Challenges In Rural Marketing


Our country is endowed with a good degree of ethnic and regional diversity. About three-fourth of the total population resides in the rural areas and majority of them are dependent upon agriculture for their subsistence. Agriculture contributes about 24.7% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. It also contributes about 13.1% to the total Indian exports. This sector provides employment to 58.4% of the country’s workforce and livelihood to more than 650 million people. Despite this fact, the condition of these people has not shown any significant improvement.

The development of the nation largely depends upon the development of the rural population. Mahatma Gandhi had once said: “India’s way is not Europe’s. India is not Calcutta and Bombay. India lives in her several hundreds of villages”.

Rural Market Potential

India is an agro-based economy and the growth of most of the other sectors of economy is driven by rural demand. Urban market is reaching towards the saturation point, thus bringing in and urgent need to focus on rural development. Moreover, more than 70% of India’s population lives in villages and constitutions a big market for industry because of increasing disposal incomes and awareness level.

In comparison to just 5,161 towns in India there are 6,38,365 villages in India. This in itself is an indicator where the real India resides. Companies are realizing slowly but surely that the key to gain true market leadership lies in tapping the rural potential. However, the rural sector in India suffers from different kinds of problems. Some areas are having enough money but their level of awareness and hence consumerism is very low. But there are many areas where economic empowerment, education, health etc., are major problems.

What is rural marketing

While there is a large growth in the urban market, the rural or latent market is yet to be tapped, and has an enormous potential for growth. A rural market can be defined as any market that exists in a area where the population is less than 10, 000. The rural market in India is scattered and spread over a wide geographical area. Indian market is divided into urban and rural markets.

o Urban market is flooded with low demand.

o Rural market witnesses a high demand It’s the rural segment of market that contributes more profit than its urban counterpart. Rural marketing broadly involves reaching customers, understanding their wants, supply of goods and services, and ultimately satisfying consumers, leading to more sales. The general impression is that only agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, cattle feed and agricultural machinery have a potential for growth in the rural market. However, there is a growing market for consumer goods now. It has been estimated the rural market is growing at the rate of five times its urban counterpart.

Challenges in Rural Marketing

Though rural markets are a huge attraction to marketers, it is not easy to enter the market and take a sizeable share of the market, in the short time due to the following reasons.

Low Literacy

There are not enough opportunities for education in rural areas. The literacy level is as low (36%) when compared to all- India average of 52%.

Seasonal Demand

Demand for goods in rural markets depends upon agricultural situation, as agriculture is the main source of income. Agriculture to a large extent depends upon monsoon and, therefore, the demand or buying capacity is not stable or regular.


Many rural areas are not connected by rail transport. Kacha roads become unserviceable during the monsoon and interior villages get isolated.


An effective distribution system requires village-level shopkeeper, Mandal/ Taluka- level wholesaler or preferred dealer, distributor or stockiest at district level and company-owned depot or consignment distribution at state level. The presence of too many tiers in the distribution system increases the cost of distribution.

Communication Problems

Facilities such as telephone, fax and telegram are rather poor in rural areas.

Traditional Life

Life in rural areas is still governed by customs and traditions and people do not easily adapt new practices. For example, even rich and educated class of farmers does not wear jeans or branded shoes.

Buying Decisions

Rural consumers are cautious in buying and decisions are slow and delayed. They like to give a trial and only after being personally satisfied, do they buy the product.

Media for Promotions

Television has made a great impact and large audience has been exposed to this medium. Radio reaches large population in rural areas at a relatively low cost. However, reach of formal media is low in rural households; therefore, the market has to undertake specific sales promotion activities in rural areas like participating in melas or fairs.

Career in Rural Market

While rural marketing offers a challenging career, a rural sales person should require certain qualifications and specialized talent.

Cultural Factors

Culture is a system of shared values, beliefs and perceptions that influence the behavior of consumers. There are different groups based on religion, caste, occupation, income, age, education and politics and each group exerts influence on the behavior of people in villages.

There is a belief among rural people that experience is more important than formal education and they respect salespersons who can offer practical solutions to their problems. Therefore, it is desirable that sales persons, especially those who have been brought up in cities are given a thorough training consisting of both theory and practical aspects of village life. The training will help these sales persons to align themselves with the market realities and settle down smoothly in their jobs.

Rural market has a tremendous potential that is yet to be tapped. A small increase in rural income, results in an exponential increase in buying power.

Future Trends

Markets which are not able to face the stiff competition posed by MNCs, can restore their profits in the rural sector. The market share of urban market when compared to the rural market is low, hence if Indian industries concentrate on rural markets their sales will increase. If rural markets are brought into the limelight of development, they pave way to prosperity. Prosperity of India lies in the prosperity of every Indian, hence no rural segment should be left untapped.

A Tribute to Seafarers!

Somewhere around 1500 BC, the Lapita people (ancients to the Polynesians) moved across the ocean carrying their plants of food and domestic animals. This marked the beginning of true seafaring skills in the Stone Age. The traditional craft used back then is what we now call a catamaran. These seafarers knew how to read wind and wave patterns, and navigated by the sun and stars. Once could say the Lapitas studied the flight pattern of birds as they headed towards landfall, the drift of vegetation, and even cloud formation; Skills old salts still use today.

In the mid-14th century, European Sailors ventured out into the Atlantic. On August 2, 1492, sailing the Santa Maria, Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue leaving the Canary Islands. Financed by the king and queen of Spain, Columbus sailed westward in search of silks and spices in Asia only to discover America instead.

In the 1600's:

— 1620, December 21, wind-battered and weary, the Pilgrims anchored in Plymouth Harbor, MA after being at sea for approximately two months. They spend the winter on their crowded ship (Mayflower) and lost half the people due to disease. Over the next several years the population in Plymouth great due to new arrivals from England.

— 1659, the first homesteaders (two men, 1 woman, and six children), arrived on Nantucket Island traveling by open boat through seas churned high by winds of approaching winter. Farming and fishing were main activities till 1712 before whaling became popular.

— 1675, Boston Harbor Islands had historically been places where society had set apart unwelcome institutions and people on the margins. American Indians were interned on Deer Island during King Philips' war.

— 1684, the English purchased the Rumney Marsh and Pudding Point properties from the Native Americans. Then between 1753 and 1763, a fishing industry was located at Point Shirley and 300 people stayed and worked there.

