Introducing Thin Film Solar Panels For Home Use

There is no doubt that solar panels offer an economic eco-friendly system of converting solar energy to electric energy. Many are making use of these panels for the financial benefits they offer and many more would like to make use of them. There's good news for them who had been waiting all this while for whatever reasons. Now, thin solar panels have been introduced which make it simpler and more affordable to have them for your energy requirements.

Thin panel versus thick panel

It will not be wrong to conclude that one big reason for solar units not getting as popular had been their cost. Their manufacturing cost was high. Whereas thin panels are made from cheaper materials and the cost of production is about one third of the cost of traditional solar panels. Understandably, these are much more affordable.

Thin film assumes that the size of the cell is reduced considering. That affects the weight correspondingly and offers more flexibility. Reduction of size and weight allows them to produce more energy, given the same size. Another positive feature of thin cells is that they do not need massive supporting structure like thick panels. As a matter of fact these can be incorporated within the roof or the wall itself.

And the best thing is that these practical thin panels because of their compact size and low weight are portable, meaning you can conveniently carry them with you wherever you go.

The other good news is that the introduction of thin film solar panels has already caused a drop in the prices of solar systems!

Five Benefits of a Wood Fence

The wooden fence is one of the most loved and commonly used fencing options in America today. It symbolizes America’s heritage as far back as the settlers and farmers having to fence their barns, homes and farms using wood and they come with many wonderful advantages. The five main reasons to have of a wooden fence are:

1. Eco-Friendly

One of the many benefits of a wood fence is that it is very friendly to the environment as compared to its vinyl and aluminum counterparts. Wood is obviously a natural material that matures synergistically. Trees used for making wooden fences can be grown in large scale and old fencing panels can be disposed of without the risk of harming the environment.

2. Easy to Install

Unlike other types of fences such as vinyl and wrought iron, a wood fence is very easy to install. If a post is taller than the rest, it can easily be cut to the required length even after the concrete footing has been set. Vinyl and metal posts are fabricated, meaning that their heights are not easy to adjust.

It is also easy to affix fence panels to wooden fence posts, which is an advantage over vinyl and metal posts that are prefabricated to firm tolerances that must be adhered to during the installation process. In addition, wooden posts can be maneuvered easily if the distance between two nearby posts is unusually big.

3. Aesthetic Appeal

Wooden fencing plays a major role in adding the much-needed aesthetic value to homes. The aesthetics of wooden posts can be achieved through a variety of ways including staining, carving and painting. Water resistant paints and stains can be bought from local hardware or paint stores and homeowners have the option of choosing their favorite colors or hues of stain. In addition, wooden posts can be repainted on a regular basis to change the look of the fence and to prevent it from looking dilapidated or worn out.

4. Affordability

In comparison to many fencing options, wooden fences are inexpensive. The materials for making a wood fence cost considerably less than other fencing materials such as metal. When time comes to repairing or replacing wooden posts or planks, a homeowner can easily work on individual pieces instead of having to take out whole sections of the fence to get the job done.

Interestingly, many repairs and replacements of wood fences can be carried out by homeowners by using cheap materials found at local home improvement stores or things available in the tool shade like nails, hammers and pliers. The cost of doing repairs or replacements is low and the time needed to do it is usually very short.

5. Variety

Fences made out of wood are available in a variety of impressive designs that homeowners can choose from. Notable wood fence designs include picket, table top, post-and-rail, stockade, split rail, lattice top, French Gothic, spaced board, and paddock. There is also a wide variety of caps that can be bought for wooden posts, ranging from standard wood caps to copper caps that are equipped with solar light to provide beautiful lighting during the night.

10 Things Investors Look For in a Business Plan

A business plan does so much more than layout the internal structure of an organization. It provides some key insight to the money-men, the venture capitalists, the angel investors, the private investment bankers or even the traditional bankers. Remember that these people see hundreds, thousands of business proposals a month. And they're all looking for certain things that either make them love your proposal – or send it immediately to the shredder. We've worked with nearly 50 investment firms at one point or another for clients for what we have written business plans, and based on our experiences and the people involved, there are some important factors investors looking for the most from the business plan.

1.) How much money is already invested? Do the client or other individuals / companies have a stake in the business?

Sometimes the difference between getting a loan and getting returned is as simple as that. Imagine you're coming to an investor with a fabulous business plan and you need, say, $ 500 million for a resort and real estate project. In your proposal you clearly state that you do not have one single dime invested yourself (yes, we had a business proposal like this once!). Do you honestly believe an investor is going to give you the time of day? Of course not. You have not taken any sort of risk – why should the investor?

In your business plan, it is key to explain fully, in the executive summary and then later on in the financials, just what monies are involved. Okay, so maybe you do not have any money involved in that resort project, but you DO own the roughly 50 acres of land it will sit upon which is worth maybe $ 75 million. Good! Mention that in the proposal clearly and accurately, including what kind of land it is, along with a map, some distinguishing features (is it ready for construction, water, pathways, roads, accessibility, etc.) If you have other types of assets , Something, ANYTHING that can be used as collateral against your loan, make sure it is explained and described.

If you have partners who have chipped in $ 250,000 for a project worth at the most $ 2 million, you have a significant edge over other people. Most investors we have deal with with like to see at least 10% of the required funds already in place.

2.) How accurate is the research involved? Does the client know the market, the competitors, and his or her chances?

We can not begin to tell you how many business plans we have come across that had little or no market analysis or competitive structure. The client had no idea about the target market, the competition he was facing, nor even demographics of the area. He had an exciting product, but it was difficult to ascertain just how much success he was going to have SELLING it.

In many cases, an investor is not as interested in the product as he or she is in the product's success on the market, so a good business plan should have a clear, accurate description of that market. Many things should be included like:

A.) Demographics of your target market and market analysis, with factors such as age, race, income, etc. Think about your average customer walking into your store for your product or service. What are they looking for? What do they look like? How much do they want to spend?

B.) A market analysis that describes the trends and statistics of your potential market. Will your product or service be in high demand for a long time – or will will it have limited 'shelf-life' on the market, coinciding with a new fad, for example. Will the product or service be affected by shifts in the market? Is this a stable target market with limited shifts taking place, or does the market wildly fluctuate?

C.) Do you know your competitors? What are the similarities and differences between what they sell and what you sell? How are you better than them? How are you inferior to them? (Yes, you need to include that, as much as you do not want to.)

3.) How realistic are the financial projections?

Be extremely honest. No start-up business makes a profit in its first year, no matter what you are selling. So make sure not to show that in your business plan. Also do not be too alarmed at the first-year loss. We had a client with a business plan that showed a $ 400,000 loss against a $ 2,000,000 loan in his first year of operations and he panicked. Then we explained that he was going to have a loss because his first year of operations would have high expenses as he organized and finished all his preparations for his new company. Investors expect you to have a lousy first year – do not beat yourself up about it. It's not the first year that concerns them anyway – they are thinking 3-5 years down the road. If after three years your company is not showing a profit, that is when the investors get nervous. After all, why should they put their money into something if your business proposition shows that you will not be able to pay them back? Luckily for our panicked client, his second year showed a profit of about $ 30,000 and his Year Three profits would equal $ 375,000, almost erasing his first year loss. He was going to have a steady 40% increase every year after that.

In many instances, the investor thinks long-term, and so should you. Your financials should explain what is going on, and what will happen. Do not try to sugar-coat things, per se, but put a healthy spin on a mediocre beginning. Do not impress the investor with what IS happening – impress them with what is GOING to happen.

4.) Does your proposal look professional?

You've been surprised how many proposals are overlooked with something as simple as a large 'BUSINESS PROPOSAL' on the first page. This is merely common sense. If you want people to take you seriously, show your most professional side. Your proposal should be checked for errors, misspellings, proper formatting, and headings, and have clear, easy-to-read graphics or images. A client tried to convince us to use a dazzling bold red text over a green bar-chart and we hastily explained to him why it's not a very good idea to ruin the eyes of a potential lender. Include pictures or illustrations, maps, diagrams and other visual aids, if possible. Also, take a good look at your writing. The character Rusty, played by Brad Pitt, in 'Ocean's 11' said it quite well: "Do not use 7 words when 4 will do." Talk about your management team, but do not drone on about how instrumental a part they have played in your life. Talk about the great product you have, but do not go on about testimonials from other people, (or if you must, include them in the appendix) And do not be funny. Humor should be left at the doorstep. If you want to be funny, become a stand-up comic. Treat your document and the people reading your document with the utmost respect.

5.) Is the management team solid? Are there good people involved?

Remember that your business is not, and should never be, about you. There have to be some good people involved with you to make it run smoothly. It does not matter what service or product or project is being offered, if you think you can convince an investor you're a veritable one-man show, you are out of your mind. A client we recently wrote a business proposal for was creating a new mobile-phone service, and amazed us with the list of engineers, technical advisers and IT professionals he had attained. When we saw how the management structure was fully laid out, and how each individual was going to fit in, we knew right away this particular proposal had a good chance to get in the front door.

Investors want to know who is on board, what their job is, their experience in the field you have chosen to represent, and a little of each person's background and education. A solid management team, with a full layout as to positions, responsibilities and backgrounds, is a sure-fire way to get an investor looking at your proposal a lot more.

6.) Is the exit plan well defined?

Without your lender is going to get involved with you through a joint-venture, or partner, chances are he or she does not want to stick around with you forever. Investors want to know what you're offering them later on down the road, when it's time to cut you loose and count the money you made for them. Some examples of exit plans include:

A. Creating an initial public offering (IPO). If your business has the potential of going onto the stock exchange later on, and investors can share in dividends, this is very important for them to know from reading your proposal. Let them know how long it will take to get an IPO, and estimate the price per share you foresee, if you're offering investors a first-buy once the IPO goes public, etc.

B. Buyout. Perhaps your shoes-string business is going so well, your investor is impressed enough to want to buy your company completely for several million dollars. If you want to offer this alternative to long-term investing, make sure you let the investor know the approximate value of the company after a certain number of years. A business valuation report is very helpful in this regard. Let the investor know exactly what he or she might be getting into and if it's really worth pursuing. If you can do a valuation of the company based upon your projections, it may assist the investor in determining if you are worth the time and effort to invest.

