What Do We Do on Earth?

What is the purpose of our life? Many of us think that the purpose of life is to accumulate wealth, because money can fetch you everything including happiness. Wealth is an important determinant of people’s satisfaction with their lives, but it is far less important than most people think. Happiness depends on other factors more than it depends on wealth. Some people think that the purpose is to live an intelligent life. Others think that it is to live a happy life. Yet, others believe that a combination of wealth, happiness, and intelligent life, in some proportion, is the purpose of life. Once people believed that the Earth was the centre of the universe. That intelligence was an illusion. Our intelligence is a random chance of variations and mutations occurred due to several factors such as geographical isolation, use and disuse, climatic conditions, etc. Natural selection does not work towards creating intelligent life. Our ancestor may be a microbe. It could be an amoeba. Some of our body cells behave like an amoeba. Some kinds of white blood cells kill bacteria by surrounding and digesting them. The white blood cells do not wait for our command but they automatically work for our happiness. Whether our human body is a network of many micro organisms? Do microbes rule this planet? People who want to live a happy life are not always happy. Our mind is not completely freed from worries. Happiness is a state of mind. It is difficult to equate happiness of one person with another. But it is one thing that everybody strives for. If we look at the history of human beings who developed from human like creatures, we will be able to get an idea of the purpose for which they lived.

In the beginning, people didn’t have even the faintest idea of wealth. When they got excess food they didn’t know how to preserve it. When they didn’t get any food they simply starved. Scientists who study prehistoric human beings believe that they developed from humanlike creatures that first lived more than 4 million years ago. The first human beings probably lived about 2 million years ago.These early people looked more and more like modern people. By about 130,000 B.C., some prehistoric people looked much like people of today. Because early people kept no written records, scientists search for bones, tools, and other prehistoric remains. Most of the tools that have been found and studied are made of stone. As a result, the entire period during which early people lived has been called the Stone Age. People lived entirely by hunting and by gathering wild plants for almost all of the Stone Age’s 2 million years. The period from the time the first human beings appeared until about 8000 B.C., when the farming way of life began, is called the Old Stone Age or Palaeolithic Period. Prehistoric hunters lived in groups of 25 to 50 people and moved from place to place in search of food. At first, early people hunted mostly small animals, including birds and small reptiles. About 1.5 million years ago, some hunters developed the methods and weapons needed to kill or capture larger game. Prehistoric people’s first stone tools, called pebble tools, were small stones with sharpened edge on one side. They may have been the only stone tools until about 1.5 million years age. Then people in the eastern part of Asia and eastern part of Europe began to make two kinds of tools called chopping tools and choppers. At the same time, people in western part of Europe, most of Africa, and parts of western Asia began to make hand axes. Prehistoric people probably cooked some food. Before they knew how to make fire, they took burning wood from fires that had started naturally. People learned how to make fire about 1.5 million years ago.

About 200,000 years ago, most groups of people began making special tools for such different tasks as cutting, chopping, and scraping. Later in the Palaeolithic Period, after about 40,000 B.C., many people shaped long, thin blades of stone. They used these blades as tools, and they also made blades into knives and spear points. Throughout most of the Palaeolithic Period, few stone tools were used as weapons. People hunted and defended themselves chiefly with rocks, wooden clubs, and sharp-pointed bones and wooden spears. By about 18,000 B.C., people invented the bow and arrow and the spear thrower, a kind of launching track that helped a hunter throw a spear with increased range, force, and accuracy.

At some point of time they learned the efficiency of division of labour. Stone Age hunting groups performed a variety of jobs, from tool-making to butchering an animal. We do not know exactly when the first economy set in motion. Scientists estimate that only a few thousand people lived in all of Africa, and a similar number in Asia, during early prehistoric times. Although a group moved from place to place, it probably stayed within familiar territory and seldom met another group. Probably the occasional contact with a friendly neighbour could have been the starting point. Either they gave the surplus food to their neighbour free or in exchange of something like tools or different kind of food. Thus a rudimentary form of barter economy started. The tool maker didn’t need to go for hunting because tool making required a lot of time, skill, and energy. The specialised skill of tool making gave the tool maker happiness. The tool maker could avoid the risk faced by the hunters. The tools made the hunters efficient and efficiency produced surplus food. On the one hand the tool making skill made the people efficient and on the other hand the application of the skill created new products. Tool making, therefore, definitely helped the barter economy to set in motion. In time, they learned many things such as domestication of animals, agriculture, settled life, and the use of metals such as bronze, iron, gold, silver, copper, tin, etc.

