4 teaspoon salt

1 teaspoon ground cayenne pepper (or more if you like hot cookies)

8 ounces reduced-fat sharp Cheddar cheese, grated

1 cup Uncle Sam cereal

1 cup Rice Krispies


Combine the margarine, Tabasco sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and egg in a small bowl. Mix the flour, salt, cayenne pepper, and cheese in a large bowl. Add the margarine mixture to the dry ingredients and mix with your hands to form a dough. Add the cereals and continue mixing with your hands. Roll the dough into 1-inch balls and place on an ungreased cookie sheet. Carefully flatten the balls with a fork to make lines on the tops of the cookies. Bake at 350 ° F for 14-16 minutes or until cookies are crunchy. Slip a spatula underneath the cookies to prevent them from sticking to the pan but allow the cookies to cool on the pan.

Yield: 24 servings. Serving size: 2 cookies.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 110, Carbohydrates: 11 g, Protein: 4 g, Fat: 5 g, Saturated Fat: 2 g, Cholesterol: 10 mg, Sodium: 170 mg, Fiber: 1 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 starch, 1 fat.

Carbohydrate choices: 1.

Mediterranean Deviled Eggs


1/4 cup finely diced cucumber

1/4 cup finely diced tomato

2 teaspoons fresh lemon juice

1/8 teaspoon salt

6 hard-cooked eggs, peeled and sliced ​​in half lengthwise

1/3 cup roasted garlic or any flavor hummus

Chopped fresh parsley (optional)


Combine cucumber, tomato, lemon juice, and salt in small bowl; Gently mix.

Remove yolks from eggs; Discard. Spoon 1 heaping teaspoon hummus into each egg half. Top with 1/2 teaspoon cucumber-tomato mixture and parsley, if desired. Serve immediately.

Yield: 12 servings. Serving size: about 2 filled egg halves.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 49, Carbohydrates: 3 g, Protein: 4 g, Fat: 3 g, Saturated Fat: 0 g, Cholesterol: 0 mg, Sodium: 157 mg, Fiber: 1 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 meat.

Spicy Shrimp Appetizers


2 quarts water

1 pound shelled and cooked medium frozen shrimp (21-24 count)

1/4 cup no-added-salt tomato paste

1/2 teaspoon minced garlic

1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper

1 teaspoon olive oil

1 teaspoon basil

1/4 teaspoon black pepper

2-3 drops hot pepper sauce

24 toothpicks

3 leaf lettuce leaves for presentation


Bring 2 quarts of water to a boil in a large saucepan over medium heat. Add frozen shrimp and cook approximately 3 minutes until shrimp is heated through. Drain.

In a small bowl, whisk together tomato paste, garlic, crushed red pepper, olive oil, basil, black pepper, and hot sauce. Pour mixture into a large skillet and heat at a low heat, stirring constantly. Add hot, cooked shrimp and stir to coat with sauce. Place 1 toothpick in each shrimp. Serve immediately on a large plate covered with 3 lettuce leaves.

Yield: 8 servings. Serving size: about 3 shrimp.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 87, Carbohydrates: 2 g, Protein: 14 g, Fat: 2 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 112 mg, Sodium: 65 mg, Fiber: 0 g

Exchanges per serving: 2 lean meat.

Shrimp and Watermelon Ceviche


1 pound medium raw shrimp, peeled and deveined

1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons lime juice, divided

1 cup finely chopped seedless watermelon

1/2 cup finely chopped jicama

1/2 cup finely chopped red onion

1/2 cup chopped fresh cilantro

1 jalapeño pepper, * minced

56 water crackers


Remove tails from shrimp; Discard. Chop shrimp into small pieces.

Combine shrimp and 1/2 cup lime juice in medium bowl. Cover and refrigerate 1 hour or until shrimp are pink and opaque. Drain; Discard juice.

Meanwhile, combine watermelon, jicama, onion, cilantro, jalapeño, and remaining 2 tablespoons lime juice in large bowl. Gently stir in shrimp. Cover and refrigerate at least 30 minutes to allow flavors to develop.