For millennium Northeast coastal Indians fished, farmed and hunted on the islands, and European settlers used them for much the same purposes. The large natural harbor and New England's transportation network have made Boston a thriving seaport since. The port had its share of sea tales, as ships plying the harbor's sea-lanes intercepted pirates.

The pirates would ride up and down the Atlantic coast between Newburyport and Winthrop. It was here they would hide out at Pudding Point waiting for other ships to come down then attack and sink the boats. Before the boats would sink, though, the pirates would take the treasures of gold and jewelry off the boats, then sail back up towards Newburyport where they'd bury these rewards. Where exactly no on today really knows. However, if you come and visit Winthrop, be sure to walk the three-mile path around Deer Island and stop dead center at the tip. In front of you is a tiny island with a light on it called Nix's Mate. It is here where the pirates were actually imprisoned and some are believed to have died there. On a dark, windy day you can hear them cry revenge. Today boats make it a point to stay clear of Nix's Mate. The actual structure is a ledge and meeting place for four different channels; Nubble, Narrows, South, and North. The tide swirls pretty strong there and if you get caught, you may end up with the pirates.

Boston was also a port of entry for early settlers and alter immigrants seeking a better life in a new world.

In the late 1960's Winthrop had lots of mud flats surrounding their three yacht clubs. There was a problem at that time with some of the overflow from Deer Island coming back into the harbor. This "fertilizer" was causing sea lettuce to grow. Unfortunately, the sea lettuce was covering all the clam-flats causing the clams to die off. The odor and pollution from the clams were permeating the neighborhoods and peeling paint off the houses. A doctor was brought in to find out what could be done and he recommended putting everything under water by dredging.

Clamming is a lively industry in Winthrop and supplies many restaurants in the area. In fact, Boston chefs have claimed the best clams are the ones from Winthrop.

Every week the biologists at Plum Island's Purification Plant sends out an email to all the clam diggers in Quincy, Boston, and Weymouth. This email notifies clam diggers where and when they can dig for soft shell clams. According to Massachusetts State Law, a clam digger is allotted five racks of soft shell clams per day. This really is not a lot of clams in the scheme of things, but it's back breaking work all the same. Rules and regulations keep changing making it more difficult to support a family this way.

So, no matter if it's 110 ° or 20º below, a clam digger begins arriving at Winthrop's Public Landing ready to shove off one-half hour before sunrise. Armed with their buckets, boots, and trowels, they hop into the dinghies and set out for work before the next tide comes in.

Hunched over for hours with trowel in hand, the clam's fate is totally up to the clam digger as to whether it ends up on your plate or in a Seagull's belly. Clams are popular, but have to measure in at two inches in diameter otherwise be thrown back. Sometimes, if the diggers are in a hurry to finish before the tide comes in, the clams will end up being thrown up on the rocks. This is when the Seagulls get fed.

Once the five racks are filled, the diggers come back in. Here they'll meet up with the buyers and / or Environmental Police to check their clams. Because these clams are dug in Winthrop, they have to be transported to Plum Island's Purification Plant to be cleaned before being sold to restaurants and seafood stores.

At the purification plant the racks are put into long deep tubs filled with salt water from the ocean. Ultra violet lights are used to clean the clams. The clams stay in there for three days and every morning the tanks are cleaned, samples are taken and checked for bacteria. Air bubbles are pumped into PVC to help clams breathe while in the water. Once the clams are cleaned and the onsite biologists approve, then the racks go through a washer for the last step before getting a stamp of approval by the state before going out. Once approved, the clams will sit in a walk-in refrigerator till they are picked up. However, if there is any bacteria found in any of the tanks while the clams are being cleaned, all those clams are thrown out. This causes a financial loss to the diggers and could mean no clams for the restaurants.

Camping Hints and Tips

Going camping is a really popular pastime, and if you want to rent a cottage and hike all day or relax and camp in a tent under the stars, you'll have options. You have to come prepared, though, or it can be exceedingly difficult to camp and really enjoy yourself.

The first thing you need to pay attention to is your tent. If you are not sure which one to get go to a camping store, do some online research, and / or consult with people who camp regularly to get some advice on a tent that will meet your needs. How many people you're taking with you on the trip and how many of them will be sharing a tent are important things to know at that point. Do not let someone talk you into the most expensive tent that's out there, though, because you probably do not need that. There are less expensive offerings that will work just as well – but do not buy the cheapest thing, either. You want your tent to keep you safe and dry. While you're getting a tent you'll probably want to get a sleeping bag. Make sure it's comfortable, big enough, and warm enough, especially if you'll be doing any camping when the weather is cool.

Some people also buy a small grill or cook stove so they can cook their food without needing to build a big fire and guess when the food might be cooked. You do not want to accidently poison yourself during your camping weekend . After you've dealt with these particular issues, it's vital that you spend some time selecting the right clothing for the trip. You should have boots that are weather resistant and that repel water, so your feet will not get soaked. You also want clothing that's lightweight but warm and you'll want to have some extra socks and other clothing in whatever backpack you buy so that you'll always be able to change your clothing if it gets wet. A sudden rainstorm can leave you wet and cold and miserable, even on an otherwise warm day, and it takes a while to dry out. Get a backpack that's lightweight but big, so you can carry everything that you need. Food and water (as well as a filter or water purifying tablets) are essential, and you might also want a deck of cards, a good book, or something similar for those times when it might be rainy and you're stuck in your tent .

Top Cookbook – Recipes From My Personal Cookbook

I think we all have a cookbook that we consider a "Top Cookbook." To be honest I think it all depends on what you enjoy and what you want to cook. There is, for instance, no doubt that America's Most Wanted Recipes is a top cookbook, if you enjoy restaurant style food. I definitely do and that is why I love it.

On the other hand you get cookbooks, like my personal one, that have simpler recipes, suitable for those times when you simply want to get something on the table fast, but still tasty.

I think potatoes are very underestimated as most people only consider them a stage. What many people do not realize is how healthy potatoes are. So, I thought I will give you a few recipes that will really come in very handy.

The three potato recipes I have for you fall into that category. They are quick and easy to serve with any meat or other vegetarian main course dish. The first one can be served on it's own as the main course with a salad.