Early farmers used several tools invented between 15,000 B.C. and 9000 B.C., during the period of the first domestication. These tools included sickles to cut grain, grinding stones to grind grain into flour, and axe like implements called celts. By about 11,000 B.C., people had invented how to make pottery. The earthen pots were used to cook food as well as to store food grains. The first farmers were people who depended chiefly on farming for food even though they hunted, and gathered wild plants. Scientists believe the first farmers lived in what are now Israel and Jordan about 8000 B.C. and in south-western Iran a few hundred years later. By 6000 B.C., agriculture had spread from the Middle East to the Greek Peninsula. Bronze Age was the period when people used bronze for tools and weapons. It followed the Stone Age, when stone was the chief material. When iron tools became widespread, the Bronze Age ended and the Iron Age began. The earliest known use of bronze occurred in Sumer, in Mesopotamia (now south western Iraq), about 3500 B.C. The Chinese had begun to use bronze by 2000 B.C. People continued to use bronze until sometime between 1500 and 1000 B.C. Then iron, which first appeared in Asia Minor, became common.

Now people had many products to exchange in the market of barter economy. But they had a big problem. In the barter economy, people found difficulty in fixing the value of the goods to be exchanged. The tool maker probably produced tools made of metals which can be exchanged for different goods. Many historians believe that the Chinese at first used knives, spades, and other metal tools as medium of exchange. Around 1100 B.C., they began to use miniature bronze tools instead of real tools. In time, the little tools developed into coins. The first minted coins may have been made during the 600’s B.C., in Lydia, a country in the western part of Turkey. They were bean shaped and made of gold and silver. These coins had a stamped design which carried a uniform value guaranteed by the King of Lydia. The development of paper money began in China, probably during the A.D. 600’s.

The invention of minted coins and paper money helped people to store their surplus production in a convenient form. The storing of surplus production helped the people to sail through the bad times smoothly. So it seems that wealth is good as long as bad times are anticipated. Wealth provides you security and happiness in life. But how much is wealth good? The more you are wealthy the more you are secured and happy. What if everybody produces surplus goods? For example, in our hunter-tool maker society, if the hunters had brought excess food but not wanted fresh tools then the tool maker would have been at the mercy of the hunters for food. This situation would have created a perpetual problem to the tool maker unless the tool maker had not parted with the ownership of the tools. The tool maker must have merely lent the tools in order to legitimately claim the share of food. Whether this thought of lending had occurred to the tool maker or not, that must have been the practical solution. This hunters’ dependency on tools on each occasion they went for hunting would have solved the tool maker’s perpetual problem. Everybody would be happy. As long as the tools were in good condition the tool maker would get food and there was no need to produce surplus tools. That is, if there had been no other needs other than food, the tool maker would not have produced surplus tools. But things were not like that. The friendly neighbours also wanted the tool. Assured of daily food, the tool maker had no incentive to produce tools for the neighbours. This might have made the neighbours to find something to motivate the tool maker to oblige. The neighbours might have offered the tool maker something they considered valuable. The tool maker accepted the offer and the friendly neighbours got the tool they wanted. Now the tool maker was happier and so the friendly neighbours. So the surplus production was good, provided it could be exchanged for some other needs. Thus, in due course, humans invented new needs. As more needs were invented, people created surplus production.