Serve on or with water crackers.

Note: While the shrimp are not traditionally cooked, the citric acid from the lime juice "cooks" the shrimp while they are marinating.

* Note: Jalapeño peppers can sting and irritate the skin, so wear rubber gloves when handling peppers and do not touch your eyes.

Yield: 28 servings. Serving size: 2 topped crackers.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 44, Carbohydrates: 7 g, Protein: 3 g, Fat: 1 g, Saturated Fat: 0 g, Cholesterol: 20 mg, Sodium: 132 mg, Fiber: 1 g

Exchanges per serving: 1/2 Bread / Starch.

Mediterranean Tuna Cups


3 English cucumbers

2/3 cup plain nonfat Greek yogurt

1/3 cup coarsely chopped pitted Kalamata olives

1/3 cup finely chopped red onion

2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice

1/4 teaspoon garlic salt

2 cans (5 ounces each) solid white albacore tuna in water, drained and flaked


Cut ends off of each cucumber; Cut each cucumber into 10 slices. Scoop out cucumber slices with a rounded 1/2 teaspoon, leaving thick shell.

Stir yogurt, olives, onion, lemon juice, and garlic in large bowl until smooth and well blended. Stir in tuna.

Spoon about 1 tablespoon tuna salad into each cucumber cup. Serve immediately.

Yield: 10 servings. Serving size: 2 tuna cups.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 32, Carbohydrates: 2 g, Protein: 5 g, Fat: 1 g, Saturated Fat: 0 g, Cholesterol: 8 mg, Sodium: 102 mg, Fiber: 1 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 Meat.

Sweet & Spicy Whole Grain Snack Mix


1 egg white

1/4 cup sugar substitute *

1 tablespoon soy sauce

1/4 teaspoon ground red pepper

2 cups spoon-size shredded wheat cereal

2 cups wheat cereal squares

2 cups unsalted mini-pretzel twists

1/4 cup dry-roasted unsalted peanuts


Preheat oven to 300 ° F. Coat large nonstick baking pan with nonstick cooking spray; Set.

Place egg white in large bowl; Whisk until foamy. Whisk in sugar substitute, soy sauce, and red pepper.

Combine cereals, pretzels, and peanuts in medium bowl. Add to egg white mixture; Toss to coat. Spread in even layer on prepared pan; Bake 30 minutes, stirring every 10 minutes, until crispy. Cool completely on pan on wire rack. Store in airtight container for up to 1 week.

* Note: This recipe was tested with sucralose-based sugar substitute.

Yield: 10 servings. Serving size: 1/2 cup snack mix.

Nutrition Facts Per Serving:

Calories: 127, Carbohydrates: 24 g, Protein: 4 g, Fat: 3 g, Saturated Fat: 1 g, Cholesterol: 0 mg, Sodium: 216 mg, Fiber: 3 g

Exchanges per serving: 1 1/2 Bread / Starch, 1/2 Fat.


The Differences Between SodaStream Models

Many people want to get a SodaStream but have no idea which model is best for them. It can be difficult to choose, especially when the SodaStream company has no information highlighting the differences between the models. Here is a brief overview explaining which features are unique to the models.

There are currently eight SodaStream models available. They are The Revolution, The Source, The Fizz, The Crystal, The Pure, The Fountain Jet, The Dynamo and The Genesis. First, let’s address the similarities of all eight types. All of the eight models can make soda or sparkling water in the convenience of your home. All come with “stay fizzy” bottle closures that keep the carbonation in longer. All are compatible with the standard 14.5 ounce carbonation cylinder which is capable of carbonating up to sixty liters of soda or sparkling water.

There are four models which are capable of using either the 14.5 ounce carbonation cylinder or the larger 33 ounce cylinder, which is capable of carbonating up to 130 liters of soda or sparkling water. Those four models are The Revolution, The Dynamo, The Fountain Jet and The Fizz.