Tasty Fried Potatoes


  • 6 Bacon slices diced
  • C Cup chopped onion
  • 3 Cups pared and sliced ​​potatoes
  • Seasoning of your choice


  1. Cook bacon in heavy skillet.
  2. Add onion.
  3. Continue cooking until bacon is crisp and onion soft but not browned.
  4. Add uncooked potatoes.
  5. Season to taste.
  6. Cover and cook for about 15 minutes until almost tender.
  7. Uncover and brown both sides.

To make an omelet, you will need 6 beaten eggs. (Maybe an easier variation on the traditional frittata)

  1. Simply add about 1/3 of the beaten egg to the soft potato mixture.
  2. Continue cooking over low heat without stirring until the eggs are firm.
  3. Turn over whole with a wide spatula.
  4. Add another 1/3 of the eggs; Repeat process.
  5. When the last third has cooked through, the omelet is ready to serve.

Potato O'Brien


  • 3 Tbsp fat
  • C Cup chopped onion
  • 2 Tbsp chopped green pepper
  • 2 Tbsp chopped pimento
  • 3 Cup cooked dried potatoes
  • Seasoning


  1. Heat the fat.
  2. Add the onion and green pepper and cook for 5 minutes.
  3. Add the potatoes and pimento.
  4. Cook until browned, stirring occasionally.
  5. Season to taste.

Mashed Potatoes Au Gratin


  • 3-4 cup hot mashed potatoes
  • C cup buttered bread crumbs
  • C cup grated cheese
  • Paprika
  • ?

Spoon the mashed potatoes in a shallow baking dish, sprinkle the buttered bread crumbs over, then the grated cheese and lastly a dash of paprika.

Bake at 375 ° F for about 20 minutes until lightly browned.

Enjoy these recipes and look out for more to come.

Top Incredible Features of Renault Trafic

The Renault Trafic with its futuristic design has been creating a rage in market since 2000. Today, it is considered as the one of the best selling vehicles in its line. What is significant about this van is that it keeps on improving with every phase. The Renault Trafic van models come with so many extra features that ensure safety, comfort and style. Considering the need for a robust and flexible commercial van, many companies are now offering Renault Trafic van models on lease.

These vans come with full range of seat adjustment option for the ease of the driver. Moreover, the mechanical side is superb. Their six speed gearbox allows great reactivity. Aside from that its light steering enables the driver to manoeuvre the van for long with due precision. Listed below are a few special features of Renault Trafic vans.

Dynamic Design

Renault Trafic is available in three distinct types, which are panel van, crew van and passenger van. Each of the models is dynamic and robust in their own ways. They are mostly designed with slender and expressive headlights. And the expanded vertical logo adds to their dynamism. Also, their protective front bumper gives them a strong and determined look. Van leasing companies can offer variants of Renault Trafic vans to suit your specific needs.

Comfort Features

The Trafic comes with cruise control system that enables you to adjust maximum speed. Also, they are available with a hill-start assist that allows the diver to move off smoothly. Additionally it has front fog lights that improve visibility during rain and fog. Their tyre pressure monitoring system enables you to keep the pressure on check. Passenger airbags and double aspheric door mirror are a few of their comfort features.

Business Features

For those who are looking for extra storage space in their van, the all-new Trafic van can be the ideal for them. They come with fourteen storage compartments. Be it light items or bulky goods you can store everything in them. A few models also come with touchscreen cockpit for easy navigation in addition to a dock for your laptop.


Renault Trafic comes with so many highly economic engines. It is designed with Twin Turbo technology that is combined with Electric Smart as well as Stop and start management allowing to cut down fuel consumption to approximately 39mpg.


Want to have more practical devices in your commercial van? Reputed van leasing companies offer a large variety of accessories that are especially tailor-made keeping your requirements in mind. Their trunk protector helps in preventing the van from regular wear and tear. Additionally, they are equipped with an innovative alarm system that enhances the security of the vehicle. Plus, they come with tow bars offering durability. The range of tow bars sync properly with the vehicle's ESC system, so that the Trailer Swing Assist is activated easily. They are also available with rubber mats and carpet mats to enhance the everyday look of the vehicle.

Five-Year Plans – Are They Really That Important?

The one question you will most likely be asked at every job interview is, “Where do you see yourself in five years?” The truth for many of us is that a lot of the time, we actually aren’t sure where we want to be in a year or two, never mind five years from now. Our answer will likely be based on the reason we are at the interview in the first place.

If you’re unemployed your answer might be, “In a stable place in my career, hopefully still with your company” or words to that effect.

If you have been fortunate enough to be employed for many years and are looking to move forward on your career path, the answer might be “I would like to take what I’ve learned and start my own business.”

It should be an easy enough question to answer but most people haven’t given it the attention they should have. Without understanding what you really want from life, without setting goals for yourself, without forward planning, how can you expect to achieve professional and personal success?

If you’re a successful entrepreneur the odds are high that you’ve got your future mapped out and understand that you will need to be flexible at times with your plans. You would probably be able to answer the question very succinctly because you know where you are coming from and where you want to go.

Just in case you are not so sure, here are some tips to help you clarify things a little better.

Creating your five-year plan

What is really important to you? What are you passionate about? What is the thing that makes you jump out of bed and go to work every morning? What car would you like to be driving? What kind of home do you want to be living in? Do you want to get married? Do you want children?

Understanding who you are and what you’re about is often seen one of those life-long exercises. There are important questions you need to ask yourself early on that will set you on a positive life course. The answers to these questions will help you to lead a more fulfilling life, both personally and professionally.

Identify your values

Start your five-year plan by identifying your values, those traits or qualities you consider non-negotiable. Your values are what drive you to succeed. If you live them authentically every day, they can help you to accomplish your goals and help you to lead and positively influence others.

Make a list of them, if you’re not sure what to write, Google personal values for some inspiration.

Identify your passions

These are the tangible and intangible things that drive you to get out of bed in the morning and face the day. These might include providing for your family or the need to be constantly learning and growing personally and professional. Perhaps your passions are more concrete; the desire to have a retirement villa in Mauritius, or an 8-series BMW. It’s important to be really honest with yourself at this stage. Your passions translate into goals that need to be achieved. Your values dictate how you will achieve them.

