Silbury Hill – Chalk Mound or Pyramid Mound?

English Heritage and the archaeological establishment believe Silbury Hill to be a chalk mound. UNESCO describes it as the largest manmade mound in Europe. Driving past this ancient monument today it is quite easy to readily accept this simple explanation.

However, if we literally dig a bit deeper and look further afield, is there something more to Silbury Hill than just a chalk mound?

English Heritage goes further to confirm Silbury Hill to be a 4,500 year old ceremonial chalk mound, inspired by "ritual" and built by our Pagan / Druid pre-Christian ancientors. The date is primarily due to archaeologist Professor Richard Atkinson following the dig, sponsored by the BBC, from 1968-1970, which produced a series of archaeological programs. The TV series was designed to increase the public's awareness of archaeology by trying to reveal the inner secrets of Silbury Hill with the exciting prospect, as they progressed through the hill, they might discover a large golden statue of King Sil on horseback or some other treasure At the center of the hill.

It was no surprise that no treasure was found. However they uncovered an antler on the hill outside the entrance to the tunnel which was radiocarbon dated to 4,500 years. As no exciting artefacts' were found in the making of the TV program the antler gained in prominence. Somehow it was decided this antler was used in the construction of Silbury Hill. The huge irrational leap soon followed – Silbury Hill must also be approximately 4,500 years old – and in turn confirmed the dubious date for Stonehenge at 4,500 years old !!

Interestingly, Josh McDowell and Don Stewart at a Yale University study yielded three different ages for the same antler – 5,340 years, 9,310 years, and 10,320 years. What caused variations in the result can be explained – limestone contamination of the sample. Did English Heritage chose a date to match the existing age for Stonehenge and how could they possibly know it was used in the construction?

Professor Atkinson did not make any notes to record his dig, but he did in an interview in The Listener describe Silbury Hill as' an incredibly intricate and highly colored layer cake 'and as a' wedding cake ', and the organic mound formed' A kind of severe biological club sandwich '- a clue to something more than a random pile of chalk?

So, I was resigned to the fact that in our lifetime, we would be left with the Atkinson legacy and in my view the archaeological establishment had seriously misunderstood, misrepresented and mistreated Silbury Hill.

But Atkinson left another legacy, an unstable English Heritage monument, which caused a collapse in the vertical shaft dug by Edward Drax (with Cornish miners) in 1776. This produced a gaping hole at the top of the hill in May 2000.

When the hole appeared some local researchers' aborted down the shaft and filmed some interesting discoveries – smooth walls and sharp corners indicating the presence of a chamber inside the hill and significant levels of electrostatic electricity which destroyed a mobile phone which had been accidently taken down into The shaft.

The discovery of the chamber confirmed the experience of Mrs LF Brooks from Pewsey, who spoke to the Marlborough Times in August 1962. She described how during the First World War she used to live very near the hill and was told by her parents that there were Caverns inside. When the entrance caved in, 1915, a tiny passage led first of all downwards and then altered course and proceeded upwards. Sometimes it forked, with one way leading to a dead end and the other to a cavern 'about as big as a room'. Beyond this there was another cavern similar to the first: We took candles in with us and used to write our names on the ceiling with the candle smoke '. The whole system must have gone about three parts through the hill, 'she said. 'And it was very frightening … my brother would blow out the candle and I would be terrified.'

On the interesting question of energy levels at Silbury Hill, I met Dr Oleg Khavroshkin, Head of Nonlinear Seismology Lab, Russian Academy of Sciences, Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, in Bosnia in September 2008. With sophisticated scientific equipment, he and his Team had measured electrostatic energy, magnetic fields inside and seismic waves emanating from the tip of all of the main pyramids in Egypt. He found that each pyramid had its own unique transmission frequency.

So, the collapse of the shaft spurred English Heritage to embark on the Silbury Hill Conservation and Restoration project in 2007/2008 and so began my serious research into Silbury Hill.

The latest evidence found during this project in 2007/2008 by English Heritage archaeologists including ants and insects plus core samples taken from the hill in 2002 would further confirm English Heritage's assertion that Silbury Hill was 4500 years old. However no forensic science techniques or cleanroom facilities were employed in the removal of these samples from what is a highly contaminated and polluted hill! If this was a murder scene, any evidence would be deemed inadmissible!

Similar from my investigations the Mollusc shells found deep inside the hill which were dated by the University of Mexico to over 12,000 years along with flint flakes of similar date fount in pits at the top of the first stage of the hill. Sadly this evidence must also be deemed inadmissible due to contamination and speculation. So, it would be difficult to confirm my assertion that Silbury Hill was built around 12,000 years ago.

Neverheless never soon became evident, with a number of discoveries, eg precise chalk blocks, large pieces of sarsen stone at the summit, chambers inside, flint flakes at the center and a uniform sheet of material covering the base of the construction, that Silbury Hill Is something more than a chalk mound. In fact new evidence points to the distinct possibility that Silbury Hill was originally a white pyramid and what we see today is the remains of a pyramid mound?

English Heritage removed large pieces of sarsen stone from the top of Silbury Hill in 2007.

"The discovery of large pieces of sarsen stones near the top of the final phase of the monument has also been a surprise. Given the almost certainly religious and ceremonial nature of Silbury, it is likely that these stones had some symbolic importance, potentially representing the Spirits of dead ancestors ".

Newspaper quote from Jim Leary, Archaeologist, English Heritage The Independent Thursday 25 October 2007

English Heritage made no attempt to find out the dimension, shape and the composition of another very important piece of evidence – an unbroken and uniform membrane / sheet of dark brown butter-textured material, 5mm thick and stone-free, which appears to cover the Base of this chalk construction. Samples were sent to Arizona University and they claimed it may have the properties of a form of Mica called Illite which had been 'softened' by water seeing through the construction over the many centuries.

If we look further afield, it looks Silbury Hill is sharing scientific features and properties with lots of pyramids and pyramid mounds found on every continent on Earth. It appears from ongoing scientific research, notably with the Egyptian pyramids, that these pyramid structures were used as multifunctional energy sources converting the natural flow of ionic current into electrostatic electricity and via crystalline stone transducers such as granite and sarsen into other forms of energy including Magnetic, seismic and air purification (Bionizer) properties.

So, there are lots of convincing scientific and non-scientific clues to suggest that Silbury Hill is something more than a heap of chalk.

It is likely there may have been hundreds of similar constructions to Silbury Hill in this huge ancient Wessex complex many of which have since disappeared. Intriguingly, at 4,500 years ago, there is no evidence of the population required in this area at this time to build the ancient structures and megaliths such as Stonehenge!

Although it was badly damaged by the Saxons who smashed the large sarsen cap to make way for a look-out post and later by a series of tunnels dug by so-called archaeologists, it seems Silbury Hill survived because of its size, position and the Gradually grassing over of the monument by nature.

The Romans, who had a settlement close by to Silbury Hill, must have produced some drawings or mosaics of what was an impressive structure at this time. Hopefully somewhere in some pretty home or museum is hidden such a record?

