How to Create an Inviting Beer Garden for a Pub, Bar or Restaurant

It’s that time of year again where you need to start thinking about your Garden for the Summer. Here are a few useful ideas:


First and most importantly, a garden connected to a Pub, Bar or Restaurant should feel like a Garden and not in interior space. Many proprietors try to continue the interior finishes to outside which defeats the purpose of a Garden atmosphere. The Garden should have outdoor features like stone and brick and the furniture should look like outdoor furniture. On my travels I found many beer gardens with timber sheeting and fabric covered bar stools – these areas are trying to look like indoor spaces. Instead try to embrace the outdoor Garden atmosphere, work with the multitude of materials and finishes which are available to transform a bland space into an exciting alfresco experience.


Decide on your style or theme and then do some research.

Look at the building and its walls – are there any existing characteristics that may dictate a style or that can be embellished?

Keep the theme running from the interior through to the outside – for example, if you have an Art Deco interior then try to incorporate Art Deco statues, tiles or lamps outside rather than it being a generic garden. Similarly, if it is a traditional Pub with lots of Bric-a-Brac then carry outdoor Bric-a-Brac through.


Weather considerations

The glare/heat factor: use canopies, planting or coloured glass to diffuse.

Wind: Use wind breakers. Anything can be designed to reduce the wind factor – Willow fencing, metal or timber frameworks with glass or canvas wind breakers. I recently designed a trellis planter and because it was on wheels, it was movable which worked really well for my client.

When deciding on the position for your seating consider which direction the wind comes from.

Rain: Provide adequate coverage for smokers in bad weather. In particularly wet climates, a permanent fixed solution like glass in a timber or glass framework will be much more maintainable than a canvas canopy. Glass means that daylight/sunlight can come through which is important on those warm summer days. If it gets too hot or bright then outdoor blinds can be fitted.


Before building anything it is important to know what your local regulations are. In Ireland the guideline for covering areas is described like a bus shelter where the roof covers an area that has walls that are 50% open and 50% closed.


Divide smokers from non smokers if you have the space.

Opening windows may not be an option as the smoke can be pulled into the interior and customers do not like this.

Provide ashtrays on tables and a few sand buckets about the place from which cigarette butts can be taken from at cleaning time.


Make sure the views are good and not facing bin/garbage areas or car-parks. Use screening with plants or timber fencing to hide ugly areas.


Again use outdoor fittings which suit your style whether modern or traditional. Lights can be fitted into all kinds of things and places. Try outdoor led rope lights below skirtings at low level or above a wall for a nice warm glow. Often you can find a fitting which lights up and down thus getting the double benefit. Choose lighting that will create ambiance without giving your customers a headache from the glare. Candles always look fab in a garden setting set into simple glass jam jars, bird cages or antique sieves or metal objects. If you have an outdoor bar make it glow in the dark with candles and led strip lights.


Check the local regulations on this – in many cases outdoor bars need to be located in a smoke free area otherwise the person serving at the bar will be subject to smoke inhalation. If using timber, use teak or a suitable outdoor timber with as little detail as possible so that water does not collect in its cracks. Using timber outdoors means you are going to have to commit to maintaining it. Being subject to all kinds of weather means that whatever finish you use will need to be topped up regularly. Stone counter-tops are great because the water runs off. Use lockable fridges and under counter units for security. Make sure there is permanent cover over the Bar and the customer so that the counter can be used in all weather.


Flowers make people smile so go mad with them! Use colours to suit your garden’s palette. Its always good to have a few varieties in a planter or pot just in case one of them fail. You can plant flowers in anything as long as there are holes for run off water – buckets, bicycles, beds… have a look at these ideas. Ask your plumber to install a piped watering system set to a timer with feeds running to all your plants and flowers. It can be set to water at night so that run off water will have disappeared by morning. Change your planters to ivy’s and small trees like box hedge in the winter for an evergreen look.

I recommend you hire a designer to guide you through all of this. A professionals advise is worth it and you can usually agree with a designer as to the level they get involved so as to suit your budget.

For more ideas on gardens check out the blog posts at

Caro – A History of the Nation’s Oldest Surviving Sugarbeet Factory

Michigan’s lumber industry and the 19th century drew to a close together. Lumber barons had swept through the state like a hurricane, much as they had done in New England and New York, carting away the world’s last great stand of white pine forests. In their wake lay dying towns, hundreds of miles of combustible debris, erosion-made swampland and wonderment on the part of those left behind that they had traded their heritage for a handful of bright coins. Lumber towns across the state, one of them, Caro, named for some inexplicable reason after Cairo, Egypt, faced extinction.

If a town was to have an even chance of finding a place in the 20th century then it needed an industry. Town mayors and other leaders across the state cast about for one. In Caro, talk about sugarbeets had drifted from Bay County where an entrepreneur named Thomas Cranage constructed a sugar factory in Essexville, a suburb of Bay City, another lumber town searching for an economic foothold to replace lumber. The results of Cranage’s experiment sparked enthusiasm that quickly replaced the gloom that had settled into the hearts and minds of the leaders of faltering lumber communities.

Cranage traveled to Nebraska, Utah, New Mexico, and California where he witnessed the process and talked to the technicians and then hired them. He then created Michigan Sugar Company and, avoiding the mistake of many entrepreneurs, saw that it had adequate capital to survive the disappointments that so often accompany new ventures.

Michigan Sugar Company benefited not only from good planning but from good weather. The first sugarbeet harvest and processing season (called a “campaign” in the parlance of the beet sugar industry) in the state’s history was, by every account, a remarkable success. Farmers harvested an average of 10.3 tons from each of 3,103 acres for a total of 32,047 tons of sugarbeets. The sugar content of the beets averaged 12.93 percent with a purity of eighty-two percent from which the factory extracted 5,685,552 pounds of sugar. A sugar content of 12.93 percent meant each purchased ton of beets contained 258.6 pounds of sugar. From that, the new sugar factory packaged 169 pounds, which equated to total sugar recovery of sixty-nine percent, an excellent result for a first campaign.

Principal among leaders in Caro, the center of business activity for Tuscola County, was Charles Montague. The town waited to learn what Mr. Montague thought of the sugar talk.

Montague was fifty-two years old when Michigan began to open its eyes to the prospects of sugar. He had already achieved success in many fields including banking, farming, lumber milling, merchandising and manufacturing. In addition to owning and operating the town’s hotel, he operated the local telephone system and electric lighting company.

If a sugar factory was going to be built in a town, it needed a prominent citizen to get on board, someone’s whose participation would create a groundswell of enthusiasm – enough to shake dollars loose from hidden places – enough to cause farmers to favorably consider raising beets that could make townsmen rich. As it would turn out, Caro was one of the few Michigan communities that did not need to generate investment from within the community. In Detroit, ninety miles to south, eager investors searched for ripe opportunities and closer to home in the nearby town of Vassar, lived a man whose roving eye never ceased to search for opportunity.

Richard Hoodless lived in comfort in Vasser, a small city named after Mathew Vassar, the founder of Vassar University. He had for many years traveled Europe’s roads as a buyer of agricultural products for an English concern. He saw his first beet fields in Germany twenty years earlier, saw prosperous factories perched near towns, factories that hired laborers, purchased supplies and paid taxes to local governments and generally caused a rising tide of sustained prosperity in which no citizen directly or indirectly was denied a chance to dip into the treasure-trove formed out of beet fields.

Hoodless looked for ways to duplicate the success of Germany’s farmers. As luck would have it, an advertisement appeared in a Chicago newspaper, placed by August Maritzen, a youthful architect, recently married, who had taken time out from his honeymoon to promote business for a manufacturer in Germany whose name could be pronounced by most Americans only if they first filled their mouths with marbles. It was A. Wernicke Maschinenbau Aktiengesellschaft of Halle, Germany. Hoodless replied to the advertisement and in return, Maritzen offered the significant sum of $4,000 (more than $80,000 in modern dollars) if Hoodless could generate enough interest to establish a factory in Caro.

On one hand, Hoodless had in Charles Montague, a man of wealth who dearly loved both opportunity and technology as evidenced by his control of the local telephone and lighting companies, new shining hallmarks of late 19th century technology, and on the other, in Wernicke, an experienced factory builder eager to construct a factory in the United States. For help, he turned to two friends, Fred Wheat linked to the Montagues by marriage for many years, and John Wilsey. Wheat was a lawyer whose wife was Maria Montague, a sister of Charles Montague.

Hoodless then assembled a citizens committee that became the predecessor to the Caro Sugar Company. A member of the committee, Fred Slocum, also served as editor of the Tuscola County Advertiser and helped promote the idea in his news columns. Farmers in Caro’s neighborhood, aware of the great excitement occasioned by the Essexville experiment signed on as did Charles Montague and his associate, banker John Seeley who had earned his spurs in coal mining. He served as the vice-president of the Sebewaing Coal Company; an organization headed by Spencer O. Fisher who also was involved in Essexville’s Michigan Sugar Company and would later become president of the West Bay City Sugar Company.

Once Montague picked up the ball, he ran for the end zone without considering competitive quotes for factory construction. Indeed, it was Wernicke representative, Max Schroeder who joined Montague and Seeley on an excursion to Detroit on a January evening in 1899. The night was blistering cold; the deal in the making was hot. The great fear was that some other town would beat Caro to the punch, drawing investment dollars away from Tuscola County. Time was of the essence.