List your goals, objectives and responsibilities

Your goals and objectives should ideally be set for one, three, five and ten years. Divide them into categories of personal (such as health, family, standard of living, fitness, education, creativity, etc.) and work related goals (like making partner in your law firm or starting your own business). The difference between a goal and objective is that a goal is broad while an objective is more specific, for example a goal would be to retire comfortably while an objective would be to retire comfortably in five years to a lovely sea-facing villa in Mauritius.

Responsibilities are pretty self-explanatory. Usually they extend from providing and caring for your family, paying off your bond on your home, or finance on a car on the personal side, to covering salaries for employees, completing specific projects and fulfilling expectations of business partners on the professional side.

Next to each one make a note of where you are on the road to achieving these goals. This will help you to see where steps need to be taken to achieve your goals and objectives.

Understand how your goals and values affect your business life

You’ve set your goals and objectives and you understand your responsibilities, but what effect do they have on the bigger picture?

A simple example is retiring in five years. This can have a major impact on your business. If you are self-employed you will need to revisit your exit plans for the business. Do they align with this specific goal? Ask yourself if retirement five years is a realistic time frame to set for yourself. Have a look at your retirement planning / pension plan. Will you receive the full value of your pension if you retire in five years? If so, will it be enough to keep you in a comfortable lifestyle or will you need to find an additional, preferably passive, source of income?

Now that you are clear on your values you might find that this also affects your business relationships. Maybe you’re in a partnership which on the surface appears to be working, but you find your value system is not aligned with that of your partner. This can cause conflict in the workplace as you both struggle to follow the paths the other wants to travel. Dramatically different values may lead to conflicting ideas of how to operate your business or what is ethically acceptable behaviour.

Seeing the bigger picture

By now you should be getting a clearer view of the overall picture. You will know what is important to you. You will understand where you won’t compromise. You will see which areas of your life are on the right track and which ones need some additional work.

You are now at the stage where you can actually clearly articulate where you would like to be in five years. If your goal was to retire in five years, then it’s possible your answer next time you’re asked that important question would be, “Sipping cocktails on the patio of my luxury sea-facing villa in Mauritius with my family at my side.”


Having a five-year plan is important. Great ideas and opportunities don’t just fall into the laps of a special few. Successful entrepreneurs have life plans for themselves, which they adjust over the years to accommodate inevitable hiccups on their path to financial freedom and success. They give careful thought to their values and goals, and then set about creating opportunities to help them to achieve them.

Copyright Lindsay Grubb 2011

The Importance Of Reading Reviews Before Buying Convertible Car Seats

Convertible car seats are one of the most sought after baby travel gear by many parents. Several parents invest in these specialized car seats to cater to their growing child's safety and comfort needs inside a moving vehicle. Convertible car seats are for bigger babies and kids who are in between 30-70 pounds heavy and have a standing height of 50 inches and below. When your baby no longer fit the requirements for him to remain in his infant seat, it is likely recommended to switch him into a convertible seat. Convertible seats are initially used as rear-facing seats and later on can be converted into a forward-facing seat. This type of car seat can keep your child in his five-point harness throughout his toddler years until he is ready for a booster seat. Keeping your child in a five-point harness seat is necessary as children of this age and size have soft bones and small bodies that can not in any way stand a crash force which can possibly result in serious injuries and early deaths.

This purchase can be confusing and difficult for many parents especially to first time parents. However, it is important for parents to take note of the importance of keeping their children on appropriate car seats during car travel. To avoid any confusion and dilemma, reading consumer reviews before buying can be of great help. In the recent studies, several consumers rely on product reviews before availing any service or buying a product. You can instantly search for the best convertible seat reviews online and read consumer feedbacks and reviews regarding the various brands of convertible seats. Below are some reasons why reading reviews prior to an objection purchase is important:

  • Reading reviews and recommendations from previous consumers can avoid panic and impulsive buys. As we all know most impulsive buys can lead to big profits and loss of hard earned money. This is great way to make sure that you are able to get the best deal for your money.
  • Reading the best convertible seat reviews can prevent you from making the most common mistakes by many parents when buying one.
  • One of the benefits of reading reviews is for you to avoid impulse buying. Human as we are, we have a tendency to buy something without looking at it closely. With the reviews, you can see the pros and cons of the product.
  • This also allows you to avoid the mistakes committed by others who have bought the wrong one for their kids.
  • When you read reviews, you can avoid making mistakes of choosing the wrong type for your child. Aside from that, you can avoid buying based on your impulse or gut feeling.
  • The reviews can also make you avoid committing the common mistakes of most buyers who have not thought about the pros and cons of the product.

Reading the best convertible car seat reviews can really help you in purchasing the best for your child.

The 20 Richest People in Australia

Every year Forbes publishes the list of the richest people in Australia. 2009 showed a drop in the number of billionaires (we’re down to 9) but despite the changes in the economy these entrepreneurs proved that fortunes can still be made. Almost everyone on the list started out with a small venture that eventually flourished with dedication and a mind-set to defy the odds against making it big. They are an inspiration to Australians everywhere with dreams of success to hold their course and just keep going.

#20 Maurice Alter (Married with 2 children, age: 84)

$590 million

Who would not mind having a fortune worth $590 million at the age of 84? Mr. Alter landed on the shore in 1949 right out of Poland and hurried up to get a job, 2 jobs as a matter of fact. A bit later he bought a couple shops and a bank near Melbourne. Yes, that’s right – a bank! Currently his son, Sam runs his Pacific Shopping Centers and manages his portfolio of prime retail properties in the vicinity of Melbourne and Adelaide.

#19 Robert Oatley (Married with 3 children, age: 80)

$600 million

This wealthy Oz tycoon likes things that give you a buzz. He started out on the path to fortune as a coffee farmer but really made himself known with the Rosemount Estates winery. In 2001 he sold off the entire kit and caboodle for cash and stock to Southcorp. He turned around in 2003 and flipped the stick to Foster’s as a means to buy Hamilton Island. He has taken the cup in the Hobart-to-Sydney race 4 consecutive years with his yacht, Wild Oats. He keeps himself occupied with exporting his name-brand wines to the U.S.