Or maybe we have to wait for the progress of science such as Ground Penetrating Radar Equipment linked to satellites to unforgettable untouched ancient sites to be studied carefully and open mindedly with the latest forensic science techniques?

However, all claims to the age and purpose of Silbury Hill can only be speculated at this time. Neverheless I would encourage readers to visit Silbury Hill to refer to the unique energy of this ancient site and form their own ideas and opinions – was Silbury Hill at the dawning of humanity and who were the knowledgeable builders?

Solar Water Heaters – A Guide

Solar water heaters are divided into two kinds of systems: active or passive. Active solar systems readily upon moving mechanical parts in order to transport heat, while passive units simply use the sun to accomplish this action. Solar Water Heaters are economical, technically feasible, and commercially available and are used in many countries. Solar Water Heaters make use of flat – plate collectors, storage tank, control mechanism, pump and pipes etc. Solar water heaters are MUCH more efficient than that, taking the heat from the sun and using it to directly heat the water. Basically, it's like putting a big tub of water on your roof.

Systems that meet the standard contain the SRCC OG-300 label. Systems include a back-up water heating system to ensure that hot water is always available. The back-up heating system can use electric, natural gas, or propane and is controlled by a thermostat.

RECs are payable if you are installing a system in a new dwelling or installing a solar water heater to replace an electric water heater in an existing lodging. You can also get a partial RECs rebate for replacing an old electric system. Recirculation systems are a specific type of open-loop system that provides free protection. They use the system pump to circulate warm water from storage tanks through collectors and exposed piping when temperatures approach freezing.

Heat energy is transferred from the collector to the water storage tank. In some water heaters, hot fluid is pumped from the collector to the storage tank. Heaters 10 years old or older probably have an efficiency of no higher than 50 percent. Heating water with the sun also means long-term benefits, such as being cushioned from future fuel shortages and price increases, and environmental benefits.

Perfecting Your Family Vacation with a Surefire Plan

Planning the family vacation of your dreams could be a tedious task. But once you’ve planned your day-to-day vacation activities, it will turn out as it truly is, a relaxing and enjoyable vacation for the whole family.

Usually, you come home from a vacation even more tired than before you left. Hassles may pop out unexpectedly during the course of a few days of vacationing. There are helpful tricks that you could include in your plan as you dream up that vacation.

Of course, having a destination in mind that would be enjoyable for all the members of the family is the initial consideration. Choose a location that offers breathtaking views, exciting attractions and pleasurable activities for each family member. You may get all the information you need about the choices in mind and have a family meeting to arrive at an agreeable decision.

In choosing the perfect destination, you might want to consider the activities that you plan to do while you’re there. Would you like to go swimming, fishing, boating, hiking, sightseeing or dining? All these have to be carefully thought of and researched. Internet websites and hospitality companies could help you with the details.

Once the destination has been determined, discuss with your other half how you are going to get there. Would you like to enjoy a car trip that would allow you to make frequent stops to different attractive sites before reaching your final destination? This is a good way to travel if the route your taking offers many stopovers that would be enjoyable for your family.

If you would like to maximize the time you spend in your vacation target, go ahead and take that plane. This will shorten the travel time, giving you enough time to enjoy all the good things your vacation spot offers.

You may even take a cruise ship to your destination and enjoy your vacation even before reaching your destination. Many cruise lines offer family packages that include all family members in their amenities and activities planned. This is a good choice for those planning to visit a distant island and a have a good many days to spare for the vacation.

You will now have to determine how many days you have to spare for this vacation. If you have a lot of time on hand, family cruising might be perfect for you. If you have a busy family schedule, you may just squeeze it in one weekend. Aside from costing less, planning and scheduling activities also become less tedious.

If you don’t want to worry about planning anymore, pre-planned itineraries are offered by many hospitality companies. You simply enjoy the vacation while everything is planned for you.

Florida has been a preferred destination for years by families because it offers a great variety of activities. In Orlando for example, the whole family can enjoy attraction parks, great restaurants and water parks among other things.

Design Forecast: Trends That Are Here To Stay In 2017

Centered on serenity and simplicity the 2017 new interior trend reflects our need to simply log out, switch off and detox with our life. As 2016 saw a slew of online furnishing brands that launch onto the market proposing their customers the ability to customize and order home decor products online according to their own personal set of unique specifications. This trend is here to stay and set to continue this year as well as the e-commerce firms and new online companies establish themselves and reach a wider audience.

According to hospitality designers and interior experts, furnishing designs inspired from 1970`s are set to make a comeback in 2017. The relaxed and free-spirit era has been attracting the fashion industry and has now quickly moved towards interiors and home decor as well. The design elements and pattern of the 70`s were raw, bold and globally affluent, as a response to the social, economical and political environment of that time. Vivid colors and distinctive patterns will rule this year to create a more varied, personalized and an environment that will inspire the individuals.

Modern interior design trends are in a constant state of flux. The demands of innovative ideas and creative novel forms, along with the rapid technological advancements create modern designs that are fresh and inspiring. The trends come and go, but contemporary and classic interior principles remain. The trends like these are of fun and infused with bold appearance. The interior schemes will be full of exotic flavors inspired by the tropical places. The hues and shades will psychedelic largely influenced by the international places. A lot of brash and bold color clashes are expected this year, along with lively patterns and a lot of mixed fabrics and materials as fashion make its mark on interiors.

According to designer experts the vibrant bohemian color and pattern will bring a warm and global vibe to summer/spring 2017. Cushion covers and rugs in bold floral prints will prove to be an epitome of absolute opulence. As the splendid, bright shades help to accessorize a living space, an infusion of a wild imagination can create wonders. A saturated color palette dominates with purples, greens and oranges mixing with varied type of fabrics like linens, cottons will create interesting accessories and alluring interiors. One of the most fashionable trends for this year is the fascinating Oriental theme. This year is all about incorporating heavy, rich, deep colors in fabrics with interesting artwork. “It’s all about Asia”, say the experts. Either the entire room will be decorated within the luxurious trend of the market or by using few chosen elements of this theme to achieve a specific look. This style is glamorous yet sophisticated with an Asian Twist, which is definitely going to surf the trendy waves of fashion for 2017.

Even if you live in the city, surrounded with concrete jungles, the relaxed and informal coastal and nautical schemes will give you the impression of sandy feet and salty air, this year. A specific pattern and color will be combined to create a seaside feel that will work well in urban, country and coastal homes. Avoid using obvious nautical prints and use pop and chic bright shades in stripes mixed with tangerine orange and electric red to pep up your room, say the experts from the designer industry. Typography is one of the most latest upcoming trends that are going to bring bedrooms and living rooms to life. It could either be a series of themed words or a single over sized letter or printed direct to curtains blinds and other home accessories.