For one week, the town held its breath as the trio met with important financiers in Detroit. Daniel Gutleben, in his The Sugar Tramp-1954 reported the receipt of a telegram by the organizing committee at Caro announcing that investment capitalists had invested in the factory and had awarded Wernicke the contract for its construction. Pandemonium “reigned supreme” according to the Tuscola County Advertiser. Seeley arrived alone on Tuesday’s evening train with a story to tell, one that lives yet in Caro’s memory, passed down by each succeeding generation and recorded in Daniel Gutleben’s chronicles. It is a story that reveals how Charles Montague persuaded some big city wheelers and dealers into investing heavily in Michigan’s second beet sugar factory.

No one questioned Wernicke’s ability to build a factory four thousand miles from its base in a foreign country where the language, customs and economic conditions differed significantly from the home country. There was no one on the board of directors who possessed any experience whatsoever with beet sugar factories nor did the board foresee a need to engage corporate officers possessed of such experience. After all, Wernicke was the sugar expert, claiming more than 200 projects, including one just completed in Australia. It also did not matter because Wernicke, with enthusiasm running amuck, signed a contract guaranteeing the new factory would slice 500 tons of beets each day for a least thirty successive days at a cost of three cents per pound for sugar currently selling in Chicago for six cents per pound, retail.

That a new factory, even one built by someone lacking the disadvantages of building a factory in a foreign land, could operate at 500 tons per day during its maiden voyage was unheard of. Inevitable construction problems always created delays; fine-tuning would deter full slicing capability for weeks, sometimes months. Added to the mix were factory crews more accustomed to walking behind plows or knocking down trees with axes than operating boilers, engines, diffusers, vacuum pans, and evaporators all in perfect harmony. A year earlier, the Essexville factory builders had missed its guarantee to produce sugar for three and one-half cents per pound by fifteen cents and paid for it with a costly out of court settlement, a fact either unknown by Wernicke or dismissed in a moment of unwarranted confidence. Further, Wernicke agreed to finance $300,000 of the estimated $400,000 construction cost.

For Caro and its Detroit investors, it was too good a deal to pass up. It got better as time went on. The village council, as an added inducement, purchased 100 acres of land in two parcels, one of which belonged to Charles Montague, and gifted it to the factory owners, one of whom was Montague. The Caro Water Company sweetened the deal when it offered, free of charge, up to 500,000 gallons of spring water daily.

Thus did Caro, as a result of Montague’s energy and Hoodless’s ambition and the will of a town that would not be left behind, find itself the beneficiary of a factory largely paid for by outside investors. Foregoing the original name, The Caro Sugar Company, the organizers formed the Peninsular Sugar Refining Company on January 30, 1899 with 30,000 shares with a par value of $10. By August of the same year, the capitalization jumped to $500,000 and jumped again in February 1902 when it climbed to $750,000. Its final increment occurred in September 1902 when it advanced to an even one million dollars – 100,000 shares at $10.00 par value.

The moneymen included Detroit industrialists Charles Bewick who a few years later invested in the East Tawas sugar factory and Henry B. Joy, who in 1905 became president of the Packard Motor Car Company. Joy and members of his family invested in a number of Michigan’s sugar factories, including those at Alma, Croswell, and Bay City. His brother-in-law and a co-founder of the Packard Motor Car Company, Truman Newberry, invested in Caro, as well, and along with Joy, became one of the company directors. Newberry would in 1918 catch fleeting fame as the successful bidder for a U.S. Senate seat for Michigan, defeating Henry Ford, another magnate who sought the same post. (Newberry fame lasted longer in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula where they named a town Newberry to commemorate his father’s thoughtfulness in chopping down all the hardwoods he could find and turning them into charcoal.)

David Cady and Gilbert Lee, owners of a large wholesale food distributorship in Detroit, controlled between them, nearly five thousand shares. Gilbert Lee moved into the president’s chair while Henry Joy settled for a vice-presidency.

Within a few years the Sugar Trust came to town and everything changed. The American Sugar Refining Company referred to everywhere in newspapers as the Sugar Trust, moved into Michigan in 1901 and 1902 and began absorbing beet sugar factories at a rapid pace. Gone now was Charles Montague whose energy and drive assembled the parts that made the company. Gone, too, was John Seeley, his friend and partner. Richard Hoodless, who started it all, never made it to the stockholder list.

By 1903, the shareholder’s list reflected some of the top names in the Sugar Trust. Chief among them was Charles B. Warren, legal counsel to the American Sugar Refining Company, whose 22,001 shares topped the 1904 shareholder list. The second ranking shareholder was Thomas B. Washington of Boston, Massachusetts, a director of the American Sugar Refining Company who held 15,667 shares. He would rise to the presidency of the Sugar Trust four years later upon the death of Henry O. Havemeyer, its founder. Third was Lowell Palmer, an executive with the American Sugar Refining Company who held 10,126 shares. Together, the three controlled 48% of the Peninsular Sugar Refining Company. An interesting feature of the shareholder list was the absence of the names of Caro residents except for a few latter day residents, employees of the sugar factory.

The American Sugar Refining Company, vilified in the daily press for its monopolistic tendencies and harried in federal courtrooms for perceived violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, was held in high regard by its 13,000 shareholders who enjoyed a steady stream of dividends, 12% per annum since 1894. An under-appreciated aspect of the Sugar Trust was that it demanded that companies under its jurisdiction produce products of high quality at low cost and to that end provided expert advisors who traveled from factory to factory dispensing technical information, overseeing training and staffing, and inspecting the facilities.

But in 1899, the village of Caro’s interest lay, not in the realm of high finance or corporate philosophy but in the hundreds of workers in need of boarding, food, and clothing and other necessities and luxuries that caused cash registers to ring all about the town. Men, money, equipment, and building materials poured into the hamlet. Forty-eight carloads of equipment plus six million bricks and one thousand cords of stone arrived in rapid succession. Three hundred workers, including bricklayers who earned fifty-cents an hour compared to fifteen cents for common laborers and five cents for apprentice electricians, created a buzz of activity that began when the snow melted in April and ended October 23 when Superintendent Georg Bartsch, a noted expert in sugar manufacturing with special acclaim won for expertise in crystallization and vacuum pan operation, declared the factory ready for operations.

Performance guarantees for new beet sugar factories plagued those who dared to issue them-and would soon plague Wernicke. The factory as described by Gutleben, while eschewing some American preferences in terms of materials, nevertheless represented the foremost in factory design. It possessed four quadruple effect evaporators made of wrought iron, supplying a combined 8,911 square feet of heating surface, two pans each 9-1/2 feet in diameter x 13 feet high containing 753 square feet of heating surface, and centrifugals that used steam jets for the final washing of the sugar. Six 700 cubic-foot spray-cooled vacuum-filled crystallizers installed on the pan floor expedited cooling, a modern feature that improved throughput. Nine water-tube boilers fitted with mechanical stokers provided an adequate supply of steam. A concrete floor, a luxury according to Michigan factory standards of the day, separated the factory from the mud and clay that lay beneath.

Two significant differences between a factory of American design and one of German design caused some immediate rancor. The first was that American management style called for superintendents who inspired the invention of the phrase, “manage on your feet, not on your seat” while the German method called for a field marshal who commanded from afar, sending lieutenants forward to collect information and to dispense managerial wisdom and dictates.

In addition, the European method of management called for much secrecy between management and the managed and in addition, technicians reserved their knowledge to themselves, sharing what they knew only with sons or those who paid handsomely for instruction. The departmentalized factory fit the European management style perfectly. For that reason, the Caro factory consisted of a number of separate rooms, or departments, the effect of which encumbered communication and increased the number of laborers required to operate the factory. Messengers scurried between rooms delivering orders and information, not always as timely as circumstances required. The arrangement, in later years, would make it difficult to expand the factory; expansion of one area generally occurred at the expense of another. Kilby-built factories, those constructed by Joseph Kilby of Cleveland, Ohio, considered by many the premier constructor of sugar factories, conversely, provided sufficient space that during two and more generations of successive development allowed for five-fold enlargement of capacity with only minor additions to the structures or foundations.

Wernicke’s record from the standpoint of practicality and fairness, however, was outstanding. Between March 1, 1899 and October 23 of the same year, the German company had shipped a good portion of the factory from Germany. It then arranged for the design and construction of a complete operating facility in a relatively new industry in a foreign country in just under seven months, becoming the first of eight beet sugar factories constructed in Michigan in 1899 which then made it the second such factory built in Michigan after Essexville’s. By standards existing in 1899 and more than one hundred years later, Wernicke’s accomplishment stands as a monumental achievement. Other than ordinary upsets, the factory had operated as well, and in some cases, better than any start-up that took place that year.

Because of the loss of records, specifically, the sugar content of the processed beets, the results of the first campaign can only be estimated. Nearby Bay City reported sugar content of thirteen percent and eleven percent was reported elsewhere in the state. Applying an average of twelve percent, then, to the crop received at Caro, indicates the new factory recovered 66 percent of the sugar in the beets, comparing favorably to the 61 percent recovered at Benton Harbor but short of Alma where recovery reached 72 percent.

