An Unbiased Third-Party Review Of Youngevity – Is Youngevity The Real Deal Or Just More Hype?

If you’re checking out this third-party review, chances are you’re looking for some information on Youngevity, you’re thinking about becoming a Youngevity distributor, or you’ve read about some kind of “Youngevity scam”. In this review, I’ll go into some information that I hope you will find relevant to helping you make an educated decision about the company so you can see it’s not a scam. In addition, I’ll cover how you can position yourself ahead of 95% of your competition in the industry, should you decide to join. Again, I want to emphasize that this is a third-party review, I am not a distributor or customer, so you can be sure you are getting an unbiased perspective.

The first thing you should take into consideration when looking at Youngevity is the history of the leadership who created the actual company. The company is headquartered in San Diego, California and was founded in 1997 by Dr. Joel Wallach. Dr. Wallach is a Naturopathic Physician who is often referred to as “the Father of Liquid Mineral Supplementation”. He has a very good reputation for his work on the health benefits of selenium and other important minerals.

The company has a strong leadership and management team that includes members of Dr. Wallach’s family, as well as knowledgeable and experienced leaders in the field of network marketing. Their medical advisory board is very well-respected, and they have massive amounts of research documentation to back up the claims of their health and wellness products.

The company has grown significantly in recent years due to very careful acquisitions in the health and wellness fields. For example, in June 2011, it was announced “Youngevity acquires R-Garden”. R-Garden was a 20-year-old company that marketed a line of nutritional supplements including vitamin, mineral, and plant enzyme supplements. Three days after the R-Garden acquisition, Youngevity announced that “Youngevity acquires Bellamora”. Bellamora was based in Tampa, Florida, and marketed skin care products.

So, Youngevity is a company that is committed to becoming a major player in the network marketing industry by growing the business and expanding product lines as much as possible.

As far as their product line goes, Youngevity sells an extensive line of nutritional supplements and health and personal care products. At last count, they had over 500 products (including the new lines from Bellamora and R-Garden). One of their more popular products is Youngevity Tangy Tangerine. Their weight management line, Slender FX, is also quite popular, as is their healthy chocolate.

How do their products affect the opportunity? Well, the first question you should ask before you get involved with Youngevity (or any company for that matter) is ‘would I buy these products if I was not involved in the Youngevity opportunity?’ If you answer “no” to that question, then perhaps you should reconsider your interest. With Youngevity, I encourage you to contact an authorized distributor and try some of their products for a month. If you don’t find that they produce adequate results for you, then I recommend you don’t join. If however, you thoroughly enjoy their products and you feel passionate about them, then Youngevity might be the right company for you.

By the way, if you are talking to someone and they say “do you have to force stuff on people in that Youngevity scam?”, I recommend changing the discussion. First of all, you’re not selling these products to people unless they have a need. Second, if someone uses the phrase “Youngevity scam” they obviously don’t understand how network marketing really works.

Now, let’s cover the actual opportunity with Youngevity. This is important because when some people hear that Youngevity is an MLM company, they jump on the internet and search for terms like Youngevity scam to see if the company is legitimate. Well, here is some of the information about their compensation plan:

Youngevity operates on a unilevel pay plan which they call the Stairway to Success. There are nine different ways for you to get paid and all the details are spelled out on the website. It’s a bit complicated to describe, so rather than detail all the different levels here, I will point out that you can earn income in two primary ways: Immediate income and residual income. The immediate income comes from sponsoring new distributors at one of two major levels, plus by acquiring customers. The residual income comes from purchases of products across both distributors and customers. This combination of upfront immediate income and backend residual income is a good thing about the Youngevity opportunity. I especially like the names they give some of their achievement levels such as “Fiji Double Diamond” and “Tahiti Double Diamond.” They also have some great performance-based incentives built into their compensation plan.

So, to wrap up this Youngevity review, there is no truth to the idea of a Youngevity scam. Youngevity is a very strong and reputable company. They have been in existence for almost 15 years, they have experienced medical people and management people on their corporate team, a wide diversity of products and a fair compensation plan for distributors.

Contrary to what you may have been told, however, all of the above has very little to do with whether you will be successful or not as a Youngevity representative. While it’s obviously beneficial to you to have a stable company supporting your business, what really determines whether you will succeed or not, is your ability to sponsor people into your business, your ability to sell products and your ability to build and duplicate a downline of distributors.

One of the biggest things that influences your ability to accomplish those three things is your personal marketing skills. Basically, if you don’t have a clue about marketing, you will have a hard time building your Youngevity business. It’s critical to your success that you get the right marketing training so you can brand yourself and generate an endless flow of quality leads. Of course, you can build your business using well-worn, traditional, offline techniques. The problem is, for the average person just getting started, calling on friends and family will only take you so far. However, when you can combine effective offline strategies with the ability to generate 20-30+ leads a day online, there’s no telling how big your organization can get.

I recommend you plug into an “Attraction Marketing system” that will allow you to brand yourself as a leader, generate leads for your Youngevity business, and make money even when people don’t join your business. When you successfully combine a powerful online marketing system with time-tested offline marketing techniques, there’s no telling how successful you can be with Youngevity.

12 Confined Spaces Hazards

Confined space is one of the most deadly spaces in the workplaces. It contains many potential hazards and have restricted exits way. Related to confined spaces, Occupational Safety and Health Administration of America requires that:

a. All confined spaces in the workplaces shall be identified.

b. Confined work spaces shall be treated as hazardous until proven.

c. Their hazards should be identified.

d. Appropriate respond should be given to these hazards before entry.

Their hazards can be divided into hazardous atmosphere, physical hazard, chemical contact hazard and biological hazard. The list below is hazards that are commonly identified in a confined space.

1. Oxygen rich (greater than 23.5%). This condition will introduce fire or explosion, especially when flammable vapor exists. So never use pure oxygen for ventilating a confined area. Use normal air supply only.

2. Oxygen deficient (less than 19.5%). Oxygen deficient or lack of oxygen can cause unconsciousness to death. Oxygen concentration can be declined due to nitrogen intrusion, welding, grinding, oxidation, sandblasting or coating.

3. Oxygen and the existence of flammable vapors or gases can create flammable atmosphere. Chemical reaction and concentration of combustible dust may also create flammable atmosphere.

4. Toxic atmosphere. It is introduced when a toxic chemical or gas is stored in a tank or holder, when carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulphide is produced through decomposition or work being done in the closed space.

5. Corrosive atmosphere. Hydrochloric acid and ammonia are examples of chemicals that can build up a corrosive atmosphere.

6. Physical configuration hazards. The use of ladder and scaffolding, wet surface, uneven bottom, bends in tunnels, narrow area or poor lighting can cause physical hazards to the workers inside confined spaces.

7. Mechanical hazards. Mixing vessel, which is equipped with blades, can introduce mechanical hazard when workers come into the confined work space (mixing vessel). Including in this is falling object.

8. Surface hazard, for instance slips and falls.

9. Noise hazards. Grinding work inside a confined work space can result high level noise.

10. Vibration hazards.

11. Engulfment hazards. Engulfment hazard may happen when worker is entrapped by content of the confined space.

12. Temperature. Cold temperature and heat create temperature hazard.

Always bear in mind that hazards identification shall be finished before entering a confined space. Then, provide appropriate controls to these potential hazards afterward.

Dental Office Design – What’s In A Countertop?

When working on your dental office design one of the details that needs attention is the type of countertops to use in various applications. There are countertops throughout a dental office design and, while the various countertops may coordinate, they certainly do not have to be made of the same materials. There are various considerations that go into the selection of the countertop material to use, such as location, client visibility, moisture levels, and price.