#18 Angela Bennet & Michael Wright (Married with 7 children, age: 64, married with 3 children, age: 71)

$650 million

This sister and brother team was fortunate to have a father that discovered some tremendous iron ore deposits in Western Australia. Rio Tinto’s Hamersley mine provides them and other family members annual royalties. Wright’s primary concern is his Voyager Estate winery.

#17 John Van Lieshout (Married, 2 children, age: 63)

$690 million

Rumor has it that as a teenager Mr. Van Lieshout left school to work at a job unloading bananas. After moving from his native Holland he eventually started up the Super A-Mart furniture chain which he sold in 2006. Currently he is in the market for Brisbane real estate.

#16 Len Buckeridge (Married with 6 children, age: 73)

$700 million

Len Buckeridge is synonymous with BGC Group, a major home builder in Western Australia. Apparently economic downturns mean nothing to him; 2009 was a year of big projects including the construction of a $200 million private port.

#15 Carlo Salteri (married with 4 children, age: 88)

$730 million

Salteri cofounded theTransfield Group in 1956 after moving from Italy to Oz. He took over defense operations when the company split in 1997. His son, Paul took over for him as chairman in 2007. He recently sold off several divisions to major world players such as Lockheed Martin and Air New Zealand.

#14 Ken Talbot (Married with 4 children, age: 58)

$750 million

Talbot founded Macarthur Coal and later sold 80% for close to $600 million. He stirred up some scandalous talk when accused of making payments in secret to a Queensland politician. He denies the bad news.

#13 Gerry Harvey (Married with 4 children, age: 69)

$870 million

Mr. Harvey started dropped out of agricultural college to sell vacuum cleaners door-to-door. He later co-founded Harvey Norman, the electronics retailer. The CEO is his wife, Katie Page. He is a horse man, with a stake in the thoroughbred auction house, Magic Millions.

#12 Michael Hintze (Married with 4 children, age: 55)

$900 million

He did time at Goldman Sachs and Credit Suisse First Boston before staring up the trading firm, Convertible and Quantitative Strategies with $200 million. The return on the flagship fund has been 11% annualized.

#11. Stanley Perron (Married with 3 children, age: 86)

$950 million

Mr. Perron sold handkerchief boxes after dropping out of school and later tried to make a go as a plumber. He didn’t really make it big until being gifted with a Toyota franchise from a former boss. (Nice boss!) He established dealerships all over Western Australia and now invests in real estate.

#10 Lindsay Fox (Married with 5 children, age: 72)

$970 million

Fox is a former pro in the Australian Football League and got started on his way to wealth by selling soft drinks from a truck. He founded the largest logistics company in Australia: Linfox. He enjoys classic cars – has 130 of them.

#9 Kerry Stokes (Divorced with 4 children, age: 68)

$1 billion

At last, billionaire! Stokes is the primary dealer of Caterpillar equipment in Australia. He adds to his fortune by his stake in media group, Seven Network. Lately he has been attempting to grab up Perth’s Western Australia Newspapers.

#8 Kerr Neilson (Married with 2 children, age: 59)

$1.45 billion

Originally from South Africa, Neilson set up Platinum Asset Management in 1993 with George Soros backing him. When the firm went public in 2007 he cashed out around $500 million. His next plan is to open a contemporary Chinese art museum.

#7 Gina Rinehart (Widowed, 4 children, age: 55)

$1.5 billion

Along with other family members she benefits from her late father’s mining assets: Rio Tinto’s Hamersley Basin Iron Ore Mine. (She had to fight her stepmother for it.)Rinehart also owns a direct stake in the family company Hancock Prospecting.

#6 Anthony Pratt (Single, 1 child, age: 49)

$1.6 billion

Pratt was at one time a McKinsey consultant and ran Visy Industries U.S. operations for 20 years. He is now co-chairs the packaging kingdom with his mother, owned in entirety by his family. He co-owns the global operations with his two sisters.

#5 Andrew Forrest (Married with 3 children, age: 47)

$1.65 billion

Forrest was Australia’s #1 richest person in 2008. Sadly he lost his position due to decreasing iron ore demand which affected shares of his Fortescue Metals Group. A Chinese steel group recently took ownership of part of the company. There was a bit of scandal around the deal which he denies.

#4 John Gandel (Married with 4 children, age: 74)

$1.7 billion

Gandel owns prime real estate – lots of it, including half of Melbourne’s Chadstone shopping mall and a stake in a trust that owns the other half. Rumor has it that his private home is the priciest in Melbourne.

#3 Harry Truguboff (Married with 2 children, age: 76)

$2 billion

Known affectionately as “High-Rise-Harry”, he is Oz’s apartment building tycoon. He was born in China to Russian parents and started his career as a taxi driver. He now owns hundreds of flats in Sydney and North Shore.

#2 Frank Lowy (Married with 3 children, age: 78)

$2.8 billion

Lowy is another one of the country’s real estate moguls as well as the president of the Football Federation Australia. He is a Czech immigrant and founded the Westfield Group real estate company. The company’s stock took a fall earlier in 2009 but hey, he still has close to $3 billion and that’s not shabby.

#1 James Packer (Married with one child, age: 41)

$3.1 billion

Let’s hear it for the young guy! What has this dude not done? Packer is heir to his late father’s media group, Publishing & Broadcasting. He sold his cattle ranches for almost $300 million and has shares in Consolidated Media and gaming company, Crown. He also has a joint venture going with Hong Kong’s Lawrence Ho.

10 Top Kids Party Games for an Enjoyable Party

Are you someone whom finds planning children’s parties a daunting affair? Are you worried about what you are going to do to keep them entertained?

If this sounds like you, then don’t despair as you have certainly not been the first parents to experience this. The good news is, that it doesn’t have to be this way, and there are plenty of EASY and CHEAP ways to keep the kids entertained at your child’s party.

There is a lot to be said about all the traditional kids party games that have been around since our Grandparents generation… and probably longer. These games have withstood the test of time for a reason… because they are good… and they really do work!

Here are 10 kids party games that you can use at your next child’s birthday party. You could pick one or two, or use the entire 10, but one thing is for certain… and that is the children will love them!

Pass the Parcel: All children love opening presents, so what is not to love about this game! Simply find a small present (suitable for both a boy and a girl) and wrap it up. Then have several layers of wrapping around the main present. Inside each wrapping it is ideal to place either another small item (a piece of candy, balloon, pen, spinning top… anything small). This is the small gift for the child to keep that opens that layer.