C. Sell ​​the company to others. If your business has the possibility of going up for sale to other interested parties, the investor should know details such as possible buyers, how much they could pay, the value of the business at the point of sale, etc.

D. Pay out of equity. Let's say Steve wants equity in George's company and receives 20%. Steve loans George the initial funding and an agreement is made that Steve will own this equity for 10 years. Each year, George will pay Steve 20% of the gross profits. At the end of ten years, if any money is still owed on the loan, which is doubtful, George will pay the equity of 20% and a balloon payment of anything that remains on the loan. All this, of course, must be agreed upon at the outside, so make sure you define this clearly.

7.) How much money do you need and how will it be used?

As weird as it sounds, we have had business proposals come past our desks that explain how much money is needed – but fail to tell us what it's being used for. An investor will balk at someone who says they need $ 100 million for an oil well project yet does not explain where all this money is going. Our business proposals include a special heading for Start-up expenses (when dealing with a start-up company, of course), that explains and lists the expenses the investment will cover, and for how long.

If you want to really impress investors, include what we call a "phase plan". For example, let's say you want to start that oil well project. In Phase One, you show the investor what you'll be spending, in this case, for surveys of the land, preparations for drilling, etc. Phase Two could show expenses for drilling equipment, personnel, and construction of the wells. Phase Three could discuss refining procedures expenditures, and so on. You have detailed out a full "shopping list" for the investor, and they do not only know what you're spending, but how it's being spent, and an estimated time when it will be spent.

8.) How will the money be paid back?

On the heels of exit plans, an investor likes to know how you're going to pay him or her back. If you can agree on a certain percentage each month, or each year, that is fine. If you want to offer annual equity and a share of profits, that's great too. But whatever your options are, make sure the investor knows what you're offering. Detail out all the pay-back options that are available, and order them in importance to you. You might want to think twice if your business has the ability to make $ 50 million per year, and your investor only cave you $ 5 million at the beginning, yet you offer a 35% equity every year! Reward your investors, yes, but do not shower them with untold riches for nothing. A happy investor is always good, but make sure you're happy too so that your business continues to prosper.

9.) What is the SWOT like?

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats – and if you do not know these, you have no business, well, running a business. Your proposal should describe each of these areas accurately and with great detail, at least a few paragraphs for each.

Strengths: What really makes your business stand out? Where does it excel?

Weaknesses: Where does your business need help? Where is it lacking?

Opportunities: What positive trends, actions or events do you see that will have a substantial and positive effect on your company's success?

Threads: What negative trends, actions or events could cause harm to your business – and how will you sail past those rough waters smoothly?

10.) How relevant is the business to our society?

A lot of people will try to tell you that investors really do not care about this factor, but from our experiences you would not believe the amount of investment firm applications we have seen that ask this exact question. How your business impacts society, whether locally, nationally or world-wide, can have a positive or negative impact on investor interest. If you have a business proposal that offers 4,000 jobs to your city, or will will strengthen economic development, or includes environmentally-friendly factors or some sort, your proposal looks that much better. Try to take the time when writing to think about how your project affects others around you. What are the benefits? The long-term effects? The opportunities for others? Every business has the ability to impact society in some way. Informing an investor in detail about how your particular project will do so, tells an investor that you care enough about your project to do the extra research, go the extra mile – and it shows a great deal of determination and heart.

And every investor loves that!

Top 10 Problems With the Facebook iPhone App

Facebook Application
Updated: September 22, 2011
Designer: Facebook Price: Free
IPhone: Yes iPad: Yes iPod: Yes
Category: Social

Just as it announced a rehashing of its main website, Facebook also recently released a much anticipated update of their iPhone app. While Facebook had claimed this was the app update to solve them all, the reviews are in and it looks like Facebook took a step back instead of forward. Here are the Top 10 Facebook app complaints:

1. Application freezes up: A iPhone app is not any good if it does not work and the latest Facebook update has had many reports on the support page about the application failing to load. Reports on the freezing are sporadic but it can happen anywhere in the app from the loading screen to the chat screen.

2. Failure to update changes: One of the biggest complaints is that actions and changes that are made in the application are not being made on the live Facebook site. Things like changing your status, your location, or even straight up post are not making it through to the live website, even though they show up well enough

3. Slow load time: One of the issues I've personally come across with the latest Facebook iPhone app update is that the load times for just about anything on the Facebook network are extremely laggy or all together time out. The chat conversations are laggy and sometimes get out of sync which can lead to some really weird conversations.

4. Quick Draining Battery: Now this is personally my number one gripe about the Facebook app, but apparently the chat interface is open continuously in the new application requiring a constant signal to the application thus draining the battery. Most iPhone apps limit connectivity to only when its necessary to reduce battery drain but currently the Facebook app is not. If I have this app open for a long time (which I like to do) my battery last me less than half as long as normal and that bites!

5. Unable to receive notifications: As of the last update I was not able to get access to any of my notifications and they were not even displaying even though I could easily access and see them through the computer website. To test this, I sent myself an invite to a game from my girlfriends account a few hours ago and I still have yet to see the notification appear.

6. Can not access prior update: What's worse when you have an iPhone app that is ruined by an update? Being unable to go back to the version of the iPhone app that was working before the update was released.

7. Unable to post to "My Wall" – Your wall is your sacred place. It's the first thing that everyone sees when they're checking out your Facebook and it displays darn near everything you've done. Being unable to post to my wall is what finally broke the camels back and made me decide to stop using the Facebook iPhone app.

8. Glitches when receiving phone calls – This has only happened twice, but it's mostly annoying. Twice I've used the iPhone Facebook app and someone called me. Tried to switch over but the app froze up and I missed my call. It's never cool to miss a call when the phone is RIGHT IN YOUR HANDS.

9. Updates are slow – The last two updates have taken a long time for me to download. This has not been a problem before.

10. Pictures do not display – I do not know about you guys but I've had a hard time getting pictures to display properly, especially when going through peoples photo galleries. The pictures either fail to load or load really slow. Again, this has not been a major problem until the last update.

I know this sounds like a gripe fest and I'll be honest that I might be reaching on one or two of the above points but the problem we have here is another case of over complication. I dropped MySpace for Facebook because Facebook made interacting with my friends easy and it made keeping connected easy. Now, with each update and more features, the app seems to be progressively buggy and complicated. If they do not stop their current trend, I can see a competitor eating up some of Facebook's unhappy customers. It happened to MySpace and it can happen to Facebook too.

The Development of Old Age and Related Issues

In traditional Chinese and other Asian cultures the aged were highly respected and cared for. The Igabo tribesmen of Eastern Nigeria value dependency in their aged and involve them in care of children and the administration of tribal affairs (Shelton, A. in Kalish R. Uni Michigan 1969).

In Eskimo culture the grandmother was pushed out into the ice-flow to die as soon as she became useless.

Western societies today usually resemble to some degree the Eskimo culture, only the “ice-flows” have names such a “Sunset Vista” and the like. Younger generations no longer assign status to the aged and their abandonment

is always in danger of becoming the social norm.

There has been a tendency to remove the aged from their homes and put them  in custodial care. To some degree the government provides domiciliary care services to prevent or delay this, but the motivation probably has more

to do with expense than humanity.

In Canada and some parts of the USA old people are being utilised as foster-grandparents in child care agencies.

SOME BASIC DEFINITIONS

What is Aging?

Aging: Aging is a natural phenomenon that refers to changes occurring throughout the life span and result in differences in structure and function between the youthful and elder generation.

Gerontology: Gerontology is the study of aging and includes science, psychology and sociology.

Geriatrics: A relatively new field of medicine specialising in the health problems of advanced age.

Social aging: Refers to the social habits and roles of individuals with respect to their culture and society. As social aging increases individual usually experience a decrease in meaningful social interactions.

Biological aging: Refers to the physical changes in the body systems during the later decades of life. It may begin long before the individual  reaches chronological age 65.

Cognitive aging: Refers to decreasing ability to assimilate new information and learn new behaviours and skills.

GENERAL PROBLEMS OF AGING

Eric Erikson (Youth and the life cycle. Children. 7:43-49 Mch/April 1960) developed an “ages and stages” theory of human

development that involved 8 stages after birth each of which involved a basic dichotomy representing best case and worst case outcomes. Below are the dichotomies and their developmental relevance:

Prenatal stage – conception to birth.

1. Infancy. Birth to 2 years – basic trust vs. basic distrust. Hope.

2. Early childhood, 3 to 4 years – autonomy vs. self doubt/shame. Will.

3. Play age, 5 to 8 years – initiative vs. guilt. Purpose.

4. School age, 9to 12 – industry vs. inferiority. Competence.

5. Adolescence, 13 to 19 – identity vs. identity confusion. Fidelity.

6. Young adulthood – intimacy vs. isolation. Love.

7. Adulthood, generativity vs. self absorption. Care.

8. Mature age- Ego Integrity vs. Despair. Wisdom.

This stage of older adulthood, i.e. stage 8, begins about the time of retirement and continues throughout one’s life. Achieving ego integrity  is a sign of maturity while failing to reach this stage is an indication of poor development in prior stages through the life course.

Ego integrity: This means coming to accept one’s whole life and reflecting on it in a positive manner. According to Erikson, achieving

integrity means fully accepting one’ self and coming to terms with death. Accepting responsibility for one’s life and being able to review

the past with satisfaction is essential. The inability to do this leads to despair and the individual will begin to fear death. If a favourable balance is achieved during this stage, then wisdom is developed.

Psychological and personality aspects:

Aging has psychological implications. Next to dying our recognition that we are aging may be one of the most profound shocks we ever receive. Once we pass the invisible line of 65 our years are bench marked for the remainder of the game of life. We are no longer “mature age” we are instead classified as “old”, or “senior citizens”. How we cope with the changes we face and stresses of altered status depends on our basic personality. Here are 3 basic personality types that have been identified. It may be a oversimplification but it makes the point about personality effectively:

a. The autonomous – people who seem to have the resources for self-renewal. They may be dedicated to a goal or idea and committed to continuing productivity. This appears to protect them somewhat even against physiological aging.

b.The adjusted – people who are rigid and lacking in adaptability but are supported by their power, prestige or well structured routine. But if their situation changes drastically they become psychiatric casualties.

c.The anomic. These are people who do not have clear inner values or a protective life vision. Such people have been described as prematurely resigned and they may deteriorate rapidly.