In wet areas, such as a lab or sterilization room, I typically recommend using a solid surface material such as CorianĀ®, as laminates can often have seams that do not handle a lot of moisture well. In these same rooms, however, if there isn’t really going to be a lot of moisture a plastic laminate will work just fine and save on cost.

In staff lounges I typically recommend plastic laminates as these rooms rarely get visited by patients and one can save on the cost of a solid surface material. Not that I’m suggesting the staff is less important, but I believe that to get the greatest return on investment one should spend design dollars where patients can see the difference.

Now, if there is the possibility for extreme heat exposure to the countertop, I only recommend granite. Of all of the countertop material choices granite is the most indestructible and the most heat resistant. One can put an extremely hot pan or iron directly on the countertop and never have an issue. The same cannot be said of any other material.

In public spaces, such as the client bath, operatories, and especially the front counter, I recommend stepping up to something other than a plastic laminate. Solid surfaces, whether they be a CorianĀ® type material, concrete, quartz, or a natural stone, all give the impression of quality that plastic laminates just aren’t able to do. So, to best communicate solidity and quality in your dental practice it is important to spend the additional dollars on a countertop made from one of these other materials. The old saying goes, “You only have one chance to make a first impression.” To cement in the minds of your patients and prospective patients the quality of your practice you want the front reception counter to make a good impression.

Real Russian Nesting Dolls Versus Fakes

Today nesting dolls (a.k.a Babushka dolls or “matryoshka” dolls) available in the market are of very different qualities. It can initially be difficult to differentiate between the quality dolls and the fake ones made elsewhere. Indeed this problem is not unique to Russian gifts or nesting dolls, and because of the availability of fake dolls in the market, many individuals are leery of purchasing anything when they are not sure of the origin or authenticity. Many people find it hard to differentiate between a real Russian doll and fakes; however, with a little bit of practice and knowledge of what to look for, this task becomes quite easy. Real handmade dolls can be differentiated by their place of production (city or town), by the painting style, and by the artists that paint the intricate designs. To make it easier to identify real nesting dolls and even identify the style and town in which they were painted, I’m providing a short by simple guide to help you find these best quality dolls.

Where Real Nesting Dolls are Sold

In Russian cities such as Moscow or Saint Petersburg, nearly all of the nesting dolls sold in souvenir shops are of exceptional quality; however they also have exceptional prices. They are made from the best quality wood and raw materials (e.g. defect-free Lime wood, higher quality paints and gold trim). Larger seven, ten and fifteen piece nesting dolls are usually painted by trained professional master craftsmen. On the contrary, dolls sold by street vendors may be high quality and a great value, individual shoppers will need to have a discerning eye to identify the small defects and other problems that are common. Street vendors that sell these items usually purchase slightly defective nesting dolls wholesale from souvenir shops or directly from the artists themselves. If you seek a great deal, street vendors are the place to look but you should be should take your time, look at all of the nesting doll pieces, and ask for higher quality items – the sellers will be happy to help the smart shoppers.

Differences in Finishing and Polishing

The higher quality babushkas are made utilizing defect-free “blank” or unpainted nesting dolls. Some small defects in the wood are easily fixed by polishing or covering very minor divots and dents with starch glue to create a smooth surface. This is normal in Russia; however, these types of fixes to the wood are never seen in imitation nesting dolls made outside of Russia. The smooth surface is very important – good Russian artisans demand this so that they can apply paints evenly and include precision detailed painting. Russian nesting dolls that are very inexpensive will still often times have some defects – it is simply not economically feasible for artisans to try to achieve perfection in a five piece nesting doll and then sell this for 300 rubles on the street ($6.00 USD). If you come across a large expensive nesting doll with dents and defects, it is likely that it is very old or that it is not an authentic matryoshka doll.

Type of Wood

The wood used for making Russian nesting dolls is taken from the Lime trees grown in Western Russia and throughout Siberia. Lime trees are famous worldwide for the soft but durable wood they produce, which is nearly perfect for wood-working and wood-carving. Interesting enough, many different Russian woodcutters specialize in crafting and cutting blank (unpainted) dolls, but usually they never take up painting these dolls. The woodcutters simply cut, sand and prepare blanks for artisans throughout Russia. They select the Lime wood trees based on quality, lack of defects, and the age. Fake dolls made outside Russia will often be plastic imitations, or utilize cheap pine wood or other low quality raw materials. The differences in wood type are easy to see once you handle the dolls.

Opening and Closing

Quality Russian nesting dolls usually open and close with some amount of effort – pushing and twisting the two pieces of the largest doll. The largest dolls may squeak slightly as you open them – this is normal with Lime wood and one of the ways to identify the dolls. Most of the fake dolls will crack or break easily due to children opening and closing the dolls, and simply playing with them. Dolls made of Lime wood tend to be more durable and long-lasting. Very high quality Russian nesting dolls made of Lime wood can last hundreds of years and retain the high quality painting and clear lacquer finish.

Painting Style and Designs

Making of quality dolls involves painstaking labor and hours of hard work. A single ten or fifteen piece nesting doll can take several months to finish. The artisan or the artist may take several additional weeks to complete the exquisite gold trim and lacquer finish on these one of a kind nesting dolls. Intricate designs and detailed painting is what separates these handmade dolls from its other counterparts made in China. Additionally, Russian matryoshkas often feature styles that are modeled after Russian style lacquer boxes which feature exceptionally detailed painting styles and small miniature landscapes. Russian dolls are also painted utilizing bright and bold colors versus those painted elsewhere. Fakes usually stand out for their low quality painting and poor quality colors. Authentic matryoshka dolls will have contrasting, bold color combinations of red, blue and yellow in the dress of the dolls, which gives them a bright and cheerful look and makes them stand-out from the crowd.

If you’re looking to buy the best quality of a nesting doll, you can choose dolls made by experienced and skilled craftsmen in one of the four villages famed for making them. Nesting dolls from the famous Russian artisan cities of “Fedoskino”, “Palekh”, “Kholui”, and “Mstera” are very popular and unique. This is because artist from the above towns usually study in specialized artisan colleges. They are professionally trained painters and craftspeople recognized by Russian art guilds and other organizations. These towns are the locations well-known for the art of making babushka dolls or matryoshka. Often times great quality matryoshka will be signed by the artist and the artist will also indicate the city where they live. This is a hallmark of real Russian nesting dolls.

In conclusion, real Russian matryoshka dolls always feature high quality raw materials such as Lime wood egg-based tempera paints, Russian style color schemes and Russian-themed landscapes or colors. High quality dolls will almost always feature intricate painting, gold trim, and very high quality clear lacquer finish to protest the dolls for centuries. Finally, it is also common for larger and more expensive matryoshka to be signed by the artist or artisan.

High School Wrestling: Weight Lifting Options

Weight lifting (i.e. resistance training) is merely one component of the conditioning that a wrestler needs to do to prepare for competition. Nonetheless, it’s an extremely important component.

Resistance training is valuable because it can increase one’s strength, power, and endurance. Resistance training not only increases muscular strength, it also works the ligaments and tendons that are connecting bones and muscles thereby reducing the chance that they become injured when participating in wrestling. In addition, resistance training increases bone density which may keep you from developing stress fractures. The famous strength and conditioning coach Dan John writes, “I’ve come to describe building muscle as ‘armor building’ for the sport athlete.

With so many weight lifting options out there, what is a wrestler to do? Perhaps you’ve seen television infomercials for P90X and have been tempted to try it. Maybe you’ve looked at bodybuilding routines in magazines like Flex, Muscle and Fitness, and Iron Man. Maybe you’ve even looked at a copy of Powerlifting USA. Some of you may have watched Olympic Weightlifting when the Olympics are televised. Seeing a man clean and a jerk a huge amount of weight is very impressive.