As the population and the needs of the people increased, a propensity to produce surplus modified the behaviour of the people. Some people still continued to go for hunting, some practised agriculture, and some produced tools and other utilities for trade. These three groups exchanged their goods. That implies that each group produced goods for their own use and for others. All the goods that are produced for the use of others can’t be considered as surplus because some of these goods are exchanged for their own needs. The goods that are left after the fulfilment of all needs can be considered as surplus. The food grain cultivator could store the product for longer time than the hunter could. Therefore, the food grain cultivator had an advantage over the hunter; and the tool maker had an advantage over the other two. This situation could have created some kind of primitive bargaining power. In due course, the issue must have been settled. When the hunters got a good field day they might have conceived the idea of storing the excess in the form of food grains. The tool maker by merely lending the tools was assured of food and other needs. Some kind of equilibrium could be seen in their economy. The things which could be stored for longer time and could be exchanged for other goods were valued much. Naturally, the tools were considered most valuable. The tool maker now produced tools of different sizes according to the value of goods exchanged. Thus the Chinese used the tools made of metals as a medium of exchange. Now everybody could produce surplus and store it in the form of metal tools which would be exchanged for anything they required in the future. Surplus production is nothing but the excess of energy produced over the energy consumed; the excess energy is converted into a medium of exchange. As more and more people demanded, the tool maker continued to produce the tools provided the raw materials to make the tools were available. So everybody could produce surplus. When everybody produced surplus goods, the tool maker encountered with new problems. The tool maker could not produce enough tools to meet the demand of the people. Secondly, all the surplus goods reached the tool maker which the tool maker didn’t require. Either the tool maker restricted the economy or more people were employed to make tools. The tool maker distributed part of the goods to the employees and probably exported the remaining goods to the friendly neighbours in exchange for raw materials for the tools and other valuable goods. Internal and external trade was brisk; people were happy. So wealth was created and stored.

So far we have seen only the rosy picture of the history of ancient people. Imagine that the tool maker refused to give the tool to the friendly neighbours or a hostile group wanted to acquire the specialised tools made by the tool maker, and the neighbours opted to wage a war against the tool maker and the people. Many of them, on both sides, must have been killed. The mightier side would have won the battle; the other people might have been subjected or driven to distant place. The aftermath of the battle would give different paths for the history of humans to take its course. Though such an event was undesirable, it was not improbable. Why was one group of people hostile towards the other group?

For hundreds of thousands of years, prehistoric people lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants. Even small groups of people had to roam over large areas of land to find enough food. The discovery of agriculture gradually ended the nomadic way of life for many people. After they learned to raise crops and domesticate animals, they no longer had to wander about in search of food. They could thus begin to settle in villages. By about 3500 B.C., civilization began. It stated first in Southwest Asia. Three other early civilizations developed in Africa and in south and east of Asia. All these civilizations arose in river valleys, where fertile soil and a readily available water supply made agriculture easier than elsewhere. The valleys were (1) the Tigris-Euphrates Valley in the Middle East, (2) the Nile Valley in Egypt, (3) the Indus Valley in Pakistan, and (4) the Huang He Valley in northern China. While civilization was developing in the four valleys, people in most other parts of the world were still following their old ways of life.

By the 5000 B.C., many people had settled in villages in the lower part of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, an area later called Sumer. By about 3500 B.C., some farm villages had grown into small cities, which marked the beginning of the world’s first civilization. They invented the first form of writing; it consisted of picture like symbols scratched in to clay. The symbols were later simplified to produce cuneiform. The Sumerians used baked bricks to build great palaces and towering temples called ziggurats in their cities. The Sumerians invented the potter’s wheel. Their system of counting in units of 60 is the basis of the 360-degree circle and the 60-minute hour. The Sumerian city-states had no central government or unified army and continually struggled among themselves for power. As time passed, they were increasingly threatened by neighbouring Semitic peoples, who were attracted by the growing wealth of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. During the 2300’s B.C., a Semitic king, Sargon of Akkad, conquered Sumer. Their rule lasted more than 60 years. Then invaders from the northeast overran the empire. These invaders soon left Mesopotamia, and Sumer was once again divided into separate city-states. By about 2000 B.C., the Sumerians had completely lost all political power to invading Semites. Mesopotamia then broke up into a number of small kingdoms under various Semitic rulers. The city of Babylon became the centre of one kingdom. The greatest Babylonian king was Hammurabi, who ruled from about 1792 to 1750 B.C. In Syria in the 2000 B.C., a powerful Semitic kingdom called Ebla grew up in northern Syria. Its economy was based upon the making of metal products and textiles and it traded with many states. Other states paid tribute (taxes) to Ebla.

