Developing Subordinate Leaders

There are many great leaders who lead things from small businesses to large countries. Each of those leaders had to start somewhere. Leadership starts at different stages for different people; some start learning as a small child while others may not start until adulthood. But regardless of when they start, its how they get there and where they finish that matters.

Leaders are ultimately responsible for developing the leaders of tomorrow. Leaders cannot be too consumed with themselves; they should be consumed with the organization and the subordinates. The leaders will guide their organization through today, but the subordinates will guide them though tomorrow, and if leaders don’t properly train their subordinates, it will ultimately lead to demise.

Just because people are in leadership positions doesn’t make them leaders. People are often placed into leadership positions well before they are ready to lead. But regardless, people will still look to them as their leader and expect them to lead them in the right direction. Take Eli Manning of the New York Giants for instance, who entered the NFL in 2004, but didn’t become a leader until 2007. He was placed in the key leadership position for the football team well before he was ready. The problem in his situation is that he didn’t have a chance to develop before he started to lead. His development started with “on the job training.” He spent the first 3 years of his career learning, fighting adversity, and trying to find himself, all while he was being further developed as a leader and learning how to lead. Furthermore, he lost some of his supporting cast around him to help guide him in the right direction. Instead of supporting him, they grew impatient and ridiculed him. With all the stress placed on him, he never quit; he kept learning. Finally in mid season of 2007, everything that he learned came together. He stood up and took his place as the leader of the New York Giants

There are many ways leaders can develop subordinates’ leadership and show them how to lead. First and foremost, leaders must lead by their own example and give subordinates something to follow, because subordinates often times become a reflection of their leaders. They try and emulate and follow in their leaders’ footsteps. If leaders fail to properly set a good example for their subordinates, one of two things can happen. Their subordinates will become just like them and set a bad example. Or, their subordinates will not want to be like them. They just learned what not to do as a leader, which could result in them losing respect for their leaders.

To further develop subordinates, leaders must be approachable. Subordinates should be comfortable enough to be able to communicate with their leaders about anything. This is a major key to their success. This will help build trust and confidence on both sides. Once established, your relationship will continue to grow professionally, which will make them more receptive to their development and eager to learn.

Leaders have to teach them what they need to do without showing them how all the time. By just teaching them, you are allowing them to think and come up with their own ideas by exercising their mind, which will result in them utilizing initiative and judgment. Keep in mind, everyone doesn’t process things the same, so some subordinates will need more guidance, and require more attention and patience.

Leaders must be able to provide constructive criticism and twist it up and end on a positive note. When there are initiative and judgment errors, it is still the leaders’ job and responsibility to correct those errors and guide them in the right direction. However, leaders must not cause discouragement, because subordinates may develop confidence issues and no longer want to excel. Help them understand that all leaders make mistakes, but it’s what they learn and how they recover from them that matters.

Subordinates must be held accountable for their actions. Subordinates must also understand that it goes far beyond that. They are not just responsible for their actions but the actions of those they lead. Take Brett Favre for instance, the former quarterback for the Green Bay Packers. When his team would lose, it was him, the quarterback, who took the responsibility because he was the leader of the team. It was ultimately his responsibility to teach, guide, mentor, and motivate while leading the team to success. After a loss, he would watch and analyze the entire game, the players, and the plays to come up with a solution to help prevent it from happening again. He would always try and find ethical ways to reach success. And after 17 years in the NFL, he only got better. That is passion. That is dedication. That is the job of a leader!

These are just a few things leaders can do to develop subordinate leaders. Leaders shouldn’t be afraid to do further research to educate themselves as well as their subordinates. No matter how good of a leader someone maybe, they should train their subordinates to be better. If they developed them properly, their legacy will live through them. And regardless if they chose to develop them or not, were they stand today is where their subordinates will stand tomorrow.

Top 5 Attractions in Dubai

The Grand Mosque, only built in 1998 is a remarkable landmark with its multi-dome style and reflecting the city's tallest minaret. The beauty of the architecture is a must see and the interior with sky blue mosaic, handmade stained glass, rich ornamental patterns and wooden shutters will impress all visitors.

For more adventurous travelers it would be hard to look past the Desert Safari! Many tours are available that pick up from hotels and drive tourists to the desert to enjoy watching the sun setting on the horizon After sun set, the driver will take all willing participants dune bashing, there are camel rides, sand boarding and henna tattooing for those Non-thrill seekers. After the fun and excitement there is a traditional feast of classic Middle Eastern food, followed by shisha (water pipe) and local entertainment in the form of belly dancing.

The Burj Al Arab hotel is the world's only seven star hotel and the tallest hotel. It is one of the most photographed structures in the world and a major draw card for tourists in Dubai. Its iconic image can be seen on many photos of Dubai. There are also many restaurants within the hotel and you do not have to be a hotel guest to enjoy them, however you do have to book in advance due to popularity.

The Palm Jumeirah is one of the man made wonders of the world. This man made island has been made in the shape of a tree. The size of the Palm Island is amazing, it is 5 kilometers by 5 kilometers and the total area is larger than 800 football pitches. The residents of the Palm Island consist of a list celebrities with luxurious villas.

A holiday in Dubai would not be complete without a spot of shopping and the facilities are perfect for any shop-o-holic. The BurJuman Center is a massive shopping mall which houses designer brand stores, a cinema complex and a leisure arcade. There are also plenty of restaurants and café's within the mall, the perfect place for the husband to relax while the wife is burning a hole in the credit card! The BurJuma Center is also a nice place to escape the heat outside as the center is fully air-conditioned and provides welcome relief.

Article Summary: Dubai, one of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates is a city like no other. Tourism is one of the major industries and the following are a sample of the interesting sights you can visit when in Dubai.

High School Wrestling: Periodization

Many wrestlers approach conditioning in an unorganized, haphazard fashion without any clear goals in mind. This could be a mistake. Periodization is a concept designed to help you break your conditioning down into phases or cycles where you focus on certain training goals. Periodization is designed to help you achieve peak performance. Peak performance is virtually impossible to maintain year round. Therefore, you break your training down into cycles, including cycles of rest. Of course, you want to win every match. That is a desirable goal. But, most high school wrestlers especially want to qualify for the state tournament or even win the state tournament. Therefore, it’s usually toward the end of the competitive season that one wants to peak.

What is periodization?

Periodization is a training concept that was popularized by Eastern Bloc countries, especially Russia. The concept of periodization being used in regards to sports training is usually attributed to a Russian professor named Matveyev. Matveyev was the first to use the term periodization. Periodization is often associated with weight training but can be used to train other athletic attributes as well. As I stated earlier, periodization is simply breaking one’s training down into cycles or phases where certain goals (e.g. strength or endurance) are focused on. The main objective of periodization is to help an athlete peak for a certain challenge (e.g. the state wrestling tournament).

Tudor Bompa, known as the “Father of Periodization,” wrote a book entitled Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. Tudor Bompa breaks down annual training into three simple phases.

Three Phases:

  • Preparatory Phase
  • Competitive Phase
  • Transition Phase

However, these three phases can be broken down further. A wrestler’s annual plan may also be known as a macrocycle. The macrocycle can be broken down into mesocycles (i.e. preparatory, competitive, and transition). Each mesocycle can be broken down into microcycles (e.g. a week). On the other hand, more than one macrocycle may be used during a wrestling season because you may have more than one major competition that you want to peak for.

Types of Periodization:

  • Linear
  • Reverse Linear
  • Conjugated
  • Concurrent
  • Undulating or Alternating

The kind of periodization familiar to most athletes is linear periodization. Linear periodization usually begins with a higher volume of general work and then culminates with more intense, sport-specific work.