Summary of stresses of old age.

a. Retirement and reduced income. Most people rely on work for self worth, identity and social interaction. Forced retirement can be demoralising.

b. Fear of invalidism and death. The increased probability of falling prey to illness from which there is no recovery is a continual

source of anxiety. When one has a heart attack or stroke the stress becomes much worse.

Some persons face death with equanimity, often psychologically supported by a religion or philosophy. Others may welcome death as an end to suffering or insoluble problems and with little concern for life or human existence. Still others face impending death with suffering of great stress against which they have no ego defenses.

c. Isolation and loneliness. Older people face inevitable loss of loved ones, friends and contemporaries. The loss of a spouse whom one has depended on for companionship and moral support is particularly distressing. Children grow up, marry and become preoccupied or move away. Failing memory, visual and aural impairment may all work to make social interaction difficult. And if this

then leads to a souring of outlook and rigidity of attitude then social interaction becomes further lessened and the individual may not even utilise the avenues for social activity that are still available.

d. Reduction in sexual function and physical attractiveness. Kinsey et al, in their Sexual behaviour in the human male,

(Phil., Saunders, 1948) found that there is a gradual decrease in sexual activity with advancing age and that reasonably gratifying patterns of sexual activity can continue into extreme old age. The aging person also has to adapt to loss of sexual attractiveness in a society which puts extreme emphasis on sexual attractiveness. The adjustment in self image and self concept that are required can be very hard to make.

e. Forces tending to self devaluation. Often the experience of the older generation has little perceived relevance to the problems of the young and the older person becomes deprived of participation in decision making both in occupational and family settings. Many parents are seen as unwanted burdens and their children may secretly wish they would die so they can be free of the burden and experience some financial relief or benefit. Senior citizens may be pushed into the role of being an old person with all this implies in terms of self devaluation.

4 Major Categories of Problems or Needs:

Health.

Housing.

Income maintenance.

Interpersonal relations.

BIOLOGICAL CHANGES

Physiological Changes: Catabolism (the breakdown of protoplasm) overtakes anabolism (the build-up of protoplasm). All body systems are affected and repair systems become slowed. The aging process occurs at different rates in different individuals.

Physical appearance and other changes:

Loss of subcutaneous fat and less elastic skin gives rise to wrinkled appearance, sagging and loss of smoothness of body contours. Joints stiffen and become painful and range of joint movement becomes restricted, general

mobility lessened.

Respiratory changes:

Increase of fibrous tissue in chest walls and lungs leads restricts respiratory movement and less oxygen is consumed. Older people more likelyto have lower respiratory infections whereas young people have upper respiratory infections.

Nutritive changes:

Tooth decay and loss of teeth can detract from ease and enjoyment in eating. Atrophy of the taste buds means food is inclined to be tasteless and this should be taken into account by carers. Digestive changes occur from lack of exercise (stimulating intestines) and decrease in digestive juice production. Constipation and indigestion are likely to follow as a result. Financial problems can lead to the elderly eating an excess of cheap carbohydrates rather than the more expensive protein and vegetable foods and this exacerbates the problem, leading to reduced vitamin intake and such problems as anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.

Adaptation to stress:

All of us face stress at all ages. Adaptation to stress requires the consumption of energy. The 3 main phases of stress are:

1. Initial alarm reaction. 2. Resistance. 3. Exhaustion

and if stress continues tissue damage or aging occurs. Older persons have had a lifetime of dealing with stresses. Energy reserves are depleted and the older person succumbs to stress earlier than the younger person. Stress is cumulative over a lifetime. Research results, including experiments with animals suggests that each stress leaves us more vulnerable to the next and that although we might think we’ve “bounced back” 100% in fact each stress leaves it scar. Further, stress is psycho-biological meaning

the kind of stress is irrelevant. A physical stress may leave one more vulnerable to psychological stress and vice versa. Rest does not completely restore one after a stressor. Care workers need to be mindful of this and cognizant of the kinds of things that can produce stress for aged persons.

COGNITIVE CHANGE Habitual Behaviour:

Sigmund Freud noted that after the age of 50, treatment of neuroses via psychoanalysis was difficult because the opinions and reactions of older people were relatively fixed and hard to shift.

Over-learned behaviour: This is behaviour that has been learned so well and repeated so often that it has become automatic, like for example typing or running down stairs. Over-learned behaviour is hard to change. If one has lived a long time one is likely to have fixed opinions and ritualised behaviour patterns or habits.

Compulsive behaviour: Habits and attitudes that have been learned in the course of finding ways to overcome frustration and difficulty are very hard to break. Tension reducing habits such as nail biting, incessant humming, smoking or drinking alcohol are especially hard to change at any age and particularly hard for persons who have been practising them over a life time.

The psychology of over-learned and compulsive behaviours has severe implications for older persons who find they have to live in what for them is a new and alien environment with new rules and power relations.

Information acquisition:

Older people have a continual background of neural noise making it more difficult for them to sort out and interpret complex sensory

input. In talking to an older person one should turn off the TV, eliminate as many noises and distractions as possible, talk slowly

and relate to one message or idea at a time.

Memories from the distant past are stronger than more recent memories. New memories are the first to fade and last to return.

Time patterns also can get mixed – old and new may get mixed.

Intelligence.

Intelligence reaches a peak and can stay high with little deterioration if there is no neurological damage. People who have unusually high intelligence to begin with seem to suffer the least decline. Education and stimulation also seem to play a role in maintaining intelligence.

Intellectual impairment. Two diseases of old age causing cognitive decline are Alzheimer’s syndrome and Pick’s syndrome. In Pick’s syndrome there is inability to concentrate and learn and also affective responses are impaired.

Degenerative Diseases: Slow progressive physical degeneration of cells in the nervous system. Genetics appear to be an important factor. Usually start after age 40 (but can occur as early as 20s).

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Degeneration of all areas of cortex but particularly frontal and temporal lobes. The affected cells actually die. Early symptoms resemble neurotic disorders: Anxiety, depression, restlessness sleep difficulties.

Progressive deterioration of all intellectual faculties (memory deficiency being the most well known and obvious). Total mass of the brain decreases, ventricles become larger. No established treatment.

PICK’S DISEASE Rare degenerative disease. Similar to Alzheimer’s in terms of onset, symptomatology and possible genetic

aetiology. However it affects circumscribed areas of the brain, particularly the frontal areas which leads to a loss of normal affect.

PARKINSON’S DISEASE Neuropathology: Loss of neurons in the basal ganglia.

Symptoms: Movement abnormalities: rhythmical alternating tremor of extremities, eyelids and tongue along with rigidity of the muscles and slowness of movement (akinesia).

It was once thought that Parkinson’s disease was not associated with intellectual deterioration, but it is now known that there is an association between global intellectual impairment and Parkinson’s where it occurs late in life.

The cells lost in Parkinson’s are associated with the neuro-chemical Dopamine and the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s are associated the dopamine deficiency. Treatment involves administration of dopamine precursor L-dopa which can alleviate symptoms including intellectual impairment. Research suggests it may possibly bring to the fore emotional effects in patients who have had

psychiatric illness at some prior stage in their lives.

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN In old age our self concept gets its final revision. We make a final assessment of the value of our lives and our balance of success and failures.

How well a person adapts to old age may be predicated by how well the person adapted to earlier significant changes. If the person suffered an emotional crisis each time a significant change was needed then adaptation to the exigencies of old age may also be difficult. Factors such as economic security, geographic location and physical health are important to the adaptive process.

Need Fulfilment: For all of us, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, we are not free to pursue the higher needs of self actualisation unless the basic needs are secured. When one considers that many, perhaps most, old people are living in poverty and continually concerned with basic survival needs, they are not likely to be happily satisfying needs related to prestige, achievement and beauty.

Maslow’s Hierarchy

Physiological

Safety

Belonging, love, identification

Esteem: Achievement, prestige, success, self respect

Self actualisation: Expressing one’s interests and talents to the full.

Note: Old people who have secured their basic needs may be motivated to work on tasks of the highest levels in the hierarchy – activities concerned with aesthetics, creativity and altruistic matters, as compensation for loss of sexual attractiveness and athleticism. Aged care workers fixated on getting old people to focus on social activities may only succeed in frustrating and irritating them if their basic survival concerns are not secured to their satisfaction.

DISENGAGEMENT

Social aging according to Cumming, E. and Henry, W. (Growing old: the aging process of disengagement, NY, Basic 1961) follows a well defined pattern:

1. Change in role. Change in occupation and productivity. Possibly change

in attitude to work.

2. Loss of role, e.g. retirement or death of a husband.

3. Reduced social interaction. With loss of role social interactions are

diminished, eccentric adjustment can further reduce social interaction, damage

to self concept, depression.

4. Awareness of scarcity of remaining time. This produces further curtailment of

activity in interest of saving time.

Havighurst, R. et al (in B. Neugarten (ed.) Middle age and aging, U. of Chicago, 1968) and others have suggested that disengagement is not an inevitable process. They believe the needs of the old are essentially the same as in middle age and the activities of middle age should be extended as long as possible. Havighurst points out the decrease in social interaction of the aged is often largely the

result of society withdrawing from the individual as much as the reverse. To combat this he believes the individual must vigorously resist the limitations of his social world.

DEATH The fear of the dead amongst tribal societies is well established. Persons who had ministered to the dead were taboo and required observe various rituals including seclusion for varying periods of time. In some societies from South America to Australia it is taboo for certain persons to utter the name of the dead. Widows and widowers are expected to observe rituals in respect for the dead.

Widows in the Highlands of New Guinea around Goroka chop of one of their own fingers. The dead continue their existence as spirits and upsetting them can bring dire consequences.