The civilization of ancient Egypt began to develop in the valley of the Nile River about 3100 B.C. Agriculture flourished in the valley, where the flood waters of the Nile deposited rich soil year after year. During 3000’s B.C., Egypt consisted of two large kingdoms. Lower Egypt covered the Nile Delta. Upper Egypt lay south of the delta on the two banks of the river. About 3100 B.C., according to legend, King Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united the two kingdoms. Menes also founded the first Egyptian dynasty. They invented their own form of writing – an elaborate system of symbols known as hieroglyphics. They also invented papyrus, a paper- like material made from the stems of reeds. The Egyptians built great tombs and mummified corpses to preserve them. The most famous Egyptian tombs are gigantic pyramids in which the kings were buried. Over the years, huge armies of conquering Egyptians expanded the kingdom’s boundaries far beyond the Nile Valley. At its height in the 1400’s B.C., Egypt ruled Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and part of the Sudan. As a powerful state at the junction of Asia and Africa, Egypt played an important role in the growth of long distance trade. Although the ancient Egyptians had contacts with other cultures, their way of life changed little over thousands of years. Their civilization gradually declined, and the Egyptians found it harder and harder to resist invaders who had greater vigour and better weapons. Egyptian records from the 1200’s and 1100’s B.C. describe constant attacks by ‘sea peoples’. These peoples may have come from islands in the Aegean Sea or from lands along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. After 1000 B.C., power struggles between rival Egyptian dynasties further weakened the kingdom.

Historians have only partly translated the writings left behind by the ancient civilization that arose in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries. The ruins of two large cities -Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa – tell much about the Indus Valley civilization. The remains of hundreds of small settlements have also been discovered in the valley. Some of these settlements were farming villages, and others were sea-ports and trading posts. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa probably had more than 35,000 inhabitants each by about 2500 B.C. They had a well-developed system of agriculture that provided food for the large population. They dug ditches and canals to irrigate their farms. The Indus cities had brick buildings and well-planned streets laid out in rectangular patterns. Elaborate brick-lined drainage systems provided sanitation for the towns. Archaeologists have discovered that standardized sizes of bricks and uniform weights and measures were used throughout the Indus Valley. The Indus settlements traded with one another and with foreign cultures. Traces of seals used on goods from the Indus Valley have been found as far away as Mesopotamia. The Indus people probably also traded with people of central Asia, southern India, and Persia. Between 2000 and 1750 B.C., the Indus Valley civilization began to decay. Scholars do not know why this process of decay took place. By about 1700 B.C., the Indus Valley civilization had disappeared.

The earliest written records of Chinese history date from the Shang dynasty, which arose in the valley of the Huang He during the 1700’s B.C. The records consist largely of writings scratched on animal bones and turtle shells. The bones and shells are known as oracle bones. Shang people had more than 3,000 characters. Some characters on the oracle bones resemble modern Chinese characters. Little remains of the cities of the Shang period. Most of the buildings were made of mud or wood and have long since crumbled away. The people of the Shang period cast beautiful bronze vessels. They also carved marble and jade and wove silk. The Shang people were governed by a king and a hereditary class of aristocrats. The Shang leaders organized armies of as many as 5,000 men and equipped them with bronze weapons and horse-drawn war chariots. They used their armies to control the other peoples of the Huang He Valley. They ruled much of the valley for about 600 years.

From about 1200 B.C. to A.D. 500, Mesopotamia and Egypt were increasingly affected by the gradual growth of a new civilization on the islands and shores of the Aegean Sea. The most magnificent civilization of ancient times-that of the Greeks-eventually developed in the Aegean region. For a time, the Greeks dominated much of the ancient world. Later, the lands of the Greeks, as well as Mesopotamia and Egypt, became part of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire covered much of Europe and the Middle East, and the north coast of Africa. The Han dynasty of China ruled a large empire from 202 B.C. to A.D. 220. The Gupta dynasty of India ruled a large empire from A.D. 320 to 500.