All eight models use the CO2 tank as a power source to carbonate. The Crystal, The Pure, The Dynamo, The Fountain Jet and The Genesis require no additional power source to operate. The Fizz and The Source do require a battery to operate the display components. That battery is included. The Revolution is the only model which requires electricity to work. Keep this in mind, as it will need to be near an outlet when used.

The Crystal comes with a dishwasher safe glass carafe. The other seven models come with BPA-free plastic bottles that are not dishwasher safe. You can buy dishwasher safe bottles separately that are compatible with those seven models, but you can not use the glass carafe with any model other than the Crystal.

The Dynamo, The Fountain Jet, The Pure, The Fizz and The Genesis all require the user to twist the bottle into place. The Crystal, The Revolution and The Source all lock the bottle into place without twisting, making them a little easier to use.

There is only one fully automated SodaStream available at this time. That is The Revolution. You simply press a button to tell it how carbonated you would like your drink and it does the rest for you. It also measures the CO2 levels to let you know how much is left in your carbonation cylinder. The Fizz is not automated but it does monitor and display the amount of carbonation in your drink as well as the level of CO2 in your cylinder. The Source has three LED lights to let you know how much carbonation is in your drink, but does not monitor the CO2 left in your cylinder.

I hope I have shed some light on what makes each SodaStream model unique. Click HERE for more information on SodaStreams and to see how the different models look. Remember, this will probably sit on your counter at all times, so you’ll want something that looks good in your kitchen.

Planning Your First Cruise

Planning your first holiday especially on a cruise liner is always a challenge. You could get together with your family and friends and discuss your travel and vacation plans so as to get a better idea of what needs to be done. The best way is to book with a travel agent who will not only advice you on which cruise liner and destination you should be going to but also plan your entire itinerary including air travel to the port of embarkation. But before you proceed, let’s first answer some questions that are bound to pop up while planning your cruise.

What kind of cruise is suitable for your age group?

Typically, there are different kinds of cruises suitable for different age groups. You will find a cruise designed for all individuals, from the toddler to the teen to the retired. All you need to decide in who is going and then select the cruise best suited for you. There are fun-filled holiday cruises for the family, singles, newly-weds and even for the slightly older and matured.

What kind of budget are you on?

Typically, the minimum cost of per person per day is about $100 on an average cruise liner. Many ships charge extra for certain items and of course air-fare is not included in this. You can decrease the cost somewhat by sharing the cabin with another person, booking way in advance, like almost six months prior, or taking a risk and booking late, less than two months prior to departure.

How many days can you spend on your cruise?

If you have less than a week, then the options would be closer to home and restricted to Mexico, Bahamas or simply a weekend cruise to a port in the ocean and back. A complete week gives you more time and options range from the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Alaska and even the South Pacific, depending on of course your current residential location. Anything longer than that would be suitable for any kind of cruise vacation across the globe.

When would you be most likely to travel?

Obviously, cruise tickets are cheaper in leaner times like spring or fall and most expensive during the summer holidays. Winter is also considered high season when travelling to warmer locations like the Caribbean. Some locations like Alaska, Scandinavia and the Baltic have a shorter cruising season and will be open only between May and September. While Antarctic cruises are on between November and February, Mediterranean cruises can be taken all year round.

Where would you like to go?

With the earth being covered with 75% ocean, cruise ships today can reach any of the continents and traverse all across the globe. From the Americas to Austral-Asia, Africa to Antarctica, Bahamas to Bermuda, Europe to Canada, there are plenty of cruise destinations to choose from. Even land locked locations such as central Europe, Russia, or the Yangtze River in China can be reached on a river cruise. Always a challenge to decide your destination, it is important to keep all other factors like type of cruise, budget, length of vacation among others in mind.

What are your interests?

Although cruises provide all kinds of on board activities, your destination should be based on your interest. While European tours offer a good dose of culture for the history buffs, tropical destinations like the Caribbean and the South Pacific are for the beach lovers. Whether it is glacier watching in Alaska, deep sea diving in Australia or experiencing the fjords in Norway, you have to decide what you like to do best before you choose your cruise destination. Many cruises also offer a list of off-shore activities before you book, so make sure that you are well researched on that as well.