But, what is best for a wrestler?

First, I would like to mention a man named Tudor Bompa. Bompa states, “Strength training programs for sports must recognize that almost each sport involves different and specific muscle groups. These muscles are called ‘prime movers’ or the muscles performing the actual technical moves. Therefore, strength training exercises have to target the prime movers.” The sport of wrestling involves a lot of pulling. You pull your opponent’s legs during a takedown. You pummel and fight for position. This is why exercises designed to strengthen the muscles that help you pull are really important. Your biceps, shoulders, and back muscles are all important for pulling strength. You also need grip strength for hand fighting and securing holds. You need hip and leg strength throughout a wrestling match. Therefore, focus on exercises that strengthen those particular muscles.

You may also want to consider whether it’s off-season or in-season training. That’s where the concept of periodization comes into play.

Well, that still leaves the question of what the best resistance training plan is for a wrestler.

Let’s explore some of the options.

High Intensity Training (HIT)

High Intensity Training (HIT) was popularized in the 1970s by Arthur Jones, the founder of Nautilus. HIT usually involves doing only one set of a particular exercise as opposed to multiple sets. This one set is done in a slow and controlled manner. One performs the set until he can’t possibly do another rep. In other words, he trains until muscular failure. This is believed to build muscular strength and size. HIT workouts are usually brief and intense and done only two to three times per week. Champion bodybuilders Dorian Yates and Mike Mentzer were HIT advocates. Other HIT advocates include Matt Brzycki, Ellington Darden, Ken Leistner, and Drew Baye.

HIT workouts are ideal if you are busy and have little time to train because they are brief (i.e. 30 minutes or less). However, some believe that always working to failure with limited sets has many drawbacks. There seems to be much debate about whether ones set or multiple sets produce greater strength gains. Studies have shown one set to be just as effective as three sets. Other studies have shown this not to be true. So, you may want to do some research before doing HIT. Some athletes have experienced great success utilizing HIT workouts so it may be worth a try.

Bill Starr 5×5 Training

Bill Starr was the strength coach to the Baltimore Colts when they won the Super Bowl in 1970. He was the strength coach at several US universities. He was also a US Olympic weightlifting champion and national record holder in powerlifting and Olympic lifting.

Starr focused on what he called The Big Three – the bench press, the squat, and the power clean. You can find different versions of his workout online.

As you can see, Starr’s program used five sets of five repetitions. The workout also involved heavy, medium, and light days. Although he may be associated with football, his training will certainly work for wrestling. Starr is a legend in the field of strength and conditioning.


Powerlifting is a strength sport that involves three lifts – the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Powerlifters usually perform multiple heavy sets of low repetitions, focusing on strength and power as opposed to size. These three lifts are all good for wrestling. But, doing only those three lifts may not meet all of your needs. And, focusing only on heavy weights and low reps may not be best if done exclusively.

5/3/1 Workout

This strength building routine was developed by former powerlifter Jim Wendler. The 5, 3 and 1 refer to repetitions. The 5/3/1 workout involves basic multi-joint lifts. Wendler states, “The bench press, parallel squat, deadlift, and standing press have been the staples of any strong man’s repertoire. Those who ignore these lifts are generally the people who suck at them. If you get good at those, you’ll get good at other stuff, as they have such a huge carryover.” According to the T Nation website, along with the bench press, squat, shoulder press, and deadlift, 5/3/1 includes assistance exercises to build muscle, prevent injury, and create a balanced physique. Wendler’s favorites are strength-training staples like chin-ups, dips, lunges, and back extensions.

Power to the People/Pavel Tsatsouline

Pavel Tsatsouline has written a few books one of which is entitled Power to the People: Russian Strength Training Secrets for Every American. Paevel isn’t fond of HIT or bodybuilding.

Pavel states, “if you look at the training of the strongest people in the world, be it weightlifters, powerlifters, strongmen, whatever, there’s one universal truth. They always lift heavy, in terms of percentage of one rep max, they always keep their repetitions low, and they never, ever train to failure.” His workout promises strength without bulk.

Pavel doesn’t care how much you can bench. The amount you can bench is irrelevant to your wrestling abilities. Pavel states, “Unless you are training purely for looks, you must focus on the strength needed for your sport, job, or lifestyle. When I got the contract from the state of New Mexico to develop new strength tests for their select Special Weapons And Tactics Teams, I did not contemplate the bench press or curls, but enforced ten pull-ups, ten rock bottom one-legged squats, and ten hanging leg raises.” Pavel is about functional strength. Pavel also likes to do “ladders.” For example, you do one push up, rest a second, do two push-ups, rest briefly again, do three push-ups, and so on. You work your way up the ladder until it starts getting difficult. Then you can rest and do another ladder.

You can some of his interviews, workouts, and articles online.

Density Training

Density training involves doing more work in the same amount of time or the same amount of work in a shorter period of time. For example, you could rest less between sets or perform more reps in the same amount of time.

According to Tom Venuto, some benefits of density training include increased time efficiency of workout, increased intensity of workout, enhanced fat loss by burning more calories in same time period, enhancing post exercise calorie burn, and increased natural growth hormone release.

Density training is touted to improve strength, power, and overall conditioning. Density training could help you to increase your push-ups or pull-ups.

Some names associated with density training are Charles Staley, Ethan Reeve, Bryce Lane, and Matt Wiggins. You can easily find articles about density training online.

Controlled Fatigue Training

Controlled Fatigue Training was developed by Ori Hofmekler. CFT involves combining strength and speed together in one workout. For instance, a CFT drill might involve running or sprinting with your hands in front of your face or stretched overhead. This is not as easy as it may sound. CFT is touted to make your muscle fibers stronger, faster, and tougher.

Every wrestler wants muscle fibers capable of generating and sustaining strength for extended periods. A guy named Mike Westerdal wrote a report entitled The Warrior Physique: Building the Hybrid Super Muscle you may want to check out. He states, “By combining cardio and resistance activities it causes the composition of muscles to transform from predominately type II or type IIb into Type III. By doing this, we are able to push beyond our genetic limits, much like the ancient Spartans, Gladiators and Vikings did.”

You may want to research CFT and super hybrid muscle.

Circuits and Complexes

Circuits and complexes are very similar. You do a series of exercises, one after the other without resting. After you have completed a circuit or complex, you may take a short rest before you do another round. Circuits usually involve going from one exercise to the next with no rest. Complexes often involve barbells or dumbbells. The exercises in the complex are all done with the same weight and you don’t stop until you’ve completed the complex.

Some names associated with circuit training are Bob Gajda, Steve Maxwell, John McCallum, and Matt Wiggins.

You can find plenty of articles on circuit training online.

Steve Maxwell states this about circuit training, “This type of training is extremely demanding! Not only does it bring into play a fair amount of muscular strength and endurance but it creates tremendous systemic fatigue, which some people have termed metabolic conditioning or met-con, for short. “

A name associated with complexes is Istvan Javorek.

Here is an example of a barbell complex. This is Istvan Javorek’s Complex 1.

Barbell Upright Row x 6

Barbell High Pull Snatch x 6

Barbell Behind the Head Squat Push Press x 6

Barbell Behind the Head Good Morning x 6

Barbell Bent Over Row x 6

I wrote about High Intensity Interval Training (HIT) earlier. Well, HIT has its own twist on circuit training called 3×3 workouts. You do three exercises one after the other and repeat this sequence for three rounds. This is supposed to improve your metabolic conditioning.