Sit the children in a circle and play some music. Ask them to pass the parcel around the circle until the music stops. When the music stops, that child can open the layer! For younger children it is recommended that you ensure each child has a chance to open at least one layer.

Pin the tail on the donkey: The traditional way to play this game is to have a donkey and lots of tails that the kids will pin onto the donkey (hence the name). You can however use this game to suit any theme you are having. For instance, Pin Dora’s hair band into her hair or pin the banana into the monkey’s hand. You can buy ready-made kits, or if feeling creative you could draw something yourself. Simply have some blind folds available and each child in turn has the opportunity to pin the tail on the donkey. Blindfold the child and ask them to pin the tail as close to where it should be as possible.

Musical Statues: Are there some budding dancers in the room? Choose some favourite music and simply ask the kids to dance! When they least expect it, turn the music off, and the children have to stand as still as possible. The last to stand still is out! Continue the game until only one child remains a statue.

Musical bumps: This game is played very similar to musical statues, except when the music stops, the children have to immediately sit down on their bottom. The last child to sit down is out! Keep playing until only one child remains.

Musical chairs: Gather a chair for each child at the party and place in a circle (seat facing out of the circle). Ask all the children to sit on a chair and then start to play the music. As the music is playing, the children have to walk/dance around the circle of chairs. Have an adult remove one of the chairs. Turn off the music and the children have to sit on a chair. The child left standing is out! Continue until only one child remains sitting, and this is the winner.

Simon Says: This is a great party game that is perfect for younger children too. Designate an adult who is Simon (or change the name to suit the theme of the party ie: Mickey Mouse or Dora the Explorer). Then say “Simon says… put your hand on your head”. The children must do what Simon says. BUT, Simon will trick the children by sometimes saying “put your hands on your head”. If ‘Simon says’ wasn’t mentioned, then the children that made the action are out. Continue with lots of different commands until only one child remains.

Apple bobbing: If it’s a sunny day, this would be a great game for the children to play outside. Organise a large bowl, fill with water and place numerous apples in the water. The children will take it in turns to try to retrieve an apple with their teeth, and their arms behind their back.

Follow my leader: Have an adult as the designated ‘leader’. They will hop, skip, jump, dance etc. The children all have to follow and copy the actions of the leader.

Memory tray: This is a great game if you are hoping for a bit of peace and quiet during the party. Have a tray filled with all sorts of items from around your home and give the children a few minutes to try to remember as many items on the tray. Give them each a pen and paper and then cover the tray and ask them to remember as many items as possible, in say 1 minute. The winner is the one that has remember the most items.

Sleeping Lions: This is a great game to use towards the end of a party. Again this can be tailored to any theme you are having (Sleeping fireman, fairies, ballerina’s… etc). Ask the children to lie down on the floor and ask them to pretend to be sleeping. If the child moves or makes a sound, they are out. If the children are all too good at this game, you can walk around them, tickle them or try to make them laugh and see who can remain sleeping!

These ten kids party games will be sure to put a smile on the children’s faces and in turn on yours! Simplicity is the key to a successful party and with some planning and preparation, the party doesn’t have to be a daunting affair!

How Water Heals

Water is an essential nutrient. I imagine that most of us probably don’t think of water as a nutrient, but I would suggest that it is possibly one of the most essential nutrients we need to keep our bodies functioning optimally.

Why do I say that? Because a lack of water or chronic dehydration is one of the contributing factors of disease and the aging process.

Dr. Batmanghelidj discovered the healing properties of water by accident when he was with a person who was suffering from such intense pain in his stomach from an ulcer that he couldn’t even walk. As he had nothing on hand at that time, he instructed the man to drink two glasses of water, amazingly within 3 minutes the pains were greatly subsided and within eight minutes the pain was gone! As a result, Dr. B. did extensive studies and research into the healing and pain-relieving properties of water.

When our body isn’t hydrated enough to sufficiently distribute water to where it is needed, the affected areas are not able to properly deal with toxic waste build up and metabolism. Our cells which are plump, shrivel and the nerve endings will register this to the brain and in turn the brain will register this to us in the form of pain such as migraines, joint aches and pains, fibromyalgia pain, heartburn, etc.

Let’s look at a few diseases whose underlying cause are symptoms of dehydration according to Dr. Batmanghelidj.

High Blood Pressure

One of the functions of the blood is to transport and diffuse needed water and nutrients into the cells of our body. When our body is dehydrated, the cells become constricted, and our blood becomes more concentrated. This causes the blood to have to use more pressure to do its job, thus creating the symptoms of High Blood Pressure. Drinking more water and adding unrefined sea salt like Pink Himalayan Sea Salt with trace minerals and minerals such as Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Selenium and Zinc, returns the body’s cells to normal size and function and the symptoms of High Blood Pressure will disappear.

High Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a vital component in your body.

Cholesterol when operating in a balanced healthy body produces cell membranes, brain cells, nerve insulation, hormones and Vitamin D.

When signs of dehydration start occurring in the body, cholesterol will fill the gaps in some cells to protect them from water and nutrient loss.

In an emergency situation, Cholesterol acts as a bandage for abrasions and tears in the arterial walls and protects them when blood that has become acidic and concentrated is pushed through arteries and capillaries that have become constricted because of dehydration. If the cholesterol wasn’t there to cover the tears, then the blood would get under the membrane and peel it off, which would kill you.


When we become dehydrated our bronchial tubes tighten up to close the holes where water has been lost from the body, causing reduced air flow into the lungs. This symptom is what we call Asthma.

Drinking water helps to clear up these symptoms and adding unrefined sea salt helps to break up the mucus that clogs the breathing passages.

Chronic dehydration can also contribute to the following:

Fatigue: water is the bodies main energy source.

Depression: water increases endorphins, so dehydration can contribute to moodiness and depression.

Aging: chronic dehydration contributes to sagging and wrinkled skin that is no longer smooth and supple. The same constriction and loss of suppleness that happens to our cells, shows up on our skin.

Clearly, we need to drink enough water throughout the day to help our body function properly.