What kind of accommodation would you prefer?

Cabin selection typically depends on what your budget is. Sea view cabins are obviously more expensive than the lower deck ones. Also, if you are travelling to scenic places like Alaska or Scandinavia it would be preferable to have a view. Deck plans are available in hard copy, so make your decision after doing your homework and planning your budget.

What are your dress styles and eating habits?

In a move away from only formal wear, most cruise ships today are more relaxed and have only one or two nights of dress-up nights. The rest of the time, it is usually casual or country club style dressing. Typically there are two seating arrangements for dinner, one starting at 6:30pm and the other starting at 9:00pm. While early seating allows you plenty of time for late shows, it may rush your off shore excursions. Late seating on the other hand gives you time to relax but may hamper your late evening activities. Also, table seating is usually for four to eight persons and very rarely for two. If you do want a dinner for the twosome, you will have to make a prior request.

How do you get to the cruise ship?

Flying there or driving down if its close by are two of the most preferred options. Sometimes the cruise lines offer you a fly-cruise package, which is easier, but may be a trifle expensive than independent booking. These include transfers between the ship and the airport, which can again add up to the cost.

What are the documents needed?

Cruise vouchers and travel itineraries should typically reach you 2-3 weeks prior to your departure. Travel insurance is not mandatory but strongly advised as a carry along document in case of any mishaps. Passports are needed for all international destinations.

Advantages of CCDP Certification

Cisco Certified Designed Professional is the acronym of CCDP. This certification validates the principles as well as advanced knowledge of network design concepts. With the help of CCDP certification, it determines to design and also to create advanced routing and addressing, network management, security, data center, Multicast complex in IP which is multilayered architectures including wireless applications/domains as well as private networking. The curriculum of CCDA certification includes building up of multilayered switched networking, building up of internetworks that are scalable and network architecture designing.

In order to obtain this CCDP certification, candidate must hold their CCNA as well as CCDA certification. This is the main eligibility for appearing to CCDP examination. If a candidate is holding the main eligibility, then the candidate can attend this CCDP certification examination.

CCDA certification examination:

CCDA certification examination shall be classified in to 2 routes. One is two exams route and the other route is three exams. Candidate can choose any one route to obtain the certification.

Route 1:

1) BSCI (Building up of scalable Cisco Internetworks) or 642-901 BSCI which is of 90 minutes duration.

2) BCMSN (Building up of Cisco multilayer Switched networks) or 642-812 BCMSN which is of 90 minutes duration.

3) ARCH (designing of Cisco networking service architectures) or 642-871 ARCH which is 90 minutes duration with approximately 65 questions.

Route 2:

1) BSCI (Building up of scalable Cisco Internetworks) and BCMSN (Building up of Cisco multilayer Switched networks) or 642-892 composite- combined examination in 2 hours duration.

2) ARCH (designing of Cisco networking service architectures) or 642-871 ARCH which is 90 minutes duration with approximately 65 questions.

The only difference between the two routes exams is one combined examination in route 2. The exam pattern will be of multiple choice questions, simulations as well as drag and drop etc. Candidate can take their exam in any of the Pearson VUE test center or prometric test center.

Certification validity is up to 3 years. After this validity period, recertification exam has to be taken by passing any current CCIE exam or any 642 professional level examinations. Examination fee is charged to the candidates for appearing the examination.

How to Choose the Best Sales Training Coach

There is no formal education curriculum for sales, but the ironic thing is that everybody sells. There are a lot of people working in the sales industry and each of them is competing with one another. For you to stand out from the rest, you need to possess the selling skills, right mindset, and determination. You also need to embrace change. As you know, the sales environment is continuously evolving. You need to think outside of the box to outsmart your business competitor. This is where sales tips play an important role.

Sales business should be conducted by people who are trained to do such stuff. It should be conducted only by the best sales training coach. If you are going to search around, you will notice that there are a lot of sales tips programs out there. However, choosing the best one can be very challenging. You need to make sure that you come up with the best choice or else you will end up wasting your time and money.

How do you go about choosing a sales training coach?