Circuit training and complexes can be great for strength and cardiovascular conditioning. These kind of workouts can time saving as well. They may not be the best if your goal is mainly building brute strength.

Bodyweight Training

Bodyweight training, of course, uses the weight of your body for resistance. You have probably performed push-ups, pull-ups, chin-ups, and dips before. But, have you ever done dive bomber push-ups, Hindu push-ups, hand stand push-ups, Hindu squats, or one-legged pistol squats before?

Some people swear by bodyweight training. Others claim that barbells and dumbbells are better. Some say that resistance is resistance and it doesn’t really matter.

Some good bodyweight training books areCombat Conditioning by Matt Furey and The Naked Warrior by Pavel Tsatsouline.

If weight training isn’t your thing but you like push-ups, pull-ups and climbing ropes then I say, “Go for it.”

Body for Life

Body for Life was a book written by a man named Bill Phillips. He founded Muscle Media, a bodybuilding magazine as well as the EAS supplement company. You may have read or heard about MRPs (meal replacement products). Well, his company produced one of the most popular.

Body for Life outlines an exercise and diet program aimed mainly at people trying to lose weight or simply get in shape.

I’ve seen the Body for Life workout referred to as a half pyramid with a drop set and a superset. It’s very easy to understand. For example, if you were going to work your chest, you would choose two exercises like the bench press and dumbbell flies. You would do five sets of bench presses. You would do one set of 12, 10, 8, 6, and 12 reps for the bench press. That final set of 12 reps on the bench is the drop set. Then, you would immediately do a set of 12 reps for dumbbell flies. That is the superset.

Pyramiding weights is nothing new. Drops sets and supersets are nothing new either. People have indeed used this workout to get stronger and more muscular.

Body for Life is more of a bodybuilding routine although it doesn’t use an excessive number of sets. You work your upper body twice and your lower body once during the first week. The second week, you work your lower body twice and your upper body once. You continue to alternate each week. This keeps you from overtraining.

This is not the perfect workout for a wrestler by any means. But, it’s better than sitting on your couch doing nothing. You can find this workout online.


Bodybuilders are primarily concerned with size, proportion, and symmetry. They care mainly about how their muscles look as opposed to whether or not they are functional for a sport like wrestling. Bodybuilders attempt to build mass (hypertrophy).

A bodybuilder may use a large number of exercises, sets, and repetitions to achieve the size and look he is seeking. A bodybuilder typically stays in the 10-12 rep range. But, does bodybuilding provide any benefits for a wrestler?

Most wrestlers aren’t trying to gain muscle mass. Wrestlers generally want to get stronger without gaining much weight. A wrestler doesn’t really care how defined his quadriceps are or how big his triceps are as long as he is strong, quick, and powerful on the mat.

If you want to gain some muscle mass, then you might consider doing some German Volume Training (10 sets of 10 reps) or some other bodybuilding program for a short time. But, don’t employ bodybuilding training all year round.

Wrestlers really needn’t bother with dumbbell flies, triceps kickbacks, concentration curls, leg extensions, or other isolation exercises.

According to Professor Yuri Verkhoshansky, “In many sports, in many countries, bodybuilding is used to develop strength. This is a big mistake!” He goes on to write, “In sports where success is decided by split seconds and where victory hinges on speed of movement, power of muscular effort, and one’s endurance for intensive work, bodybuilding is not effective.”

A wrestler needs a strong, functional body. Bodybuilding can make you bigger and stronger. However, you can get strong using better methods more suited to a wrestler. And, gaining muscular weight may be of little value to you. Therefore, bodybuilding is probably not the best choice for a wrestler.

Strongman Training/Miscellaneous

Have you ever trained with a sledgehammer? Have you ever pulled around a weighted sled? Have you ever used a kettlebell, Indian clubs, Clubbells, or a Macebell? Well, it might be fun to try something new.

How Did I Train?

Unfortunately, I didn’t know a lot about weight training back in high school.

At our high school we had an old Universal Weight Machine. Sometimes I would do a circuit around the machine, hitting each station one after the other. I might do the circuit a couple of times. I always enjoyed doing push-ups. At home, I had a bench and some weights. One summer, I followed a course my dad had called Bob Hoffman’s Simplified System of Barbell Training. It simply involved doing ten exercises of one set each. The exercises were military presses, curls, rows, shrugs, and other multi-joint compound movements.

I wish I had known more about proper weight training. I was never really organized when it came to my weight training.

I grew up on a farm in the Midwest, so I also performed a lot of physical labor like carrying bales of hay and pails of corn and building fences.


You may want to keep periodization in mind when designing a lifting routine. You may want to lift for strength, power, and endurance at different times. Or, you may want to try to build all three of these at the same time. So, research linear periodization and concurrent or conjugate periodization.


Well, I hope I have given you some options to consider when designing your resistance training program. Resistance training is an important component in your wrestling conditioning. You can combine different options as well. You can lift weights and do bodyweight training as well. Just be sure to include some type of resistance training so you will be strong, quick, and powerful on the mat.

Emergency Roof Repair – Six Tarping Tips

If you’re looking for “Emergency Roof Repair” information, you’ve come to the right place. Here are some pointers for tarping your own home.

1. First off, you need some good tarps. If you are in an area devastated by a hurricane, look for a FEMA assistance trailer. They may be able to get your home tarped for you. If not, they might have tarps you can use to do it yourself. Although they have been criticized in the past for various things, I WILL say this about FEMA — they have HEAVY DUTY tarps. They probably pay $800 a piece for them and chose them after a five-year multi-million dollar study, but they are really good. Try to get those if you can.

2. The problem with most of the cheap blue tarps you get at the home improvement stores is that they just don’t hold up very long in the sun and wind. It may be months before you can get a new roof. Go for the heavy-duty ones or you may find yourself doing this emergency roof repair twice.

3. Wood battens will help to secure the tarps in place. The size to get is 1″ x 2″ and they come with or without pressure treating. Either one is fine. Get enough so you can run them VERTICALLY about every four feet apart from the eave to the ridge. Don’t run the battens horizontally if you can help it, as that tends to trap water that can get in at the nail holes.

4. You will also need nails to hold the battens on. Although a framing nail gun makes short work of this emergency roof repair, a hammer and eight-penny common nails will do just fine. Drive the nails about two feet apart and keep them at least a foot away from the valleys.

5. Don’t tarp any more than you need to. Areas that have been tarped usually need to be re-roofed because of all the nail holes through the roofing. If only the back of your home is torn up, just tarp the back. But you do need to make sure the tarp is “counter-flashed” to make sure water can’t run under it. That means tucking it under the roofing or running the tarp all the way to the ridge.

6. A word to the wise… Some tarps are slippery to walk on and especially treacherous when wet. Plan your work so you can avoid walking on them as much as possible. You should also be tied off to the roof with a rope and harness. If you can’t do it is safely, don’t do it. It’s better to wait for FEMA or a roofing contractor than risk life or limb.

Use of Color Psychology

When you are purchasing clothes or house items, you select colors that attract you. This means that color is part of our lives and influences the way we feel and react. Colors influence our behavior patterns and this reaction to colors is called color psychology. Reactions of different people to different colors is common and these reactions change from country to country.

Use of colors to heal in Egypt, India and China in ancient times is evidence that color psychology has been in use since time immemorial. If you take color red, you will stimulate various people differently. There are those who regard it as bright and invigorating color while others view it as being overpowering and in some cases disturbing. This shows that different people use red in different occasions.

Black is another color that incites different reactions from various people. Some believe that black shows sophistication but to others it denotes a tendency to submission. For instance, you will find Christian priests wearing black robes to show their willingness to submit to God. With this knowledge of two colors you can see the correlation between your behavior and emotional state when you are in places that have been given certain color treatment.