Wahl, C in “The fear of death”, 1959 noted that the fear of death occurs as early as the 3rd year of life. When a child loses a pet or grandparent fears reside in the unspoken questions: Did I cause it? Will happen to you (parent) soon? Will this happen to me? The child in such situations needs to re-assure that the departure is not a censure, and that the parent is not likely to depart soon. Love, grief, guilt, anger are a mix of conflicting emotions that are experienced.

CONTEMPORARY ATTITUDES TO DEATH

Our culture places high value on youth, beauty, high status occupations, social class and anticipated future activities and achievement. Aging and dying are denied and avoided in this system. The death of each person reminds us of our own mortality.

The death of the elderly is less disturbing to members of Western society because the aged are not especially valued. Surveys have established that nurses for example attach more importance to saving a young life than an old life. In Western society there is a pattern of avoiding dealing with the aged and dying aged patient.

Stages of dying. Elisabeth Kubler Ross has specialised in working with dying patients and in her “On death and dying”, NY, Macmillan, 1969, summarised 5 stages in dying.

1. Denial and isolation. “No, not me”.

2. Anger. “I’ve lived a good life so why me?”

3. Bargaining. Secret deals are struck with God. “If I can live until…I promise to…”

4. Depression. (In general the greatest psychological problem of the aged is depression). Depression results from real and threatened loss.

5. Acceptance of the inevitable.

Kubler Ross’s typology as set out above should, I believe be taken with a grain of salt and not slavishly accepted. Celebrated US Journalist David Rieff who was in June ’08 a guest of the Sydney writer’s festival in relation to his book, “Swimming in a sea of death: a son’s memoir” (Melbourne University Press) expressly denied the validity of the Kubler Ross typology in his Late Night Live interview (Australian ABC radio) with Philip Adams June 9th ’08. He said something to the effect that his mother had regarded her impending death as murder. My own experience with dying persons suggests that the human ego is extraordinarily resilient. I recall visiting a dying colleague in hospital just days before his death. He said, “I’m dying, I don’t like it but there’s nothing I can do about it”, and then went on to chortle about how senior academics at an Adelaide university had told him they were submitting his name for a the Order of Australia (the new “Knighthood” replacement in Australia). Falling in and out of lucid thought with an oxygen tube in his nostrils he was nevertheless still highly interested in the “vain glories of the world”. This observation to me seemed consistent with Rieff’s negative assessment of Kubler Ross’s theories.

THE AGED IN RELATION TO YOUNGER PEOPLE

The aged share with the young the same needs: However, the aged often have fewer or weaker resources to meet those needs. Their need for social interaction may be ignored by family and care workers.

Family should make time to visit their aged members and invite them to their homes. The aged like to visit children and relate to them through games and stories.

Meaningful relationships can be developed via foster-grandparent programs. Some aged are not aware of their income and health entitlements. Family and friends should take the time to explain these. Some aged are too proud to access their entitlements and this problem should be addressed in a kindly way where it occurs.

It is best that the aged be allowed as much choice as possible in matters related to living arrangements, social life and lifestyle.

Communities serving the aged need to provide for the aged via such things as lower curbing, and ramps.

Carers need to examine their own attitude to aging and dying. Denial in the carer is detected by the aged person and it can inhibit the aged person from expressing negative feelings – fear, anger. If the person can express these feelings to someone then that person is less likely to die with a sense of isolation and bitterness.

A METAPHYSICAL PERSPECTIVE

The following notes are my interpretation of a Dr. Depak Chopra lecture entitled, “The New Physics of Healing” which he presented to the 13th Scientific Conference of the American Holistic Medical Association. Dr. Depak Chopra is an endocrinologist and a former Chief of Staff of New England Hospital, Massachusetts. I am deliberately omitting the detail of his explanations of the more abstract, ephemeral and controversial ideas.

Original material from 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

In the lecture Dr. Chopra presents a model of the universe and of all organisms as structures of interacting centres of electromagnetic energy linked to each other in such a way that anything affecting one part of a system or structure has ramifications throughout the entire structure. This model becomes an analogue not only for what happens within the structure or organism itself, but between the organism and both its physical and social environments. In other words there is a correlation between psychological

conditions, health and the aging process. Dr. Chopra in his lecture reconciles ancient Vedic (Hindu) philosophy with modern psychology and quantum physics.

Premature Precognitive Commitment: Dr. Chopra invokes experiments that have shown that flies kept for a long time in a jar do not quickly leave the jar when the top is taken off. Instead they accept the jar as the limit of their universe. He also points out that in India baby elephants are often kept tethered to a small twig or sapling. In adulthood when the elephant is capable of pulling over a medium sized tree it can still be successfully tethered to a twig! As another example he points to experiments in which fish are bred on

2 sides of a fish tank containing a divider between the 2 sides. When the divider is removed the fish are slow to learn that they can now swim throughout the whole tank but rather stay in the section that they accept as their universe. Other experiments have demonstrated that kittens brought up in an environment of vertical stripes and structures, when released in adulthood keep bumping into anything aligned horizontally as if they were unable to see anything that is horizontal. Conversely kittens brought up in an environment of horizontal stripes when released bump into vertical structures, apparently unable to see them.

The whole point of the above experiments is that they demonstrate Premature Precognitive Commitment. The lesson to be learned is that our sensory apparatus develops as a result of initial experience and how we’ve been taught to interpret it.

What is the real look of the world? It doesn’t exist. The way the world looks to us is determined by the sensory receptors we have and our interpretation of that look is determined by our premature precognitive commitments. Dr Chopra makes the point that less than a billionth of the available stimuli make it into our nervous systems. Most of it is screened, and what gets through to us is whatever we are

expecting to find on the basis of our precognitive commitments.

Dr. Chopra also discusses the diseases that are actually caused by mainstream medical interventions, but this material gets too far away from my central intention. Dr. Chopra discusses in lay terms the physics of matter, energy and time by way of establishing the wider context of our existence. He makes the point that our bodies including the bodies of plants are mirrors of cosmic rhythms and exhibit changes correlating even with the tides.

Dr. Chopra cites the experiments of Dr. Herbert Spencer of the US National Institute of Health. He injected mice with Poly-IC, an immuno-stimulant while making the mice repeatedly smell camphor. After the effect of the Poly-IC had worn off he again exposed the mice to the camphor smell. The smell of camphor had the effect of causing the mice’s immune system to automatically strengthen

as if they had been injected with the stimulant. He then took another batch of mice and injected them with cyclophosphamide which tends to destroy the immune system while exposing them to the smell of camphor. Later after being returned to normal just the smell of camphor was enough to cause destruction of their immune system. Dr. Chopra points out that whether or not camphor enhanced or

destroyed the mice’s immune system was entirely determined by an interpretation of the meaning of the smell of camphor. The interpretation is not just in the brain but in each cell of the organism. We are bound to our imagination and our

early experiences.

Chopra cites a study by the Massachusetts Dept of Health Education and Welfare into risk factors for heart disease – family history, cholesterol etc. The 2 most important risk factors were found to be psychological measures – Self  Happiness Rating and Job Satisfaction. They found most people died of heart disease on a Monday!

Chopra says that for every feeling there is a molecule. If you are experiencing tranquillity your body will be producing natural valium. Chemical changes in the brain are reflected by changes in other cells including blood cells. The brain produces neuropeptides and brain structures are chemically tuned to these neuropeptide receptors. Neuropeptides (neurotransmitters) are the chemical concommitants of thought. Chopra points out the white blood cells (a part of the immune system) have neuropeptide receptors and are “eavesdropping” on our thinking. Conversely the immune system produces its own neuropeptides which can influence the nervous system. He goes on to say that cells in all parts of the body including heart and kidneys for example also produce neuropeptides and

neuropeptide sensitivity. Chopra assures us that most neurologists would agree that the nervous system and the immune system are parallel systems.

Other studies in physiology: The blood interlukin-2 levels of medical students decreased as exam time neared and their interlukin receptor capacities also lowered. Chopra says if we are having fun to the point of exhilaration our natural interlukin-2 levels become higher. Interlukin-2 is a powerful and very expensive anti-cancer drug. The body is a printout of consciousness. If we could change the way we look at our bodies at a genuine, profound level then our bodies would actually change.

On the subject of “time” Chopra cites Sir Thomas Gall and Steven Hawkins, stating that our description of the universe as having a past, present, and future are constructed entirely out of our interpretation of change. But in

reality linear time doesn’t exist.

Chopra explains the work of Alexander Leaf a former Harvard Professor of Preventative Medicine who toured the world investigating societies where people  lived beyond 100 years (these included parts of Afghanistan, Soviet Georgia, Southern Andes). He looked at possible factors including climate, genetics, and diet. Leaf concluded the most important factor was the collective perception of aging in these societies.

Amongst the Tama Humara of the Southern Andes there was a collective belief that the older you got the more physically able you got. They had a tradition of running and the older one became then generally the better at running one got. The best runner was aged 60. Lung capacity and other measures actually improved with age. People were healthy until well into their 100s and died in their sleep. Chopra remarks that things have changed since the introduction of Budweiser (beer) and TV.

[DISCUSSION: How might TV be a factor in changing the former ideal state of things?]

Chopra refers to Dr. Ellen Langor a former Harvard Psychology professor’s work. Langor advertised for 100 volunteers aged over 70 years. She took them to a Monastery outside Boston to play “Let’s Pretend”. They were divided into 2 groups each of which resided in a different part of the building. One group, the control group spent several days talking about the 1950s. The other group, the experimental group had to live as if in the year 1959 and talk about it in the present tense. What appeared on their TV screens were the old newscasts and movies. They read old newspapers and magazines of the period. After 3 days everyone was photographed and the photographs judged by independent judges who knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. The experimental group seemed to

have gotten younger in appearance. Langor then arranged for them to be tested for 100 physiological parameters of aging which included of course blood pressure, near point vision and DHEA levels. After 10 days of living as if in 1959 all parameters had reversed by the equivalent of at least 20 years.

Chopra concludes from Langor’s experiment: “We are the metabolic end product of our sensory experiences. How we interpret them depends on the collective mindset which influences individual biological entropy and aging.”