You have to consider the type of problem in your business you want to solve. There are many areas in the business that need improvement. Sales managers usually want to improve the team’s organizational effectiveness. This includes redefining the sales process. However, the main problem here is not the process itself but the execution. In this case, the focus of sales business is enhancing the selling skills and strategy.

What are the qualities of a sales tips coach?

• Practice what he preaches

A sales tips coach should be someone who has vast experience in handling sales process. Check the career path of the training coach and make sure that he has achieved something in his career. There should be professional experiences and the coach should be able to impart his experience and expertise to other people. The professional experience makes the sales business coach highly credible and reputable.

• Has experience leading a sales team

A sales business coach should know how to win the trust of his audience. People will most likely put their trust to someone who has first-hand experience handling a sales team. He should have a strong leadership skill to make it easier for him to coach other people.

• A sales tips coach should be intellectual

Doing something that nourishes your mind is great. There should be a passion and hunger for learning. A sales business coach should engage in activities that can further improve his intellectuality. He should be willing to spend time learning about other people, especially about his audience, organizations, and business as a whole. He should be up to date with the sales training trends and be able to impart it to his students with ease and confidence.

• A sales training coach should be humble

Some people in the training profession tend to be egocentric. They want to be the center of attention and most of the time wants to be in control of their audience. The best coach for sales training is the one who is humble enough to facilitate a good learning experience. When conducting coaching or training, whether it is about sales or other industry, a coach should keep in mind that it is not always about him. It is all about sales people wanting to become expert in a specific industry.

• A sales training coach should be a good communicator

The sales training program has a lot of components and the coach should condense the information into a short period of time. To tackle everything you need to tackle, you should be a good communicator. No matter how good the message it, it will mean nothing if it is not communicated in the most effective manner.

Dealing With Racquetball Injuries

Playing any type of sports always entails risks of injuries. Racquetball is one sports activity that can be risky looking at the speed of play and the equipments used (racquets and balls).

Nevertheless, it is a presented with that sports injuries C severe, superficial or critical C can always be avoided, if you take safeguards. Apart from the protection gears you need to wear, the next are some reminders for you to deal with your racquetball-related injuries.

Eye protection

Racquetball is reckoned a lightweight sport when equated with others which can produce some terrible critical injuries. Alternatively, it is one of the most injury-prone sports because of the speed of the ball traveling within the small confines of the playing court.

Ninety- 5% of these injuries contains being hit in the eyes by the ball. Interior bleeding in the eye socket, lacerations, bleeding eyelids, abrasions, swollen eyes C these are the a lot off the most commonplace eye injuries.

Wearing correct eye gear prevents fundamental injuries to the eye. Be certain to check if your goggles are the right way recommended by the American Standard of Testing and Materials, and the Canadian Standards Association.

Feet protective cover

Racquetball is one game where you do a lot of running. It follows that you need to maintain your feet all during the game.

Ankle sprains can sideline you for in any case 7 days and disrupt your activities. Achilles tendon injuries are rare but they need correct medical care.

Blisters and calluses occur most often if you possess the wrong footwear or if they are a new pair and had not been broken in yet. Dont throw the old pair until you have the new ones fit your feet just right. Afterwards, you can play a hard game with them.

Elbow protective cover

They might call it tennis elbow, but this injury also happens to racquetball players. (Only 5% of all cases happen to tennis players.)

Manifestations incorporates pain around the elbow joint, with tenderness occurring on or underneath the bony bump. Natural expansive arm movements (even simple grip movements) can lead to pain and exacerbate the injury. Follow your physicians advice.

Next, talk over with your racquetball expert for incorrect technique in racquet handling. Is your grip wrong? What about the mass and type of your racquet?

Shoulder protection

Shoulder injury is caused by utilizing the shoulders C and not the right way using the side of the body C in swinging your racquet. These injuries generally develop from a past fall or a slam on the wall.

Remember: Use the entire side of the body in swinging the racquet, NOT the shoulders.

Knee protective cover

All the running and pivoting around on your feet is tough on your knees. In racquetball, all kinds of knee injuries are possible.