Increasingly style is becoming a matter of personal choice in 2017, more than a defined parameter or benchmarks set up by the industries. This year will also witness the extension of this speculation in the living rooms and bedrooms where local designers and homeowners will come together to create a personalized look that fuses two or three individual styles. While touches of vivacious prints and tropical charm are going to ride the waves of the latest fashion trend, styles like oriental, Indian and Asian inspired theme will provide the wonderful alchemy of the understated and exotic. Indian home furnishing textile has its unique way of collaborating vivid hues with distinctive patterns; you can surely explore the horizon of creative possibilities to create your own fusion style of home inspired by the innovative and latest home furnishing trends of 2017.

Four Tools Needed for Jewellery Repairs

One characteristic that makes jewellery so beautiful is its delicate appearance. Unfortunately, this also means that it can be easily broken. Luckily, some tools make it easy to take on simple jewellery repairs at home instead of paying experts to do the same job. These tools can be found at any craft or hardware store, often for less than the cost of professional repair. Some of them may even be already found in the toolbox at home.

1. Workstation

This might seem obvious, but it’s very important to have a good workstation. Since most accessories are made of tiny chain links, beads and gems, anyone attempting jewellery repairs at home should have a dedicated table or desk where the project won’t be disturbed for awhile. The area should be well-lit and spacious enough to hold all of the necessary tools and placed away from small children, pets, or strong drafts that could cause small pieces to become misplaced. A magnifying glass might be useful during this process, as well.

2. Pliers

No matter what materials are being repaired, two sets of pliers are almost always needed. One pair of pliers is used to hold the jewellery in place, while the other is used to pry open jump rings, set jewels, or attach clasps. Some different types of pliers can be used for these jobs. Round-nose pliers are useful for bending metals, while chain nose pliers are better for gripping wire. However, standard needle-nosed pliers found in nearly any tool kit will work with most projects.

3. Soldering Iron

A soldering iron is a tool that is used to melt a small piece of metal (known as solder) to form a connection between two other pieces of metal. Once the solder cools, it permanently bonds the pieces together. This is perfect for closing jump rings, repairing chains or reattaching metal beads. The pliers mentioned above will be essential when using a soldering iron, as the torch creates high heat that can easily burn the user if he or she is not careful.

4. Jeweler’s Epoxy

Sometimes a soldering iron is not an appropriate tool to use for jewellery repairs. For reattaching loose stones such as pearls or opals, many jewelers turn to jeweler’s epoxy. This is a special kind of glue that requires mixing before it can be used. Before it is applied, all of the old glue should be carefully removed so that the epoxy will bond to the jewellery. A clamp or vice should be used to help hold the stone in place until the epoxy dries.

With these simple tips and a little practice, anyone will be able to perform simple jewellery repair at home, saving a favorite piece without the hefty price tag that comes along with a trip to the shop. Of course, for difficult jobs or very expensive pieces, it may still be best to consult a professional.

Padear Pro Earphones Review

Looking for a $10 pair of earbuds for work, school, exercise, or just some quiet listening? In a market saturated by tons of OEMs, most of them garbage quality and focused on flashiness over sound quality, it’s easy to make a regrettable decision. Last year, I launched a project intented to put every sub $100 pair of headphones or earphones I could find to the test. After reviewing more than 25 headphones less than $5, I concluded that it’s probably worth investing a tiny bit more money into your purchase. The Padear Pro earphones are the single best pair of earphones $40 or less I’ve tested out of a field of more than 50. And how much will they run you? Less than ten bucks.

First off, let’s start with the company. Padear is a Chinese startup company focused on electronics– from that description, nothing really stands out. According to the person I got in contact with through e-mail, the company has been designing headphones for only about a year– but the development team is packed with talent, led by audio engineers who primarily worked with Bose.

The Padear Pro earphones are their first pair of earphones released in open production. Their MSRP is $10, available from Amazon as well as multiple Chinese vendors such as Aliexpress. According to their product page, these earphones boast “perfect low frequency performance, clear vocals,” and an “excellent soundproof design.” Big claims for a pair of ten dollar earbuds… but do they hold true?

The Pros come packaged in a simple plastic carrying case. Upon opening it up you’re faced with the first indication of this product’s uniqueness– a strong punch of perfumey sweetness. Yes, these headphones smell good. This is the first I’ve heard of this tactic and, I have to say, I like it. As someone who’s allergic to most perfume and has a pretty sensitive nose, these headphones aren’t overpoweringly pungent at all– in fact, it’s a subtle detail that just points toward the quality of the product.

Starting from the bottom, you get a gold-plated headphone jack that’s quadsectional due to the built-in microphone. Moving up, you get a reinforced jack sleeve– something rarely seen, and unheard of in budget models. This will prevent the wiring from being damaged near the jack– something rarely seen and dearly appreciated. The 1.2 meter wire itself is a transluscent gray that shows off a tricolor wiring system. Just when you thought innovation was impossible in a budget pair of earphones, there you go. It’s eyecatching and certainly stylish.

Moving up further, you reach the microphone and controller. On one side, there’s a call button which doubles as a play/pause function. On the other, a volume slider, very rare on earphones under $20, and a stereo/mono switch, almost unheard of on earphones in general. All three of these are helpful in daily use and certainly add to the feeling of quality you get from these.

The headphones split AFTER the microphone controller, which is rare. Usually, designers place this on the right side so the mic is in proximity to one’s mouth. While structurally, this modification is beneficial, it’s potentially problematic when it comes to the mic picking up voices. Luckily, this is far from the case. The sound quality of the microphone is great, and it picks up very little background noise, pointing to the possible use of higher quality Japanese mic drivers. While not too much more expensive, these components are tougher to find, pointing towards a really well thought out design process.

Coming to the earbuds themselves: they’re straight and stout, which is good. Low profile is certainly commendable for headphones, but it causes extra design challenges in conducting sound. The eartips are extremely cushiony and the single best rubber ones I’ve worn– however, they can be substituted with others without a hitch.

Sound quality is, in one word, amazing. For $10, you get dynamic highs, full mids, and VERY punchy bass. The overall sound signature is balanced except for the very bottom end, which is throbbing and exciting. High/mid clarity is incredible, while bass clarity is almost as good. The soundstage is very above average for headphones of any price point, while the sound isolation is good, but not too much because extreme noise cancellation hurts the soundstage. When music is playing, the amped up bass tones do a great job of cancelling out noise. When music isn’t playing, noise cancellation is moderate. This points to a good construction and top quality soundstage. It’s really incredible these things are even being discussed on a $10 pair of earphones.

Overall, the Padear Pro headphones are a steal. I’d gladly pay $50 for these if they came with a fancier carrying case. Among the $10 price line, these stand out as the clear winners for bass lovers. If we expand the budget out to $50, these are among the top handful in terms of sound quality, and by far the most comfortable.


  • The best sound quality available from any $10 headphones on the market
  • Some of the most comfortable stock eartips
  • Responsive microphone
  • Reinforced headphone jack
  • Volume control, Stereo/Mono control
  • Balanced sound signature, bar the extra-powerful bottom end.