Can one escape the current collective mindset and reap the benefits in longevity and health? Langor says, society won’t let you escape. There are too many reminders of how most people think linear time is and how it expresses itself in entropy and aging – men are naughty at 40 and on social welfare at 55, women reach menopause at 40 etc. We get to see so many other people aging and dying that it sets the pattern that we follow.

Chopra concludes we are the metabolic product of our sensory experience and our interpretation gets structured in our biology itself. Real change comes from change in the collective consciousness – otherwise it cannot occur within the individual.

Readings

Chopra, D. The New Physics of Healing. 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

Coleman, J. C. Abnormal psychology and modern life. Scott Foresman & Co.

Lugo, J. and Hershey, L. Human development a multidisciplinary approach to the psychology of individual growth, NY, Macmillan.

Dennis. Psychology of human behaviour for nurses. Lond. W. B.Saunders.

Top 10 Steps to Make a Website and Start Making Money Online

So you want to make money online? Ya so does everyone else, millions and millions. Because of this, it is very difficult to actually find a system to follow that makes you money. 95% of “make money” programs are scams. It is very difficult to find a real product that genuinely shows you how to make money working from home. I have comprised a top 10 list of proven steps needed in order to make money online. They are pretty simple to follow and will give you results.

1. Find a product to market.

What interests you? What are your hobbies? A good place to start looking for products is Clickbank, clickbank.com. Signing up is free and very easy. After you have your login info you need to click on the “Sell Products” tab and then click “Marketplace” and start searching for products. Once you search through the Clickbank Marketplace, be sure to find products that offer good affiliate programs. An example would be say you want to promote organic dog food. You find a few sites that offer this. You need to first click on the actual site and browse through it. Is it appealing? Is it convincing? You also need to make sure they have a great affiliate program. Links for affiliates are usually at the bottom of the page. If they offer pre-made emails, banners, links, PPC ads, etc. for their affiliates then it is obviously a great product to promote. Follow this rule of thumb and you can’t go wrong.

2. Get a hosting account.

When it comes to getting a hosting account, you have a few options at different price ranges. Personally, I prefer HostGator . You can get a website for as little as $4.95 per month, which is very cheap. GoDaddy also offers fairly cheap rates. If you want to shop around there are plenty to choose from just by typing in “domain hosting” into a search engine.

3. Get an FTP program.

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and it is necessary in order to create a website. I personally use smartftp, smartftp.com. They offer a free 30 day trial. If you are like most newbies you have no idea what FTP is or how to even use it. Luckily there are videos on how it works on the website. You can also go to YouTube and type in “smart ftp” and tutorials will pop up. If you really want detailed videos on exactly what to do visit my website and it will tell you how. The one key to running any ftp program is the public html file. That is the only file you will ever use, publichtml.

4. Get a program to create a webpage.

Personally, I use NVU, nvu.com, because it is free. Many use DreamWeaver, which is very confusing or Microsoft Frontage, which not everyone has on their computer and can cost hundreds. Stick with NVU. Again, you probably have no idea how to use this program but luckily there are videos on how to use it on the website. They are easy to understand, you will be fine.

5. Create your squeeze page.

Go back to the product you decided to market. Click on the webpage and copy as much as you can from the webpage. You are going to create a squeeze page. A squeeze page is a webpage that captures leads, which equals sales. You want your squeeze page to look very similar to the actual website. Example, say you are promoting thedogfoodconspiracy.com, which is an actual ClickBank product. Click on the site, thedogfoodconspiracy.com and copy as much info as you can. Meaning, highlight the pictures, text, anything that you want, and right click “copy”. Next, go to your NVU blank webpage and click “paste”. It is as simple as that. You want testimonials, images, text, anything that is convincing. You can even copy audio! It’s actually quite amazingly simple and easy.

6. Get an auto-responder.

You need an auto-responder to capture leads and start making residual income. I use GetResponse. This is the only auto-responder programs I’ve used so I cannot comment on the others, however GetResponse is great. It is very affordable and very easy to set-up. Like the programs listed above, there are many sources, such as videos, to help you understand how to use an auto-responder. No need to fret if you have no idea where to begin. Now, you need to offer your visitors some sort of incentive so they will sign up for your list. For example, I offer a free e-book on blogging when my visitors sign up for my newA free eBook is a great incentive because it is easy and everyone loves free information!

You set your auto-responder to day 0 so the eBook is delivered immediately once the visitor inserts their name and email address. That message should read something like this… “[[firstname]], Thanks for signing up for (your newsletter name). Attached is your free e-book on the secrets of the millionaire bloggers. Stay tuned for more tips on blogging and internet marketing!” It’s that easy. Make sure to link the actual product page from your autoresponder. Once your visitors click “submit” and submit their name and email address it will automatically direct them to the actual product site. So if you were promoting thedogfoodconspiracy.com once your visitor clicked “submit” it would re-direct them to thedogfoodconspiracy.com. You can easily set this up and there are videos that show you how.

7. Find relevant and insightful information to give your readers.

You want to give your readers new content at least once a week. Start off by giving them free information that is useful and relevant to your campaign. For example, if your campaign is titled “Dog Food Secrets” start off by offering your readers some tips on how to feed your dog, or how to train your dog to bark when hungry. You can find this by using search engines. Anything will work, as long as your readers are receiving free info without buying anything. After they have gained your trust you can start making some money by promoting products. Example, “[[firstname]], I just found this new organic dog food for small dogs and my dog loves it! It not only gives her more energy but it’s proven to improve their teeth!” That is just a dumb example, but you get my point. Article directories, such as this one, are also very good information sites.

8. Find relevant affiliate programs to promote to your readers.

You can do this by going back to ClickBank and searching for more products or you can simply use search engines. Use Google or Yahoo, or whatever search engine you prefer to type in your subject. For example, if you want to find organic dog bones to promote, try typing in “organic dog bone affiliate” or “organic dog bone promote.” Sign up for their affiliate program, and start putting in your link into your emails.

9. Start promoting your website and get some traffic!

This is the toughest part of making money online. Advertising! There are many ways of advertising, one including PPC advertising, which is probably the most efficient, however it does cost money. Your budget is up to you but if you want to start generating traffic quickly, start making PPC ads. If you followed my earlier instructions and chose a wonderful affiliate product to promote then these ads are already made up for you. All you have to do is copy and paste them into the actual ads. You will probably receive the most traffic through Google AdWords, however this is definitely the most expensive PPC program because it receives the most traffic. Personally, I like Yahoo Search Marketing. MSN also has a pretty cheap advertising program but I see more traffic through Yahoo and it is a fraction of the price of Google AdWords. There are various other free ways to promote your product. You can find programs that show you how or you can search for other ways. Try using YouTube to find free videos on how to receive free traffic. There are endless ways, you just have to decide whether you want to spend time or money promoting your website.

10. Do steps 1-9 all over again but with a different product.

The more squeeze pages you have, the more money you will make.

Benefits And Importance Of Beet Juice

Beet was looked up by the Romans as being good for cooling the blood. Beet root is also found to benefit against feverish conditions, especially in growing children. Later generations found that beet root was also beneficial for a very strong specific action to regulate the digestive system.

The Doctrine of Signatures, which suggests that every plant investigates its medical purpose, provided that beet, because of its redness, was good for the blood. In fact the iron content is not particularly high, although it is said to be present in a form that is easy to assimilate.

The whole beet family (remember sugar beet) is rich in easily digested carbohydrates, even so the calorie content is not high. The red beetroot tends to concentrate rather than lose its mineral content when boiled for two hours, but the vitamins are generally reduced. Therefore when used therapeutically beetroot is usually juiced raw. Beet root juice taste has a stimulating effect not only upon the nerves of the tongue but also on the nerves in the intestines.

In Germany there is widespread use of beer juice, which is available in pasteurized form in bottles, as a powerful restorative during convalescence. It follows that beets are also good for general weakness and debility of all sorts. In combination with other juices, especially carrot and cucumber, beer juice is not only a splendid blood builder but also one of the finest therapies for sexual weakness, kidney stones, gall bladder, kidney, liver and prostate problems.

Beet juice still remains a potent force the secrets of which are far from being unlocked. It is, after carrot, one of the chief juices in the science of natural healing as practiced on earth. The chlorine present in beet juice acts to regulate digestion by controlling the peristalsis, or natural rhythmical contractions of the gut and, because of this, the assimilation of food during the time of recovery is much assisted.

Uncooked beets keep rather better than many vegetables. If you cook beets it is important to avoid damaging or cutting the skin. If this happens the red color will leach out into the cooking water leaving the cook with a very pale beet of unattractive appearance. If the skin is accidentally damaged the leakage of color will be very much reduced if you add a few drops of lemon juice or cider vinegar to the water.

The dark green beet tops should not be discarded because they are rich in carotene and in minerals. They may be juiced in small quantities as an addition to other juices, while steamed they make a good and cheap alternative to spinach.

3 Types of Car Power Inverters

A car power inverter is built to perform the function of an AC/DC inverter. It conveniently plugs into the cigarette lighter outlet to give a reliable power source while away from home. The inverter has a variety of sockets including a USB port to accept most standard items of electronic equipment. This means it is possible to charge power tools, games consoles, cell phones, or laptops when camping or similar.

There are a wide range of car power inverter units with a choice of outlets. They can vary with the type and number of outlets, as well as the voltage that can be handled.

Here is an overview of the different types of car power inverter:

Single

The most cost-effective option is the single outlet inverter. They are built with a single 3-pronged outlet to accept one electronic item. The current capacity can vary between 150 watts and 200 watts. A useful benefit of this unit is its compact size, which makes it really easy to use and store. Also, the ability to power only one device at a time means there is a low risk of overloading the system. But, the single use option means the all-round use is limited and not a practical choice when multiple devices are in need of charging. If it is necessary to charge several devices, the inverter will be in use for a long time, which can put a strain on the vehicle battery.