A Typical Linear Periodization Plan for Wrestling:

  • Preparatory–lifting weights for sets in the 8 to 10 rep range, running long distances, and doing a high volume of wrestling
  • Competitive–lifting weights for sets in the 4 to 6 rep range, running sprints, more intense but less voluminous wrestling, peaking for competition
  • Transition–taking a couple of weeks off before you start training again

This is only one very simple example of periodization for wrestling. Wrestling is different from some other sports because you may wrestle in many tournaments during the season. You may have to give priority to some competitions (e.g. the conference tournament and the district tournament). Mark Ginther believes in periodization. You may want to do an online search for Mark Ginther periodization and Tudor Bompa periodization.

Some have argued that periodization is overly complicated and impractical. For instance, you ideally want to be “in shape” all season and win every match and tournament. In addition, macrocycles, mesocycles, and microcycles can seem a bit elaborate and puzzling. However, trying to maintain peak condition year round or even all season is difficult. Also, some high school students are multiple sport athletes. A student athlete may compete in track during the spring, baseball during the summer, football during the fall, and wrestling during the winter. Each of these sports will have its unique demands. Therefore, trying to use periodization for wrestling may seem impractical. However, Tudor Bompa thinks the alternative to periodization is “chaos.”

I would suggest reading up on the different types of periodization. Some trainers believe an athlete can train for strength, endurance, and other attributes simultaneously while others do not. In my opinion, you should try to keep periodization simple. The main thing to remember is that periodizatioin is simply planning your training. For instance, you may want to do some longer runs during the off season (e.g. summer) and switch to sprints during the competitive season. You probably aren’t going to start out with a lot of hard wrestling in your first few practices. You may need to work on technique at first and increase your volume and intensity over time. Moreover, you may want to have a less intense practice the night before a major competition so you are recovered and fresh to wrestle hard the next day.

In sports such as swimming and marathon running, athletes often have a “taper” in which their training volume is cut back during the last few days or even weeks before a major competition. You, as a wrestler, may need some less intense practices and conditioning leading up to a major competition.

As you can see, periodization can be a complicated concept. However, planning your yearly training by utilizing cycles with certain goals in mind is almost certain to help in your wrestling endeavors.

Are You a Brand Or a Commodity?

What is a brand?

The dictionary defines it as follows: A distinguishing symbol, mark, logo, name, word, sentence, or a combination of these items that companies use to distinguish their product from others in the market.

Further, it goes on to say once a brand has created positive sentiment among its target audience, the business is said to have built “brand equity.” Some examples of businesses with brand equity are Microsoft and Coca-Cola.

So, then, what is a commodity?

According to the dictionary it’s any bulk good traded on an exchange or in the cash market. If it’s a product or service it means it’s not distinguishable from any other product or service in its category.

Commodities are usually bought and sold based on price. Meaning if you’ve got the lowest price you get the sale and if you don’t, you don’t.

So let me ask you a question … Are you and your business a brand or a commodity?

Take my quick Brand Quiz to find out.

If you answer yes to these 5 questions, odds are you’ve got a brand.

(1) There is something unique about you or the product or service you offer.

(2) Your marketing focuses on this uniqueness.

(3) You’re known among your ideal clients for this uniqueness.

(4) All your marketing supports this uniqueness and has a definitive look and feel so it’s easily recognizable as yours.

(5) You see yourself as a leader and the last thing you want to do is follow the crowd when it comes to marketing.

If you answer yes to these 5 questions, you and your business likely fall into the commodity bucket.

(1) You know you’re good at what you do but you haven’t identified or created a unique attribute to set you apart from others in your field.

(2) You tend to market yourself using the same language and style as others in your industry.

(3) Your marketing materials are a bit of hodge- podge of looks, colors and personalities.

(4) You’ve had a tough time crafting a compelling elevator pitch.

(5) You find in competitive situations you only get the sale if your price is the lowest.

If you answered “yes” to the first 5 questions of the Brand Quiz, congratulations! You know it’s important to set yourself apart with a clearly defined brand.

If you found yourself answering yes to more of the commodity questions than the brand questions, all is not lost. As they say, the first step toward change is recognizing the need to change.

You now know you’ve got to create a brand.

Yes, even if you’re just a solo-professional and you don’t have a big business or a lot of products. Because if you’re a coach or a consultant, you’ve got to give prospective clients a reason to hire you over all the other coaches and consultants out there.

(C) Copyright 2006 Debbie LaChusa

Antivirus Help Center As Lifeline From Internet Muck And Mire

As every developer and manufacturer claims his or her security product to be the best in the field, who can say otherwise? In order to determine the truth of it all, as the saying goes, the proof is in the pudding. An antivirus help center, including the one that goes by the same name, quickly steps up to the plate. The consumer knows no better on whether price or features and functionalities dictate the capacities of this tool. Here, this establishment carries out black-box testing to ascertain and compare results based on claimed features and functionalities against real-life settings. Results are then presented in forms similar to score-card ratings to allow the market to derive its own sentiments.

In addition to the above, advice and tips are presented in easy to understand formats. Staying away from overly technical terms, readers benefit from a more informative structure as compared to the glazed eye effect. Although various forms of internet threat are lurking at the entrance to one's computer, there is no need to immerse in the fear. By equipping oneself with useful information provided by the antivirus help center, many wildfire can be averted. Despite the name, the site will normally recommend the user to utilize anti-spyware as well as a firewall to ensure maximum protection at all times. Since these intruders are able to penetrate most systems due to backdoors left unattended to by developers and owners, it is so essential to plug up all possible points of entry.

All in all, it is every reader's responsibility to check and compare the various sites on this topic of internet threat. Opinions may differ due to the site's technical prowess, experience and possibly other vested interests. Whatever the case may be, it is best to stay on the road most traveled. Even though new products receive great consent from the sites, personal experience should lead one to make a wise decision. After all, it is your money and computer at stake.

Necessary Appliances for Small Kitchens

A kitchen without appliance is not a kitchen, just like a home without a family is not a home. These pieces of electrically operated gadgets give life to a kitchen, for without them, cooking will be a futile exercise. Cooks and cooking enthusiasts are so much blessed today because of an array of modern appliance and equipment available to aid in frying, baking, roasting, grinding, whipping, grilling, boiling and other kitchen operations. Equipping a kitchen with a complete ensemble of these white supplies is ideal, but the issue is raised in small kitchens that can not accommodate them all and sundry.

If you have a small kitchen, cramped space is an inherent problem. Even though you want to, you can not stuff in everything, especially if you do not have overhead cabinets and shelves to maximize space. Having these cabinets and shelves, however, means that you have to reach for these items every time you need them, clearly opening some possibilities for accidents. Also, you can not invite several people into the kitchen, so conversations with friends and family will be limited. All these issues are resolved with innovative pieces of kitchen aid appliance that are perfect for both small and large kitchens.

Despite these drawbacks of having a small kitchen, there is still hope in making it fully functional. Apart from the basic components such as cabinets, a countertop, a table and chairs, there are a number of small kitchen equipment that can be furnished into it. A single-burner stove is a necessity for cooking, and it is advisable to place on the countertop so that the cabinet underneath can accommodate the gas; for a more space-saving option, you can go for an electric stove. An oven is another small kitchen appliance that can be located on any flat, stable surface, just like a griller, a fryer and a cooker. Another worthy to have is a mixer that is very useful in baking, as well as a blender for making fresh concoctions. A coffee maker and a waffle maker are necessities if you love preparing breakfast food. A perfectly good addition is a mini refrigerator, small enough to be placed on the countertop or shelf.

In buying appliances for the kitchen, always go for a reputable brand, and do not spend for those that you think you will not be using often. If you keep on buying everything, some of them will just stay in the cupboard and age, or you will end up handing them down relatives or selling them to your neighbors. Additionally, it is a good practice to look for double-purpose appliances because they will help you save space.

Whether you have a small or large kitchen, appliances are necessary to give life to it. The next time you shop, look for affordable pieces that serve more than one purpose, as well as those that you can see yourself using for a long time. Of course, do not forget to include the mentioned important appliances in your cart.