  • Microphone is relatively low positioned– doesn’t impact mic performance but impacts accessibility sometimes
  • May be hard to find these sold, and some ship all the way from China

Keeping Your Screen Room Clean and Healthy

As beautiful as it is, nature is messy. Birds, insects, four-footed critters and even trees like to drop stuff on your screened pool enclosure or outdoor screen room. After all, that’s why you have a screen room, right? – To keep all that stuff outside, where it belongs. So, how do you keep your screen room or pool enclosure free of leaves, debris, and animal droppings?

An Ounce (or More) of Prevention

Take a look at the trees around your screen room. You will want to keep these trimmed back from your screen room as much as possible. At best, trees will drop leaves and lightweight seeds, which will need to be cleaned off (more on this later). Some types of trees are prone to dropping heavy fruit (such as avocadoes, grapefruit, or coconuts) or dead branches. Be vigilant about keeping these trees under control, because a heavy branch can do serious damage to your screen room.

Other plants that can cause damage include vines and vine-like plants such as honeysuckle and Bougainville. If you let these go, they can grow branches right through the screen material.

Keeping the animal kingdom at bay can be more challenging. If birds are congregating on your screen room and making a mess, consider one of these solutions:

Have a plastic horned owl (available at most home and garden stores) installed on top of the enclosure.

Have pigeon guards installed (these are spikes that make it difficult for birds to land).

Install a sprinkler or sprayer with a motion sensor.

Place a large rubber snake (also available at garden centers) on top of the enclosure.

The same solutions can work for other animals, such as lizards and squirrels, but this will vary by species.

Keeping Your Screens Clean

First, a word of caution: Many screen rooms and pool enclosures are tall, and keeping them clean involves ladders. If you are at all uncomfortable with heights or are unsteady on ladders, call a professional.

If leaves, lightweight seeds, or small branches are accumulating on your screen room, you can remove them with a light broom or a leaf blower. Once the debris is removed, wash the screens and frame as follows:

Using water and mild soap (such as dish detergent) and a soft-bristle brush, wash both sides of each screen panel.

You can also wash the aluminum frame with the same soapy water and brush.

Use a garden hose with a spray nozzle to rinse the screen panels off.

After rinsing, gently tap the middle of each screen panel to shake the water off.

While you are cleaning your screens, inspect them for damage. Most home centers and hardware stores sell screen repair kits to repair small holes or tears. For more extensive damage, you may need to replace the entire panel. Also look for rusted or missing screws and damaged frame pieces, and repair or replace as needed.


By following these tips, you can avoid expensive repairs, keep the wildlife outside, and keep your outdoor room looking good.

How To Decide If Concrete Polishing Is Right for You

Many business owners that have concrete floors ask if any floor can be polished. While the short answer may be that nearly any floor can be polished, the better answer is that not all of it should be polished. First of all, concrete floors that are made of a porous type of concrete will make for a very poorly polished floor. The reason for this is that these kinds of floors tend to absorb more of the polish. On a non-porous concrete floor, the concrete polish will form a sealant on the top of the floor, making it not only stronger and more resistant to moisture, but also giving it that added sheen.

For older concrete floors, and those that may have some damage to the surface, most concrete polishing contractors will do some coarse grinding to the surface before hand to create an even floor for polishing. However, surfaces that have already been patched a few times may not appear as well after the polishing is complete. If there is patchwork done, the patches will still be visible after the concrete polishing. In these situations, however, there is still the added benefit of stronger floors that are able to withstand more traffic and weight from things like heavy machinery or furniture.

If you are having new concrete poured, ask your contractor about applying non-porous concrete so that it can be polished once the job is complete. For older concrete floors, the polishing process can seal up small holes on the surface and also close up the gaps that may be present in the existing floor. If you have recently had new floors installed, you should wait at least 30 days before having the it polished. This allows the concrete enough time to set completely.

Nearly any concrete flooring can be polished. The only real exceptions here are going to be those that have not been in place for at least thirty days and those that were not installed using non-porous concrete to begin with.

How to Install a Liner Pond

Liner ponds are ideal for the experienced water gardener because they allow for very forgiving installations, which consequently promotes greater creativity. However, for the very same reasons, liner ponds also take require some pre-planning. Before you commence a liner pond project, you should purchase a pond liner that is of the appropriate size for your pond dimensions. To determine the appropriate liner size, it is recommended that you use a pond liner calculator (I.e. like the one on’s website). To follow are instructions and tips on how you can install your very own liner pond.

It is recommended that you purchase an EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) liner that is at least 45 mil in thickness. EPDM is a highly stable material that stays flexible in temperatures from -40 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit. Unlike other liner materials, it does not contain plasticizers that could cause it to become brittle with age. EPDM will also last longer than other liner materials because it is resistant to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV), and it has high expansion and contraction characteristics that enable it to conform to rocks and tree roots in the earth sub grade.

Once you have designed the pond on paper, and purchased all the necessary materials, you should start by marking the outline of the pond with rope or a garden hose. Start by digging a coping shelf around the perimeter of the pond. The coping shelf will help to hold the boulder, rockwork, and the liner overlay into place. The coping shelf should be approximately 2″ deep and 16 to 18 inches wide. It is recommended that you utilize a square shovel to dig the coping shelf, because round or sharp-pointer shovels can leave small furrows in the dirt.

After ensuring that the coping shelf is level all around the pond, dig a bog shelf for plants. Most ponds are designed with shelves 9″ to 12″ below the water level. Afterwards, the center (I.e. deepest area) of the pond should be dug. The deep area should slope in approximately 20 degrees from the vertical.

Prepare the hole for the liner by removing sharp stones or roots. At this point, you have the option of lining the excavation with pond underlayment. Although it is not mandatory, underlayment helps to cover the entire surface, to protect the liner from below. Liner underlayment does not need to be in a single piece, hence smaller pieces can be overlapped. However, it is recommended that you tape smaller underlayment pieces together, to keep the pieces from moving after the liner is placed on top.

The liner should be carefully laid-out into the hole. Although a 45 mil liner is thick and durable, care must be taken to make certain that the liner is not damaged or punctured during installation. Unlike the underlayment, the liner must be a single unbroken sheet. Try to minimize the folding and pleating of the liner, because folds have the potential to trap dirt and debris. A perfectly intact liner should last for 40 years before it begins to deteriorate.

Now you’re ready to fill the pond with water! As you’re filling the pond, stop the hose periodically to smooth out wrinkles in the liner. After the pond has been filled, you can cut off any excess liner, but make sure that enough material is left to allow the liner to extend over the coping shelf (and underneath whatever edging is planned). The liner can be anchored with boulders, or long nails around its edge. Edging materials should be applied around the liner to weigh it down, which has the added benefit of giving your pond a natural look.

At this point, the most difficult part of the installation has been completed. All that remains to be done is to install the pump, and decorate around the pond. However, if you find yourself with an uncontrollable urge to expand your water garden, you should definitely consider the installation of a cascade or waterfall.