The invention of agriculture by the prehistoric people during 15,000 B.C. to 9000 B.C. was a boon as well as a bane. Once they learned crop rising, they had plenty of food. During the same period they also mastered domestication of animals. Now people depended less on hunting. Without hunting, they could survive on agricultural products and domesticated animals. The tool maker now required to work on agricultural equipments and produced less of hunting weapons. Gradually, they settled their life near a river where water for irrigation was available throughout the year. Elsewhere, people continued to live the nomadic way. Their tool maker continued to make great weapons for hunting. As they moved from place to place, they would have met the people settled in villages. The village people had led a prosperous life with plenty of food and domesticated animals. The nomadic people saw what they wanted, the animals. One fine day, the nomadic people attacked the villagers. It was easier for them to conquer the villagers who didn’t have enough weapons to counter-attack the enemy. The villagers’ peaceful settled life became a curse. This could have really happened in the prehistoric period. Even the people of ancient civilizations were constantly threatened by the marauding people living in the periphery. One of the causes for the decline of ancient civilizations was the continued attack of these marauding people. These people changed the course of history of humans.

Prehistoric people lived in a world quite different from present day. They first appeared about 2 million years ago, at a time when the earth has grown cold. Glaciers were gradually covering parts of the northern continents, and ice blanketed all of Antarctica. Only Africa, south-eastern Asia, and most of Central and South America remained warm. The first human beings appeared in Africa during this period. The climate had become so cold in Canada and Scandinavia that more and more snow fell in winter than could melt in summer. The ice sheets grew and spread southward during periods called glacial. Each of these periods probably lasted about 100,000 years. Near the end of each glacial, the earth became warmer, and the southern parts of the ice sheets melted. These warmer periods, called interglacial, probably lasted only about 10,000 years. In the glacial and interglacial periods, early people settled almost all of Africa, southern Asia, and southern Europe, and also part of Australia. Every time the ice sheets grew, they turned large amounts of ocean water into ice. As a result, the level of sea fell. This lowering of the sea level uncovered new land for settlement. It also created land bridges that connected regions ordinarily separated by water. One of these land bridges linked Siberia with Alaska. Others connected the European mainland with Great Britain, and the Malay Peninsula with the Indonesian islands. Prehistoric people travelled over these bridges to settle new lands. The ice sheets melted during the interglacial period raised the sea level again and covered the land bridges. This must have separated the prehistoric people into different groups for hundreds of years. Each group must have developed different life styles according to the conditions of life on different geographical regions. Over a period of time, each group had forgotten the link with the other groups. Later, when they encountered the other group, they were treated as aliens. Hostile feeling developed because of geographical isolation which separated one group from another. If Ice age theory is correct then nature might have created this feeling. This feeling must have driven the marauding people to attack other people to secure their food. Nature has given us many good things as well as some bad things.

The primary concern of any organism is food. Protozoan is one-celled organism that may have plant-like or animal-like characteristics. Many scientists group protozoa as neither animals nor plants. The amoeba is one of the simplest protozoa. It is a tiny one-celled organism that can only be seen under a microscope. Some amoeba lives in water and moist soil. Others live in the bodies of animals and human beings. The cell is a shapeless mass of protoplasm, the living, jelly-like material found in the cells of all living things. A thin, elastic membrane surrounds the protoplasm and holds together. Water and gases pass in and out of the amoeba through the membrane. The single cell that makes up its body carries on all the necessary life processes by itself. The cell eats, breathes, and responds to its surroundings. To move about, an amoeba must change its body shape. The protoplasm pushes out the elastic membrane to form a finger-like pseudo pod (false foot), and all of the protoplasm seems to flow into it. For every ‘step’, another pseudo pod must form. Cells that move in this way are called amoeboid cells. The white blood cells of human beings are amoeboid cells. Amoebas eat tiny living organisms and particles of dead and decaying matter. They engulf their food by slowly wrapping pseudo pods around a food particle. They reproduce by fission (splitting apart) when they reach a certain size. Many protozoa are serious enemies of human beings and animals. Malaria and African sleeping sickness are among the diseases they cause. Who did program the actions of the amoeba? The single celled organism has got some intelligence to find its food. The single cell carries out all necessary life processes by itself. It has survived the severe climatic conditions of the planet for millions of years. There are certain life-forms (extremophiles) capable of surviving in extreme conditions (very cold or hot, very acidic or/and radioactive, no oxygen, etc.). The extremophiles learned to survive the severest conditions on earth just in order to get food. Why do they struggle to eat and survive? Do they have any purpose of their struggle for existence? Is life worth for such struggles? But life continues on earth and it will continue for some 6 billion years more. We are not at the peak of evolution. After a million years, we may not look like what we are today; we may not even exist on this planet. Some other species may be dominating the earth.