Do’s and Don’ts When Cleaning Rugs

Rugs provide a great accent to dull floors. Most interior designers would usually suggest putting rugs in bedrooms and living rooms as it adds to the cozy feel of the place.

But you don’t simply put a rug somewhere and leave it there. It doesn’t merely sit still as it would usually demand your attention. You would have to clean it up regularly in order to avoid staining it or causing it to have a stench.

And maintaining home items like rugs and carpets is no piece of cake. Doing the wrong practices will not only lead to frustration with the stubborn stains, it can also cause damage to the fabric of the rug. So you really have to be careful in choosing the steps you take to clean and maintain your rug. The following are some do’s and don’ts when cleaning rugs:

Do regular cleaning. Vacuuming the rug daily will help avoid dust and dirt from sticking into the fabrics making it more difficult to remove. when running the vacuum cleaner it is best to do so over and under the rug for a more thorough cleaning.

Don’t vacuum lose threads. If you see a lose fiber or thread sticking out of the rug, avoid running the vacuum cleaner into it as this might cause the loose thread to be pulled too hard. Pulling a loose thread too hard can create a run in the rug. The best thing to do is to get a pair of shears and cut it off carefully.

Do check the warning labels. Try to take a look under your rug. There are usually warning labels and care instructions. Make sure you read them before using any product or doing any cleaning procedure to the rug.

Don’t use harsh ingredients. As much as possible, avoid using strong household products which can damage the fabric of the rug. If you are uncertain as to whether the cleaning product is okay to use, you can do a spot test by putting the product in one small spot of the rug to see if it caused any damage.

Do regular deep cleaning. Once in a while, it is also necessary for you to deep clean your carpet. You can use a steam cleaner or simply wash your carpet with a detergent solution. This would help eliminate the stains that are not removed by vacuuming alone. This will also help avoid causing the rug to stink.

Don’t leave stains. Avoid leaving the stains behind. Once you notice it, you should clean it immediately so it won’t be too difficult to remove and won’t cause any foul odor.

Business Strategy Plan for Indie Authors Publishers

Producing for an Audience / Creating for yourself?

What is the Point / Publishing Path & Road Map? / Writing & Vision

Traditional business strategy plans have components.

Sounds a bit theoretical?

OK, here is the version for author publishing:

Vital Plan / Selling Book

What makes your book so Special?

Who will want to buy your work?

Competition

Format (s) of your Book

How do you plan to promote your product (Book / eBook)?

What are your Marketing Strategies?

Calculations & Pricing

What is your timetable for writing, editing, book production, marketing etc?

Before you explore author publishing capabilities in this series, let us first have a look at your business strategy plans as an indie author and the most important question:

Why are you writing?

Are you creating for yourself (as a hobby, just for the fun of writing) – or for an audience?

Before Publishing

Can you answer these questions?

How many books with the same topic / the same genre are on the market?

Why should a potential reader buy your book as opposed to other same or similar books out there in the market – sometimes some who have been established for some time (some with good Reviews)?

What is the sales ranking of these works?

How are these books priced?

What is the social media ranking of the most successful writers in this genre?

Where are these books sold on-and-off-line?

The advice you read here is based on the assumption that you want to entertain, inform, increase your audience and ever earn some money with your writing.

If you are producing work for an audience, it means:

• Playing by at least some rules of the industry

• caring what others think of your work

• establishing an author's platform from which to communicate

• interacting with your audience and being available to them

• doing things not from your perspective, but out of service to your audience

• putting on a performance, or adopting some kind of "brand"

• marketing your work and being visible

If you are creating for yourself, it means:

Writing is worthwhile for you, regardless of who sees your work.

Why should authors have a business strategy plan?

Unfortunately many writers first create their work – and ask questions later. Any indie author can write a book, but only a successful author knows s / he is now in business.

Again: "Writing is an art – publishing is a business!"

A serious business!

What is the Point? Path & Mapping> Writing & Vision

What is the point?

There is no point to go without some kind of strategy in place if your objectives really are in building a writing career.

It is never too early to treat your writing as a business – no one would open an events business without a plan!

Publishing Path & Road Map?

A business strategy plan can help new (and established) indie authors to clarify the proper publishing path for their works.

A business strategy plan serves as a road map, helping to keep the project and related endeavors similar to marketing and platform building on schedule and for the author to track the results of his or her endeavors.

Writing & Vision

The business strategy plan starts when you start thinking about writing a book, it covers all aspects of your future work.

At the moment you begin a novel or non-fiction book, you must already have a clear vision of the message, the audience and even the outlets where it can be sold.

Traditional business strategy plans have these components:

– Executive summary

– Business description

– Market strategies

– Competitive analysis

– Financial factors

– Operations and management plan

– Design & development plan

Genre> Competitive> Market

Sounds a bit theoretical? OK, here is the version for

Indie author: publishing:

Topic / Genre & Target Audience Readers

• The topic / genre of your work fiction / non-fiction

• You target audience / readers

Competitive parameters on the market

• Your competition online and in book stores

• The likely contents, length, format etc. Of the book

Assessment of possibilities on the market

• Your marketing and promotional strategies

• The expenses you face for publishing and promotions

Selling> Make Special> Why Buy?

Vital Plan / Selling Book

It is vital to have a business strategy plan because your books and you are the products to be sold.

It makes some writers uneasy, but without a plan, you can not really figure out a way for your book to sell itself. Think of it as a map, guiding you from starving writer to successful indie author.

What makes your book so Special?

No point in writing a book if you do not know why or if it is special. Many writers write books that they would love to read, many write books who's marketing studies show readers are buying, some write books because the subject is risky or has never been explored before. Learn why you and your book is special – and most important: what is the readers benefit from buying your novel or non-fiction book.

Who will want to buy your work?

Jot down all those people who reasonably will want your book, why the will want it and how effective they will be at getting more people to want it. Know who your readership target is. Do you have enough (at least 2,000 on each social media outlet) contacts to spread the word about your book? … and with I say 'contacts' I do not mean other writers, I mean READERS, bookworms, book lovers, book Clubs, avid readers, reviewers! That is the type of audience you will want to look for.

Competition> Format> Promotion

Competition

• Research in bookstores and online, how many and which books will be comparable to the one you are writing. Check them out in libraries, on reader forums.

• Visit independent stores and go to big chains research these books on all online stores – find out what genres are they placed, what reviewers say, how their indie author pages are designed etc. To get a real picture of your competition – and your potential readers. A is a large choice of options are available from the Author of this article.

Format (s) of your Book

• Books can be sold in many formats and also in many languages. Research at least these three popular formats:

• e-book format PDF ePub iBook

• audio format

• Print format

How do you plan to promote your product (e / I-print Book)

You know people, hopefully lots of people. Online and off-line. And those people know people. Without you can spend thousands of pounds every month for advertising, you should plan now, before you write your book social networking, book events, gaining interviews, speaking engagements, seeking book reviews and attending book shows. Schedule all these activities in advance, add as many readers as possible to your current accounts on reader community sites, all social media sites.

Marketing> Pricing

What are your Marketing Strategies?

OK, your book is available on a major online web site or in your local bookstore, but where else might it fit in perfectly?

Other online retailers where you can sell your book? Stretch your mind and think creatively:

Libraries, book clubs, foreign right sales … there are so many possible outlets for your book.

Find out what is their responsibilities are, and how much you would make on each sale of your book.

Calculations & Pricing

Both, digital and print books need to be proofread, edited and then formatted, not to forget a really fabulous, enticing cover.

Pricing on print books is large based on the number of pages in the book and quality of binding, costs for cover design and book layout. Pricing is also dependent on making print books available for a wider distribution than just one of the major book outline stores online. Since a wider distribution is used, books must be priced so that the other outlets will be offered wholesale pricing.

Turbulence in the rapidly changing e / I-print book world should also be taken into consideration. Pricing may be subject to change based on sales, current pricing trends and need to create upward movement in Amazon rankings. Books may be deducted if it fits with marketing strategy and promotion.