Dining Room Furniture – Preparing For a Perfect Dinner Party

More often you would like to celebrate an important occasion in your very own home. Since people are most likely available during dinner, you prefer to have your celebration during dinner time. To make your party successful, you have to prepare on a few things and of course make sure that you leave a good impression to your guests. Through your preparation, you will also have to fix or decide on what your dining area should look like, and your dining room furniture is one that you should try looking into first.

If you feel that the dining room is not lively enough, you may have to decide placing a few furniture that would fit your dining area. There are a lot of furniture that you may add to decorate your dining room such as small or large sideboards, cabinets, dressers, buffet and hutches, kitchen islands, display units, and many more. These dining room furniture can surely make a difference as you add them to your dining area to make it look more beautiful.

Now, if you feel like you have to make major changes before the party begins, you may want to consider looking for stylish wooden furniture that will look best on whatever theme you have for your home. You may also want to consider replacing your old dining table and chairs for a change. Just to make sure that you will be able to fit a lot of people on the table while you are eating, try searching for stylish dining sets, and if you have a very large dining area as well as a beautiful kitchen, you may also opt to get extending dining tables together with six chairs for this will definitely allow you to accommodate everybody while serving dinner.

To make sure that your dinner party turns out to be a success, you don’t just have to focus on the food and program, but, you should also prepare for the ambiance because this is what people love about parties and make them remember. If you want your party to be a perfect memorable event for you and your guest, make them enjoy what they see in your house and at the same time, make them feel at home.

Go Green at Home With Artificial Grass

If that green thumb of yours is itching to scatter some seeds, try planting some trees. Because when it comes to growing grass, your green conscience knows better. It may be Mother Nature's natural carpet, but there's nothing natural about the automated watering, chemical saturation and air-polluting mowing of a "natural" lawn. Fortunately, you need not sacrifice the experience of that lush green grass you love. Southwest Greens designs maintenance-free synthetic turf and grass that looks and feels like the real thing – not only for your lawn, but also putting greens for golf enthusiasts.

For every square foot of lawn or backyard putting greens you grow, it takes at least 25 gallons of water to keep it alive through the year. For a 2,000-square-foot lawn, that's 50,000 gallons of water that your automatic sprinklers are pouring into the ground, often for grass that's brown and burnt three months out of the year from the summer sun and heat. Southwest Greens artificial grass for your lawn or golf greens enables you to conserve on two precious resources – the water and money you'd otherwise pour down your outdoor drain.

Water is not the only thing you're probably pouring onto your natural grass. Most commercial fertilizers, weed killers and pesticides are filled with chemicals. Imagine the impact of these toxins saturating the grass and seeing into the ground through the lifetime of your lawn. It's not only bad for the Earth and its wildlife, but also your children and pets for what your lawn is – and should be – a playground. Synthetic turf and grass is not only safer for them, but softer too. And Southwest Greens backyard putting greens react to the ball just like natural grass.

You do not have a hundred miles of grass to mow, but you may as well. Using a gas lawnmower pollutes the air just as much as a hundred-mile road trip! Although alternative forms of energy are on the rise, carbon-spewing coal is still the number one resource used to produce our electricity. Southwest Greens artificial grass never needs you to mow it, but always looks like you just did. And your golf greens will always have that pristine, manicured look of a professional course.

Synthetic turf and grass is so environmentally-friendly that some cities offer rebates for its installation because of all the water you'll conserve in your community. Even the value of your home increases with an artificial grass lawn or golf greens in your backyard. Best of all, saving money with artificial grass is just a by-product of helping to save the planet.

Do Your Employees Always See Things The Way You Do?

I was having lunch the other day and was eves-dropping on a conversation in the next booth a couple of managers were having about one of their employees. I will not bore you with all of the gory details but the one comment that stuck me was when one of the managers said "His perceptions are just wrong." I guess he has never read one of my 60 plus books because one of the concepts I cover in each of them, but in different ways is that, no one's perceptions are wrong but they are their.

You see perceptions are the result of many things; Attitudes, education, gender, age, cultural background and so on. So if I have a perception based on my beliefs, values ​​expectations etc it may not mirror your perception but mine is NOT WRONG. It might be different than yours but it is mine. Yours is NOT RIGHT but it is yours.

Let's refer this to a simple everyday occurrence in almost every organization, the misunderstanding of directions or instructions.

Manager: This is the way I want you to do this.

Employee: I understand. (Keep in mind that the employee is filtering these instructions through their own personal and unique mental perceptual filter.)

Manager: When can I expect the report?

Employee: Next week.

Manager: OK (Again keep in mind that the manager is filtering the employees answer through their filter as well and their perception of next week could be anywhere between Monday and Friday but most likely early in the week)

Employee: Great, I'll get it to you next week. (Next week to them could again be anywhere between Monday and Friday but I'll bet they are thinking more like Thursday or Friday.)

Both of you have just been set up for frustration, stress, disappointment or even failure. And it was not an intentional breakout but a breakdown in perceptual interpretation by both of you.

Your expectation for the report on Monday or Tuesday is not wrong or right and their expectation that you get it Thursday or Friday is also not wrong or right. Both of you are entitled to your perceptions. No one is wrong.

But here's the problem. Sooner or later there is going to be a conflict between you and your employee regarding each of your perceptive expectations. This conflict could have been avoided by saying that either of you are wrong and digging in your heads but by clarification with citing or questions by both of you to eliminate the possibility of confusion or misunderstanding. What you are doing is getting clarity in the situation even though you both have different mental filters and see the situation accordingly.

I will tell you that almost all conflict, mistakes and misunderstanding in the corporate world whether between employee and employee, manager and employee or employee and customer are the result of different perceptual interpretations and not getting clarity before moving on.

How To Get ‘Triple A’ Credit In 25 Days

Good credit is everyone’s dream. A wise use of credit can go a long way. It certainly makes certain goals in life (like acquiring business loan from bank) easily attainable.

But the key question remains: “What does it take to achieve ‘Triple A’ credit?”

First and foremost, it is important it is critical to point out where most people go wrong when it comes to their credit and credit report.

People with bad credit will usually seek credit repair help. Most would seek credit expert advice and few will try to do it themselves by purchasing a credit repair book.

Mainly, the problem is not the type of help you hire, rather the assumption you are left with after the whole credit repair process.

Where most people go wrong is that once their credit report is free of any negative entries (or errors), they simply assume that they now have an excellent credit.

That’s simply untrue.

In reality, your credit is not bad because you now have managed to erase the negative entries that was shown on your credit report before. At the same time, you do not have ‘ Triple A ‘ credit either.

Unless, you have positive items or entries showing on your credit report.

And the key to a successful credit repair is not just getting rid-off the negative entries on your credit report, but rather to show-off that you have multiple positive entries on your credit report that can buy the confidence of your bank to loan you their money.

You can find numerous articles dedicated to guiding through the credit repair process, but few will discuss further than just repairing your credit. Meaning few will tell you (better yet, know about),

“How to add positive entries to your credit report?”.

It is very important you understand that, you can repair your own credit and make it flawless, better than anyone ever could. Today, there is so many help on credit repair help, but not all are legitimate help. And it is extremely important to keep that in mind.