You can start by drinking a glass of water with an unrefined mineral salt like Himalayan pink salt for trace minerals and electrolytic properties when you get up in the morning and about 30 minutes before you go to bed at night. And make sure to stay adequately hydrated throughout the day.

Our body alerts us to the lack of nutrients like water by pain responses, allergies, an illness and symptoms of disease, but with proper hydration, a healthy diet and exercise, we can help keep our bodies functioning properly and live a healthier life.

LED Retrofit Kits And Their Benefits

Lighting cost is an area many people concentrate on especially when building. Everyone yearns for cheaper, more user friendly and environmentally friendly lighting options. Facility managers and even homeowners who are conscious about costs want modern solutions that still serve their purpose efficiently. LED retrofit kit make a very popular lighting solution for all. This is because the kit is long lasting, efficient and calls for minimal maintenance. The retrofit kits are popular options for both commercial and residential settings because of the following benefits.

1. The kits are energy efficient

Compared to conventional lighting systems such as incandescent bulbs, LED retrofit kits consume lee power with a huge percentage of high light output. The retrofits are therefore not only energy efficient, but also more economic. They make amazing choices for offices and showrooms among many other settings.

2. They are versatile

The LED retrofit kits can be used in a wide range of applications. They come in handy in offices, commercial buildings, garages and even homes. The kits are designed to fit almost any given place with illumination needs.

3. The kits are long lasting

The LED lights do not easily burn out compared to bulbs and fluorescent, they last thousands of hours thereby becoming an inexpensive lighting solution. The need to keep changing them every once in a while is eliminated.

4. The retrofit kits have exceptional dimming capacity

They offer maximum brightness immediately as compared to other lighting systems. In addition, you can easily regulate the brightness according to your demands and what you find most appropriate for the given setting. It means, therefore that you can still enjoy even lower energy use by dimming to the right levels.

5. They are free from UV rays and infrared

LED retrofit lights do not have ultra violet rays as compared to infrared rays and fluorescent tubes. They are free from UV transmission, thereby making the kits suitable for environments that are sensitive, such as museums, art galleries and archaeological sites.

6. They come with less maintenance needs

LED retrofit kit offer flawless lighting for years and there is no need for regular replacement. The kits are functional and do not require much maintenance to keep them functional as they are designed to do.

7. The kits do not flicker or make humming sounds

For this reason, the retrofit kits keep the lit area peaceful and quiet compared to conventional lights that keep flickering and make noise causing eyestrain and headaches because of these characteristics. An LED retrofit kits saves you from these annoying effects. When used in industries, the kits have shown to have positive effects on performance, wakefulness and mood.

LED retrofit kits come in different sizes and designs in that you can choose an option that suits your settings and lighting needs best. It is best that you get your kits from reputable suppliers for quality purposes to enjoy all the benefits they have to offer. There is so much to enjoy the energy efficiency.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Reed Beds For Leachate Treatment

A controversial subject like using reed beds for leachate treatment inspires strong feelings in many people, on both sides, for and against. Putting emotional feelings aside, it is best to evaluate each side as logically and cool-headedly as is possible. Having said that, let’s look calmly and analytically at the positions held and also the reasons in support of both sides:

Okay, let’s get started. On one side you have the “Pro”, the positions in favor:

The 1st point in support of reed beds for leachate treatment will be that they are cheap to operate, in fact they cost almost nothing to run and look after for at least the first three years, after which the banks and reed material build-up may require some attention, but that is all.

A 2nd point in favor would be they are very low energy consumption, making the carbon footprint for a reed bed treatment system much lower than alternatives, and they are a far more sustainable solution than any of the high-tech processes which require pumps, and mixers, and aerators, etc.

The third supporting point is going to be that they don’t consume expensive chemicals such as reagents, flocculents, anti-foaming agents etc.

A 4th support point in favor will be they are good for wildlife.

And last (but not necessarily least) we’ve got the 5th point in support they are quite good if something goes wrong and for a short period of time a higher strength of contamination arrives in the flow, they will usually absorb the additional loading and not discharge it, of course there are limits to this, but a high-tech process in their place would most probably have been overwhelmed by a shock loading much sooner than a reed bed.

And on the other side, for balance, the Con side, against:

The primary point against reed beds for leachate treatment is that the beds have to be sized and designed and built with a high degree of knowledge of what they can be expected to treat, and treated with respect, certainly when freshly planted so that there is no overloading while the roots (rhizomes) grow and establish the necessary root mass.

The second point in contra is going to be the best beds are low permeability when first built and the flow put through must be limited for the first period of use while the root grows and develop the growing media that they are planted into into a well oxygenated complex of live roots with a higher permeability

The 3rd point in contra will be you must avoid overland flow and short circuiting of the flow through a red bed for full treatment.

A fourth negative point will be in very cold climates in winter if there is no build-up of insulating snow over the beds and the effluent which flows through a bed becomes cold, a bed may freeze into the root mass. If this occurs treatment will be compromised until warm weather defrosts the bed, so a keen eye may be needed in winter with a backup treatment process method in the event of reed beds becoming too cold.

And 5th and last, but not necessarily the least, consideration against is the initial construction cost is quite high, although not usually as high as the alternative tank an reactor type processes.

So there you have it, the good qualities along with the cons, the points in favor along with the points against.

And so, who won? What can we conclude? Is reed beds for leachate treatment more good than bad? or more bad than good?

The answer seems to be “Yes” to both questions! reed beds for leachate treatment seems to be both good AND bad! It ought to be left up to you, the reader to decide. Which side, the good or the bad, has got the preponderance of weight of opinion?

Top 8 Benefits of Regular Exercise

We all want a lean and healthy body, and regular exercise is the only way to have it. But due to the busy lifestyle in this 21st century, we can barely manage enough time to do it. If you have been thinking about exercising regularly for some time, this article is here to motivate you with reasons why you need to hit the gym right now.

1. For an improved memory

Regular exercise not only provides more oxygen to your brain but also boosts your memory power. Recent studies have shown that increased blood flow due to vigorous exercise has a part to play in improving memory power.

2. For more energy

You may feel tired and weak after an intense training session. But with proper rest and nutrition, you will surely have more energy than ever before.

3. For better sleep

Suffering from insomnia? Do not worry, just start exercising on a regular basis and this problem will be gone in no time. However, remember to exercise in the morning or afternoon instead of right before going to the bed.