Do not forget other expenses, such as web design and hosting, advertising, marketing expenses, phone and internet, travel cost etc. The good news: you can deduct them from your writer's income.

Timetable> Writing> Editing> Production> Marketing

What is your timetable for writing, editing, book production, marketing etc?

After you have figured out your market, your reader audience, your competition and your sales planning, you will feel much better, having a clear vision of your writing / publishing career.

A business strategy plan does not have to be scary, especially for a simple business such as your writing business. In fact, a business plan should be somewhat comforting. It spells out what you want to accomplish, in which time frame and how you plan to do it.

Cashbook / Budgets

Example spreadsheet (s) are available from the Author of this article.

Become Your Best In Fitness And In Life With The Power Of Belief

What Is One Of The Most Powerful Ways To Improve Your Progress?

Increase Your Belief
There are many tools that can be used to increase belief; Below you will find a few of my favorites, which have been tried and true by the best of the best in peak performance.

When you are living your desire, you inspire others. If you choose to settle for less and not go for your dreams then you are like an eagle that refuses to spread its wings and soar, and instead chooses to hop around the ground, trying not to get stepped on. Spread your wings and fly gracefully and let all who witness this experience your sense of freedom and power!

Create An Asset List

Simply, write down all of the reasons why you know you can accomplish your goal. You can list all of the resources, talents, advantages, and other items that act in your favor. It is like you are an attorney making a case for why you will win and accomplish your goal. Some people make excuses on why they are not succeeding. You can choose to instead make excuses for why you will succeed.

Create A Victory List
This is fun. Simply take time to write down all of the present or past accomplishments you have attained. These can be related to health and fitness, business, academies- anything. Note any situation where you stepped out of your comfort zone, took a new action, and received a great result. List as many as you can for 5 to 15 minutes. You can start from childhood and work your way to the present, and list anything big or small. When I did this the first time, I was blown away by all the great memories that came back and the feelings of empowerment that directed.

You can add to this Victory List as often as you like. You can include any big or small goals you hit, new habits you created, or successes that happened. Your belief in yourself and confidence will skyrocket from your long list of consistent victories.

Make A List Of Others Who Have Succeeded

Before 1954, no one thought it was possible to run a mile in under 4 minutes. Then Roger Bannister proved everyone's limiting beliefs wrong. That same year John Landy also broke 4 minutes, and now high school kids are doing it.

It can make a large difference to notice all of the people who have accomplished the same goal that you are going for. Look at their situations before and after reaching their goals, investigate how they did it, notice what steps they took, and remember that they had many challenges along the way.

You can look at any field and find amazing accomplishments of human beings. Athletes, inventors, businesspeople, and artists have ignored normal standards and set their own. No one can tell you what you are capable of-no one! You have limitless and infinite potential. The ideal body you see in your mind is inside of you now. Its potential is in the cells you now possess, just like it was for the other great heroes you see.

We have been blessed with the greatest sports cars, yet we drive our bodies like they are old clunkers. Pull your Ferrari out of the garage now!

Become Your Best In Fitness And In Life With The Power Of Belief

What Is One Of The Most Powerful Ways To Improve Your Progress?

Increase Your Belief
There are many tools that can be used to increase belief; Below you will find a few of my favorites, which have been tried and true by the best of the best in peak performance.

When you are living your desire, you inspire others. If you choose to settle for less and not go for your dreams then you are like an eagle that refuses to spread its wings and soar, and instead chooses to hop around the ground, trying not to get stepped on. Spread your wings and fly gracefully and let all who witness this experience your sense of freedom and power!

Create An Asset List

Simply, write down all of the reasons why you know you can accomplish your goal. You can list all of the resources, talents, advantages, and other items that act in your favor. It is like you are an attorney making a case for why you will win and accomplish your goal. Some people make excuses on why they are not succeeding. You can choose to instead make excuses for why you will succeed.

Create A Victory List
This is fun. Simply take time to write down all of the present or past accomplishments you have attained. These can be related to health and fitness, business, academies- anything. Note any situation where you stepped out of your comfort zone, took a new action, and received a great result. List as many as you can for 5 to 15 minutes. You can start from childhood and work your way to the present, and list anything big or small. When I did this the first time, I was blown away by all the great memories that came back and the feelings of empowerment that directed.

You can add to this Victory List as often as you like. You can include any big or small goals you hit, new habits you created, or successes that happened. Your belief in yourself and confidence will skyrocket from your long list of consistent victories.

Make A List Of Others Who Have Succeeded

Before 1954, no one thought it was possible to run a mile in under 4 minutes. Then Roger Bannister proved everyone's limiting beliefs wrong. That same year John Landy also broke 4 minutes, and now high school kids are doing it.

It can make a large difference to notice all of the people who have accomplished the same goal that you are going for. Look at their situations before and after reaching their goals, investigate how they did it, notice what steps they took, and remember that they had many challenges along the way.

You can look at any field and find amazing accomplishments of human beings. Athletes, inventors, businesspeople, and artists have ignored normal standards and set their own. No one can tell you what you are capable of-no one! You have limitless and infinite potential. The ideal body you see in your mind is inside of you now. Its potential is in the cells you now possess, just like it was for the other great heroes you see.

We have been blessed with the greatest sports cars, yet we drive our bodies like they are old clunkers. Pull your Ferrari out of the garage now!

Masaoka Shiki: The Great Haiku Master of Japan

Japanese haiku master, poem reformer Masaoka Shiki wrote around 900 Chinese poems, about 2300 tanka and composed over 25,500 haiku in his diminutive life. He is one of the four great masters of haiku along with Matsuo Basho (1644- 1694), Yosa Buson (1716- 1783) and Kobayashi Issa (1763- 1827). Masaoka Shiki (pseudonym Masaoka Tsunenori) was born in Matsuyama, Iyo province (now Ehime prefecture) on 17 September 1867 to a samurai family. He was called Tokoronosuke, later he changed his name to Noboru. In 1872, Shiki lost his father. He entered elementary school in 1873 and studied Chinese classics under his maternal grandfather Ohara Kanzan and calligraphy under an uncle.

Ohara died in 1875 and Shiki’s Chinese studies continued under other tutors. In 1878, he has written his first poem in Chinese. He entered Matsuyama Middle School in 1880 and in 1882, he composed his first tanka. He was withdrawn from school in 1883 and went to Tokyo where he entered Kyoritsu School. In 1884, he passed entrance exam of University Preparatory School (later higher middle school). In 1889, he wrote The Origin and Development of Poetry as essay for school and adopted pen-name Shiki (Japanese cuckoo hototogisu). At this time he begins to suffer from tuberculosis.

After graduation in1890, Shiki entered Japanese Literature department of Imperial University (now Tokyo University). In 1891, he skipped final exam and withdrawn from university. Then he became haiku editor of Nippon and started to reform of the Japanese poetic form. Traditional Japanese literature was attached to yugen (subtle, profound and tranquil beauty) and wabi (quiet refinement). He advocated a realistic, descriptive poetic style and a ‘third literature’ which would be non-imaginary and non-realistic at the same time. He avoided scholarly jargon and advised to use both imaginary pictures and real ones but favored the real ones.

At that time, the traditional seventeen-syllable verse form was considered incapable of expressing the complexities of modern life. Shiki wrote the theoretical text on how to improve haiku, Haiku Taiyo, The Element of Haiku. He introduced the term haiku to replace hokku. He launched the word shasei (delineation from nature or sketching) to describe his methodology of using contemporary language and realistic images. His haiku were characterized by visual description and a concise style.

He attacked on the Literary World and Some Remarks on Basho serialized in Nippon in 1893. In 1895, his illness was severely aggravated while working in China as a war correspondent with the Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War. On return, he was hospitalized in Kobe. Then he stayed with Natsume Soseki in Matsuyama and leaded a group of young haiku poets. In 1897, he with his disciples founded the literary journal Hototogisu. The Haiku World of 1896 and The Haiku Poet Buson serialized in Nippon. At that time, he has undergone surgery for complications of tuberculosis.