If you want to avoid getting chopped-down by bogus repair companies, take the following two statements as an advice that will serve you a long way.

1- There is no law available to any credit repair company, expert, or attorney – that is not available to you as the credit consumer.

2- Credit repair companies use the same law made available to you by congress to repair your bad credit. And they certainly can not change the law for their clients.

The above two simple statements might seem obvious, but repeating them like a mantra can be the difference between getting ripped-off and getting the ‘Triple A’ credit you deserve.

Back to the main point – “How To Achieve Triple A Credit?”

Here you will learn two powerful and proven ways that will give you a sterling credit in the shortest time possible – 25 Days. Apply the following two techniques and, guaranteed, you will give your credit a face lift that would have banks open their check book.

1. A Millionaire’s Credit in 25 Days.

Do you have a checking account and a savings account? Good. If you don’t, no worries, these days you can open an account online. It should take you no more than 5 minutes. You got your accounts opened? Good, now comes the second phase.

Phase 2: Now you will need your savings account to use it as a collateral. Now using your savings account ask your bank for a secured passbook loan.

You can borrow a dollar for dollar with a passbook loan. This type of loan works well with as little as $300, but if you have $10,000 – that’s even better. Once you secure a loan with a passbook you can not touch the funds until you have fully repaid the loan. Remember, you should be able to do with-out these funds for 30 days.

A bank secured with your passbook loan has no risk in lending you money, so any bank should be willing.

Note: It is extremely important that the bank reports your loans to the credit bureau. Therefore ask your bank “If they report your payment history to the three credit bureaus?”, it is critical part of this whole process.

After all, the whole purpose of you doing this is to add zing to your credit report with a very powerful and positive payment history, right?

Now once you borrow the money, wait 25 days and repay the loan back to your bank. Because you have fully repaid your loan the bank will send your positive payment history to the credit bureau.

That’s a grand slam!

Now you have the bank as your friend and the credit bureaus can not help it but report your good payment history.

2. How To Use $500 – $1000 into A Millionaire’s Credit.

With let’s say a $1,000 in your account, ask the loan officer for a 12- month a $1,000 passbook loan. Do not be discouraged, you can certainly achieve this with less money, but if you can afford to do it don’t hesitate.

By the time you’re done with this technique – – – well it’ll be all worth it. Just wait and see. Since this is a secured passbook loan (meaning, it is secured by the amount of money available in your savings) most banks will not run a credit check. And if they tried to do so explain it to them why they should not as it is secured by the money you already have in your savings account.

Which you won’t be able to access until you payoff your loan anyway, so there is no justified reason to run a credit check.Now with the $1,000 secured passbook loan from your first bank, open a savings account at another bank with the $1,000 loan received from the first bank.

The request that they give you a $1,000 12-month loan and do not mention the loan received from the first bank. Wait about a week or two, go to a third bank and repeat the process.

Next, at one of the three banks open a checking account with the $1,000 you received from the third bank. You now have a$1,000 in a checking account and three outstanding 12-month loans at three different banks – for a total of $3,000. Deduct your original $1,000 and you need only repay $2,00 plus interest.

Note: Make sure that you ask your bank if they have a pre-payment penalty because you do not want that.

Finally, about one week later start to pre-pay your three loans.

Now you have an advance payment record with three banks and will have established powerful credit for your credit report. From now on every type of loan and credit card will be yours for the asking.

Here you are with un-touchable credit, three big banks as your future business friends, and a credit bureau reporting positive payment history – all in just under 30 days. You just learned about one of the very few techniques that can change your credit significantly within a month time.

Of course you can apply these techniques for as long as you like and keep improving your credit. Apply these techniques discussed and you will get the Triple A credit you deserve.

Police Recommend Cheap Stun Guns for Self-Protection

What’s the right Stun Gun for you

Okay, there you are, ready to buy a self defence product and now that you’re looking at the various makes models and well, you’re stumped on which one to buy.

Heck, perhaps you don’t even really understand what a stun gun or taser gun is or what’s the difference between them. Allow me to explain.

When I say stun gun, I mean a ‘traditional stun gun’ that many of you may have seen on tv or in the movies. This is a handheld device that has outward facing prongs on the end of the device that when triggered emits a high voltage, visible arc of electricity. The voltage of electricity ‘stuns’ the muscles of the body and interrupts the neurological impulses that control muscle movement. In short the body’s neuromuscular system is shut down temporarily.

A Taser gun is a device that while similar to the traditional stun gun by emitting an electrical charge to the body and shutting down the muscle control it divers in that it actually fires two small probes that are attached to insulated conductive wires. The electricity then pulses along the wires and into the body when you pull the trigger. When you activate the trigger with the probes already attached to the body, then the taser sends additional pulses of electricity. When the trigger is deactivated the electrical pulses a baits.

Okay, now that we have a refresher on what the difference- the dilemma still remains — how do you know which one to buy.

There’s not only a lot to choose from in this area, but so many of the items are so similar why is one a better choice than any other.

For instance if you’re looking at a traditional stun gun there are well over 20 to 30 different products and types. The taser gun’s choices are much more limited with the personal protection model called Taser C2 to the Advanced Taser M18 or M18L. This is the civilian answer to the tactical police model Taser M26.

So there’s really something for everybody when it comes to Buy this guns. So what do I say to somebody when they ask me what’s the best self defense weapon for them?

I ask them these questions:

  • How important is self defense or self protection to you?
  • What do you need it for?
  • How much are you willing to spend to achieve that level of protection?
  • How secure do you want to be?

Now, when I first ask these questions a lot of people think I’m being flippant with them. But the truth is I’m not and if you really answer these questions — because these are the only ones that really bring you to a solution — you will have your answer. Nobody but you can answer it for you. I and others can show you the options or where to buy Cheap but only can decide what is the right product for you.

Don’t agree? Let’s look further into these questions shall we?

  1. How important is self defense or self protection to you? This is important, if you are in a fairly safe environment most of the time and it’s always been that way and you don’t see that changing then this is much different from somebody that is perhaps a female working late at night alone that must walk to their place of work to a dimly lit parking garage in a questionable part of town. I’d say then this becomes a very telling question.
  2. What do you need it for? Is it to feel safe while walking to that parking garage to your car in the dead of night. Perhaps you are escorting your child to the inner city daily for school or taking hikes with your loved ones through the park.
  3. How much are you willing to spend? Again, depending on the answer to number one and two this will become self evident. The mother pushing the baby stroller through a very safe park in the middle of day with lots of people around is going to spend differently than the nurse working nights in rough part of town that must walk alone to get to her car or the bus.
  4. How secure to you want to be? All I can usually say about this is if you were going bear hunting would you rather choose to go with a.22 pistol or a the biggest caliber gun that is designed for bringing down the biggest bear on the planet? I’d rather feel very very secure. But again, questions before this will usually bring about the answer here.