These injuries are sneaky, too. They commence with a dull ache somewhere around the sides or back of the knee right after playing. Later, the anguish arrives before, during, and after your play.

Get yourself a professional to teach you the proper stretching and conditioning program for your knees. (While you are at it, you may incorporate all the necessary conditioning moves for all the parts of the body that complement your racquetball playing.)

Racquetball is supposed to be fun. Avoid injuries before they can happen.

Average Cost to Open a Restaurant: How to Lower the Price

There are many reasons why average people opt to dine out in restaurants-for socialization or business purposes, to try out new food, to accommodate their busy lifestyles which makes it impossible to cook food at home, or just plain to splurge the money that they earned.

Food is at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, summarized as food, clothing, shelter and self-actualization. This would make it seem like losing money in the food service business is very unlikely. But this isn’t so. Careful business preparation is needed to make this investment profitable and one way to do so would be to lower the average cost to open a restaurant.

A businessman who wants to open a restaurant business should keep in mind demand and supply. Various aspects of the business plan, if worked out properly, can help the business owner achieve lower costs in opening a restaurant.

Pick a Business Theme

Deciding on the business theme will help eliminate impulse-buying of kitchen, equipment and dining furnishings. Streamline your design by making sure that the interior decoration of the premises is consistent with the restaurant theme. Purchase of tables, chairs, plates, trays, glassware, flatware and other silverware should support this image.

Location, Location, Location

The major costs in opening a restaurant business would be the location and structure. This will include the purchase or leasing of land and the construction of the establishment according to the business theme. Because of the huge expenses involved in constructing a business space, most business owners opt to lease instead of buying a property.

Food is Priority

Some make the mistake of spending too much on the appearance of the restaurant. The objective of the food service business is creating great food, thus priority should be given to purchasing cooking and baking equipment, designing fresh and dried food storage, creating a menu and cost effective pricing of each food offered, and selecting a team of expert cooks and bakers. Also included in the costs are dishwashers and proper, efficient and sanitary garbage disposal.

Apt Manpower

One of the main items that make up the costs in opening a restaurant is the manpower. You should consider manpower expenses for each restaurant activity – marketing, cooking, serving, cleaning, cashiering and accounting for all business activities. Innovations in food service are sprouting up everywhere with minimal manpower costs. The success of the Asian manner of serving food such as buffet style and self-service in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Thai or Vietnamese restaurants are examples of these.

Promotion and Advertising Expenses

For a successful opening day, set aside money for promotion and advertisement expenses. Print out posters and flyers where your restaurant name and menu are written. To be able to advertise yourself properly, you should know what your “hook” is, or the strength of your business which you will highlight as a strong selling point. This can be the one-of-a-kind food, the alternative service routine, or simply great company. The current trend of going online to promote the food business has created a unique and cost-effective space for advertising.

A thorough and cohesive business plan makes for a great restaurant in terms of overall design, food, and service. Ultimately, a good plan means lower costs in opening a restaurant. A great start is always a good sign for any business.

Opt for Fire Safety Training for the Protection

When a fire breaks out, it is the worst possible scenario where you have a chance to save your life and that of others. In addition, unlike other forms of accidents like road accidents or accidents with machinery at the factory or workplace, a fire can break out anywhere- at home, schools, offices, public places like shopping malls or theatres etc. Likewise, unlike any other accident, the risks here are much hire and things can deteriorate in just a few seconds. In such cases, it is essential that you equip yourself to handle such situations. The moments that you take to panic and then recover can make you lose a lot many precious seconds. A Fire Training Course helps you to fight against such adversities.

Advantages of Fire Training

The good thing about these training programs is that you can enroll for online classes if you cannot attend regular classes because of your work schedule. Of course, you would probably miss the hands on training and some advanced training facilities give mock classes in collaboration with fire fighting schools so that you can handle real life situations, because it has often been seen that many fail to implement theoretical instructions into practice. Still, having a basic knowledge of the fire fighting techniques also comes in handy. In these courses, you will not only learn how to protect yourself form fire or save those who are entrapped in it, but will also learn about the fire first aids and other medical procedures that you can help with before the arrival of professional medical help.