In 1898, series of lecture discussion on Buson held at Shiki’s home. Letters to a Tanka Poet serialized in Nippon; he started to reform tanka. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Shiki with his followers refreshed the old tanka form, replace it 31-mora/syllables waka/poetry. Meetings of Negishi Tanka Society begin at his home. Records of the Little Garden published in Hototogisu and prose movement begin.

In 1900, his essay on Realistic Prose successively published in Nippon.

In spite of ill-health, he maintained a prominent position in the literary world. He frequently mentioned his illness in his poems but maintained an emotional detachment from his physical suffering. In 1902, volume one of Selections from the Haiku Note-book of the Others Den was published and A Six-foot Sickbed serialized in Nippon. He suffered from caries of the spine but he faced his illness and physical pain with dignity and ironic humor. At last, he died on September 19 1902.

Shiki’s most important writings are Dassai Sho-oku Haiwa (1892), Haikai Taiyo (1895) and Haijin Buson (1897). Basho Zatsudan (1894) was a critical examination of the principles of Basho. His two diaries, published in 1901-1902, combine qualities of the classical Japanese poetic diary with the self-revelation of modern autobiography. A volume called Songs from a Bamboo Village (1904) appeared posthumously. His other works are Bokuju Itteki (1901), Byosho Rokushaku (1902), Gyoka-manroku (1902), Take No Sato Uta (1904), Sh. Kushu (1909), Shiki Zenshu, 1975-78 (25 vols.), Masaoka Shiki: Selected Poems (1998) etc.

Creating an Ecommerce Website

Selling products on-line requires a very different setup from your run-of-the-mill blogging site. Lets look at the things you’ll need to think about when setting up an eCommerce website and help to explain why they cost more to design.

First let me tell you what we’re not going to cover in this article.

We’re not assuming that an eCommerce website is a single web page with some PayPal button codes inserted onto it.

The PayPal buttons are great and work very well for those selling a handful of items, but we’re taking eCommerce to the next level and giving the customer a better on-line shopping experience.

Most modern eCommerce website are applications. They have a user interface, administration settings, store data in a database and follow a work-flow of processes. We’re going to touch on some of these areas.

The Basics

An eCommerce website can be thought of as a play with actors performing it’s scenes.

The main actors in an eCommerce website are:

* The Customer – buys products

* The Website Owner – ships bought products & gets paid

* The eCommerce Application – interface between all the actors

* The Payment Gateway – handles payment transactions (more on this later)

* The Merchant/Business Bank Account – Website owner’s business bank account (more on this later)

The main buying process of an eCommerce website (‘the play’) happens as follows:

1. Customer browses product catalogue

2. Customer adds product to basket

3. Customer buys product and enters check-out process

4. eCommerce Application contacts a Payment Gateway

5. Payment Gateway provides secure customer shipping and payment details entry form

6. Customer securely enters shipping and payment information

7. Payment Gateway contacts Website Owners’ Merchant Bank Account

8. Merchant Bank Account processes payment transaction and returns control to Payment Gateway

9. Payment Gateway returns Customer to eCommerce Application

10. eCommerce Application notifies Customer of successful (or failed) payment

11. eCommerce Application notifies Website Owner of purchase

12. Website Owner ships product to Customer

Of course there’s a lot more detail going on in each step, but hopefully you get the general idea that setting up an eCommerce application is a tad more complicated than your regular blog-style website.

Where Do You Start?

Sounds silly right, but the first step you need to do is think about the types of things you’ll be selling on-line.

Are these products?, i.e. physical items that require packaging and posting or services provided by yourself or another provider e.g. Professional Yak Grooming.

How may products or types of services are you going to offer? Local or International? Are some seasonal? Do you have a finite stock level for particular items? Do you plan to use special offers & discounts? Do you even like yaks?

This leads to customer and payment questions.

Who are your customers? Where are they? How are they going to pay; credit card, cheque, PayPal? Which bank account will I need to set up?

And then there are the support questions.

How do you handle returned goods? How do you refund payments? How do you handle complaints?

Having a think about the products and services you’re going to offer is vital because the first thing a web designer is going to ask you when you’re requesting a quote is “How many things are you selling and to whom?”

The reason is of course time and costs.

Selling 50 products to a UK only customer base using PayPal requires a very different setup and hence costs, to one selling 1000+ products internationally and taking credit card payments.

Lets look closer at some of the important eCommerce application areas.

The eCommerce Application

Essentially, an eCommerce application is a bespoke Content Management System (CMS). So as well as updating posts and blogs it specialises in updating products and services and supporting commerce functions.

Like any CMS, the application splits the eCommerce website into two major parts; the front-end or shop-front where the customer can browse and buy goods and the back-end where you login to an administration dashboard and manage the website options, including the product catalogue.

The Product Catalogue

This will likely be your most important concern and is central to any eCommerce website design.

The product catalogue is where all your goods-for-sale data lives. The product name, description, cost, stock level, pictures etc. are all stored in here.

We sometimes get people asking which files their products are stored in and they get in bit of a tizzy when they can’t find them on the server.

Usually, product catalogues are stored in a database, but don’t worry – you don’t have to know how to use a database. The eCommerce application does that for you through the product catalogue interface in the Administration Dashboard.

Being able to manage this yourself is vital, otherwise you’ll be going back and forward to the web developer and the costs will rack up.

Thankfully, the eCommerce applications that we use, Magento and WordPress e-Commerce, once installed, allow you to manage your own product catalogue from within the web browser.

The Magento product catalogue has advanced options and allows for things like adding discount codes, customer reviews, product videos etc., whereas the WordPress e-Commerce catalogue offers a simpler solution while still covering the essential requirements you’ll need to sell stuff on-line.

So how do you go about entering and updating all this product information?

The Admin Dashboard

Accessing a special web page on your site and entering a username and password will take you to the options part of your eCommerce website. This is commonly known as the Admin Dashboard.

Here, you will be able to update almost every aspect of the website including accessing the product catalogue, shipping costs, currency exchange rates, payment gateways, sales reports etc.

Whichever eCommerce solution you choose from us, we’ll setup some or all of your product catalogue and make sure that customers can purchase items and that you get paid through a payment gateway (more on that late

The Shop Design

Of course your shop will need a look and feel to fit in with your business brand.

Again, just like other CMS’s a web designer will be needed to develop a theme or template which will transform the default shop-front into whatever design you have in mind for your customers.

Themes can be bought off-the-shelf for both WordPress e-Commere and Magento and you can apply these yourself, however, you may prefer to have a design exactly the way you imagined it and different from any of your competitors.

Themes are applied from the Administration Dashboard. You may be able to change a few aspects of the theme, such as your logo, background colour, text colour, however, you’re not going to be able to move parts of the theme around to different areas of the screen. A web designer will need to do this by updating the theme’s code.

Domain Name and Website Hosting

You will of course need a domain name to trade with and a hosting plan to store the website files and databases.

It’s usually best not to purchase a hosting plan until you’ve spoken to a web designer and they have given you an idea of the best solution to implement.

Many of the cheaper hosting plans that are offered to you when purchasing a domain name, do not support databases or database applications. They may charge an extra setup and yearly fee for setting this up.

So try to avoid buying a hosting plan until you talk to a web designer and have an idea of the type of eCommerce solution you’ll need to implement your ideas.

Merchant Bank Accounts vs Business Bank Accounts

Certainly in the UK, you must have a business bank account to legally trade as a business.

Business bank accounts can be used just fine with an eCommerce application but you will need to setup a Payment Gateway service to handle the payment transactions and get the customers money into your bank account.

If you’re opening up a business bank account and your account manager knows you’re going to be running an eCommerce website you may be offered a merchant bank account which is a specialised version of the business account.