However encouraging the results may have been, the simple fact was Wernicke failed to achieve three conditions spelled out in the contract, failures that would result in a hurried walk to the woodshed. First, the factory did not slice 500 tons per day for 30 consecutive days, as guaranteed. Secondly, cost exceeded three cents per pound, and third, the factory was not ready to accept beets on September 1, 1899, as promised. Also, according to the company, the sugar produced lacked salability and much of it was lost in the process. It was then that Wernicke learned the litigious nature of Michigan’s pioneer sugar manufacturers.

It may have been possible that the company would have relented somewhat in consideration of Wernicke’s exceptional effort except that the directors contemplated operating losses because the State of Michigan decided to withhold payment of a promised bounty on any sugar produced after January 1, 1899. The bounty provided payment from the state treasury of one cent for each pound of sugar produced in Michigan from sugarbeets but had been declared unconstitutional by the Auditor General, a decision later upheld by the state supreme court. The decision represented a disaster to investors because one-cent equated roughly to one-third of the operating costs. The United States Supreme Court declined to consider the case, giving rise to the mistaken belief that the decision upheld the lower court’s decision. The unremitted bounty money amounted to $40,436; a much needed offset to an approximate $65,000 loss.

When it came time to take Wernicke to court, the company directors chose as their legal advocate, Charles Evans Hughes, a brilliant jurist destined to become the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. In preparing for his day in court with Wernicke, Hughes learned the German language and the beet sugar industry from the ground up to enable him to cross-examine German engineers appearing as expert witnesses. According to James Howell, a former Caro factory superintendent who authored a detailed account of Caro’s factory history, Hughes spent a month at the Caro factory exploring every nook and cranny until he became expert in its design and function.

The ensuing court case, according to Gutleben, resulted in a forfeiture of the $300,000 bond underwritten by Wernicke, seventy-five percent of the contract price, causing Wernicke to withdraw altogether from constructing sugar factories in the United States. Howell, writing six years before Gutleben, gave a slightly altered account. He related that Wernicke remitted $150,000 and forgave $125,000 still due on the construction contract.

Shortly, Oxnard Construction Company appeared in Caro to affect changes to the factory, none of which were material in terms of the original construction. American made centrifugals, these by the American Tool Machine Company, often called “Amtool” in the industry, replaced those of German design. One major change had nothing to do with defects in the original design. It was the addition of the Steffen process for removing sugar from molasses. A chief problem of the era was the high ratio of sugar that escaped the manufacturing process and ended its days mixed in with molasses, the gummy syrup left over from the manufacturing process.

The second year’s financial results were impressive. The new centrifugals and Steffens process (called the Steffen’s House in the industry) proved their worth. Seven million pounds of sugar passed through the storehouse, the product of thirty-two thousand tons of sugarbeets that contained 14 percent sugar. The factory extracted 243 pounds of sugar from each ton of sugarbeets, a 35 percent improvement over the first year. The new Steffen process had not only recovered sugar from the approximate twenty tons of molasses produced each day but also recovered sugar from molasses left over from the previous crop.

Henry Oxnard founds a management dynasty at Caro

Henry Oxnard did more than merely redesign a factory when he applied his efforts to the problems then existing at Caro; he founded a management dynasty that would permanently influence not only the Caro factory but also the fledgling U.S. beet sugar industry. Nearly ten years earlier, in 1891, Henry Oxnard had recruited from Germany and France some of the finest and best educated technicians of the day who after arriving in America formed the nucleus of a cadre that would set about to train Americans in the production of sugar from beets.

Having formed his first-tier of management, Oxnard then proceeded to provide for the mechanical engineering department. For overall construction management responsibilities, he turned to A. P. Cooper who had served at the pioneer Ames, Nebraska factory in the capacity of assistant engineer. Cooper promptly surveyed the Caro factory and set in motion a plan to affect change, putting to work a duet of draftsmen that had accompanied him to Caro. One was Daniel Gutleben who would one day rise in the ranks of premier factory operators and still later, as the chronicler of the beet industry’s history.

With the two top tiers firmly in place, Oxnard then saw to the placement of a group of promising laborers who lacked adequate training but who could perform with a high degree of satisfaction if given proper tutelage.

Charles Sieland, a thirty-six year old native of Germany employed by Oxnard to oversee the changes, disavowed his countrymen’s tendency to withhold information except for financial reward. He adopted Henry Oxnard’s philosophy of sharing information. Caro, in his mind, was not only a factory but also a university. A long roster of factory technicians and managers began their careers at Caro under his tutelage and then carried their shared knowledge to others when they moved from factory to factory. One of them was William Hoodless, son of the same Richard Hoodless who had started the ball rolling for gaining a factory in Caro. Within a few years he held responsibility for all factory operations and not long afterward accepted the presidency of the Pennsylvania Sugar Refinery in Philadelphia.

In 1906, the Sugar Trust consolidated most of its Michigan holdings into one company, the Michigan Sugar Company, reviving the name of the first company to construct a sugar factory in Michigan. The new Michigan Sugar Company included the Alma Sugar Company, Bay City-Michigan Sugar Company, Peninsular Sugar Refining Company, Carrollton Sugar Company, the Croswell Sugar Company, and the Sebewaing Sugar Company. At the time, the Trust through nominee shareholders held a majority interest in the Blissfield Sugar Company built a year earlier in 1905, and the East Tawas Sugar Company, a company, while failing as a business venture in 1904, was in possession of a fine Kilby-built factory the Sugar Trust had use for in Chaska, Minnesota where it operated for the next sixty-six years. The Carrollton Sugar Company also included the defunct Saginaw Sugar Company which owned yet another Kilby-built factory, this one destined for Sterling, Colorado where it served from 1905 to 1985. Charles Warren assumed the presidency of Michigan Sugar Company, a position he held until 1925.

By 1920, the sun had set on the Sugar Trust. After a generation of withstanding attacks by various federal agencies including the U.S. Justice Department and the Interstate Commerce Commission, the American Sugar Refining Company gradually sold of its many components to private investors and in that way Michigan Sugar Company loosened itself from the grip of the Sugar Trust. Its entire post-trust board of directors consisted of Michigan residents, none of whom had association with the Sugar Trust with the exception of its president, Charles B. Warren whose interest now lay further afield first as Ambassador to Japan, 1921-1922, and then Ambassador to Mexico in 1924. He lost a bid to become Attorney General of the U.S. in 1925 during a politically charged senate vote influenced by an aversion to Warren’s past association with the Sugar Trust. His aspirations for roles in the public sector kept him away from the President’s office, a role ably filled by William H. Wallace who carried the title, 3d vice-president and General Manager. The first and second vice-presidencies fell to a couple of heavy hitters on the shareholder list that had no involvement in day-to-day activities.

Caro survives time and change

Thanks to James Howell, Caro’s superintendent beginning in 1944, who prepared a recorded history in 1948, it is learned that Caro began stockpiling beets in the factory yard in 1937, an important step for growers who after delivering the beets to the factory, could look to the needs of other crops whereas formerly it was necessary to supply the beets as they were needed.

During the period 1928-1937, the Caro factory, like nearly all the Michigan beet sugar factories suffered the ill effects of the Great Depression. However, from 1937 until the present time, Caro reported steady improvement in terms of modernization and expansion. Centrifugals for white sugar and a new pulp warehouse were added in 1944. A centrifugal is an apparatus designed to separate sugar crystals from syrup by filtering the syrup through a screen that spins with sufficient (usually about 1,200 rpm) speed to create a centrifugal force that propels the syrup through perforations in a spinning basket. The sugar crystals remain in the basket while the syrup recirculates through the process to recover more of the sugar. These and other changes have caused the average daily slice rate to expand to more than 3,600 tons each twenty-four hours from the 500 tons per day in the original design which makes it a relatively small factory compared to others in the United States that range from twice as large to four times as large.

If Caro has a secret for surviving more than 100 years, it is that the factory Oxnard rebuilt remained precisely that for many years and remains so today, meeting challenges as they arise , gaining the support of its community and changing when occasion and opportunity join together to compel change. In that way, the oldest surviving beet sugar factory in the United States hangs on in a fast paced industry.


HOWELL, James, A History of the Caro Plant of the Michigan Sugar Company, an unpublished account of the Caro Factory history, May 1, 1948

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954 p.182 concerning purchase of sugar factories by the Sugar Trust, p. 177 concerning organization of Sebewaing Sugar and operating results, printed by Bay Cities Duplicating Company, San Francisco, California

MARQUIS, Albert Nelson, editor, The Book of Detroiters, pages 465-468, A.N. Marquis & Company, Chicago, 1908 – concerning the biography of Charles B. Warren

MICHIGAN ANNUAL REPORTS, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan:

Peninsular Sugar Refining Company filed 1904 and Michigan Sugar Company filed 1924

MOODY, John, The Truth about the Trusts, in reference to the comment that the Sugar Trust began buying beet sugar companies in Michigan in 1902 and dividend payments between 1892 and 1900.

UNITED STATES. In the District Court of the United States for the southern district of New York

United States vs. American Sugar Refining Co., et al. page 1674, Petitioner’s Exhibit #1494

Copyright, 2009, Thomas Mahar, All Rights Reserved

Kiteboarding Equipment Maintenance – Board Inspection

Kiteboarders can ride anything while being pulled by their kite, from kiteboards, wakeboards, surfboards, and skimboards on the water, to skis or snowboards on the snow, or even skateboards, offroad mountain boards, or buggies across the land. That’s one of the best parts about kiteboarding. Many kiters have numerous boards to choose from depending on what kind of riding they are planning on doing, and although it is tempting to just grab one and go, it is important to check the condition of the board before riding to prevent gear failure while out on the water or two miles away from where you in chest deep powder.