What will you Learn

The other advantage of these training courses is that they are very affordable and unless you are aiming to become a firefighter, which of course, requires much more vigorous training, you can learn about the rules and regulations very simply because they are specifically designed for the layman. How you can avail these courses, depends upon the rules and regulations in your state so you have to enquire about them accordingly. Once, you have gone through it yourself, you can teach others in your family about the basic techniques. However, when confronted wit real life situations, it is also important that you do not overestimate yourself and try to do more than your ability because then you would end up risking your life and all those who might endanger theirs in trying to rescue you.

It is possible and it would be indeed very fortunate that you might never have to put your training into practical use.

Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management

One of the major factors militating against the development of sports in Nigeria today is lack of effective management. A lot of solutions are being proffered by concerned and patriotic Nigerians daily to bail us out the quagmire. One of such solutions is this text entitled “Modern Trends in Sports Administration and Management”. It is written by Dr. Joseph Awoyinfa, a lecturer in the Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria; a researcher and educational consultant. I was the person invited by the author and the university to review the book when it was presented to the public on December 4, 2008 in Nigeria.

According to Awoyinfa, it is a truism all over the world that sport is now a reference issue which can no longer be ignored at various sectors of the economy and spheres of life. The author adds that this text thus takes a critical look at topical issues in sports administration and management, dwelling on theories and principles of modern trends in sports administration and management such as leadership, organisation, planning, motivation, etc.

The text contains 16 chapters. Chapter one is christened “the concept of sports management”. Here, Awoyinfa says management is a concept that implies different things to different people at different times, thus leading to its multiplicity of definitions. He explains that management has been variously described as an art, a science, a person or people, a discipline and a process.

This author expatiates that as an art, sports management is all about carrying out sports organisational functions and tasks through people; while as a science, sports management is about establishing sports philosophy, laws, theories, principles, processes and practices. As an organisation, according to him, sports management is defined as a means of creating formal structures and an establishment based on a mission, objectives, targets, functions and tasks.

Awoyinfa says as a person or group of people, sports management may refer to the head alone or to all the senior staff, committee, etc.; while as a discipline, management is a field of study with various subjects and topics. The author illuminates that sports management as a process is about a systematic way of doing things. Awoyinfa highlights management functions in sports administration as planning, organising, staffing, directing/leading, controlling, coordination, budgeting and evaluation. On whom a sports manager is, this author educates that a sports manager is anyone at any level of sport organisation who directs

the efforts of other people towards the achievement of organisational goals sport-wise.

Chapter two is based on the subject matter of evolution and trends of sports management thought. Here, Awoyinfa discloses that the development of thoughts on sports management dates back to the days when people first attempted to accomplish goals by working together in a group. In his words, “There was serious thinking and theorising about managing many years before the dawn of the twentieth (20th) century, which marked the beginning of modern sports management thought. Major efforts to develop theories and principles of sports management began from the early twentieth (20th) century with the work of Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol. The industrial revolution of the nineteenth (19th) century probably provided the climate for this very serious theorising.”

Awoyinfa adds that since the turn of the 20th century, writers on sports management and business theory have been propounding different theories about how to manage work and personnel more efficiently and effectively. This author educates that the three main schools of management thought are: the classical; the human-behavioural; and the integrative. Awoyinfa also highlights early sports management theorists; principles and characteristics of scientific management; appraisal of the scientific management theory, etc., in this chapter.

Chapter three is thematically labelled “principles of sports management”. In this chapter, the educational consultant explains that sports principles are the basic laws on which the practice of sports management is built. He adds that management principles must therefore be based on general terms for them to be applicable within sport organisations of varying sizes and character. “Modern sports managers and administrators are expected to be able to identify and use appropriate principles that are relevant to particular situations. This is because no single principle can suit all administrative situations,” submits Awoyinfa.