The study of color psychology will enable you to know effects of color and treatments they are given. It is also important to psychologists to understand what sort of emotional response to expect from patients. This field is new and reactions to color shades are yet to be identified and documented. As this field grows you will learn more facts on how our behavior and mental patterns change due to color.

Twenty Tips That Make Painting Easier

A list of twenty tips and hints that will make painting easier. Tips include ways that will make clean up easier, how to protect surface, etc.

Painting is a hard enough job without any extra labor. The following is a list of tips you should keep in mind before you start painting. They might not make you enjoy it, but they will make the job easier.

1. Make sure you have everything you need before you get started–especially enough paint. In general, a can of paint covers about 400 square feet.

2. Try to avoid painting on rainy days. The extra humidity in the air will cause the paint to dry slower. If this can’t be avoided, use a dehumidifier to help speed the drying process.

3. If you are painting a large room, don’t try and same money by purchasing the cheap rollers and brushes. The money you save will be minimal and won’t make up for sore hands. Plus, better rollers and brushes will help you work quicker.

4. Have your primer tinted the same color as you intend to paint. This will ensure that the paint covers well and could cut down on the need for an additional coat.

5. Use a nail to tap about five or six holes in the retaining grove of the paint can. This will allow the paint to run back into the can. If you need to reseal the can, you can put the nails into the can or put a little play dough or clay over the holes.

6. Glue a large paper plate to the bottom of any open paint can you are using to catch any splatters or drips.

7. Flattened out corrugated boxes are perfect to cover the floors with when painting.

8. Have a wet rag and paper towels handy to wipe up any drips or mistakes. Most of them–including accidental dabs on the ceiling–can be removed this way.

9. Keep some patching compound and a spackle handy. You’ll be surprised at all the little holes and marks you can find on your wall. They might not have been visible with the old color, but they can stand out with the new.

10. When stopping for short periods, seal your paintbrushes inside a Ziploc or plastic bag. This will keep them “fresh” without having to spend the time cleaning them. Plastic wrap and aluminum foil work almost as well.

11. Line the inside of your paint tray with aluminum foil or plastic. It will make the clean up easier.

12. To make cleaning your brushes easier, use an old baby-wipe container. Poor paint thinner into the container and push the handle of the brush through the hole in the lid. This will allow the brush to soak without bending the bristles. If you don’t have any baby-wipe containers, try cutting a slot into the lid of a coffee can or similar container.

13. Wipe paint rollers on old newspapers before cleaning. Getting rid of any excess paint will make them easier to clean.

14. Rub hand lotion on your hands and arms before you begin. It will make the paint easier to wash off your hands when you’re finished. Also, baby oil is sometime better at removing paint from your skin that soap.

15. If you have a steady hand, you might not need masking tape to cover the edges.

16. Wet newspaper can work great at protecting windows. You can use one-inch long strips of newspaper to protect the windowpanes around a window. Dip each strip into water. Pull the strip between your thumb and index finger to remove the excess water. Press the strips onto the glass close to the wood. Do only two at a time and remove them as soon as you’re through.

17. If you’re painting a bathroom, use wet newspaper to cover the bottom and sides of the tub. The newspaper will click and keep your tub paint-free.

18. Wrap hardware (doorknobs, hinges, pulls, etc.) in foil before painting.

19. Use old milk jugs to store paint. It will keep just as long and the paint is easier to access if you need to do some touch-ups.

20. Write the date, brand and color of paint used under the light switch for a handy reference.

Copyright © 2006 Ian White

Raising Gamefowl For Profit

Choosing to raise gamefowl can be an enormous undertaking, but with the proper research and information you will be able to handle it like a professional. Knowing your breeds is perhaps the first and most important step to beginning the process. Have you decided whether the gamefowl will be raised for food or game only? These are important questions and information you will need to be aware of before commencing onto the next steps involved to breeding or raising gamefowl.

If you have decided for certain you are going to raise them, the next step is educating yourself on the different breeds and types of wild fowl available for domestic raising. The main types that are available in the United States are literally thousands of types of quail, pheasant, partridge, ducks, and chickens. Far too many to name individually, but there are excellent sites online that give you specific information for any certain breed/type you are searching for. These fowl are available through many means, whether trained or un-trained and most of them at any age. If you are considering placing your gamefowl in competitions you may want to acquire younger fowl to allow for ample time for training and a healthy growth rate.

When it comes to feeding your fowl with the proper nutrients necessary to best promote their health and well being, selecting the best grains, corn, wheat and feed is important. Once again, knowing the exact information of your fowl (breed/type/main activity) is also necessary to this selection of food and is one of the determining factors in the fowls general health and success. Specific diets are available for research for different uses, such as cockfighting. It requires a different diet to maintain the strength and stamina of the cocks being raised for it as such, where as quail, pheasant, or ducks being raised for food will need a specialized diet to best prepare their carcass for consumption. All forms of diets to best suit your purposes are available in books at your local library, or online using a specific title in a search engine.

Clean water is quite nearly the very essence of all fowl, whether gamefowl or not. This is a necessity for all fowl, that they have sufficient clean, fresh water daily. Just as with the nutrition, the hydration of your fowl is also dependent on the training or use you have planned for them. Strict training requires less water at one time, but offered several more times during the day. If you are merely raising your fowl for consumption, the hydration practices will be different from fowl training for cockfighting or otherwise. This also is available for research online or in the library.

All in all, it is important to be completely versed in the facts and information surrounding the raising of gamefowl for whatever purpose you choose to do so. Embarking on this journey can be fascinating, educational, and entertaining. Being prepared with the best information you are able to find is the right way to get started and an excellent step in the right direction to success in your chosen activity.

Predator Proofing Your Rabbit Hutch

As classic prey animals, rabbits that spend time in outdoor rabbit hutches need to be protected from whatever predators are present in the area. Rabbit owners who shop for commercially available rabbit hutches can see that some appear to be more “predator proof” than others.

There are single level rabbit hutches with a wooden living area coupled with an attached wire enclosure exercise area. The entire unit rests on the ground and if not properly anchored could be subject to tipping over by a powerful predator, like a large dog.

Two level rabbit hutches feature a variety of styles of attractive weatherproof wooden living quarters with a wire enclosed exercise area directly beneath them. Ramps enable your rabbit to go back and forth and some of the living areas feature additional rooms and even storage compartments where owners can keep their supplies. While generally heavier than single level models, these rabbit hutches are still susceptible to tipping, although less so.

Commercially available rabbit hutches claim to keep your precious pet rabbit safe from predators, but none of them take one facet of predator behavior into account: predators in a variety of sizes can dig!

Many rabbit owners feel their outdoor rabbit hutches are safe from large predators since secure fencing encloses their outdoor areas. It is true that it would be difficult for a large dog to find a gap in the fence, but they can find a weak spot and dig their way under it. Once inside your fenced area, they find a potential meal waiting for them in the hutch. Any outdoor rabbit hutch with a wire enclosure resting on the ground is subject to a predator digging under the wire enclosure and getting in. Smaller predators, like raccoons, foxes, and even cats are more likely to get through your fence barrier and they dig as well. So how do you predator proof your rabbit hutch from a digging predator?

It’s not an easy task but if your location has significant numbers of free roaming predators, it is essential. The basic idea is to dig a trench around the base of your rabbit hutch and add wood or wire of sufficient length to force the predator to dig deeper.