Multiple

The Multiple outlet inverters are a lot more expensive and larger than the single outlet units. Most are built to power two devices, although there are some that have up to three and include a higher wattage capacity. This type of inverter is great on a campsite when it is necessary to power a DVD player and television at the same time. When using the multiple outlet inverters it is essential to make sure the electronic items do not exceed the accepted capacity limit of the inverter. If it does go above the maximum limit the devices may not perform correctly or simply not work at all.

USB

There are certain inverters that include one or more USB ports. This is often in conjunction with the 3-pronged outlets. Easy access to USB power is practical to charge a wide range of devices like tablet PCs, smart phones, or other gadgets powered via a USB cable. Similar to the multiple outlet inverters it is important to avoid charging devices that will exceed the maximum current rating.

Home Improvements – Installing and Insulating Doors

Interior Door Installation

Most interior doors (excluding bi-fold doors) are pre-hung assembled or knock down ready to assemble.

To accommodate a pre-hung door the R.S.O. (rough stud opening) must be installed to allow for shimming tolerance, this is required for both sides and the top. The rule of thumb is one inch wider than the door frame. This is to allow for any shrinkage or twisting in the rough stud opening. If your door is the knock down ready to assemble type, put the unit together following the instructions. You will find that you can assemble for either right hand or left hand hinge, swinging in or out of the opening.

Apply a piece of 1 X 2 across the door at the bottom (right jamb to left jamb) to hold the door in the front plumb and square. Set the door in the opening and using a carpenter’s square and level shim with cedar door shims and fasten with nails. Do the hinge side first then the others shimming where required top and side.

Exterior Door Installation

Installing a new exterior door will require you to make a number of decisions.

1. Solid core – plywood faced door?

Will require a lot of maintenance; staining, sealing and painting.

2. Solid wood door – Western Red Cedar, Oak, etc.

Will require sanding, staining, and natural finish (subject to temperature change inside and out). Panels may crack requiring repairs and refinishing on an annual basis.

3. Steel insulated door primed ready for paint?

Most people assume steel insulated doors are a finished product (usually white in colour) “WRONG”. They must be painted within the first 6 to 8 months of installation using an exterior acrylic latex or exterior urethane paint. Door must be washed with my Home Cleaning Formula or T.S.P. using a pot scrubber pad and rinsed well before painting.

4. Consider fibreglass – insulated doors, as they are maintenance friendly.

5. Good, better, best… One of the best doors available now is the Protec Door manufactured by Guenther Doors. Their laminated inner frame adds structural strength, giving greater security and comfort.

Insulating Garage Doors

Metal and garage doors are made of very light material to make it easier for them to go up and down. However, they let a lot of cold air migrate into the garage cavity during the winter. To correct this problem, insulation must be applied to the inside of the door. Bat or rigid foam insulation does NOT work as it adds too much bulk and weight for easy door movement. For best results apply a sheet of Reflectix Foil Insulation using Velcro strips for a steel door, and staples for a wood door. This will reflect the cold air out and keep the heat indoors.

It’s just that easy!

Growing Tomatoes Made Easy – Part 2

There are two ways to plant tomatoes. The first way is to buy healthy, stocky transplants or start your own seeds indoors about six to eight weeks before planting time. The second way is to plant seeds directly in the garden.

There are pluses and minuses with each method. If you buy transplants you are limited to the varieties the garden centers have. If you start your seeds indoors you have an unlimited selection of varieties, but there is a little work to be done. And if you plant seeds directly in the garden, you have an unlimited selection and hardly any work but you have to wait a little longer for harvest.

Whichever method you choose you should be ready to plant about two weeks after the last frost of the spring. Make sure your soil temperature is at least 55 degrees F and the night time temperatures stay above 45 degrees F.

For direct seeding use a hoe and make a trench about one inch deep the length length of your row. Place about three or four seeds each at the proper spacing for your variety along the row. Cover the seeds with one quarter to one half inch of soil and gently firm it down with the end of your hoe. Water in well with a watering can or the mist setting on a water hose, being careful not to blast the seeds out of the ground with a hard stream of water.

For transplants you either buy or start indoors, the time to plant is the same as with direct seeding. About two weeks after the last frost of the spring, set your transplants in the ground. At the proper spacing for your variety, dig a hole one foot deep and one foot in diameter. Mix 5-10-5 fertilizer and agricultural lime in your hand and drop it in the planting hole and put soil on top of it. Plant your tomato in the hole up to a couple of inches of the bottom set of leaves and firm up the soil around the plant.

To cut down on chances of a disease called Early blight, mulch around the new transplant with grass clippings, hay, wheat straw or even newspapers. Do this before you water the transplants in to keep soil from splashing onto the leaves, which is a big cause of early blight.

Instead of dropping fertilizer and lime in your planting hole, you can just drop lime in the hole before planting and water the transplants in with liquid fertilizer.

Are Women Supposed to Minister in the Pulpit?

People who become Christians and are filled with the Spirit OFTEN assume God can and does move through the women in a church as well as the men. Typically, it is not until some older Christian grabs them and starts telling them that "women can not do this" and "women can not do that" – pointing to an apparently clear script, that they start restricting women in ministry In the church.

Let me lay out a perspective that may appeal to your spirit.

To most Believers (especially new Believers who have not been taught old customs ) the verse that seems most natural (in a supernatural way!) About the ministry of women is found in Galatians where Paul says,

Gal. 3.26-28 – Ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is none jewer nor Greek, there is either bond oror free, there is none male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.

Christian newbies will read this and oddly enough will tend to think that men and women in the Body of Christ are spiritually equal. In other words – There's a person up front of the congregation, who is declaring the Word of the Lord in the Spirit … Is it a man? Is it a woman? Is it a Jew or Greek, slave or free? Who cares? The only real question is, is it the Spirit of God?

In a sense, it's almost repulsive to claim that the Spirit of the Lord can not flow through a person in ministry to the body, because she is a woman. It's such a repulsive idea, there'd have to be very clear instruction in the Scriptures to support that exclusive perspective.

"But," many men claim, "there are Scriptures that teach the submission of women – in marriage and in ministry!" Actually, there's just one. Our key verse is found in the letter to Timothy:

1 Tim 2.11-14 – But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.

Right off let me point out that this reverse is feasible in the history of doctrine. Most teachings that are broadly accepted by the Church are found in a number of places through Scripture – traditionally, at least three – places which clarify and confirm that teaching. In other words, if this teaching (that of women not teaching) were found in several places in the Word, these versa could be compared and we'd have a lot more clarity on it.

But this verse stands alone in its apparently misogynist admonition. Curiously, what gives it so much weight is not that other Scriptures "back it up", but that this one, lone verse is backed up by our culture!

In fact, "culture" is the true key to making sense of this verse. So let's consider the cultural framework in which Paul wrote this admonition.

Paul was writing to Timothy in Ephesus, 2,000 years ago. Ephesus was the world center of paganism at that time, rule over (in the spiritual realm and in popular worship) by the mother goddess, Artimus (whom the Romans called "Diana" as in, "great is Diana of the Ephesians!" In Acts 19.) This is the same "Diana" whose temple housed thousands of religious prostitutes because they believed that discrimination and frequent sexual acts congratulated fertility and prosperity into the land.

In Ephesus, this cultic, fertility religion dominated the society including its temple life and business activities. Not only did the Ephesians lift up a female goddess into the highest place of worship there, but they taught that women were the true spiritual leaders – not men. In fact, Ephesian Jews who were bringing out the first teachings of Gnosticism already considered "Eve" to be the true "hero" of the Creation account since she was the one who received true Knowledge and Illumination from the Serpent – who was superior to God. This embryonic Gnostic teaching fit hand-in-glove with the continuing, cultural belief that women were the only true spiritual teachers.

Into this mass of cultural confusion , Paul brought the Truth of the Gospel. The fact that Paul preached salvation through a "man" (Jesus) in and of itself insulted the female dominated spiritual teachers of Ephesus! When he wrote to Timothy, instead of focusing mostly on the daily conduct of the people of God in that city as he did most of his other church letters, instead he focused strongly on the need for Timothy to resist false teachers and their false " Spiritually enlightened "teachings. That was the greater problem faced in Ephesus.

1 Tim 1.3 – As I urged you when I was on my way to Macedonia, stay on where you are at Ephesus in order that you may warn and admonish and charge certain individuals not to teach any teaching different than mine.

Or here …

1 Tim 6.20 – Timothy – Guard and keep the deposited entrusted to you! Turn away from godless chatter, with its vain and empty phrases, and the subtleties and contradictions in what is falsely called, "knowledge" and "spiritual illumination".

Actually, by taking the stand that he did, Paul also came into a place of violent opposition to his own culture and that of the Pharisees (of which he had been a part) when in 1 Tim 2.11 he said, "Let women learn. .. The Rabbis and Pharisees in Paul's day had FORBIDDEN WOMEN TO BE TAUGHT SPIRITUAL TRUTH. Women were certainly excluded from instruction in the Scriptures (Torah) and the study of the things of God. Torah, it had to be burned as unclean! The mere fact that Paul said about women, "Teach them .." in itself had to be shocking!

Jewish women in Ephesus were not taught about spiritual things, and Gentile women were taught the powerful false teachings related to their goddess – including superiority over men as well as worship of the Serpent as the origin of all Wisdom.

When women – either Jewish or Gentile – became Believers, they were at a serious disadvantage in respect to men. The typical method of teaching in those days was a question-and-answer format – whether in pagan assemblies, Christian churches or Jewish synagogues. In these generally heated debts – as ideas were tossed back and forth in debt and confusion could pile up on confusion – these women who had little or no knowledge of Scripture were seriously limited. (In fact, in 1 Cor 14, Paul tried to reduce some of the noisy confusion in Christian assemblies by telling wives to be quiet and wait till they got home to ask their husbands for clarification.)