4. For a stress-free life

Stress may be a part of your life, but you have the chance to fight it off with regular exercise. Endorphins released in the brain while exercising efficiently reduce stress, making you feel better at all times.

5. For superior immunity

Just exercise 3 to 4 times a week and soon your immune system will be strong enough to fight off flu, viruses and other diseases. Some researches provided that those who exercise regularly are half as likely to get a cold than those who do not do it at all.

6. For better sex

We all know regular exercise helps improve blood circulation all over the body. Thus, it helps increase sexual stimulation and reduces erectile dysfunction.

7. For superior confidence

Hitting the gym on a daily basis helps you look good and stay fit. When you feel better about yourself, you feel confident in doing whatever you do.

8. For living longer

It's a known fact that staying fit and healthy is the key to living a long life and avoiding premature aging. One study found that you will get the same benefits of quitting smoking if you take part in regular training sessions. Moreover, you can expect to add 10 to 20 more years in your life expectancy if you live on a proper diet and stay fit at all times.

Let's admit that it's hard for us to manage even one hour every day to go to the gym. No matter what, you must try your best in order to live a happy and fulfilling life.

Top 5 Tile Flooring Tips

Tile flooring has emerged as an integral part of home décor in modern households. Tiles flaunting various shades and intriguing patterns add glamor and glitz to households. They enhance the aesthetic beauty of household, but before investing a good amount of fortune on tile flooring, you must make yourself aware of various types and styles of tiles available. This knowledge will help you choose something worthy of your apartment or home.

You also have to keep in mind that people need different tiles for different rooms. The selection of tiles depends not solely on the aesthetics of your room or budget but also on factors like corrosion, home climate etc. The product can end up being of multiple types, such as mosaic tile, ceramic tiles, stone tile flooring etc.

Factors That Influence Tile Selection

• First and foremost you must have a clear idea as to how many floor tiles you will need to cover your household and draw up a budget plan accordingly. Remember many variants are exquisitely beautiful but enormously costly. Do your homework on tile-variants from the Internet or consult interior décor magazines to have an idea about your upcoming investment.

• While selecting tiles do not fall for cheap, fancy material of poor quality because seldom are these products durable. Instead, choose tiles that are scratch-proof, mite resistant and long lasting.

• Durability of tiles is mainly dependent on the products usage and maintenance. So buy something that can be maintained easily. Also note that people mainly prefer water-proof tile for their bathrooms and kitchen areas.

• Different tiles are needed for different rooms. For instance stone and marble tiles are great for bathroom and kitchen. This is because these tiles are tough and will survive even under the prevalence of moisture.

• Ceramic tiles are great for living rooms and bedrooms. Eye popping variants of these are available in the market place. While shopping, make sure that they go well with your interiors. Tiles made of assorted shapes are also very much in vogue, and placed aesthetically, they can certainly add to the charm of your household.

Some Attributes to Look For in Kitchen Tiles

If you are interested in decorating your kitchen with tiles, you need to be careful while choosing. These tiles will be exposed to dirt and grease that can make the tiles greasy. So you can go for washable tiles or dirt-resistant products. These specially made kitchen tiles can be washed quite easily. Particularly engineered ones can endure rough kitchen conditions.

Quality tile flooring involves skilled masonry work and only a good mason knows how to put tiles perfectly on floors. This is why you must search for a professional and a skilled tile floor contractor. For home interior or exterior decoration, planning ahead well is mandatory. If you are not adept in judging the pros and cons of a flooring project, you should always consult with an expert before investing in your project. Other than turning to the Internet for info, you can also seek assistance from interior designers.

Prostate Milking – The Best Position to Stimulate the Prostate

The act of stimulating the prostate gland in order for men to reach orgasm or ejaculate is called prostate milking. This could be done for medical reasons or just for the fun and pleasure that it brings. We must understand what prostate milking is first before we tackle more about the topic.

Let’s talk about the medical reasons first, medical doctors have used this technique to relieve the pain felt by the people who have prostate disorder. They also use prostate milking when they need to get a semen sample from paralyzed patients. They soon discovered that there are more benefits that could be reaped from performing prostate milking though. One of those said benefits is the less chance of acquiring prostate cancer.

How does this work?

The doctors explained that when men ejaculate or have orgasm in the normal way, not all of the semen gets released. There are traces of the semen left behind and given the right situation; those could develop into prostate cancer. I am not saying that these residues are the only culprit to having prostate cancer. I am merely saying that they contribute to the chance of having one.

Let us move on to something much fun. As I have mentioned earlier, another reason for prostate milking could be because of the ecstatic feeling that it brings to us men and for some couples alike. Though it may be considered taboo, we cannot deny the fact that it really brings a higher level of satisfaction.

Many couples have even testified that performing the act not only gives men pleasure but it also brings great pleasure for both parties. Having this in mind, did you know that there are different positions in performing this? Do you know what position works for you? If you are not familiar with the different positions of prostate milking then let me teach you some. You could determine later what works for you. Mind you, there are some things you must remember before doing any of these positions.

First of all, prostate milking could be done either by only you or with the help of your partner. Second, you have the liberty of using your fingers or an adult toy. Just make sure to lubricate before inserting anything. Lastly, have proper hygiene when performing this because you would have to touch or apply pressure in sensitive areas. Read on and enjoy.

• PROSTATE MILKING POSITION 1: STANDARD FETAL POSITION. Do this by lying on your side and bending your knees. Place your knees as close to your stomach as possible. By being in this position, you could easily reach for your anus or your perineum.

• PROSTATE MILKING POSITION 2: LIE ON YOUR BACK AND LIFT YOUR LEGS. Insert your finger or your toy before you proceed to be on this position. Also remember that you have to do this slowly so as not to cause any damage to the membranes inside your anus. You could also place padding underneath the small of your back so that you would be more comfortable in the position.

• PROSTATE MILKING POSITION 3: ON ALL FOURS. You could start by kneeling on a soft surface. You could either do this on the bed or anywhere that you may fancy. You could experiment on this position. You could try stretching your hands farther away in front of you. You could also try and arch your back for a bit.

There are still other positions for prostate milking that you could try. Your imagination and your creativity would be the only limits. Bear in mind that though pleasure is good, it is still better to on the safe side of things.