Wire is the more difficult material to use since it is harder to cut and its flexibility makes it harder to place in the trench in the straight line you’ll need to then secure the added protection to the existing rabbit hutch material. If your rabbit hutch has a wooden strip around the base, the added wire protection can be secured directly to the wood. Wire to wire connection requires appropriate hardware, like u-bolts spaced around the perimeter.

Wood treated with weather resistant preservatives is much easier to install. Cut the wood to the desired length and width and then either screw the added protection to the existing wood perimeter, or screw the existing wire perimeter to the wood. An added benefit of doing this is making the rabbit hutch more tip proof as well. Most rabbit owners have a deep affection for these wonderful pets and keeping them safe is a concern for them. Taking this step, while difficult, will go a long way towards ensuring the safety of your pet rabbit.

Healthy Eating – Four Ways To Jumpstart Your Clean Eating Program

Are you looking to clean up your diet? Do you want to improve your nutritional standing but are not too sure where to start?

Clean eating is all about eating foods in their natural, unprocessed state. It is about avoiding all the packaged and manufactured foods we see lining the supermarket shelves today and instead, focusing on foods that nourish your body and provide an abundance of nutrients to each and every one of our cells.

If you have been following an eating plan rich in processed foods, it can be quite challenging to at first make the transition to clean eating. The good news is it doesn’t have to be. Here are four great ways to jump-start your clean eating plan…

1. Eat One Salad Every Day. Adding one large salad to your meal plan every day will give your nutritional profile an instant boost. Fill this salad with dark leafy greens, fresh fruits, seeds, nuts, and a lean protein source if you want to make it a main meal.

Having a salad each day can help you take in three to four servings of fruits and vegetables, which tends to be the hardest food group for most people to take in.

2. Ditch The Deli Meats. It is also a wise move to consider ditching the deli meats. As tasty as the club sandwich may be, deli meats are highly processed, loaded with nitrates, and very high in sodium. Instead, try freshly shaved chicken or roast beef. You can often find these at the deli counter if you ask for them. It’s far purer and will be in line with clean eating principles.

3. Check Your Breakfast Bowl. If you sit down to a bowl of granola for breakfast, the bad news is this is anything but clean. Give your breakfast bowl a thorough examination by checking the ingredient label on the package. When in doubt, go with oatmeal. It’s one of the cleanest breakfast options you can get.

4. Cut Out All Alcohol. Finally, as much as you may dislike doing so, if you want to give your meal plan a boost, consider cutting out all the alcohol you are consuming. Alcohol is anything but clean, as it is a toxin you are putting into your body on a daily basis.

Choose water or club soda more often when out with friends and you will notice a difference.

Try these four tips, and you can jumpstart your clean eating efforts and begin feeling better about what you are putting into your body.

Marriage Contract Templates in Ontario

Please note that the information provided herein is not legal advice and is provided for informational and educational purposes only. If you need legal advice with respect to getting a marriage contract or prenuptial agreement in Ontario, you should seek professional assistance.

In my previous article, I spoke about marriage contracts and prenuptial agreements, what they are, what their benefits are, and what is required to make them legally binding.

Remember, part of the benefits of having a marriage contract is it allows specific assets to be protected if the marriage fails, it can be used to create or exclude certain financial support obligations if the marriage ends, and it can be used to make arrangements to divide wealth and property that has accrued during the course of the marriage.

In this article, I’ll be discussing a basic Ontario marriage contract template:


This is the part that typically says something like “This is a Marriage Contract made on this day between X (Wife) and X (Husband)”.


This is the background information about why the parties wish to enter into the marriage contract. It just gives the contract a context. It could say something like:

* The parties intend to marry each other on X.

* The parties are married and wish to arrange for the distribution of their estates upon death.

* The parties are married and wish to exclude X’s assets or property from her net family property in the event of X’s death or in the event of a separation or termination of the marriage.


You guessed it! You should define terms that will be used throughout the agreement such as “Matrimonial Home”, “Net Family Property”, “Property”, “Termination of Marriage”, “Ownership”, “Support”, etc.

Purpose of the Contract

It’s always a good idea to insert a statement to the effect of why the parties are entering into the contract. For example: “The parties wish their financial affairs to be unaffected by their marriage.” Or: “The parties wish to confirm that X (a particular asset) is owned by X and is not to be included in X’s net family property”.


It’s a good idea to repudiate any previous agreements which deal with the subject matter of this marriage contract.

Effective Date

When is this contract going to take effect (i.e. as of a particular date, on the date the parties marry, etc?)

Confirmation as Domestic Contract

A statement should be included saying that this is a domestic contract as per Ontario’s Family Law Act. Also, a statement should be included saying that this marriage contract prevails over the Family Law Act, and succeeding legislation, and any previous domestic agreements made by the parties and/or between a party and a third party.


This is where we get into the nitty gritty or meat and potatoes of the contract. In the following sections, the parties can:

* exclude part or all of the property owned by either spouse from their net family property (so their net family property is effectively$0);

* waive rights to shared assets or property;

* agree to have no rights under the Family Law Act to equalization of net family property;

* agree to have no trust interests in any property held in trust for the other;

* divide ownership of the matrimonial home;

* agree not to incur debts on behalf other spouse;

* agree to exclude support obligations;

* agree to create specific spousal support (e.g. limited based on term, amount, and dependent on length of marriage, periodic payment or lump sum, etc.);


The parties should make sure that their wills, power of attorneys over property, and living will coincide with their marriage contract.


The marriage contract should include a provision – along with other standard provisions (e.g. with respect to notice, entire agreement, currency, waiver of rights, severability, acknowledgment of independent legal advice, representations and warranties, governing jurisdiction, etc.) about how the marriage contract can be amended (e.g. in writing, signed by both parties, etc.).

Representations and Warranties

Here, the parties should each acknowledge that they (among other things):

* have had independent legal advice;

* are of full and sound mind and capacity;

* are entering into this agreement freely and voluntarily;

* understand and appreciate the nature of the contract;

* have read the entire agreement and understands its terms and conditions;

* have made full and complete disclosure of his or her financial circumstances to the other spouse (e.g. assets, liabilities, income, expenses, etc.).

Limitation of Liability

Given that the parties may be giving up things like entitlement to property, assets, money, support, etc., you should include a release or limitation of liability for claims arising from the Divorce Act and Family Law Act, as amended. Make sure to have a lawyer draft and review this with you as it should be fairly tight to prevent future claims from arising.

Solicitors Attestation

It’s a good idea to have each of the two solicitors to attest that he or she explained the nature and consequences of the marriage contract and is convinced that his or her client is entering into the marriage contract freely and voluntarily and with full mental capacity.


The parties must sign the agreement before witnesses. The witnesses can be the lawyers and that’s what typically happens.

Overall, I’ve provided a basic template of what kinds of terms and conditions are included in a marriage contract. You should not rely on this template along. You are always cautioned to consult with a lawyer to see that your specific rights and interests are adequately protected and promoted.

5 Advantages Of Jar Candles Compared To Pillar Candles

Even though pillar and taper candles came well before jar or container candles, it is container candles that have been the most popular type of candle for the last decade or so. Whether or not jar candles are better than pillars is obviously a matter of opinion. Below I will make the argument that jar candles are better in five different ways

Five Ways Jar Candles are Better

Safety. Perhaps the best argument to be made in the favor of jars over pillars is that of safety. A jar or container candle, as the name states is wax and wick contained within a container. Unless you put a flammable material directly on top of the container, it is not going to catch fire. Pillar candles are more likely to fall over and in turn accidentally light something on fire.

Length of burn. Usually, since pillar wax is harder because it has to hold its shape, pillar candles tend to burn a bit longer than jar candles. However, if you’ve ever read the bottom of a pillar, you’d know that you’re only supposed to burn pillars for a maximum of 4 hours. With jar candles, this is not the case since there is no risk of dripping or spilling.