Kiteboards are built tough and are unlikely to break over the course of their life, but there are a few elements of any board to inspect before riding. Here is a pre-ride checklist for kiteboards, and some repair tips for common damage.

  • For boards with fins, make sure all fin screws are tight before riding. Over time fin screws can become loose. Although not the end of the world if a fin is lost while riding, it can make the board harder to ride, and is expensive to replace. It only takes a second to tighten fin screws before riding.
  • Check to make sure bindings or foot straps are properly tightened as well. As with fin screws, these can loosen over time. If a footstrap or binding comes off while you are riding it can easily cause knee or ankle injury, and otherwise be very difficult to ride back anyway.
  • A good technique to prevent fin and footstrap screws from loosening is to use locktight on the screws when installing them on the board.

To prevent loose screws, Lock-tight is a mild adhesive that will hold the screw tight, but not permanently attach it if you ever want to take the screw out again.

  • Check for damage on the board. Although edge and base damage don’t effect the performance of kiteboards or wakeboards as much as skis or snowboards, dents in the rails or gouges in the base that expose the core of the board can lead to water damage which will ruin the board, and should be fixed before riding.

It is relatively easy to fix damaged kiteboards by filling or sealing damaged areas with p-tex plastic or epoxy. To fix a gouge in the bottom of the board, sand down the area in and around the damage, clean with alcohol, and apply P-tex. P-tex generally comes in stick form, and is applied by lighting the end of the stick on fire, and dripping the melting plastic into the damaged area. Slightly overfill the damaged area, allow the P-tex to dry, and scrape off the excess with a hard plastic board scraper.

Damage to the edges or rails of a kiteboard should be sealed with epoxy. The damaged area first needs to be cleaned of broken pieces of board and dirt, and sanded all around the area. If the impact that caused the damage also pushed the top and bottom of the board apart, you will need a clamp as well to squeeze the board back together after the epoxy is applied. Apply the epoxy, forcing as much inside the damaged area as possible, and clamp the board back together if necessary. Next, smooth the excess epoxy along and around the edge of the board. This can be done using plastic wrap, a soft plastic card, or your gloved finger. It is not entirely necessary to reshape the edge of the board perfectly, as it is with skis or snowboards. The edge just needs to be sealed from water entering and hold the board together.

Super glue, surfboard, or ski and snowboard wax can also be used to temporarily seal damaged areas in kiteboards if you have to use the board and don’t have time to fix it, but will only last a short while and can be difficult to clean out before making a proper repair.

How Safe Is Plastic Surgery? Dangers of Cosmetic Procedures

Many people wonder every day whenever plastic surgery is truly safe as well as how safe a cosmetic surgery procedure truly is. The fact of the matter which one must always keep in mind is that a cosmetic surgery procedure is just that, a surgical procedure and although it is no longer considered to be experimental, it still caries with it certain risks and possibilities of various complications. The only real difference between it and other forms of surgery is the fact that it is electric. What this means is that it is not a necessary surgical procedure which offers any real form of medical health improvement. If it does, then it is not considered plastic surgery but rather reconstructive surgery.

Furthermore, much like any surgical procedure, the safety issues which have brought up a number of concerns is usually attributed to the patient's selection of surgeons. All to often a story comes up in the newspaper that this person or that person underwent a plastic surgery and it was botched. Upon further digging, in many cases it was found out that the patient in an attempt to save some money chose a not so legitimate person to perform the procedure. This is even the case in many high persons and their close family members. On top of all of this, you have to check the background of the surgeon. Selecting an inexperienced surgeon is probably the worst thing you can do. An inexperienced plastic surgeon has a higher possibility of messing things up and botching the plastic surgery.

So basically, the concept of plastic surgery being safe all comes down to you, the patient. When looking into surgery it is important to interview several surgeons. Much like an employment interview, your goal is to find the most qualified surgeon you can get and trying to cut corners in the cost department by selecting a surgeon who may be less than qualified is no one's fault but your own.

Make sure that the surgeon has performed the procedure in the past, check out the before and after photographs of their past patients. From these photographs you will be able to judge the surgeon's artistic skills. Tomorrowmore you will want to make sure that the plastic surgeon is a certified member of the Board of Plastic Surgeons and that his or her certification is in the particular field of surgery that you want performed. All of these things will help you ensure that the surgeon is capable of performing the procedure without any major issues which leaves the only real possibilities of complications to you body's own anatomy.

Tone Up Your Tummy

Want to improve your posture, say goodbye to backache and have a midriff worthy of flaunting in sexy little tops? Get working on your abs now, then!

Strong abdominal muscles mean better support for your body, great posture and a flatter tummy.

THE CRUNCH: Place your hands on your temples or thighs (putting them on your temples makes the exercise harder as you are also lifting the weight of your arms), chin down. Slowly roll the spine upwards for the count of two, give your stomach muscles a good squeeze then lower for the count of two. ‘Don’t let your head rest on the mat when you come back down as it puts pressure on the neck,’ says fitness experts. Now add a twist to the exercise to work the oblique muscles as well. Perform the basic, crunch then before squeezing, twist to the left or right, return to the centre position, lower and repeat to fatigue. Breathe in on the way up and out going down.

THE PLANK: This also improves posture and eases lower-back pain.

Level one: Lie on your front, with your elbows on the floor under your shoulders and your forearms on the ground. Raise up onto your knees, pull your tummy in, tense and hold. Your neck, spine and hips should be aligned. Hold for five seconds. Add five seconds each time, working up to 90 seconds.

Level two: This time, lift onto your toes. Start a zero and count up until you can’t hold it any longer. Hold for five more seconds next time. This is the most important abs exercise. If you sit all day, your transversus abs will be weak because they’re not worked as much as they should be.

DORSAL RAISE: Lie on your front with your elbows level with your shoulders and at right angles to your body. Keeping the elbows touching the floor, lift the top half of your body slowly off the ground for the count of two then back down for two. Breathe out as you go up and in on the way back down.

There’s no resistance on this exercise so try to do 10 reps at first. If that’s hard, count how many you can do and try to add more each time.

REVERSE CURL: Lie on your back with your arms by your sides, legs raised, ankles crossed. Lift your bottom off the floor then lower it back down again. The important thing here is to push the pelvis off the floor and not to roll the spine up. Keep your back flat on the floor. Men find this exercise almost impossible – and certainly very painful so if you want to get one over on your fella you could always challenge him to a contest!

Understanding Your Abs

There are three muscle groups to consider:

  1. THE TRANSVERSUS ABS are a deep layer near the spine. These form a supportive corset round your body and give you that ‘flat tummy’ feeling. They also improve posture.
  2. THE OBLIQUES form a crisscross around the mid-section and are responsible for turning you from side to side. If you’re worried about love handles, target these.
  3. THE RECTI ABDOMINIS form the top layer – these give the illusion of a six-pack. A good abs routine targets all three groups.

Max Your Abs Work-Out

  1. Be flexible. Never work your abs on an exercise that fixes your legs in place – a machine that holds them in place or by putting your feet under a chair. You’ll be able to do more reps but you’re working your hip flexors rather than your abs.
  2. Do it the hard way. Most gyms have tab trainers (frames which assist with sit-ups) but these should only be used to learn the technique. When you crunch and your abs contract, a muscle around the neck contracts, too, to protect the neck vertebrae. A trainer takes that contraction out, making the exercise feel easier. If you use it over a period of time the abs get very strong and when you do crunches without the frame your neck fatigues before the ab muscles.

15 Questions To Help You Plan Your Acting Career

For personal reasons, I spend a lot of time in Italy throughout the year. When I went to New York from Italy to study and work the last time, I was more focused than I had been in the past. I had more clarity about what I wanted, about who I was as an actor, about my capabilities, strengths and weaknesses. I did a SWOT self-analysis (which you can see in more detail on the website and I was as honest and as forthright with myself as possible. I also asked myself and answered the questions that helped me to see my vision for the future of my life as well as with regard to my long-term acting goal. Then, I got even more specific and asked myself a series of questions designed to help me clarify my short-term acting career goals. This article is about the 15 questions I asked myself to help me clarify my long-term goals. Here they are:

1. Where would you like to be five years from now? What will your life be like? Visualize it. Think about where you will be living, what kind of job you will have (acting job that it is! If that’s really what you want.).

2. How much would you like to earn? Be specific.

3. How does acting fit into the overall scope of your life? Do you want it to be the way you earn a living or will it provide the necessary skills to do something else, like speak in public, achieve greater self-confidence, integrate into training seminars, etc.)

4. What kind of acting career do you want? What genre are you particularly interested in? (film, tv, theatre, daytime, prime-time, etc.)

5. What kinds of roles do you see yourself interpreting? What type are you? Doctor, housewife, tough guy, evil witch, ivory soap girl, detective, etc.?

6. Is there a particular type of show, program, sit-com that you can identify with and would like to be part of?

7. What kinds of people will you need to surround yourself with who will be able to help you achieve your goal? Do you know anyone like that now who can help you and who you would like to take with you on this journey?

8. What resources will you need to reach that goal that you don’t currently have (financial, character traits, skills, contacts)?