Both 1 Tim 1.4 and 6.20 speak of these characteristic statements in which Paul says to Timothy to "guard the spiritual Truth which has been entrusted to you." Turn away from pointless discussions and the claims of false knowledge that people use to oppose the Christian faith " . And Paul went so far as to demand of Timothy that he "order certain people to stop teaching false doctrine and occupying themselves with myths and endless genealogies. These myths and genealogies raise a lot of questions rather than promoting God's plan, which centers in faith. "

Think of the spiritual climate at Ephesus: Women, who were new Believers, had either NO understanding of spiritual things or were steeped in "goddess teachings" … they were sitting in the mid of the newly planted Christian churches … and Paul Said the women needed to be "in silence". It already begins to make more sense to understand that the fantastically popular and false teachings about Artimus were endemic in Ephesus, and the open discussion and debate of Christian services were the wrong place for women trained in Artimus worship to be allowed to try and dominate the Spiritual teachings.

Actually, there's another serious problem with the "just shut-up" interpretation. The word "silence" does not carry the same meaning in today's culture as it did in ancient times.

In fact, "silence" is a good word to show how quickly you and I can make a wrong guess as to the meaning of a word in the Bible. After all, if women are to "keep silent", would not you think that means they have to keep their mouths shut? But the Greek word used for "silence" ( hesuchia ) is the same word used in 1 Tim 2.2 in which we're told to pray continuously "for kings, and for all that are in authority; so that we may lead a quiet [ Hesuchia ] and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. "

The word hesuchia (according to Strong's Dictionary) describes the life of "someone who stays at home doing his own work" and does not meddle in the lives of others. "In 1 Tim 2.2, it would obviously be wrong to say it means The kind of "silence" that we usually talking about – you know, "pray for kings, and for all that are in authority; So that we may all shut up and live in peace … "? It does not make any sense.

But when you apply the correct meaning in 1 Tim 2.12, it makes perfect sense that Paul would tell women to participate in the meetings "quietly", not "meddling" with the teachings that Paul had given them about the Gospel, Jesus Christ, etc .

"I do not permit a woman to teach" … In the spiritual atmosphere of Ephesus, women ( especially women) needed to sit quietly and learn. And Ephesian women needed especially to not be allowed to "usurp authority" over the men who were teaching – trying to perpetuate the cultic teachings of female, spiritual authority and thenby taking control of the young, Ephesian church. What Paul is saying here to the Ephesian Believers, in light of the extraordinarily problematic circumstances facing this Asian church, was that women (steeped in these false teachings) needed to just be quiet, sit and learn from the men. Remember: Paul does not tell women this anywhere else. It is a word of instruction for Ephesus

"Usurp authority" is also interesting. It's the word authenteo (Strong's again) which literally means "one who acts on his own authority, autocratic; an absolute master ."

This phrase, "usurp authority" does not refer to a woman – what, preaching on Sunday? Prophesying? Ministering in a Word of Wisdom or Interpretation a Tongue? "Usurp authority" means (following the teaching of the Ephesian "goddess" cultus) that such a woman tries to take over the church – "exercising absolute control and mastery". This, of course, would be exactly in line with what the priestesses of Artimus would try and do!

By the way – When people are reading this passage and go from "not usurp authority" to "For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression", it just sees Really weird . Exactly why does Paul launch into this protocol argument from Genesis – an argument he uses here and only here?

It's because the incipient Gnostic teachings – which fit so well with the Artimus cultus – that that Adam was the one who was totally deceived and Eve (by means of listening to the serpent) became the Source of True Spiritual Wisdom and Knowledge!

So, in light of this teaching at Ephesus, Paul says, basically, " NO! Adam was formed first , then Eve, and it was Eve who was deceived!"

Overall, after taking into consideration these cultural issues surrounding these instructions to the Ephesian Believers, the case for male-controlled ministry in the Body of Christ is weak. In a sense, you could say these particular instructions would still apply today to any culture in which women were trained to take over a place of absolute spiritual leadership and teach the doctrine of demons. In such a case – they need to learn quietly and humbly receive instruction according to the truth!

But this is simply NOT the case in most of the Body of Christ today. In fact, the male-dominated perspective does not really fit well with other passes in the New Testament. Some that come right off the top of my head include (a) Acts 16.7 which mentions the apostle "Junias" (which in that day is a typically female name); (B) Gal 2 where there is no "slave nor free" or "male nor female" in Christ; And (c) where the well-known preacher Apollos "spoke and taught the things of the Lord diligently, knowing only the baptism of John. And Aquila [man] and Priscilla [ woman heard him, and they took him and expounded to him the Way of God more perfectly ". (That last one is powerful – since Jews believed women should not be taught spiritual truth, yet it was the husband / wife and man / woman team of Aquila and Priscilla who corrected Apollos theologically!)

Any – when culture is taken into consideration – there's just too much uncertainty about the 1 Tim 2 text for me to simply "accept" the teaching of our culture in restricting women from full and free ministry in the Church. It'd be different if there were other versa – numerous and clear – to that purpose, but there are not.

So, do I have any problem with women preachers? I have to admit, there's a whole lotta preachers I have trouble with – but they're mostly men!

And do I have a problem with a woman prophesying in the congregation? Well – if Paul finds it acceptable ( see 1 Cor 11.5!), Then my only issue is testing the Word as to whether it's from the Lord or not.

And that has nothing to do with gender. Just Spirit.

Reconnecting With Your Sexual Desire

HOW CAN I GET MY SEXUAL DESIRE BACK?

This is an extremely common question. Just because you have lost interest in sex, this does not mean that you are a sexual failure and no longer worthy of seeing yourself or being seen as a sexual being, although it may feel that way to you. Your desire and sexuality are still a part of you even if you can not / do not want to express them at the moment. Below are some of the reasons people lose their desire and some suggestions as to how to awaken your desire and welcome it back into your life. Needless to say the solutions are far easier to implement and change is more likely to be sustained when working with a coach!

Are you having sex to please your sexual partner? If you find it hard to day NO to someone and find that you have sex only when someone else recommends it, it is not surprising that you have lost touch with your own sexuality. I have worked with a number of clients who rarely experienced desire because they had gotten into a habit of responding to other people's desire rather than acknowledging their own. If you can not say NO, each YES means very little and your desire will diminish.
Solutions: work on identifying your sexual style and preferences, your peak sexual experiences, what makes it hard for you to be the one who initiates sex, dealing with rejection, becoming more assertive, relate your sexual habitancy to other areas of your life, communication Skills.

Do you find that you feel desire for other people but are no longer attracted to your partner? Sometimes I work with people who have totally gone off the idea of ​​sex. Sometimes I work with people who are turned off from sex with their partner while they are nursing and cultivating intense desire for someone else. In this situation, the primary relationship will unduly suffer as your focus will be on your desire being threatened and resentment and anger are reasonably consequences.

Solutions: ask yourself what is it about this new person that so excites you? What will you get with them that you do not have with your current partner? What were things like at the beginning with your current partner? This situation is more about finding creative solutions to make our current relationship more interesting and how to stop taking your partner for granted. A new relationship is not going to solve this type of loss of desire scenario. It certainly suspends it for a while. Try looking at what could be changed and improved in your relationship and take responsibility for making that happen.

Have you been single for so long that you can not remember what desire feels like? I bet you can – if you want to. It is easy to get used to any routine, although dissatisfying and spending a long time as a single person can feel too safe. Dating feathers scary and makes you feel vulnerable.When I am working with single people, I hear the same kinds of problems cropping up. Feeling that you are not sexy if you are not having sex, wondering why you never meet the 'right' sort of person, complaining about there being no good men / women out there, how to merge your single self with the life of another Person. Solutions: Become the person you want to attract, work on making your life as great as it can be without a partner. Confidence and self-esteem building, getting in touch with your passion and purpose, identifying patterns from previous relationships, what was good in the past that you want with a new partner, what are the people / situations that you do not want in your life , Masturbate and become a more sexual person. You need to know that you do not need a partner in order to be the best kind of partner.

How do you feel about the sex that you do have with a partner? Are you getting the sexual stimulation that you need? I have worked with couples who see loss of desire as a problem that belongs to one of them, while the other one is an innocent victim of an inconvenient sexual daught.This premise is swiftly explored and both parties beginning to recognize that sexual issues involve both Partners and that apportioning blame is counterproductive and unhelpful.
Solutions: work on sharing sexual fantasies, communication, exploration (trying new things), sexual games. Perhaps the most important exercise in this situation is enabling both parties to sit down and talk about what most turns them on – do they want more foreplay, different type (less / more rough) of stimulation. Does the sex end too soon? This is not a problem when sex only ends when both are fulfilled (and that may or may not involve orgasm)

How would you describe your relationship? It will not surprise you to know that sex is one of the first things to lose its appeal when a relationship is in difficulties. This is not necessarily a cause and effect situation as many factors contribute to relationship breakdown.
Solutions – look at your environment. What is going on in your life to make it hard to prioritize sex and connection with your partner? Usually it is necessary to make a detailed inventory of contributory factors and then work through each finding ways to make changes. Often childcare, finances, trust, conflict (each needing to be right) and fatigue interfere with contentment. How do you think your partner beats you and what you can do to make this better. Look to yourself: are you seeing yourself as the mistreated victim? This will help no-one so get in touch with your personal inner power. Look at the emotions that you are partner create and explore ways of creating a larger and better emotional connection between you.

How do you feel about yourself? The one person you have control over when trying to make changes is yourself. Often problems develop in relationships when we blame the other person for our own unhappiness.Solutions – Find your passion and purpose. Work on self-esteem, confidence and body image. When was the last time you thought about what success means to you? Where is your life going and how do you feel about that? Do you have direction, purpose and optimism for the future? If you feel small, scared, unsuccessful, unattractive how can you be in touch with sexual joy?

Maybe some of the solutions seem out of reach? This is because you may not know that you already know how to change your life. Coaching will help you to work through your own unique constellation of anxieties, sadness, blame, anger and fears. A coach enables you to find your powerful, calm center where you are at peace with yourself and your sexuality. When you lose desire, I have found that there is more at stake here than sexual boredom. Boredom is something that can be addressed with tips and technique. Loss of desire is something else and a sign that you need to look to yourself, your partner and the rest of your life for answers.