Reusable containers. The great thing about container candles is the container itself. If you are creative, the jars can be used for a wide variety of purposes. You could use one for a change jar or a vase. One could even use it for growing plants. The possibilities are unlimited.

Easy production. Even though it actually costs a bit more to make jar candles than pillar candles, it’s a lot less labor intensive and therefore usually significantly cheaper. For the handy person or the hobbyist, jar candles are also very simple to make. It’s as simple as securing a wick and pouring wax into a jar. Of course it takes a bit of practice to create one that is of high quality.

Higher fragrance load. In today’s world, most people like super scented candles. Here is where jars have a clear advantage over pillars. In fact, jar candles, depending on the type of wax that is used, can sometimes hold up to 3 times as much fragrance as pillar candles. Most pillar wax blends hold maybe 4 to 5%. There are some container candle waxes that can hold 12% fragrance per weight. This means you can fill a large room with aroma with only one container candle rather than multiple pillar candles. You only need a few to fill your entire house with fragrance.

When it comes down to it, arguments can be made for both jar candles and pillar candles as to which one is better. But really, it depends on how and where you want to use your pillar candles. If you’re concerned about the five aspects mentioned above, than jar or container candles would be a fine choice. However, many people still love the aesthetic beauty of a free standing candle.

Merits and Demerits of an Air-Conditioner


In this modern world, air conditioner plays a vital role in all sectors such as companies, factories, industries, offices, corporate and even in domestic area. It doesn’t mean that without an air conditioner, the world won’t survive. But to lead a comfortable and sophisticated life, we are in the need of an AC. Sometimes, in this modern world, the usage of this appliance is mandatory to ease the process and make a profit. For an instance, in the field of an export company (such as agricultural products which include fruits, fresh vegetables, dry fruits etc) they must need the presence of AC to keep their goods safe until it reaches its destination.

Now, most of the upper class people prefer flight travel and 1st tier berth AC coach. It is unavoidable. In such cases, the air conditioner plays a vital role in the field of luxurious transportation. Even now, an air conditioner is being used in metro buses in developing countries also. In corporate and multi- national companies, the working chamber should be air conditioned using proper air conditioning system which helps the employees to work in peaceful environment and helps them to give more output as actually what they can give before this air conditioned facility. This situation is also applicable in banks where the employees are handling their duties with the deal of money which makes them boring and exhausted.

The employees of air conditioned banks wouldn’t ever face this problem. In short, the purpose of using this appliance is to enhance the work efficiency without any tiredness and will yield more output than what we expected. To make the job interested and easier, you need a peaceful environment provided with a relaxed mood. It can be achieved through many ways and depends on several factors. The important factors such as water facility, ventilation and sanitation etc. Among those, the foremost need is air facility which can be obtained by an air conditioner. The AC regenerates the heat present inside the room and converts it into waste water which is being carried out through the proper ducts. Also the air conditioner provides cool air which in turn converts the room temperature into cool temperature. The range of conversion (say in *Celsius) is user dependent.


However, this electronic device plays a vital role in a modern world; it has a great negative impact on earth. It is not an eco-friendly though, it may be user friendly. Since, it produces an unwanted gas such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), it creates a hole in the ozone layer. It is a major threat to the environment. The holes created due to CFC is dangerous and allows unfiltered UV rays which is very harmful to the humankind and also to all kinds of living organisms. The consequences of this incident may lead to the occurrence of cancer and aging in human beings

The other major source of CFC is refrigerator. It is not meant that all scientific inventions create an adverse effect. Some inventions are both user friendly and eco-friendly. Likewise, some advanced changes should be made in the production of AC and refrigerators, so that it could not produce unwanted gases such as CFC. Though it is not quite possible, at least some standards should be taken to minimize the impact. Some kinds of peoples are allergic to air conditioner which may cause some serious breathing problem, skin allergies etc. It may also create an adverse effect in a working environment like the usage of air conditioner may cause some sort of people drowsy effects and other issues.

Turbo Calculator Explained

Turbo calculators are useful software applications that help you choose the right turbocharger for your build up. Good calculators have additional features that help you maximize the potential of your turbo setup including improving the spool characteristic and maintaining reliable control over your boost pressure.

Intro to turbos

Turbochargers are air compressors that are typically attached to an engine to improve its performance. The compressor side of the turbocharger intercepts the air coming into the engine’s intake system and compresses it before it reaches the cylinders. This compression increases the air density allowing the engine to ingest more oxygen molecules (which are essential to the combustion process) in the same cylinder volume, ergo making the engine breathe like a larger displacement engine and ultimately allowing it to produce more power.

The turbine side of the turbocharger is what drives the compressor wheel described above. The turbine intercepts the exhaust gasses coming out of the engine, and uses part of the thermodynamic energy stored in those hot and rapidly moving gasses to spin the turbine wheel. This turbine wheel is physically connected to the compressor wheel and as it picks up speed the turbo starts to spool – which is the point at which the compressor reaches a high enough speed where it can start to compress the air to overfeed the intake side of the engine as described earlier.

Matching turbo size to engine demand

Now there are many possible combinations of different sizes of compressors and turbines creating an array of turbochargers to work on any vehicle. For example a very large displacement engine that does not have a high horsepower target will have require a larger turbine that will not choke the exhaust flow but a smaller turbo that does not have to do that much work compressing air for such a small power target. Alternatively, a small displacement engine with a very high power target, such as a drag racing four cylinder engine will require a smaller turbine side for quicker spool, but with an over-sized compressor side to be able to deliver a very high power target at a very high pressure ratio.

What a good turbo calculator does is help you choose the right turbocharger to match both the intake side and the exhaust side of your engine to give the best balance between quick spool and reaching our overall power targets.

Generally speaking, larger turbines and larger compressor wheels are larger and heavier… and require more time and more energy to spool them up. At the same time larger turbines and larger compressor wheels are able to support higher power targets without choking off or limiting the engine flow. This is the inherent trade off between spool and peak power that is the nature of the turbo sizing game.

Factors affecting engine demand

Knowing that the turbo is both driven by the engine exhaust flow, and also knowing that the turbo needs to ultimately have a higher peak air flow than our engine (in order to force feed it and raise our power levels)… then at the core of any good turbo calculator is a good engine model that understands how much power and flow the engine is already making in order to choose an appropriate turbocharger.

The are several factors that affect engine demands that most performance enthusiasts are very likely to perform on their cars prior to, or during doing a turbo conversion or installing a turbocharger kit.

For example:

* Increasing the displacement of the engine will typically increase the engine’s power between 2% and 15% depending on the type of over-bore or stroker kit used.

* Raising the rpm at which the engine produces its peak power level will affect power by the ratio of those two rpms… for example using an aftermarket camshaft to allow the engine to produce peak power at 7500 rpms as opposed to 6500 rpms for the stock camshaft should increase power delivery by roughly 15% depending on the exact tune.

* Other modifications such as a new intake manifold or a larger exhaust system and a better designed exhaust manifold for the turbo system may raise the engine’s volumetric efficiency at peak flow by anywhere between 5 and 15%

Combining all of those factors together, it is possible that the engine that you are trying to turbocharge is already producing up to 50% more power (and thus has 50% higher demands from the proposed turbocharger) than a stock engine that is still performing to its original manufactured parameters.

Calculating your ideal pressure ratio

Now that we know our new engine demand and power levels (after factoring in any modifications we have performed as mentioned earlier), we can then move on to choosing a turbocharger that is matched to this exact engine combination.