The merchant account gives you a Merchant ID number and access to a Payment Gateway service that the bank uses or owns.

It’s likely you’ll need to pay for the setup of a merchant account and it will incur fees, usually on a per-transaction basis.

If you have already setup a merchant account then you will need to make sure your eCommerce application can support the particular payment gateway your bank has given you access to, otherwise you won’t get your money.

e.g. Lloyds TSB uses the Cardnet merchant payment gateway. Royal Bank of Scotland uses the WorldPay merchant payment gateway.

If you were a Royal Bank of Scotland business customer with a merchant account, you would need to make sure your eCommerce application supported the WorldPay gateway.

You don’t need to use the particular merchant account that your business bank offers to trade on-line, but you do need a payment gateway of some sort to handle payments.

That leads us nicely onto payment gateways.

Payment Gateways

We’ve touched on this in the previous section. Essentially, a merchant bank account will give you a payment gateway to use, but you’re limited to just the one that your business bank is affiliated with.

A payment gateway is a service offered by a company.

It handles the payment part of the eCommerce application when a customer proceeds to the checkout to purchase an item.

The payment gateway collects the customers details and payment information securely and contacts your business bank account to complete the money transaction.

This is great for security too as your customers banking details aren’t kept on your eCommerce website, so that’s one less thing to worry about securing.

There are many different payment gateway services with different features and options. As a supplied service they all charge a fee for their use. The fees can include a setup charge and a % commission of the total price of a transaction.

Some payment gateways allow you to pay a monthly or annual fee if your number of transactions are high. This can work out more cost effective for you if your single transactions are high volume but low individual cost.

You’ve probably heard of some of the more well known gateway service providers and not known what they. You’ve also likely used them without even realising they are there. Some of the popular payment gateways are:

PayPal, Google Checkout, SagePay, WorldPay and ChronoPay.

It’s great that you have a choice and the services are very competitively priced so take some time to check out which is best for your business model. If you need some help, we’d be happy to meet up and walk you through the options.

Some payment gateways offer two types of general services; hosted and inclusive.

Hosted Payment Gateways

These options usually don’t require a set-up or monthly fee, however, transaction costs can be higher than an inclusive service.

The PayPal Website Payments Standard service is a good example of this.

Essentially, it limits your customers to having a PayPal account (they must register with the PayPal site) and when it comes to check-out, the customers are transferred from your eCommerce website to the PayPal website for the information gathering and payment transaction, then upon completion redirected back to your eCommerce website.

The downside of this method is really from a branding point of view. You have very limited control of how the payment gateway service, PayPal in this case, looks and operates before it redirects back to your website.

Some customers can be put off by redirecting to another site as confidence in security can be questioned (although PayPal in this instance has a very good reputation).

You’re also limiting the payment method to just those customers who are willing to use the payment gateway’s choice of payment. In this case, the customer must have a registered PayPal account.

A similar process happens if you use the Google Checkout payment gateway.

So what’s the other option?

Inclusive Payment Gateways

Inclusive payment gateways will allow your customers to go through the whole checkout process without (the appearance of) leaving your branded eCommerce website.

I added in “the appearance of” because in some cases your customers will actually leave your website and use the payment gateway service, however, the way it is implemented and embedded makes it looks as if it’s all part of your website and business brand.

So what’s the catch?

There’s usually a setup fee, a minimum subscription period (say 12 months), a monthly fee and of course a whole heap of conditions that apply.

Some particular conditions to look out for are thresholds on the number of transactions per month, or total monthly funds transferred. Payment gateway services can charge extra or insist you upgrade your service if these thresholds are exceeded in a similar way that mobile phone companies will charge you extra if you use up all your inclusive talk or SMS time.

The best benefit of using an inclusive payment gateway is that the whole customer experience from browsing to payment is hosted on your own website. This gives the customer a greater sense of confidence that their data will be kept safe and makes your whole business look and feel more professional.

A good example of this type of service is the PayPal Web Payments Pro.

Securing The Data

If you’re using a payment gateway then the good news is it’s unlikely you’ll be storing sensitive customer payment details on your eCommerce website.

Those types of data will be kept securely in your payment gateway account.

Of course you will be collecting a whole lot of other important and confidential customer information such as name, email, perhaps address, likes, dislikes, a username and password for your site.

All this information needs to be kept secure and your eCommerce application will help with that. The Administration Dashboard will have lots of sections that control who and what can see parts of the collected data.

But that’s not the only security you’ll have to think about. Do you know what happens when you fill out a form on a website and click on submit?

If you have a look at the top of the web browser in the address bar you’ll see the website’s URL address. Most sites will start with http://

(For those that want to know, URL stands for Uniform Resource Location and HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)

Any web page starting with http:// is transferring data to and from a web server in Plain Text.

This means, that the web page contents, code, images, text, form data are all sent in a format that’s readable to humans. OK, it may not be that readable, but in essence all the information is there in English characters (or whatever language character set your website uses).

Now for some more techie stuff.

When your web page is sent to or received from a web server, there isn’t a 1-to-1 direct connection between your website and the server. The web page data is transferred through hundreds of networks across different countries and through thousands of routing computers and other network devices before arriving at your computer.

This means that at any point during it’s travel, your web page data has the potential to be intercepted and read by whomever.

There isn’t much you can do about the interception part but there is something you can do to make it a darn lot harder for somebody to read and use your eCommerce web page data.

SSL Certificates

Now we’re talking.

Let’s skip the techie bit and quickly tell you what these are and what they do.

You buy an SSL certificate from a web hosting company (annual renewal most likely), install it into your eCommerce website and it encrypts your web page data. Hooorah!

You’ll now notice that parts of your website, likely those that require personal form data to be collected and sent, now start with https://

The addition of that little “s” letter, standing for “Secure”, means that the web page data is encrypted when sent and decoded only at the two end-points; your computer and a web server.

Anyone reading the page in between will see garbled non-readable characters.

You may also see additional signs of a secured web page such as a closed padlock icon.

We would strongly advise you buy an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate and get this installed and configured for use with your hosting account and eCommerce website.

In Summary

Creating an eCommerce website requires a fair amount of planning.

You’ll need a good web design and web development team to implement your business venture.

It will cost you more and take longer to create than a regular blog or brochure-ware website because of all the design and setup.

You’ll make money – and that’s what’s it’s all about after all…

We hope this helps you start your eCommerce website journey. Of course there’s a heap of things we just didn’t have the time to cover.

Learn more about eCommerce at our website.

Why Should You Install LED Boat Lights?

Your current lighting setup works just fine right? You can see your decks well in the night, you get by just fine with that single small reading light in the cabin, and heck, you just make sure you’re extra careful when running your systems so you don’t end up draining the battery banks. So why bother going with LED lights instead of those nice cheap incandescent bulbs you’ve been using all these years?

If this is your way of thinking when it comes to the lighting onboard your boat, the chances are very good you are wasting a lot of money and dealing with a lot more hassle than you probably realize.

Most boaters are well familiar with the need to manage onboard electrical power. Since all power for electrical devices must be produced, stored and supplied independently of onshore sources, boaters must rely on generators, solar panels, wind turbines and battery banks to produce and store electrical energy. Because of this, the amount of power that can be generated and stored is severely limited and close attention must be given to maintaining adequate power levels for the operation of vital equipment as well as luxuries in order to avoid increased costs through excessive fuel consumption and potentially dangerous situations where battery reserves are depleted to the point of being unable to start engines or operate safety lighting.

Because it can become expensive to run generators frequently, and alternative power sources such as wind and solar are limited in their ability to replenish supplies, most boaters resort to rationing power use. While larger battery banks and generators can provide increased generating and storage capabilities, the cost of fuel still remains a stumbling block and only increases with such additions. Many boaters will resort to battery powered lamps, running only a couple small cabin lights sporadically in order to make it possible to at least get to the head without banging a shin, and running the most minimal anchor and mast lighting possible while still meeting compliance with regulations. While all of these things and more can indeed reduce power consumption, they take away from the overall ability to enjoy your time on the water, and this is a serious problem when we consider that for most boaters, the whole point is to enjoy the luxury and relaxation that comes with spending time onboard.