Who are we? What do we do on earth? Because we want more living space, we encroach upon the habitat of the plants and animals without knowing the consequences. By the time we understand the consequences, it will be too late to reverse it. We are actually becoming weaker and weaker. We are weaker than the microbes. We can’t survive the severe climatic conditions on earth. Our babies depend on parents for several years. In certain Asian countries, the children depend upon their parents even after marriage. Most of the animals can just get up and walk on birth, which our babies can’t. To hide our weakness we invent machines to support us. One day the machines will rule the planet; it is not improbable, considering the way we are empowering the machines. In the evolutionary process, a mutation can decide which species would dominate the planet. In the scientific process, a human error may destroy the whole universe. Such human errors are more harmful than the bad things occasionally unleashed by nature. We continue to have the mind of the people who attacked and brought down the history’s finest civilizations. At the slightest provocation we unleash weapons of mass destruction. We focus too much on accumulating wealth that we conveniently forget the living conditions of the poor. There is no limit for our greed; we engineer new financial instruments in the false impression that they would create wealth forever. Our enthusiasm to get quick money is too much that we forget the fundamentals. Once we accumulate wealth we waste a lot of resources in the name of consumption. A few of us consume the major chunk of the natural resources and leave a wee bit to the majority of the population. We have learnt very less from the lessons of the past.

I think we should have a deeper knowledge of life and this knowledge should enable us to lead a better life on this planet. It seems the purpose of life is life itself.

What Qualifies As Retrogaming?

Whether or not a game or system qualifies as retrogaming is a tough thing to quantify and something that different people will often think very differently about. The ‘retro’ in the word ‘retrogaming’ is in itself a bit of a little bit misleading. Retro, by definition, is a style that intentionally evokes memories of an older style that has since gone out of fashion. So movies from the ’30s aren’t retro, but The Artist, a recent movie made in the style of an old silent movie, is retro. If we apply the same logic to video games then something like Mega Man isn’t retro, but a game like Shovel Knight is because it pays homage to the NES games of old. Gamers have appropriated the word ‘retro’ into the new word ‘retrogaming’, but unlike the traditional definition, ‘retrogaming’ refers to playing old games rather than games that play like old games.

The origins of the word ‘retrogaming’ are, as we’ve established, pretty murky to begin with, but the definition isn’t any clearer. With the speed at which technology develops, games released at the start of a console generation look noticeably worse than those released at the end of the generation. And that’s just the lifetime of a single console. Games visibly age quite quickly, but in terms of the actual number of years since release they might not be so old. It also doesn’t help that the contemporary indie development scene has a fascination with making games that look and play deliberately like games of yesteryear. It’s all so confusing. At what point does a game qualify as old enough to be considered retrogaming?

Well, depending on who you talk to you’ll likely get a different answer. Someone like me who has been playing video games for over twenty years and started my gaming life with a Commodore 64 is going to have an entirely different perspective on whether a game is old or not to a kid whose first console is the PlayStation 4. But that doesn’t necessarily make either of us right, it’s just a matter of perception. I might look at a game like Prince Clumsy for the Commodore 64 as a fairly primitive side-scrolling platformer, but to my father who grew up with Pong the game was like nothing he’d ever seen.

The PS2 isn’t a system that instantly springs to mind when I think of retrogaming; I think sprites, MIDI music, and two dimensions. But that’s the eyes of a thirty two year old gamer looking at this, and not a ten year old. The likes of Devil May Cry, Ico and Twisted Metal: Black are games I remember picking up and being blown away by, but for a child used only to PS4 the games might look positively archaic.