Normal engines breathe under the sole effect of ambient air pressure due to the Earth’s atmospheric conditions. These conditions vary with things like elevation and humidity; however, in general most engines breathe due to a pressure differential of 1 bar of boost (or 1 atmosphere) between the outside air, and the vacuum inside the cylinder.

If our current engine produces 450 horsepower at 1 atmosphere in naturally aspirated form, and we would like to make 750 horsepower with a turbocharger then the logic goes as follows:

To force the engine to flow 750 horsepower instead of 450 horsepower, the turbocharger needs to create a condition where the intake manifold of the car is operating above the normal atmospheric pressure of 1bar. The exact pressure level required in an ideal world is actually the ratio of those two power levels which is 1.66 bar (or 1.66 atmosphere) of pressure since air flow and air pressure are linearly related.

Knowing this now, we know that we are looking for a turbocharger that can flow 750 horsepower worth of air (roughly 1125 cubic feet per minute) at a pressure ratio of 1.66.

This figure of 1125 cfm @ 1.66 PR is the key to choosing the right compressor wheel that is capable of flowing that much air, at that pressure level, at a high enough efficiency level.

The real Density Ratio vs the ideal Pressure ratio

As stated earlier, in ideal conditions a pressure ratio of 1.66 is enough to reach our power goals. However, in the real world, air temperature rises when air is compressed. This temperature rise causes the air to expand as we are trying to compress it which reduces its density.

The combination of this thermal expansion is a loss in compressor efficiency. The ideal compressor has a density ratio of 2.0 at a pressure ratio of 2.0, i.e. when the air is compressed to twice the pressure, it is now at half the size, and at double the density… However in the real world, the density ratio always lags behind the pressure ratio depending on the thermal efficiency of the compressor wheel where it is possible that our target pressure ratio of 1.66 that our actual density ratio is 1.5 which means the actual power we will make at this boost level will be 675 horsepower rather than the target of 750.

Using a good inter-cooler, after the turbocharger can bring the overall system efficiency up close to 85% or 90%. But this means that in most cases, you have to know that most turbo calculators are about 10 to 15% off of your target power level and that you will need slightly more boost pressure to reach your target power goal. That is unless the turbo calculator knows the exact point on the compressor map where you will make peak power, and unless it corrects for both the compressor efficiency at that point as well as the inter cooler efficiency (which are the two factors affecting the gap between the real density ratio and the ideal pressure ratio),

As the turbo calculator gives you a short list of possible turbochargers that will meet your power and boost pressure goals to match your engine demands, it is a good habit to choose a slightly over-sized turbocharger where your data point (1125 cfm @ 1.66 PR) is sitting in the middle of the compressor map on a high efficiency island, rather than at the far right of the compressor map of a smaller turbocharger that is almost maxed out for this engine combination. Having a slightly over-sized turbocharger allows you to compensate for the slight difference between the actual density ratio and the calculated pressure ratio that most calculators can’t correct for, and with this larger turbo you will be able to slightly raise your actual boost pressure to make sure you still reach your target power goal. A smaller turbocharger that has your target data point at the far edge of the compressor map will ultimately have a lower compressor efficiency on that larger outer island and will have no more room to grow with you for any future modifications or power increases.

Turbine Aspect Ratio Sizing

Now that we have found the compressor wheel that matches our engine demands, we must move on to choose the right turbine aspect ratio to get the best spool characteristics out of our turbocharger. On most street engines running pressure ratios in the 2.0 range you will find that turbocharger manufacturers have already coupled adequately sized turbine wheels to match the compressor wheel to give good overall performance.

However, even having that already taken care of by the manufacturer, the customer is still left with a choice turbine aspect ratios which helps target a certain spool rpm in trade-off for peak flow.

The turbine aspect ratio is the ratio of the diameter of the turbine inlet pipe to the radius of the turbine wheel. To simplify this explanation think of a fan mounted with pin on a long straw. The fastest way to get the fan to spin up is typically to blow on the outer edge of the fan lobes by focusing all of your breathe as a tight stream of air on that outer rim. This ‘nozzle’ like air injection helps spool the fan but ultimately shaping your mouth into a nozzle limits the amount of peak air that you will be able to blow at the fan before back pressure builds up in your moth.

Alternately, opening your mouth and blowing on a larger area of the fan takes longer for the fan to reach its peak speed but in the end you are able to blow larger amounts of air through the fan without building up pressure in your mouth.

The turbine aspect ratio is the ratio of the inlet area of the turbo to the turbine wheel diameter, and so having chosen a single turbine wheel and fixing that diameter, altering the size of the turbine housing inlet changes the size of the air ‘nozzle’ injection into the turbine for the air coming out of the engine’s exhaust ports.

A smaller aspect ratio has a smaller inlet area which enhances the nozzle effect and gives faster spool. A larger aspect ratio has a larger inlet area which distributes the air across a larger area of the turbine wheel, which does not promote spool, but ultimately helps the engine breathe more easily at peak flow levels without creating so much back pressure in the exhaust manifold.

Generally speaking the turbine aspect ratio (A/R) is chosen based on:

* Displacement: The larger the engine displacement, the more power it can produce at lower rpms levels, the less ‘nozzle’ assist it needs from the turbine housing, the larger the aspect ratio can be.

* Engine redline and target spool rpm: The higher the engine redline, the wider the range of rpms we have to make power in, the less urgent it is to spool the turbo at 2500 rpms (when you have up to 10,000 rpms to make power with) and the more likely we are to choose a larger aspect ratio.

* The peak pressure ratio: The higher the pressure ratio we are shooting for, the wider the dynamic range of power output that we will see from the engine between being off boost and on boost, and the higher the flow requirement will be on the typically smaller turbine side (which is matched to the smaller engine to get any kind of spool in the first place) and thus the larger the aspect ratio will be chosen (albeit on typically a smaller radius turbine for these cases).

A good turbo calculator is able to take into account these different factors and recommend an aspect ratio that will give a good compromise between spool rpm (the rpm at which the turbo first starts to produce power) and the peak flow capacity of the turbine wheel (which can degrade by up to 25% – a significant amount – for a 0.40 A/R housing vs a 1.20 A/R housing for example).

Waste-gate sizing

The waste-gate is an exhaust port that is controlled by turbo pressure. Once the pressure in the intake manifold reaches our desired pressure ratio, the waste-gate port is opened to direct exhaust gasses away from the turbine wheel and directly into the exhaust system. This bypass prevents more energy from reaching the turbine and regulates the turbine wheel rpm.

The general concept behind waste-gate sizing is two fold:

1- The larger the waste-gate the more energy you can take away from the turbine, and the more accurate your boost control can be. Smaller waste-gates can be overwhelmed at higher flow levels and show side-effects like ‘boost creep’ at high rpms.

2- The waste-gate needs to flow a percentage of the total exhaust airflow related to percentage utilization of the turbocharger. For example, a turbocharger that fully spools at 2500 rpms on an engine that has a 7500 rpm redline needs to bypass two thirds of the exhaust air away from the turbine since only one third of the engine output is enough to spool the turbo.

Similarly, the larger your turbocharger is compared to your power goals (having a 1000hp capable turbocharger on a 600hp engine for example) the larger the waste-gate needs to be in order to move exhaust energy away from the turbine preventing the turbo from going to its maximum rpms and producing too much boost and too much power (which the engine may not be prepared to fuel or handle).

So either way, there is a minimum waste-gate port size that will be able to handle a reasonably matched turbocharger to your engine demands. As you oversize the turbocharger larger and larger (leaving room for future upgrades and more power) and as you lower your spool rpm and your turbine A/R lower and lower, then you need to compensate by using an even larger waste-gate port to manage your boost levels properly.