Although they are not the most power hungry devices, lights represent a major part of the electrical system and due to their critical nature, are impossible to do away with entirely. It is ironic indeed that for something which is so important to the general safety and functioning of onboard activities, they are often treated as non-essential when it comes to power management. The good news though, is that this no longer has to be the case.

The most important benefit boaters can realize from switching to LED lighting onboard their boat is greatly reduced energy consumption. Whereas a typical 25 watt halogen bulb may draw over 2 amps and produce only 425 lumens, an LED fixture producing 500 lumens can use only 10 watts and pull less than 1 amp. That is more light output using less than half as much power. This kind of efficiency is impossible with normal incandescent lamps and allows you to produce more light, using fewer fixtures. For a boater who is loathe to leave cabin lights on for any length of time, this means you can install half as many lamps and produce the same illumination, while cutting the power draw by up to three quarters. This mean no more reading by the weak yellowish light of a battery lamp, or making so with dim cabins and hard to work in galleys or cockpits.

While LEDs do cost more initially than traditional lamps, they provide other cost saving benefits besides efficiency, which further help to offset their higher price and provide net savings over the long term. Lamp life is one of these peripheral benefits, and it can be extended over ten times as long using LEDs. A typical incandescent bulb will last approximately 500 to 1500 hours, causing frequent outages and the need for equally frequent replacements. Each time you replace that lamp, you incur additional costs. An LED boat light on the other hand will last in excess of 50,000 hours on average. That means that you would have to replace an incandescent lasting an average of 1,000 hours 50 times to equal the longevity of your LED lamp. If we say your incandescent bulb costs $1.00, that’s $50.00 over the course of 50,000 hours. With LED bulbs now available for as low as $24.00 for quality units, it is easy to see a net savings in maintenance and replacement costs alone. Add in the power and fuel saved as well, and it is clear that LEDs are actually more cost effective over the long term.

Two other very notable improvements LEDs offer over incandescent lamps are cooler operation and much greater durability. Most boaters are well aware of how warm it can get below decks in the summer. Now imagine placing several small heaters in that small cabin as well. Things can get rather warm quite quickly, obviously. Well, this in effect is what you are doing when you turn on those hot running halogen or incandescent cabin lights. This in turn causes air conditioning to run harder and more often, using more fuel and draining more power. LEDs on the other hand run cool enough to touch with your bare hand, even after hours of operation, reducing the heat added to the cabin, often the AC needs to run, and improving your overall comfort.

LEDs can also survive rough handling that would destroy a normal glass incandescent bulb. LEDs have no wire filament, no glass, no gases or mercury, and can withstand jarring, vibrations, and even impacts from dropping or accidental hits without any change in performance.

Overall, the reasons for switching your boats lighting system over to LEDs are numerous. You can run more of them, and for longer periods. They need less maintenance and cost less to operate over their lifetime. And last but certainly not least, they’ll allow you to spend less time worrying about maintaining your battery reserves and more time actually enjoying your boat. And that, friends, is why you should install LED lights onboard your boat.

Aeronautics and Air Pressure Science Proejcts for Homeschool Families

Take your science projects to the next level with this in-depth look at Air Pressure.

There's air surrounding us everywhere, all at the same pressure of 14.7 psi (pounds per square inch). It's the same force you feel on your skin whether you're on the ceiling or the floor, under the bed or in the shower.

An interesting thing happens when you change a pocket of air pressure – things start to move. This difference in pressure that causes movement is what creates winds, tornadoes, airplanes to fly, and some of the experiments we're about to do right now.

An important thing to remember is that higher pressure always pushes things around. (Meaning lower pressure does not "pull", but rather that we think of higher pressure as a "push".)

Another interesting phenomenon occurs with fast-moving air particles. When air moves fast, it does not have time to push on a nearby surface, like an airplane wing. It just zooms by, barely having time to touch the surface. The air particles are really in a rush.

Think of really busy people driving fast in their cars. They are so busy doing other things and driving fast to get somewhere because they do not have time to just sit and relax.

Air pressure works the same way. When the air zooms by a surface (like an airplane wing) like fast cars, the fast air has no time to push on the surface and just sit there, so not as much air weight gets put on the surface.

Less weight means less force on the area. (Think of "pressure" as force on a given area or surface.)
This causes a less (or lower) pressure region where there is faster air movement.
Confused? Great! Let's try some experiences out to straighten out these concepts so they make sense to you.

Okay, let's begin.

Air Takes Space
In a big bowl (or sink or tub) full of water, lower a clear cup, mouth downwards, into the water. Let some of the air escape slowly into a second submerged cup (as if you were "pouring the air up"). Remove one cup and realign the other mouth-downward, and using a flexible straw, blow into the mouth of the downward-facing cup.

Magic Water Glass Trick
Fill a glass two-thirds with water. Cover the mouth with an index card and invert (holding the card in place) over a sink. Remove your hand from the card. Voila! The card stays in place because air is heavier than water, and the card experiences about 15 pounds of force pushing up by the air and only about one pound of force pushing down from the water … where the card places in place.
(Try this with two glasses stacked mouth-to-mouth with the index card sandwiches in the middle. Remove the card …)

Plumber Magic
Take two clean old-fashioned, red rubber-and-wood-stick plungers and stick them together (you may need to wet the rims first). Try to separate them. Why is it so hard? When you rammed them together, air was forced out of the cavity that the insides make when pushed together, leaving you with a lower air pressure pocket inside, compared to the surrounding air pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) outside the plungers. Higher pressure always pushes and thus is keeping the plungers together.

Magic Egg Trick
Remove the shell from a hard-boiled egg and use a bottle with a neck large enough that the egg can be squeezed through (without squashing it) – old fashioned milk bottles work great. Light a match and toss it in, quickly setting the egg (small-end down) on the mouth of the bottle. The air inside gets used up by the flame, lowering the air pressure inside the bottle. The higher pressure, now outside the bottle, pushes on the egg and pops it in. (To remove the egg, turn the bottle upside down and get the egg to be small-end down inside the bottle near the mouth.) Blow hard into the mouth of the bottle.)

Barometer
Fill a cup two-thirds full of water. Cut the neck off a balloon and stretch over the mouth of the cup, fitting it tightly (like a drum). Tape a straw to the top, making one straw end one-third from the drumhead edge, and the free end hanging off. Place next to a wall covered with paper and mark the free end position. Over the next month, you can track pressure changes amplified by the straw.

Burping Bottle
Tape a lightweight plastic funnel tightly to the top of a strong straw, inserting the other end of the straw into a hole drilled into the top of a water bottle. Use hot glue to seal up any holes. Pour water into the funnel and watch it burp regularly.

Fountain Bottle
Seal a 2-liter soda water bottle (half-full of water) with a lump of clay wrapped around a long straw, sealing the straw to the mouth of the bottle. Blow hard into the straw. As you blow air into the bottle, the air pressure increases. This higher pressure pushes on the water, which gets forced up and out the straw.

Ping Pong Funnel
Insert a ping pong ball into a funnel and blow hard. (You can tilt your head back so that the ball end points to the ceiling. Can you blow hard enough so when you invert the funnel, the ball stops inside? Can you pick up a ball from the table? , The air where the ball sits in the funnel moves faster and generates lower air pressure than the rest of the air surrounding the ball.
This means that the pressure under the ball is lower than the surrounding air which is, by comparison, a higher pressure. This higher pressure pushes the ball back into the funnel … no matter how hard you blow or which way you hold the funnel.