Stun guns pump out from 100,000 volts up to almost 1 million. Taser guns at around 50,000 volts. The look and feel of these products all differ. Many might fit your lifestyle, how you want to carry this weapon, your comfort with it, etc. The best thing to do is answer the 4 questions and then take a look at the options and make a decision based upon all these factors.

Why would you choose!

There are lots of reasons why you may want to get it!

These days if an older woman tries to protect herself from a would be rapist who has come into her house and she is forced to shoot him… she can be charged and sent to prison! Even if he goes clear into her bedroom.

Just for trying to protect herself.

Did you know that it is possible that the perpetrator (thief, rapist) can sue if he survives. And… if that the perpetrator dies, his family can legally sue her.

It’s hard to believe – but the way our laws are now about firearms, in either case the wounded VICTIM could lose and be locked up for many years. That’s why a rapidly growing number of private citizens have decided to us non lethal self defence products instead. These are extremely effective interventions — and they can stop a criminal without killing him!

We’re talking about TASERs, stun guns, pepper spray, and mace. In most States, these kinds of products can be used by you as a private citizen and you do not need to obtain a license to carry and/or use them. There are certain restrictions in eight states, several large cities, schools, airports, hospitals, etc. You can find the list on our website of the states that prohibit certain products. The point is… non-lethal self defense products are now permitted in most places of the United States. These guns are predominantly used for their effectiveness. There are other factors that make owning a stun gun a great idea.

1. These guns are available in a large range of models and sizes. Even the smaller ones can be a huge bolt from the blue to a would-be attacker! One smaller model called the RUNT is capable of delivering over one million volts of zapping power — and it is actually smaller than one pack of cigarettes.

2. What’s even more amazing is that some stun guns are now comparatively inexpensive – depending on what model you choose. And that means that available in an incredibly broad price range. This means that nearly everyone can get a stun gun and along with it obtain a peace of mind that money cannot buy!

3. The real astonishment is the serious stopping power of a stun gun. I mean, one second will have them backing away and 5 seconds will have them on the ground crying.

4. These are available in an variety of shapes, colours, and sizes. While most people buy the standard black model, there are also models obtainable in silver, red, camouflage, and animal prints (no less)! These days, your personal safety may also be fashionable! Some are disguised to look like cell phones, flashlights, and lipstick tubes.

5. When you decide to choose one of these non lethal self-defence products, you will find that your fear fear of criminals is alleviated. PLUS, you get rid of any potential of legal reprisals (which has happened ever too often when firearms are used in self defence). Our American legal-system will not accuse you of protecting yourself and your family with non lethal products. You can protect the protect the victims of violent crime.

It’s always good to get hidden cameras also — just to warn you to get ready. So… what do you want to do next? I hope that you have decided to protect yourself and your family while at the same time minimizing the likelihood of legal action against you. Protect yourself, your loved ones, your belongings, and your property. Come see us at Home-defender for all the best help and advice for what to pick for what you need.

How Dangerous is the Average Stun Gun Volt?

Unfortunately the only time we typically hear anything about these guns is when there has been serious injuries or even death that is caused by the stun gun volt. Factually, most stun guns range from 80,000 volts to 300,000 volts with maximum voltage being 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 – even then the amperes associated with these high volt stun guns makes it nearly impossible to step someone’s heart and cause death.

There are of course as with everything – exceptions – since most stun guns run off batteries it’s pretty simple to determine that they’re relatively safe – the problem is that what you’re seldom told about the fatalities or serious injuries that accompany stun guns is that the victim has a physical problem such as an enlarged heart or they have a history of drug/alcohol abuse. It is possible if you’re repeatedly hit with a stun gun volt over a period of five seconds to sixty seconds that serious injury and death can occur.

If a person caring for a child decides to try to discipline the child but using the sun gun volt then chances are high that the child might die – this is flat out child abuse – unfortunately there have also been cases when children in fact play with an adults stun gun and the repeated application of the stun gun volt can also cause death. Accidental discharge, self administration of stun gun volt and other foolish experimentation can also lead to death.

If your states laws allow you to own a stun gun, before you start experimenting with it you should be properly trained or carefully read the manufacturers information that accompanies the stun gun. Stun gun volt levels are not something that should create fear – the stun gun (and TASER) are generally very safe and cause far fewer deaths than the lives that they save.

Type of Stun Guns::

Streetwise Mini Stun Gun

Size counts – maybe. In this case, the petite package of the Streetwise Mini Stun Gun doesn’t look like it matches up with the 1,000,000 volts it can deliver. This baby is the World’s Smallest Stun Gun and is also the World’s Most Powerful Stun Gun – all in a petite 3 ¼” x 2″ x ¾” case. It is so small that it could fit inside a cigarette packet!

Touching an attacker for about three to five seconds is enough to deliver enough voltage to cause him (or her) to lose balance and muscle control. The resulting disorientation and confusion effectively interfere with voluntary motion. The effects last for about five to ten minutes, providing enough time for you to run for safety.

The heavy duty leather holster that comes with this small stun gun fits tidily on a belt, keeping it handy in case it’s needed. It can also fit nicely inside a woman’s handbag without displacing other essentials. You don’t need to worry about having the Small Fry zap you when reaching for other items. There is a safety button on the side which must be pressed before pressure on the trigger activates the weapon.

In the past, it took several 9-volt batteries to even begin to approach this kind of stopping power. In the Mini Stun Gun the incredible amount of voltage is provided by three 3-volt Lithium batteries. You can either purchase them with the mini stun gun or get them for about $14 at your local superstore. An even more attractive option, added by request, is to get a rechargeable unit and skip the replacement battery headaches. The advances in today’s rechargeable batteries make them a reliable and economical option.

When considering this model, remember that higher voltage means that immobilization happens more rapidly and that current can pass through more layers of clothing. Since it is the highest voltage stun gun, you are carrying the best available non-lethal stopping power on the world market. The manufacturer believes so much in the quality of this product that it provides a Limited Lifetime Warranty.

Once again, the manufacturer listened to suggestions and made modifications to its already popular mini stun gun. Now, an unexpected feature on this Streetwise Mini Stun Gun is the 6 LED lights, making this a super bright illuminator. Flashlights are always a good idea, especially when traveling between any building and your vehicle after dark. The benefit is seriously enhanced by the fact that if you are using the flashlight, the stun gun feature is instantly available, should it be needed.

Reliable, safe and easy to use, the Streetwise Mini Stun Gun provides discreet, superior protection for the most discriminating and economically-minded clients.

Flashlight Taser Stun Gun

All-in-One Protection

Flashlight – light source

Stun Gun – when held against the skin of an attacker from 2-5 seconds disrupts the nervous system and disorients the individual permitting you to get out of the situation and run like the wind. Stun guns come in a variety of styles and strengths. The higher the voltage the less time it has to be applied to the skin for the full effects to be felt by the attacker. The power on most stun guns available ranges from 200,000 volts up to 1 million volts. Stun guns come in all shapes and sizes. Some look like a cell phone, a baton, a flashlight, a small hand held rectangle, and some very intimidating looking heavy-duty items with big prongs sticking out of the end!