He says the fundamental principles of sports are those applicable to all sports organisations and as a result of their general acceptability, they are sometimes referred to as “universal principles of sports management”. This author expatiates that some of these principles are: responsibility; delegation of authority and communication. As regards humanitarian principles of sports management, Awoyinfa identifies these as democracy, justice, human relations, sympathy, empathy, consideration and humility.

In chapter four based on the concept of behavioural and motivational theories in sports organisation, the author says human beings are unique creatures as they behave differently under different conditions and are mostly difficult to predict. Awoyinfa stresses that since human beings constitute the most important element in sports organisation, sports managers need some understanding of why people behave in one way or the other, so that they (sports managers) can influence people to perform exactly the way sports organisations find desirable.

One potent instrument this author suggests that can be used to elicit performance in athletes is motivation. In his words, “Motivation is something needed in sports organisations to make employees perform.

However, it has been an important and a puzzling subject for sports managers.” Awoyinfa further discusses development of motivational concepts in sports organisation; application of motivational theories to sports management; methods of behaviour modification, etc., in this chapter.

In chapters five to ten, the author beams his analytical searchlight on subject matters such as management techniques in sports organisation; the concept of sports organisation; setting design in sports organisation; the concept of planning in sports administration; making sports organisations more effective in Nigeria and staffing in sports organisations.

Chapter 11 is based on communication strategies in sports organisation. According to Awoyinfa here, communication is a crucial factor in any organisational effectiveness because organisations cannot function effectively when communication skills are lacking among members. “Since communication is the moving spirit in an organisation, its absence may make organisations standstill,” asserts this author.

In chapters 12 to 16, Awoyinfa X-rays concepts such as organisational changes and development in sports administration; leadership in sports administration and management; administration and management of soccer as a coach; teaching human kinetics and health education in schools and colleges; and organisation and administration of schools at various levels of education.

As regards mode of presentation, this text scores a pass mark. For instance, the language is comprehensible and the ideas are brilliantly articulated. The simplicity of the language is expected, given the author’s dual professional background as a lecturer and pastor. To ensure easy study of the text on readers’ part, Awoyinfa highlights the objectives of each chapter at the beginning and ends with review/revision questions.

What’s more, he creatively embroiders the text with graphics (pages 50, 97, 317, 330, 338, 395, etc.) to enhance readers’ understanding through visual communication. Awoyinfa includes references at the end of each chapter to fulfil academic obligation of source disclosure and offer readers opportunities to read more. Inclusion of many references also confirms the depth of his research. His use of visual distinction for the phrase “Modern Trends” in the title is emphatically creative.

If there are chapters that really make this text qualified as a compendium of modern solutions to the administrative and management problems plaguing our sports development in Nigeria, they are chapters four, eight, 11 and 13. This is because they discuss motivation, planning, communication and leadership respectively.

Meanwhile, the thematically greatest chapter of all is chapter four. The fact that it is consciously or unconsciously taken to be the greatest chapter finds practical expression in the deeper communication and cohesion between its subject matter on the one hand and the outer front cover’s allegorical visuals or metaphorical images such as goal post, cyclists racing, a lawn tennis player poised for action with her bat, sprinters competing and footballers struggling for ball possession, on the other hand. These are images used for illustration in motivational discourse.

However, some errors are noticed in this text. The errors are “Acknowledgement” (page iii), instead of “Acknowledgements”; non-paragraphing of the natural first few paragraphs of “Preface”; “Loosing” (pages 396 and 404), instead of “Losing”, etc. These errors need to be corrected in the next edition.

On a note of analytical finality, this text is a compendium of irresistible sports management tips. It is a must-read for all stakeholders in the sports sector, especially managers and administrators. It is simply fascinating.

GOKE ILESANMI, Editor-in-Chief/CEO of and Managing Consultant/CEO of Gokmar Communication Consulting, is a Certified Public Speaker/Emcee, (Business) Communication Specialist, Motivational Speaker, Career Management Coach, Renowned Book Reviewer, Corporate Leadership Expert and Editorial Consultant.

For business discussion, reach him on +234(0)8055068773; +234(0)8056030424