Squished Soda Can
Heat an empty soda can (large beer cans actually will work better if you have one) in a skillet with a few tablespoons of water in the can over a hot stove. Have a shower dish with about inch inch of ice water handy (enough water to make a seal with the top of the can). When the can emits steam, grab the can with tongs and quickly invert it into the dish. CRACK! The air in the can was heated, and things that are hot tend to expand. When you cool it quickly by taking it off the stove onto a cold plate, the air cools down and shrinks, creating a lower pressure inside. Since the surrounding air outside of the can is now higher, it pushes on all sides of the can and crushes it.

Squished Balloon
Blow a balloon up so that it is just a bit larger than the opening of a large jam jar and can not be easily shoved in. Light a small wad of paper towel on fire and drop it into the jar. Place the balloon on top. When the fire goes out, lift the balloon … and the jar goes with it! The air gets used up by the flame and lower the air pressure inside the jar. The surrounding air outside, now at a higher pressure than inside the jar, pushes the balloon into the jam jar.

The Million Dollar Bet
Take an empty water or soda bottle and lay it down horizontally on a table. Carefully set a small wadded up ball of paper towel in the mouth of the bottle. (The ball should be about half the size of the opening.) I bet you a million dollars that you can not blow hard and get the paper to go into the bottle!
You're trying to force more air into the bottle, but there's no room for the air already inside to go except back out the mouth of the bottle, taking the paper ball with it.

Ping Pong Jump Cups
Place a ping pong ball in a cup just barely bigger than the ping pong ball. Blow down on the ball and the ball jumps right out of the cup! Remember the ideas about lower and higher pressure? By blowing on the top of the ball, you created a lower pressure area than underneath the ball. And higher pressure pushes the ball right out of the cup!

Sneaky Bottles
(Modify one water bottle in advance by poking a small hole near the bottom of the bottle with a tack or pin.) Take two water bottles (one of them you just modified), and poke a balloon into each water bottle, stretching the end Of the balloon over the mouth of the bottle. Blow into each one … what happened? There's no place for the air to go in the unmodified bottle, so you can not blow up the balloon. On the other hand, there's plenty of room for the balloon to expand in the modified bottle because there's a place for the air to move when the balloon gets bigger … it goes out the hole you punched.

Flying Papers
Hold a regular sheet of paper to your bottom lip (you may have to play a bit to find the exact location) and blow hard across the sheet. The sheet flies up! This is the same reason airplanes can fly. As you blow across the top of the sheet, you lower the air pressure (because the air is moving faster), and then the pressure on the underside of the sheet is higher, and higher air pressure pushes the sheet upwards.

Kissing Balloons
Blow up two balloons. Attach a piece of sting to each balloon. Have each hand hold one string so that the balloons are at nose-level, 6 "apart. Blow hard between the balloons and watch them move!
The air pressure is lowered as you blow between the balloons (think of the air molecules as ping pong balls … they balls do not have enough time to touch the balloon surface as they zoom by).
The air surrounding the balls that's not really moving is now at a higher pressure, and pushes the balloons together.

The Wrong Fuel Problem Escalation

Modern Life is Stressful: The Main Cause of Mis-fuelling

People tend to fill up their cars in the morning on their way to work or just before the school run, consequently this is when fuel stations are busiest and motorists are at their most distracted whilst dealing with the pressures of modern living. When you’re used to driving a petrol powered car and you’ve just swapped to a diesel powered car, that’s when the wrong fuel is mistakenly put into the tank.

Some drivers will realise that they’ve put in the wrong fuel whilst refuelling, putting in varying amounts from a few litres to a full tank but most unfortunate souls will not realise until they’ve driven off the fuel station forecourt and have broken down a few hundred yards down the road and usually, thanks to Murphy’s Law, at a busy junction. Only then will the penny drop.

What To Do If You’ve Filled Up With the Wrong Fuel Type

There are so many different types of vehicle on the roads nowadays that it’s difficult to give standard advice as there are so many vehicle idiosyncrasies. The basic industry advice is:

  • Don’t start the vehicle – Easier said than done this one as you have to have realised your mistake whilst refuelling. In some cases, simply locking or unlocking the car can prime the fuel pump which will introduce contaminated fuel into the vehicle system and this is an action that most people would automatically do in this situation as the majority of people just wouldn’t have this level of mechanical knowledge.
  • Don’t Panic – Panic is a perfectly understandable and natural reaction. When you’re already under pressure to get to work on time or to get the kids to school on time, it’s very difficult to keep a cool head. Even more so if you’re hit with the worry that the car might need extensive and expensive repair work or even a new engine.
  • Call an Engineer to help – As this is an industry that many people are unaware of until they actually find themselves in this situation, most people either call their roadside assistance company or a local mechanic with a tow truck. This is most definitely not the best option. You need to be able to consult an expert in the removal of the wrong fuel type from a vehicle. Inform the forecourt staff of the situation and ask if they can recommend a wrong removal company or if they can find details for one if you don’t have a smart phone yourself.

What happens to your car if you’ve put the wrong fuel type into it?

Diesel fuel contains lubricants which ensure the smooth working of fuel system components in a diesel powered engine. Unleaded petrol does not have these same lubricants; consequently, if you try to run a diesel engine with unleaded fuel in the system you’re not going to get very far before your vehicle breaks down. You are also risking damage to the fuel system components of the engine due to the lack of lubrication; this is more of a problem where unleaded petrol has been added to a decent amount of diesel, which has gone unnoticed by the driver. The vehicle engine will perform poorly but will usually still run.

A professional wrong fuel removal engineer will listen carefully to your description of the situation and what has happened to the vehicle since the mis-fuelling and then, dependent upon the vehicle type, age and history, will make a decision upon a course of action. The most common solution in 95% of cases is to perform a fuel drain on the vehicle.

A fuel drain involves connecting a pump to the vehicle to remove the contaminated fuel from the vehicle fuel system. The vehicle will be protected from potential damage to the body work by the fuel lines and other equipment used during the process, by a large padded plastic blanket. The contaminated fuel is stored in a specialist storage tank on board the mobile fuel evacuation unit and can only be correctly disposed of by a fully licensed and qualified technician. Once all of the fuel has been safely removed, the fuel system can then be flushed through with fresh uncontaminated fuel of the type required by the vehicle to remove traces of the incorrect fuel type. The vehicle engine can then be started and tested to find out if it will run smoothly following the procedure or whether there is potentially some damage to the fuel system components of the vehicle engine which would require further investigation.

In the vast majority of cases the fuel system evacuation and flush through with fresh fuel is enough to solve the problem and the motorist can be on their way with peace of mind. In the rare cases where the vehicle needs further attention, all may not be lost. Depending upon the type of vehicle, replacement injectors, injector pump, fuel filter and fuel pump may need to be sourced and fitted to the vehicle if advised by the wrong fuel removal technician. Phone around for quotes, though; if you have a trusted mechanic that you can go to for advice then that would be best, a main dealer is going to be expensive for this type of work.

Wrong Fuel Removal – Don’t get duped

Unfortunately, as with most professions, there is a devious element at work within the wrong fuel removal industry. As mentioned previously, because this is an industry that most people are unaware of until they need the service, not many know of a reputable company. The forecourt staff may be able to advise you, or you may find a company through an internet search on your smart phone.

You need to be sure that the company engineers hold an SPA passport and are registered with the Environment Agency so that you know they are fully licensed and qualified to do the job. If your engineer turns up with a dodgy old van and looks like he intends to drain your vehicle fuel tank into scruffy looking plastic tanks, then don’t be afraid to turn him away. A professional wrong fuel removal company will show you identification and will carry equipment to protect your vehicle whilst draining the fuel tank into a certified steel container. Petrol is a very dangerous chemical and must be handled professionally. Also, your vehicle may be an expensive and precious possession so be sure that the vehicle and you are not put at risk during the process.

Hopefully, you will never need this type of service but records show that this type of incident is on the rise in the UK and abroad. If you do happen to come across this article and know of someone who has recently changed to a diesel car, or if you yourself have done so, if the worst should happen perhaps this information will prove useful.