9. Where will you be living?

10. How will you promote yourself?

11. How will you keep in contact with casting directors and agents and other industry professionals?

12. How will you find acting work?

13. How will you compliment the work that your agent is doing? In other words, what will you do to promote yourself aside from what he or she will already be doing for you?

14. What will you do to promote yourself in a way that is different than most of the other actors?

15. What kind of person will you need to become in order to achieve what you want? In other words, what characteristics will you have in the future that you don’t have now that will help you get where you are going?

Asking these questions for starters is part of a proven method of goal achievement, that can be applied to any career. It’s what I learned in my life as a corporate senior manager in Nike and Levi’s. It’s what has helped me over the years to achieve goals over and over again. It’s what has helped me thus far in my new endeavors as an entrepreneur, writer, motivational speaker and actor, having done film, television, industrials, voice-over, commercial work. Going through these crucial first steps can seem like a waste of time, but it’s all about positioning yourself for success. Having said that, I will leave you with a quote from Abraham Lincoln who once said:

“If I had three hours to chop down a tree, I would spend the first hour sharpening the axe.”

In the next article, I will talk about getting even closer, by asking yourself very specific short-term acting career goal questions.

Coloured Metal Roofing – The Right Choice for Your Roof

Colored Metal roofing has gained a lot of popularity in the industrial sectors. Apart from commercial usage, manufacturers have started using it in both retail and residential projects. In any case, are there any persuading purposes behind engineers to indicate shaded metal material? How about we read beneath and discover its present situation.

From a situation in which metal material summoned pictures of ridged GI sheets put over sheds, Indian development has grasped the new-age metal rooftop biggy. The market measure for shaded metal has developed from 45,000 tonnes for each annum to around 2,00,000 tonnes for each annum in a limited capacity to focus a couple of years. Development is evaluated at 15-20%. No mean deed for an industry that came into India with the overwhelming errand of making the idea of metal sheet material worthy and changing its picture so it picks up acknowledgement as a top notch material choice.

Why metal roofs?


Significantly lighter than RCC or earthenware tiles, metal rooftops enable you to plan a basic structure that will cost you less. This is no mean preferred standpoint, as in many activities, this cost lessening permits the consideration of other esteem included elements.


With expanded accentuation on style no matter how you look at it, paying little mind to the sort of building, the manufacturer needs arrangements that enable her to understand her creative ability. Metal rooftops are adaptable fit as a fiddle and numerous producers now offer nearby innovation that forms the sheets to the coveted shape and size. Obviously, this should be done inside the plan furthest reaches of load, taking into consideration the heat development. Producers caution of the terrible impacts of not noticing warm extension issues and urge engineers to not succumb to practices that support long sheets that don’t consider heat issues.

With the approach of colored metal material, determining a metal rooftop no longer spells weariness and consistency. The planner has a selection of colors that can make the rooftop look alluring.

Solid and tough

On the substance of it, the positives appear to exceed the cons. Metal Roofing sheet rooftops give finish security from the components. They are solid steel sheets, aluminium or metal amalgams that are high on quality and toughness. This implies they can withstand wind loads, rain, hail and snow, and different effects. They are likewise impervious to flame and have a low affinity to pull in shape and build up, normal issues in tropical atmospheres like India.

Besides, metal rooftops that are painted or precoated are safe to use. Despite the fact that in India, organizations don’t give any assurance, they assert that their material arrangements will last 15-20 years. Worldwide experience demonstrates a life expectancy of more than 25 years for metal material.

Simplicity of establishment

Not at all like the more seasoned GI and asbestos-concrete layered rooftops that were settled with J-snares and represented a few issues, current metal sheet rooftops are settled utilizing latches. A few frameworks exist to seal the joints between material sheets and these guarantee speed and precision, as the parts are intended to shape an answer. Yes, there is a need to guarantee that brilliant latches are utilized that won’t rust or consume, in this way undermining the adequacy of the metal sheets. Producers are presently prescribing particular brands and details of latches and other equipment to evade issues in such manner.

To sidestep establishment blunder and the poor workmanship that torment an expansive piece of the development business, a few producers likewise take up metal material as a turnkey. Despite the fact that this shows up as an advantageous answer for you, there is no assurance that the maker’s establishment will be great. On the off chance that you have a solid temporary worker, it would work similarly also to just purchase the items from a known organization.

Appropriateness for Indian climate conditions

This is the region where there is most extreme perplexity. In spite of the fact that it is somewhat more costly to protect a metal rooftop, making it an expensive choice for habitations, various variables make it reasonable for Indian climate.

India sees an expensive variety in diurnal temperatures to the degree of 15-20 degrees a day, making metals change by 60-70%. Metals have the quality to take this sort of development and construction over its life expectancy.

On the off chance that structures are planned utilizing the deep-rooted custom of higher rooftops with common ventilation through all around set openings, metal rooftops can serve similarly and additionally some other material framework in cutting down the utilization of counterfeit cooling frameworks that devour vitality. Inquire about by CBRI and other presumed establishments demonstrates that an incline of 15-18 degrees is perfect for Indian conditions.

Why color metal rooftops?

All the above variables remain constant for these rooftops also, yet basically, they offer security, a contemporary look and a long life expectancy of more than 15-20 years. Metal roofing sheet price and the accessories are also comparatively less expensive when taken in accordance with other roofing materials


Like every single other item, if the application and properties suit the venture, you can determine roofing metal material. The ideal opportunity for uncertainty is passed with this innovation. With quality makers, assortment, establishment attitudes set up, and various plan points of interest like toughness, adaptability and great looks, coloured rooftops in metal have crossed the limit of experimentation and are entering the acknowledged items class.

However, the applications in the nation could be said to be the beginning, aside from some startlingly develop utilizes as a part of select tasks like stadiums, shopping centres, and office buildings in metro urban communities. The material needs the impulse of a good plan and striking application to truly hybrid and is really acknowledged.

The Ghost Writer (Roman Polanski, 2010) – New Movie Review

The Ghost Writer (Roman Polanski, 2010) – What is with all the expository dialogue in "Thrillers" lately? When did such great directors such as Scorsese and Polanski decide that they should model their films after a Kevin Smith yak-fest? Usually when you write "REVEAL" in a screenplay it's a camera direction, not a general principle of dialogue. Lately I've seen a lot of this tension. First it brought Shutter Island to a standstill, then the tension shown up in Flame and Citron out of Denmark (see my review), and now it's infected Roman Polanski in his much-praised new "thriller" The Ghost Writer. In all of these films, major elements of the plot which had remained unrevealed during their dramatic and effective build-ups, come tumbling out of characters' mouths with such exacting specificity that I can imagine (and have witnessed) people leaving the theaters scratching their Heads, saying, "What?" The wealth of information fed to us with a spoon makes us wonder if we are being secretly slipped something we are not expecting, and when "the big reveal" takes an hour hour to unfold, it feels like it never unfolded at all, and We wonder if we missed it. Alas, we did not. Nobody awake could. It's a cliche to write that a good thriller "keeps you guessing." These films "keep answering you" – so does that make them anti-thrillers? Maybe this time I'll cleanse my pallet, and satisfy my desire for nostalgia, with a screening of The Tenant.

The Ghost Writer referees to the unspoken protagonist played by Ewan MacGregor, who is hired to help publish the memoirs of Adam Lang, a stand-in for Tony Blair, who is holed up in Cape Cod to escape the anti-war protester that plague him Back home. The Ghost is replacing another writer who recently washed up on a beach with lungs full of seawater. Just as Lang and his new college beginning work, charges come down from the International Criminal Court accusing Lang of assisting the CIA in conducting torture on secret flights run by Hatherton, a stand-in for Halliburton. The Lang team goes on full defense and discusses their strategic options, which leads them to conclude that they have to stay in the US to avoid the ICC.

As the sharp, womanizing, pretty-boy Lang, Pierce Brosnan has never been better, nor has he ever ever been better cast. The casting choices across the board are brilliant, especially Jim Belushi as a brash American publishing executive, and Kim Cattrall as Lang's composed and intimidating assistant / mistress. There's no Best Casting Oscar category, but casting director Fiona Weir describes some sort of award.

Polanski demonstrates his impressive directorial skills by controlling the frame with such precision that no detail goes without notice. However, the details are inadmissible mundane. The film suffers from a lack of motivation and a lack of locomotion. The Ghost himself does not care enough about the stakes; All he wants is to get his paycheck, and curl up with a bottle of scotch at the end of the day. He decides he does not want to investigate, so Polanski makes his investigation turn on a totally unserious desire to check out how well a Mercedes-Benz dashboard navigational system works. Then later, laughably, the Ghost discovers a critical bit of information by running a Google search. Later he tells what he "discovered" to Robert Rycart, a major political opponent of Lang's, and he seems genuinely surprised by the news. Rycart is not very tech-savvy.

The problem is not just how the information is fed to us, but also just what that information is. Once we connect the dots (or sooner, have the dots connected for us in slow motion) we are not left with anything solid to hang our hat on. Before the (long, slow) reveal, we knew that there were shady dealings between the British government and the US government and that the previous ghost writer was likely killed to cover up some defect corruption that he had uncovered in his research. After the (long, slow) reveal, we know that there were shady dealings between the British and US governments and that the previous ghost writer was probably killed to cover up some defect corruption, only now we know who two of the "bad guys" Are. The stakes of the plot are pretty low.