Since we all, depending on our age and experiences, have different ideas about how old something has to be to be old, there has to be some sort of objective rule. For my money, once a system has been discontinued by the manufacturer then we can safely call it old enough for playing it to be considered retrogaming. By that definition, the most recent console to fall under the umbrella of retrogaming would be the PlayStation 2, and while some of you might balk and scoff at that consider this; the PlayStation 2 was released sixteen years ago. Every few years another new console joins the ranks of retrogaming, and while they might not adhere to what our personal ideas of retrogaming are they still fit the criteria.

Age is just the beginning, though. All we’ve determined is what length of time needs to pass for us to safely refer to something as retrogaming. If we accept that retrogaming is playing video games or consoles that have since been discontinued, then how one goes about playing these discontinued games is the next step in understanding exactly what retrogaming is.

The first and easiest way that we can play old games is to pick up a remaster or a port. These are becoming more and more common in recent years, with the PS4 in particular receiving port after port of popular (and not so) PS3 games since there’s no true backwards compatibility available for the system. But the PS4 has also seen some older games see release, too. Final Fantasy VII and X have both been ported to the latest PlayStation console, and going even further back than that, Grim Fandango has been re-released with some graphical and control overhauls.

As technology evolves there are also more options available to players who only have the current generation of consoles. With a service like PlayStation Now, people don’t even need to buy the old games that they want to play, with Sony offering a Netflix-like subscription program to gain access to a glut of older titles. It’s backwards compatibility, near-retrogaming for a monthly fee. If you’ve got the money and a stable Internet connection then this might be a preferable alternative to dusting off your old consoles and fighting to get them to work with your high-end television.

Another way that we can play older games via improving technology is through emulation. This falls into two categories; first, there’s the emulation we see on the likes of the PlayStation Store or Nintendo’s Virtual Console. Here games are emulated by making your modern console act like an old one. Recently the PS4 introduced PS2 games to the PlayStation Store and they’re run through emulation, just like Nintendo do on the Wii U.

Of course, there’s also illegal emulation. Often there’s no way to play an old game at all without illegal emulation. Grim Fandango has recently been re-released on PS4, but before that happened there was actually no way to play the game legally unless you just happened to have a very old PC and a copy of the game. While it’s technically illegal and basically piracy, there should be a better system in place to make sure that legacy games and platforms are preserved for future generations. A game like Grim Fandangoshouldn’t run the risk of being lost to time, and so while illegal emulation isn’t necessarily something I’d condone outright, in certain circumstances it can be understandable or even necessary.

The last way that we can play old games is the old fashioned way. That means picking up the console it was released on and a copy of the game itself and playing the thing as God intended. No downloading, no emulating, no tips or tricks or cheats. Just you and an old console and a dusty old cartridge and a wired controller. And there’s something incredibly satisfying about that.

Playing an old game on a new system feels inherently different to playing it at the time, and playing it howyou played it at the time. I still remember playing Final Fantasy VI when I was a young boy, and working my way through one of the finest JRPGs of all time on my trusty SNES. I’m playing the game again currently on my PlayStation Vita and the game is every bit as good as it ever was. The new technology powering the handheld means the game runs smoothly, it controls well, and it looks as charming as it ever did. But playing it now on a handheld just feels different to playing it as it was released on a control pad tethered to a Super Nintendo Entertainment System.

There are many reasons to play an old game. It could be that you want to experience historically important moments in the evolution of the medium, or perhaps a shorter, arcade title fits your schedule better than the latest, huge, blockbuster game. But maybe you just prefer playing old games. Nostalgia can be a powerful agent, and if it’s nostalgia that you’re after then there are few better ways of recapturing a moment in gaming than by playing it on the original hardware.