Taser – With a Taser you can stop an attacker before he even gets close enough to grab you. The range of a Taser that the public can purchase is about 15′ to 20′. Two small barbs are shot out of a compressed air cartridge and when they make contact with an attacker, even through their clothing, they deliver a jarring bolt of voltage that incapacitates the attacker almost instantly. The recommended way to use the Taser is to fire at the attacker and then run to safety.

With all these functions, you are assured of maximum protection!

Are Tasers Legal In My State?

Some days ago I did a few Google searches to find out my state’s laws on buying and carrying a Taser. After getting a lot of random, unhelpful websites, I found my answer at, where else, A quick rundown of where it is currently ILLEGAL to carry a Taser: District of Columbia, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (does anyone else find that odd?), Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. Also, in the cities of Annapolis, Baltimore, Chicago, and Philadelphia (again, what!?) prohibit the carrying of a Taser, but it is legal elsewhere in the states wherein those cities are located. Connecticut and Illinois don’t prohibit it, but restrictions do exist. If your state is not listed, it is currently legal for persons over the age of 18 to purchase a Taser or stun gun, but again, there are restrictions on who can use it. Interestingly, in some states minors are not prohibited from using a Taser or stun device, if supervised by an adult. I guess that would come in handy if a child was in a dangerous situation and the adult in possession of the Taser was not capable of using it for whatever reason.

Stun Guns Laws

Also, keep in mind that many states have restrictions on where you can carry a Taser (similar to firearms), such as schools, churches, some public places, etc. These are common sense scenarios, but then again it seems to be an increasingly common occurrence that these are also where the violence is happening, so hopefully the laws will keep up with the news.

Taser International’s website did not go into detail on individual state statute, so To find out more details on state laws and penalties associated with misuse, visit

In spite of the fact that stun guns are typically considered to be a safe form of defence and are typically marketed as safe for home and personal protection, there are laws in various states, cities and counties that limit the ability to own or possess a stun gun.

Stun gun laws were created because of the potential abuse of power – causing harm, deliberately inflicting pain and even torturing someone. Because of this it has become necessary (and even practical) to put in place stun gun laws.

The states that currently ban stun guns are:

* Massachusetts

* Michigan

* New Jersey

* New York

* Rhode Island

* Wisconsin

* Hawaii

There are other municipalities that severely restrict not just the use of stun guns by the possession of stun guns – and it’s very important that you understand stun gun laws. Because of the potential for the abuse of a weapon, most stun gun laws are designed to limit ownership and to prevent people from carrying them around in public. Sadly, some of these laws were put into place because of high profile cases involving parents and caregivers abusing children – too often this results in life altering injury or even death.

Since the stun gun laws dictate not only the transfer and use of stun guns but also the purchase and sale of stun guns, if you live in a city or a state where stun gun laws state you cannot own one you won’t be able to purchase one online.

Wholesale Stun Guns

There are many places online to purchase in bulk. I would want to work with a company that gets quality stun guns with great support. I think that the ZAP brand Stun Guns are some of the meanest non lethal gun son the market.

Zap Stun Guns has the Double Trouble Stun gun with 1.2 million volts and the Blast Knuckles with 950,000 volts of dropping power. Can you even imagine 1,200,000 volts of power hitting you. That will knock you senseless!

Some Personal Safety Tips

  1. Stay alert. Keep your mind on your surroundings, as well as who is in front of you and who is behind you.
  2. Walk purposefully, stand tall, and make eye contact with people around you.
  3. Trust your instincts. If you feel uncomfortable in a situation, leave.
  4. While driving, keep your car in good repair with the gas tank at least half full.
  5. Park in well-lit areas and always lock your doors.
  6. Put valuables out of sight or in the trunk.
  7. Drive with the doors locked and the windows up.
  8. Check the floorboards and front and rear seats before getting in your car.
  9. In an elevator, stand near the controls. If someone suspicious enters, get off the elevator.
  10. At home, don’t give personal information over the telephone to people you don’t know.
  11. Install a peephole in your front door, and don’t open the door to anyone you don’t know. Verify the identity of service people before allowing them in.

Lessons from the Lemonade Stand

Like every parent, I search for authentic ways to allow my kids to learn. Our most recent adventure has been a lemonade stand in the front driveway.

We started with ten glasses of lemonade, a plate of Rice Crispies squares and lots of enthusiasm. Child 1, (six years old) was keen and had no trouble marketing his wares. Child 2, (five years old), was quickly injured by a small rock on the concrete and soon retreated to the safety of her room.

Lesson 1: Expect difficulty.

Things will always go wrong. Be prepared to work hard and to do everything yourself to accomplish your goals. Ownership has benefits but also means personal sacrifice.

“Would you like some lemonade?” Child 1 yelled gleefully to cars and pedestrians passing by on our relatively quiet street. Sometimes, they stopped and he made a sale. However, it took several attempts and lots of rejections, albeit polite ones.

Lesson 2: Selling is challenging.

Marketing a product requires great interpersonal ability and persuasion skills. It’s not easy and it requires a zen-like acceptance of rejection. As any successful sales representative will tell you, it’s important not to dwell on those who decline your offers.

Child 1 remained resilient and positive in the face of adversity. In the 90 minutes of the stand’s operation on a sunny, Friday afternoon, he served about ten customers and made about $7.00. For ten glasses of lemonade and ten squares, each priced at $.20, this should have brought in $4.00. The total should have been even less considering Child 1 ate one of the squares and drank three glasses of lemonade. This leads us to the next lesson of small business.

Lesson 3: You can get tips.

Satisfied customers are frequently willing to pay more than the asking price. For good service, they will often give bonuses in the form of tips. The good will established in previous relationships will also pay dividends.

Other customer service lessons also emerged in the course of this authentic learning activity.

Lesson 4: Products have to be safe and politely served.

In a lull, Child 1, who was lounging in at the lemonade stand in bare feet, became interested in playing with his toes. This was how he killed time in between customers. However, this activity also provided a teachable moment. We talked about public health issues, such as any germs that could get into the food and make people sick. Because of the unappetizing nature of his amusement, we also discussed the importance of allowing customers to select their own squares and lemonade, without any contact by him.

Etiquette also developed as a topic. Child 1 practiced courteous treatment of customers in the form of thanking them for patronage and encouraging them to have a pleasant day.

The evening after the lemonade stand experience, Child 1 discussed how he would spend his ample earnings. Dad, the family pragmatist, had an excellent idea.

Lesson 5: Re-invest in the business.

In this case, Child 1 paid $.38 for another pack of powdered lemonade and $.07 each for three disposable plastic glasses. He has temporarily warehoused these to use these for a subsequent lemonade stand on another sunny afternoon.

I’m confident that the lessons of the lemonade stand don’t end here. A competing stand from another neighborhood child, for instance, would offer additional lessons. As an observer and facilitator at the stand, however, I’m amazed at the strength of this activity for learning potential.

Lessons from the lemonade stand are as memorable and appealing as a frosty glass of lemonade on a hot, sunny day.