Maybe The Ghost Writer is mocking the thriller genre from a lofty, postmodern point-of-view. Since he does not spend any energy building suspense, Polanski does have an ample opportunity to make dry, ironic jokes with a wink and a nod to the audience. If there were any tension, these jokes would cause it to dissipate. But there really is not any, so actually they are quite welcome distractions. MacGregor is a charmer, and carries the movie quite well, engaging the audience whenever given the opportunity. So does the irony mixed with the literalism of the plot make the film one big ironic "wink and a nod" at the thriller genre? Is this film hunting larger game than the mere effective thriller twist? Maybe (I'll let you decide that for yourself). Polanski is dealing with themes of excuse and the trouble that personal charm can get you in, which, as those of you who have not been living in a hole the last 30+ years can attest, might be notions weighing on the director's mind. Further, the plot could be read as an indictment of the Bush and Blair regimes and how they ran foreign policy. Ultimately, though, the political messaging is pretty slight. Lang is allowed to make an unchallenged "Come on get real" defense of the handling of the war on Terror, and then the issue hits the backburner as we focus on the less interesting matter of resolving the fate of our young ghost writer.

Unravel the Mystery of Shoulder Pain

The function of the shoulder joint is to provide mobility to the shoulder and it is one of the parts of the body which is heavily used every single day. Many people suffer from shoulder pain. Many different reasons can result in shoulder pain and it is important to know the exact orthopedic reason and only then can the correct diagnosis and treatment be made. Shoulder pain can suddenly happen and many people are unsure of it. Let's try to unravel the mystery of shoulder pain today.


Since the shoulder joint is heavily used, there are a lot of rubbing actions throughout the day. There are small fluid filled sacs called bursae to cushion the bones and the soft tissues. These will help to reduce friction and increase gliding motions. However, due to excessive repetitive usage of the shoulder joints, inflammation can happen on the bursae, leading to pain and swelling known as bursitis. This can cause difficulty in performing simple actions such as lifting of the hand or wearing of clothes.


Impingement of the shoulder happens when the shoulder blade extracts too much pressure onto the surrounding soft tissues such as the bursa or the tendons, causing bursitis. Over a period of time, shoulder impingement can possibly result in a rotator cuff tear.

Shoulder instability

Shoulder instability can be due to overuse of the shoulder joint or due to an injury which causes the arm bone to be loose and slip out of the socket joint. The shoulder joint acts as a ball and socket model where mobility can be easily obtained without much limitation. However when the ball and socket is loose, it can cause subluxation. The surrounding ligaments and tendons are weakened and they are unable to fully support the motions, causing pain and instability.

Tendon tears

Tearing of the tendons could possibly occur due to aging or injuries, overuse or wear and tear. Depending on the severity of the tear, it can be a partial one or a complete one. A complete tendon tear will result in tremendous pain and loss of stability.


Arthritis is a common cause of shoulder pain and the most common form is osteoarthritis or wear and tear. Arthritis usually occurs during mid-age around 30 years old and over time, it will become worse. Osteoarthritis can also happen at a young age due to injuries or overuse and it will result in rotator cuff tendon tears or inflammation. Arthritis will cause simple daily motions to be almost impossible and you will often experience stiffness of the joints.

There are many reasons that can cause shoulder pain. I hope that the above article had help to unravel some of the mysteries and after you know the exact reason, you will be able to use the correct treatment method.

Unclogging A Toilet In Your Home

There are quite a few techniques to unclogging a toilet on your own. Depending on the type of toilet you have, some may get clogged more frequently than others. This is especially the case with the new toilets that conserve water. The opening to the plumbing is smaller, therefore they tend to clog easier and may require constant maintenance. It could be a simple matter of using a plunger. But more complex clogs will require a professional plumber.

There are a number of other reasons why a toilet gets clogged. The most common reason is in households with small children. Kids tend to throw all kinds of items down the toilet which will cause it to clog. They may also put too much toilet paper in the toilet which also causes this problem. This can be avoided by supervising small children while they are in the bathroom. There are also special toilet paper dispensers that do not allow you to take too much at one time.

Furthermore, over time toilets begin to eliminate slowly during the flushing process. As soon as you notice this issue with your toilet, it is important to address it quickly. If left unserviced, it can lead to an overflow which will cause a very unsanitary situation.

Some clogs are just the result of the toilet not functioning properly. As soon as you notice something is wrong with the toilet, you should investigate the problem A slow flushing toilet may lead to a clog. When you notice this happening, plunge the toilet to make sure there are not obstructions. Also check under the tank to make sure the chain is properly attached. Small issues such as these, may not require a plumber.

In some cases, you may need to use a drain clean to unclog a toilet. This is the case when the plunger is not helping to alleviate the clog. A bent hanger can also be used to pull out a clog when you do not have handy plumbing tools. But it is important to note that if you do have some plumbing tools it is important that you know how to use them. If not, you can damage the toilet which causes a greater expense. And when you unclog the bathroom, keep in mind that you need to safeguard yourself from bacterial infections. You should wear rubber gloves whenever working in the bathroom.

Before working on unclogging a toilet, you want to first prepare the area. You should lay down paper towels or newspaper around the base on the toilet on the floor. This will help to capture any spills. Several different types of clogs are a caused by what is known as slow drainers. The water from the toilet will rise to the very top of the bowl and as soon as it is flushed, the water goes over the top of the bowl and on to the floor.

You wan to be prepared for any spills. It is important to keep the area as clean as possible. There are a lot of germs in the bathroom. It is one of the most important areas in the home to keep clean. A serious clog is not only an inconvenience but it is a hazard to your health. This is something that you will need to address right away.

There are many do-it-yourself methods when it comes to unclogging toilet issues. In some clogs, you may need more than a plunger. There are special tools that professionals use to unclog the blockage. It is wise to hire a plumber if the clog is too severe.

Instructions Of a Sabre Saw And Router


Unique among power tools is the sabre saw, a hand-held motor which sends a slender blade in and out of its guard at high speed. It is fairly quiet in operation, not much noisier than the average electric drill.

If the price of the tool isn’t justified by the amount of work you plan to do, you can buy a sabre-saw attachment for a 1/4″ electric drill. It works out fine – not as well as a sabre saw itself, but well enough if the price is an important factor.

The sabre saw lets the handyman add that extra fillip to his work. Scrolls, valances and cutouts involve cutting curves. If the project is small, the portable sabre saw does it quickly and easily. If the work piece is large, the portable sabre saw is probably the only tool that can do it, for the sabre operates outside the range of the jig saw and the band saw in the size of the work it can handle.

It’s fine for on-the-job work. Since it’s lightweight (most models weigh less than five pounds), it can actually cut a valance from a straight board which has been nailed in place. If your shop is small, this may be the only way you can do the job on a long board. Large-scale scallops just aren’t possible if you have to maneuver a long board over a fixed saw blade on a table.

This versatile tool is in a class by itself; it can do stunts which no other type of saw can duplicate. For instance, suppose you built accurately a right-angled unit such as a cabinet or a set of shelves and, upon installation, you discover that the walls are crooked and your built-ins don’t fit. With your sabre saw you can trim the units to match the crooked wall or corner. Or suppose you want to cut a hole in the middle of a sheet of plywood, hard- board or a Formica-covered counter top. You don’t have to scout around for a suitable drill and make corner holes through which the standard coping or keyhole saw can work. The sabre saw makes its own entry hole right on the marked line.

Again, imagine handling a large cutout made from a single 4-by-8 sheet of stock in a scrolled pattern. How are you going to turn a 4-by-8 around and around to meet your jig- or hand-saw blade? It can’t be done, but the sabre saw will travel around the pattern in all possible directions easily and quickly. Then too, if you want a jig saw on a table in a hurry, just turn the saw upside down, anchor it and let the blade work through a table top. You can build this top for yourself or buy it. Take the saw off its mountings and its back on duty as a portable again.

When you use a sabre saw, first make sure the switch is off, then plug it in. Hold the tool firmly and turn on the switch. Place the guide on the piece to be cut and line up the blade with the marked line. Gently push the saw forward along the line – otherwise the tool may vibrate and wander. Until you have had a bit of practice with it, clamp the wood down tightly (unless its weight holds it in place) and use both hands to hold the saw. Push down on the forward knob if your model has one; otherwise use both hands on the case. Later, you’ll become familiar with one-hand operation.


Reproduction of the finest details of noted furniture craftsmen is possible with a router. Beautifully carved and curved moldings, inlay work, mortises for hinges and all sorts of exacting work become almost routine. The router works not only on wood but on other materials as well – plastics, hardboards and Formica. Inlays and molded edges can be made from most of these with a router.

Nearly everything a router does can be broken down into a series of simple operations which can be learned quickly. The motor driving the router is small but quite efficient. Its great work ability comes from its very high speed, 20,000 rpm or even more.

All routers have the same general type of chuck to hold shaped cutters. In fact, nearly all brands of cutters will fit into all routers.

At first, all you will need is the router itself, a set of basic bits and a guide. Later on, you might want to add a complete dovetailing outfit. All routers are essentially the same, and there are only good ones and better ones. There are no bad ones. They require practically no maintenance. There is not even much variation in design. The motor is vertically mounted, with no belts or gears or complex machinery. It fits into a base which permits adjustment in the distance between the cutter and the work. When attachments are added, you can suspend the router as an overarm cutter for carving, drilling and other fixed-tool attachment work. You can also convert it to a powered plane with a multiple assortment of blades, and it can become a grinder and a dovetailing machine. When the wide assortment of blades is added, the shapes that can be cut are almost limitless. Cutters, in many cases, have as one part of them a noncutting pilot which acts as a “follower” and as a cutting limit. This not only allows cutting the fancy edge of a valance or table top, but it also permits the constant repetition of that pattern without variation.