7 Features to Look for in a Perfect Chicken Coop or House

All of us, humans, need homes for proper well-being and livelihood. But hey, that isn’t something that you aren’t acquainted with! In a similar fashion, you simply need to attest that quality chicken coops and hen houses are quintessential for these poultry animals. The coop shall be durable enough to provide a protective habitat to safeguard hens from the predators, and also provide a spacious area to roam around. But those are just two of the features that these coops are supposed to have. When looking for the perfect chicken coop, you shall have a keen eye and keep in mind the features to look for. Here’s a brief (yet comprehensive) lowdown that shall come handy:

1. Robust Yet Functional Construction for Year-Round Protection

The coop should act as a shield against any type of elemental changes in the weather. It acts as a strong buffer that refrains the entry of any animal which could harm the chickens. A sudden weather change or a drastic drop in the temperature can have a negative impact on the hens. It is for this reason that you should look for consistency in the construction of the chicken houses. Excess of heat too, can hamper their health. However contradicting it might be, the necessity for window(s) can’t be overlooked as well, as it shall allow enough sunlight to enter the enclosure.

2. Spacious Ambience

The chickens must be provided with a spacious atmosphere wherein the requisite comfort is served to the hens as well as chickens. It gives them more room to play and they gradually develop. Genuinely, it keeps them fit and fine with health and in the longer run they produce healthy eggs. The spacious environment is the key tool to better growth. Smaller species, for example, can be fit in large numbers within an enclosure, whereas bantamweights need larger enclosures for the same numbers.

3. Fox-Proofing

The fox proof wire is a steel wire strong enough to protect the chicken as well as hens from fox and other predators. The thicker the hardware cloth, the tougher it is to break in. Electric fencing is another thing that can help. Foxes can detect the flow of electric charge through the wires, and are repulsed by them. Other solutions are available in the market as well, which can help you ‘outfox’ these sinister creatures. Oh, and when inside a coop, they can even scamper for every single hen they can get their claws on, rather than just killing the ones they will eventually eat.

4. Sturdy Flooring

Sturdy flooring is as essential to the cage as other aspects. Rats and mice are the biggest threat to the cleanliness and safety of the hens. It is for this reason that you need to have in mind the strength and sturdiness of the floor. The laid eggs are in danger of getting spoilt by the rats, who take shelter below the flooring. You need to take care of proper cleanliness within the enclosure as well since the rodents can start a colony below them rather quickly. Be careful while procuring the chicken houses.

5. Easy Setup and Mobility

The chicken coops come flat-packed many-a-time. And it is for this reason that ease of setup is important to avoid complications. The coops come as a flat-packed commodity and when it comes to design the onus is entirely on you. The setup should be fixed in the manner that there should be enough room for the poultry inside. It should look more spacious so that the chickens develop ideally. Mobility is another aspect that can help in case you need to change the area where the chickens are placed, or get them some sunshine just in case.

6. Roosting Perch, Slide-out Droppings Tray

Hens do need roosting perches as well to bide by their normal behavioural tendencies. The ideal perch width is 5cm for larger fowls and slightly lesser for smaller species. These are essential for the interior of chicken houses. And a slide-out droppings tray, on the other hand, can help you clean the chicken house rather conveniently. Do look for metal linings on the sliding mechanism so that it is durable and lasts.

7. Integrated Chicken Run

Integrated chicken runs can help your hens have room to roam around and thus have a happier sense of being. While most poultry enclosures are devoid of this feature, it’s as essential as other aspects of the coop. If you don’t opt for an integrated chicken run, you can go on and get a standalone chicken run later on, and integrate it with the coop.

While individual mileage might vary, if you do take care of these aspects, you shall definitely not regret your purchase any time soon. The chicken coops play a pivotal role in ensuring a healthy livelihood for the hens. Take note of the points above, and opt for the most suitable hen-house. And by the way, you’re welcome!

The Dog’s Circulatory System

The system that is called the circulatory system of the dog is comprised of the blood, the blood vessels and the heart. The heart of the dog is a four chambered structure that consists of the right and left upper chambers called the atria and the two lower chambers that are called the ventricles. Essentially the heart is a two sided pump, a right side and a left side. They are independently dependent, that is, the upper right chamber or atrium receives the used or deoxygenated blood from the body and them it goes through the right A/V valve or tricuspid valve into the right lower chamber of the heart or the right ventricle and then pumps it to the lungs through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery. Then the left upper chamber or atrium receives the blood from the lungs and then it goes through the left A/V valve called the bicuspid or mitral valve into the lower left chamber of the heart called the left ventricle.

It is then pumped out the aortic valve through the aorta and out to the body. The two sides of the heart are separated by a muscular wall called a septum. The left side of the ventricles is much thicker than the right side due to the fact that the pressure inside the left ventricle is much greater than in the right ventricle and so it has to withstand more pressure and so it is thicker. In a fully developed heart, the blood cannot get from one side of the heart to the other without first going around the circulatory path that all the blood has to follow. The four valves that we have mentioned are in place to keep the blood flowing in only one direction. When the heart or the valves are diseased, blood can leak through the valves and flow backwards, creating more compromise in heart and circulatory function.

We have talked about the heart being a right sided pump and a left sided pump and that they are independently dependent. This means that the one side acts independently of the other, but its function is totally dependent on the function of the other side. For example, if one of the valves of the arteries, like the aortic valve, is leaking and does not seal the opening properly, then blood can flow back into the ventricle and create a flow problem for all the blood that is coming from the lungs or from the body. Over time there are two things that the heart itself tries to do to make up for the inefficient action of the leaking valves. First the heart tries to increase its rate of action in an attempt to increase the volume of blood that is being pumped. Then it tries to increase its stroke volume by filling the chambers more and so it dilates in an effort to increase its volume pumped with each stroke or contraction. These two mechanisms fail in a short time and then the heart ends up failing and the dog develops congestive heart failure or CHF.CHF results in fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity or in the chest, depending on which side of the circulation is affected by the left or the right side of the heart that is failing.

Companies Smart to Embrace Diversity – Affects Bottom Line, Experts Say

Johanna and her academic advisor are talking about Johanna’s future. As the end of fall term approaches, the senior transgender accounting student, born as “John,” is starting to look for a good internship with a company that embraces diversity.

“How can I really learn what a company really does, versus what a company says they do, with respect to diversity,” she asks her advisor.”Especially, when reality is that diversity hasn’t really happened in most companies, and progress remains slow?”

Johanna’s advisor understands her student’s apprehension, and adds her own perception, that by not developing a diverse workforce from the top down African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Asian Americans are too often relegated to lower-skilled, lower-pay positions and are not able to fulfill their true potential. A poor economy has made this situation worse, she adds.

“But some businesses are finally recognizing that diversity contributes to the bottom line in so many ways. They are finally understanding how diversity actually makes it easier to retain good employees or lower costs by developing skills in-house, and developing a reputation that helps attract new employees.

“This is especially important as the economy starts to recover and the demand for skilled labor slowly starts to increase,” the advisor states.

As a sexual minority group member, Johanna knows that to advance her career, working for a corporation that values workplace gender diversity is critical.

“Working for someone that really understands and adopts diversity means I will have more opportunities; it’s a good indication of whether my employer will value my contributions, encourage my promotion, and provide training that will help me take on more responsibility, and pay me accordingly,” she says.

The accounting student and her advisor decide to make a diversity checklist that Johanna and perhaps other students can use when talking to recruiters. Here are some key indicators they believe will help determine if a company is really committed to managing and valuing diversity:

*Diversity at the Officer, Board of Director, and Senior management levels

*Diversity among the highest salaried employees in the company

*Diversity among the company’s workforce as a whole

*Recruiting for new hires in diversity-related publications

*Recruiting at cultural or professional events

*Membership in professional organizations that represent diversity and multiculturalism

*Charitable contributions to diversity-related organizations

“This is a good start,” Johanna enthuses over the checklist. “And believe me, when I go looking for work, I won’t leave home without it!”

While the list gives Johanna a sound framework for her job hunt, others may feel the list would be strengthened if it more clearly defined significant differences among people.

While many who are concerned with diversity, such as Johanna and her advisor, concentrate on such differences as ethnicity (a term that defines a group of people whose members identify with each other through a common heritage such as a common language), culture, gender, and sexual orientation, diversity issues in the workplace also embrace an even wider range — from race, age and physical abilities, nation of origin or class, to religion, learning and communication styles, place of origin or where people “come from,” and even education and occupation.

All are aspects of diversity.

With such broad definitions, a group of white male systems analysis can still represent a diverse group; we are all individuals with differences. When managers truly understand diversity they can get the most out of any group, by appreciating and using their differences.

Diversity has its best potential, and its biggest challenge, however, in recognizing and using deeper differences, says one well known social scientist.

In today’s workforce, the deep difference can mean substantial benefits for organization, as diversity brings differences in styles and in ways of looking at and doing things which can help organizations move beyond the status quo. When organizations know how to manage and value employees like Johanna, and others with unique differences, they “..better meet the needs of customers and clients, and do more for the community [they] are part of and serve,” states diversity expert, William Sonnenschein in his functional work on the topic,The Diversity Toolkit (1997).

Diversity means differences, and differences create challenges, but differences also open avenues of opportunities, according to Sonnenschein. Diversity enables a wide range of views to be present in an organization, including views that might challenge the status quo from all sides.

“It focuses and strengthens an organization’s core values, and is instrumental in organizational change. Diversity has the ability to stimulate social, economic, intellectual, and emotional growth,” Sonnenschein tells us, and it “helps an organization understand its place in the global community.”

Numerous social scientists have documented diversity’s benefits, besides Sonnenschein, who notes that “IBM, as one example, believes the diversity of its workforce means understanding and appealing to its customer base. As the company has downsized, it has assigned a special workforce diversity staff to assure that its workplace diversity remains intact.”

While today’s workplace is not nearly as diverse as it could and should be, Johanna and others would do well to make their diversity checklists and follow them as closely as possible when choosing a future employer.

By doing so, they are sending a clear message to future companies and their managers to work harder than ever in creating positive, inclusive workplace environments and thus improving productivity in their businesses and organizations.

Embracing diversity in the workplace is the right thing to do – and it is definitely good business, Johanna, her advisor and a host of others would agree.