In as simple an operation as putting up shelves, a router can be of great help. It will speedily cut a dado groove on opposite side supports. The shelf can then be slipped into the grooves and nailed or screwed and glued. Such shelves will be far stronger than those put together with nails or screws alone. And, since the router can make a curved as well as a straight groove, you can insert corrugated plastic sheeting just as easily as a flat shelf. For another example, you can make a groove along the edge of a board and also make a tongue on another board edge and join the two.

Among the many types of joints that a router will make are: mortise and tenon; cross laps; rabbets and dados, plus combinations of both; and the dovetail joint. Dovetail jointing with a router is one of the most satisfactory jobs you can do. You will need a special set of accessories, but with it you can easily make sturdy drawers.

In addition to joints of all kinds, the router has one special trick of its own – recessing. This allows you to make recessed platters and trays of all kinds and shapes. Or, by a similar process, you can make inlays of wood or tile for table tops and chess, checker and assorted game boards.

Tips for Choosing Paint Color for Your Home

Color can have a huge impact on how we respond to an object, product, or place. We respond to color wherever we go; however, its importance is usually underestimated. The importance of color scheme is very noticeable when it comes to interior design.

The choice of colors in a particular room can either turn the space into an inviting and cozy area or it can be oppressive and overwhelming. Homeowners can also choose colors that will express their individuality, taste, and style; however, a lot of people feel worried when it comes to choosing the right shades for home. Here are a few tips homeowners can follow to avoid choosing the wrong color schemes.

How To Choose A Paint Color

Paint is a very versatile element in interior designing. There are thousands of colors available; thus, it is not surprising for homeowners to feel confused and overwhelmed. It is advisable to first choose the colors for your home furniture and accents, such as your carpets, window treatments, and other fabrics before you start choosing from the myriad of paint colors. This way, you can find the right shade that will best suit the other elements of your room.

  1. Eliminate The Colors You Don’t Like: Instead of choosing the color you like, try focusing on what you don’t like about a particular color. This will make it easier for you. Once you have finished the elimination process, you can choose one or two paint chips so that you will have an easier time in making the decision. Doing so will also help you consider other shades which you won’t normally choose.
  2. Take Paint Chips Home: You have to understand that the colors on the paint chips won’t always appear the same way when they are painted on your wall or ceiling. It is advisable to take paint chips home with you and try to see the colors in different light conditions. In doing so, you can determine whether the shade is compatible with your interior design. There are also companies that sell paint chips made with actual paint- not those that are made by printing processes.
  3. Think About Your Mood: When choosing a paint color, you must also take into account the mood of a particular room. For instance, in the bedroom, you would want to have a sense of intimacy and relaxation. With that said, you can choose cool colors or neutral shades since these provide a softer and more relaxing feeling; while stronger colors, such as reds and blues can create more drama.
  4. Choose Colors For Small Spaces: If you have smaller rooms in your home, you might need to use lighter colors to make it look bigger; however, if white paint can’t do much in tricking the eye, you can take chances and splash some color into the room to make it look alive and inviting.

These are just a few tips to help you choose the right paint color for your home. Aside from choosing the right shades and tones, you must also learn how to play with proper lighting. This means that different colors may provide different shades and effects under different lighting conditions which might affect your decision.

Clearing the Way to Christ Consciousness

“The Apostles got into the Boat and went to the other side” Matthew 14:22

Keep this Scripture in mind as we weave our way through this article, we shall return to it later.

For centuries, like beavers, man / woman has been building dams to blocking our divine nature.

Consequently, so many people in the world today are living their bliss, their soul-potential unconsciously, as conscious ignorance or inverted bliss. Parallel to this we have the term “ignorance is bliss”, so, how is this latter expression to be understood spiritually, or is it simply a play on words?

“Ignorance is bliss” could be interpreted as “what we don’t know won’t hurt us”, in that, the mind is spared the need of digesting unpleasant facts such as negatively charged TV and Radio news bulletins. On the other hand, “Ignorance is bliss” can translate as unconscious bliss potential awaiting integration.

In reality spiritual ignorance is subconsciousness in need of purification — an aspect of mind waiting to be made conscious. In other words, while “Life is Bliss”, Life requires a fully conscious awareness to reflect the nature of bliss: unconditional love, compassion, creativity…

The Barrier

While spiritual ignorance indeed poses the obvious barrier to realization in God-Consciousness, ignorance is a necessary dynamic which we must all undergo in depotentializing the soul’s non-serving belief systems (sin seeds) which have become embedded in the subjective mind or soul. Otherwise, under law, evolution continues replaying these previously established sin molds — our non consciously dealt with “cause” (of effect) thought patterns.

By way of automatic behavior, subconsciousness controls our human value system, world perceptions: our every mental activity in daily life. In other words, on acceptance in deeper mind, negatively charged thought seeds (sin nature) travel from the brain to the solar plexus, where they germinate to be “manufactured” as our physical / mental environment. Thus also is cyclical reincarnation programming, maintained.

In effect ignorance (of spiritual nature) serves only to reflect that which is unnatural to our eternal immaterial or spirit nature. To knowingly endure the status quo of spiritual ignorance — partake of its fruits — is to consciously choose pain / suffering. On the other hand, sin / ignorance is Grace or healing-forgiveness in waiting — a calling out for conscious integration. “Sin” — the manifestations of ignorance — should be grasped willingly thereby allow Divine Light shatter its basis. Doing so allows the soul come under the direct influence of our own inner Unifying Christ Consciousness.

How Sin / Ignorance is Processed Within

This sub-level nature of “hell on earth” or “hell of our life” is created when the subjective mind is negatively charged with fear, stress, anger, worry, bias, judgmentalism and so on, to include excesses of unnatural sense gratification; our thought processes becoming automatically aligned to the “jink in, junk out” cycle. Thus, the unconscious, taking these engraved emotive patterns to be our conviction desires or command, manifests these patterns into our physical form and life experiences. “As we sew (in mind) so shall we reap” (experience).

As the saying goes: “what a man / woman thinks about all day becomes their reality”. In this context, consciously watching our dominant thoughts — inner / outer dialogues — is prerequisite to keeping our “sin bank account” — subconsciousness — pure or non existent, thus keeping the unconscious (soul) naturally attuned with Higher-Dimensional Consciousness — Christ within. In progressing to this level, conscious choice is the imperative as opposed to subconsciously obeying the dictates of lower-self. This is what Jesus meant when he said: “The prince of this world calleth and findeth nothing in Me” John 14:30 — no subconsciousness, no perennial “sin seeds” to be dealt with repeatedly.

Inner Self Awareness or, capacity of Love Presence, is like a spiritual weighing scales, where our mental-emotional processing is filtered through Cosmic understanding. In living Presence, we’ll have found the secret of blissful life participation — freeing the soul off the merry-go-round of subconsciousness. Subconsciousness, as mentioned here, is not the Subconscious often refereed to by american inspirational writers who are in fact referring to Infinite Being or Soul.

Awakening out of Death and the Time Dream

“So get rid of your old self which made you live as you used to… ” Ephesians 4:22-23

Because the event cannot be “experienced” as a reality in consciousness, the most common reminder or nudge to spiritual awakening is the bed-time dream. Here we’re confronted with a “death” confrontation — a no choice scenario but to awaken from that dream. In this situation, we’re required to “push” or birth ourselves out of the cocoon of utter fear, and wow, how exhilarating “the arrival” of the awakening experience. This dream revelation (which is real to us at the time) was necessary in order to consciously face the fear illusion which death poses, but which has no reality basis for experiencing except as experiential sin. In other words, conquering death is a realization born of Higher-Self or Christ consciousness.

If we didn’t awaken from this time-based existence, this material / ego dream, we’ll never know it to be a dream: “hellish existence” would be taken as natural leading to unnatural means of coping. In this regard, life-situations are constantly presenting as “choice of evolution” moments. Lifestyle behaviors, which are alien to our true nature, are constantly challenging us to awaken unto our innate Higher Aspect, gained through meditional techniques. Prior to spiritual awakening, everything that is happening in our life is there through our unwittingly requesting it – through ignorance or, disobedience to the prompts of our own indwelling Christ.

Present Moment

The single most contributing factor to spiritual ignorance — a consciousness paralyzed in time and residual fear — is absence of experiential Present Moment. While the conditioned lower-self ego is at home in the time-based world, such is not the soul’s domain, which is Transcendental – a level of consciousness attained while alive on earth. Therefore, some preparity work is needed to acquaint the physiology and consciousness in timelessness, transcendence, in present moment functioning.

The purpose of time, of course, is to reflect the dream-like scenario in the brain in order that we transcend time or the relativity domain, and, in the process, neutralize previous incarnations’ sin mounds. If there were no time how could we know it’s opposite, timelessness. Time is the dynamic from which each soul must gain its own freedom, and, we do this by birthing a NEW space dimension within: culturing a unifying of diversity consciousness. A level of conscious awareness that encompasses the everything / everybody in Creation. This time / dream dynamic remains our repeating reality only as long as our time-anchored “I” battles to maintain the status quo: a mind needing to be dragged kicking and screaming to the Transformation realm. For, an educated intellect is not the criteria of right or wrong action, rather a transformed cosmically-aware consciousness.

Pineal Gland Meditation – Portal to Bliss

Residual mental / physical tension is the dynamic which holds subconsciousness in place. In creating this NEW space in consciousness, the secret is to first rid the mind of tension / fear: “First seek the Kingdom”. By focusing the awareness between the eyebrows at the Pineal Gland in center of brain, thus the mechanics of tension, which support our deeply-held fears, are demobilized, desensitized – fear / tension becoming exposed to Awareness.

In focusing at the Pineal Gland, the virgin point of our own divinity is penetrated, incubated, thus fertilizing the root seed from which Eternal life emerges — the soul is freed out of Egypt, out of the time / fear / tension hypnosis and into bliss – the Promised Land or Divine Consciousness. Thus, at individual level, the unconditional love nature of our indwelling Christ becomes knowable.

Let us clarify Pineal Gland penetration. As the Pineal Gland is a tiny physical structure in the brain we don’t physically enter into it, rather, our consciousness is recipient of its Bliss Nectar. By way of Kundalini, or life-force rising up from the Base Chakra, it’s the Kundalini which activates the Pineal, out of which eternity consciousness emerges to become our Realized Christ Awareness. Our work is firstly: conscious intention to Kingdom Nature then, commitment to THE PRACTICE: Pineal / Kundalini practice is the matrix through which divine nature is revealed unto consciousness.

The process, while depotentializing deeply rooted time tracks or crystallized sin triggers from automatically replaying non soul-serving mindsets, simultaneously activates the Pituitary Gland. Pituitary Gland activity is needed for Human Growth Hormone production to maintain the physical body, which, among its other vital benefits, the hormone stimulates the immune / nervous system to optimal functioning thereby aid divine nature experiencing. After middle-age the Pituitary reduces HGH output, thus meditation is vital for re-balancing the deficit. Meditation also makes the body-system alkaline from acidic which helps reduce cellular oxidation or premature aging of the organism(s).

New Conditioning

And although, between meditations, the mind / nervous system are again exposed to further conditioning, such is transient, potency is shallow. Any new conditioning becomes integrated in the conscious living moment — not re-sewn, recycled for future mental digestion. In fact, challenges, or negative thought attacks, represent opportunities of establishing greater Self awareness leading to greater bliss levels in our nervous system. Bliss must be lived or acted upon consciously in our daily chores, this is how bliss is made permanent in consciousness:

Enlightened Consciousness

Due to the ego’s death during this interactive Pineal / Base Chakra period, the mind gets to know Transcendental consciousness – think Crucifixion / Resurrection (of consciousness). But remember, Pineal convergence-familiarization takes committed daily practice of bringing the intellect to Pineal focusing. This convergence environment is not taken kindly by the finite mind, even though, paradoxically, mind is being led to what it’s actually searching for – Bliss consciousness. How unwitting is that!

Pineal meditation transcendence also enhances a brain function known as neuroplasticity. This process allows for new neural pathways or nerve connections in the brain to form, thereby enabling development of greater explorational skills into newer frontiers of Creation, beyond our present human capabilities. By way of the brain’s new organizational ability, our cosmically-orientated Pineal consciousness can potentially find ways into previously unimaginable states of creative consciousness. Pineal orientation spiritualizes the neuroplasticity harvest thus “guaranteeing” the fruits of consciousness development are mutually beneficial to both mankind and Planet Christedness (in its reestablishment).

When the inner booster rocket of transcendence is ignited, thus the ignorance gravity field and limiting mind paradigms are conquered: consciousness moves on from base camp level of understanding to Summit Thought – think Star Trek: warp5, (within) Mr Scoty”.

From previously spiritually asleep souls, (biblical’s “son of man” or “natural man”) now, through consciousness development, new frontiers in spiritual evolution are crossed, no longer are we resigned to degenerative or diseased thought patterns. Rather, spiritual man / woman is destined to plow the Higher planes of cosmic consciousness: universes which God has ordained unto each soul.

As a starter to Pineal Gland meditation may I suggest the following breathing technique.

First, (closed eyes and seated with straight spine) breath out fully through the mouth. Then, when breath is exhaled, close the right nostril with thumb and breath in fully through the left nostril. Swiftly then, close left nostril and breath out fully through right nostril. Breath in through right nostril, close right nostril and breath out through left. Repeat this alternating breathing for about five minutes before settling onto gentle Pineal focusing. In practice, the inner gaze may drift upwards. This is fine, but allow this happen naturally, this is transcendence maturation. Do not strain the eyes in this exercise.

Returning to the Bible quotation mentioned at the beginning: “The Apostles (spiritual faculties within the brain) got into the boat (meditation) and went to the other side” (Transcendence).

The Bible is here talking about traversing from left-side brain – egoism logic — to creative, inspirational right-side brain via the boat of transcendence. In this process both the Pineal and Pituitary glands, plus the brain’s twelve Cranial nerves become spiritually active, leading to total brain and optimal organism functioning – consciousness aware in Higher logical perception. Combined with neuroplasticity activity, Pineal meditation presents the brain with “reconfiguration” opportunity, thereby advance out of the present primal five sensory awareness to cognition in multi-sensory cosmic perception.

With this level of expansionary Awareness, Spiritual Realization, that seemingly impossible to overcome sin, or addiction-based lifestyle, no longer looms as the Goliath in our life. Now, just as biblical David, we too have the Pineal White Light Marble to spiritual freedom and Self expression in our spiritual Hearts to once and for all slay the dragon(s) of limitation. Our Pineal Gland runneth over of Enlightened consciousness.

My Book “Transforming Your Life – How to Be All That You Can Be” covers this subject more comprehensively.

What Occurs at a DUI Probation Hearing

After a defendant has plead guilty to a DUI, plead guilty to a lesser offense, or has found guilty following a trial they will be sentenced by a Judge. In a typical DUI case this sentence can include jail, fines, community services, alcohol treatment, ignition interlock requirements, and a condition to stay out of trouble.

If at a later date the defensive receives notice from the Court that a Probation hearing has been set this is not normally a good thing. Generally when this type of hearing is set it is at the request of the Probation department and usually involves an allegation that one of the conditions of the sentence the defendant agreed to has not been followed.

First of all it is never a good idea to walk into Court, especially a probation hearing without an Attorney. If the Probation hearing was set for a violation of one of the conditions of the sentence, if those allegations are provided the defensive can face sanctions varying anywhere from jail to fines to community service.

So what occurs at this hearing. Prior to the start of the hearing the Defendant will be informed what the allegations are. Typically this comes in the form of a probation report and is actually what is sent into the Judge to set the hearing in the first place. A defensive has three options at this point. They can either admit the allegation, admit the allegation with explanation, or they can deny the allegation.

If the allegation is admitted than basically the Defendant is stating the allegation is true and therefore they violated the conditions of the sentence. This is kind of like pleading guilty. At this point the Judge can impose a sanction and the Defendant will have to abide by whatever gets imposed. If a suspended sentence was imposed at the time of sentencing than the sentence has the remaining balance of jail at their disposal.

If the allegation is admitted with an explanation than the Defendant is offered a chance to explain what happened, and present any mitigating circumstances to not impede any sanctions. If an allegation is true than in my opinion its best to go with this option and try to take responsibility for the slip up. Depending on what the allegation is a sanction may not be imposed if the Judge is sympathetic.

If the allegation is denied than a contested revocation hearing is set. This is kind of like a trial, except the Prosecution only has to prove the allegation was committed by a preponderance of the evidence, not by beyond a reasonable doubt. The difference in legal standards make these hearings difficult, but in some cases it is necessary to challenged the allegation.

Can Underfloor Heating Be Used to Heat an Entire Home?

Yes! Radiant underfloor heating systems can be used as the only heating source in your home. They have even been used in very cold areas, such as Alaska and Norway. A radiant heat system can be the primary source of heat for your entire home no matter where you live, even if that means in the dead of winter in Siberia!

A radiant floor system provides total heat for the comfort of your home. There are heat requirements that depend on room size and use as well as insulation values ​​and outside average temperature, but it is very convenient to have a heating system, like radiant heat, that can go under all kinds of floor coverings such as carpet, hardwood , And even tile. Not only can radiant floor heating provide heat for your entire home but there are also many other benefits you can enjoy when you choose a radiant heating system for the primary source of heat in your home:

1. Radiant heat is an effective way to warm tile and wood floors in kitchens and bathrooms.

2. Radiant heat is ideal for hard-to-heat rooms, as well as those that may have claimed ceilings because the heat with underfloor heating is kept near the floor.

3. Underfloor heating helps reduce allergies, because they eliminate drafts that circulate around your home, greatly reducing dust and other irritants.

4. An underfloor heating system provides flexible, optional thermostats so you can control heat for the entire home or if you desire different settings room by room.

5. Radiant heat is convenient because you can place furniture anywhere you want. There are no clunky vents or radiators that can get in the way of your feng shui.

6. As described previously, a radiant heating system works with any floor covering such a hardwood flooring, tiling, and carpet.

7. Radiant heat is a convenient way to heat a basement, garage, or shed. Also, if you decide to add on any additions to your home, an underfloor heating system is easy to install and can continue to provide the primary source of heating in your household.