I’ve been interested in retrogaming for a long time, and it’s not for historical or academic reasons, and it’s not anything to do with how much free time I have. I enjoy retrogaming because playing an old game, like watching an old movie, or listening to an old song, conjures up memories within me of a time long ago. If I watch Back to the Future I remember renting the video tape from a local store and watching it on a Sunday afternoon with my parents. When I hear Time Warp it reminds me not of Rocky Horror, but of old school discos where the song was regularly played.

Similarly, when I hear the opening chords of the Final Fantasy VI theme I don’t think about playing it on my PlayStation Vita, but of being in the spare room at my friend’s house where we’d spend an entire day taking turns on the controller trying to reach the end of the story. Playing the game on a SNES feels entirely different to playing it on the Vita because of the memories that come flooding back while holding the controller. There’s something about holding the old controller, blowing on the cartridge to get rid of the dust, and firing up a system from a time long since passed. It’s not about experiencing history, but about remembering a time when these things weren’t history.

Retrogaming can be considered to be anything up to and including the PS2 generation, and those games can be played through emulation or by picking up a port or a remaster. But to me, retrogaming means playing the old games the way we played them back then. Playing a Commodore 64 game on PC through emulation is all well and good, but actually sitting and waiting while the tape loads is an entirely different beast. Having NES classics on your Wii U Virtual Console is a great way to quickly experience Mega Man orThe Legend of Zelda again, but there’s something altogether more satisfying about popping the cartridge in the slot and sitting cross legged in front of the TV because the controller cable isn’t long enough to reach the couch.

If you’re a gamer, chances are you probably have a different interpretation of what retrogaming is to the next gamer in line. The kid who thinks Crash Bandicoot is ancient. The thirty-something that grew up with games that came on tapes. The grandfather that played Pong in arcades. We all have different ideas about what qualifies as an old game. But what retrogaming is to me, what it essentially is, is recapturing the past and reliving fond memories from years gone by. That’s why there’s still a Super Nintendo Entertainment System in my house and why a few times a year I’ll take it out of the cupboard under the stairs and it’ll spend a weekend under the television. My friends will come round and we’ll play Street Fighter II together like we did over twenty years ago. And there’s something incredibly special about that.

What do you think qualifies as retrogaming? Do you like to pick up classics to play on PC through emulation? How about waiting for them to get a port to the current generation console you already own? Or maybe you’re like me and you think there’s no better way to experience a game than as it was experienced upon release? Whether it’s through piracy, for academic reasons, or to relive memories, retrogaming is something that gamers of all ages can enjoy.

How to Get Rid of Man Boobs: The Complete Guide

Getting rid if man boobs is all about having the right information and a well thought out plan to follow through on. First thing to remember is that you cant spot reduce fat. I’ll say it again, you cannot focus on one area of your body, work it out intensely and reduce fat in just that spot. What this means is that doing hundreds of push ups and bench presses then sitting on the sofa and hoping the moobs disappear is not a valid option. That’s not how the body works, fat dissolves pretty evenly from throughout the body at the same rate and those dense deposits like love handles and moobs are the last to go. In other words, you’re going to have to work pretty hard to get rid of man breasts. But the good new is that getting rid of man boobs is far from complicated, in fact, it’s actually a simple and straight forward process that can be easily incorporated into your day with a little commitment and a lot of effort. You just have to familiarize yourself with the main causes of man breasts and focus on each one regularly.

Primary Causes of Man Boobs:

Too Little Muscle

Too Much Body Fat

Hormone Imbalance (Too Much Estrogen & Cortisol, not enough Testosterone)

Its been my experience working with guys, helping them lose their moobs that its rarely just one factor alone. More often than not its a combination of all three, so that’s why any plan of action will have to address all of them. Since man breasts are caused by a number of factors, we’re going to need to implement a number of tactics.

To develop muscle, you’re going to need a weight training program. To loose fat you’re going to need to create a calorie deficit. You do this by having a rock solid diet program that you can stick with along with regular cardio to make sure you’re burning more calories than you’re taking in. And to regulate your hormones you’re going to have to make a few changes to your day to day routine. I know this sounds like a lot, but its actually pretty simple: you can probably come up with your own diet and workout program with a little research of your own, just remember that for it to work you have to focus on all three key areas:

Too little Muscle:

There’s no way to avoid this. You have to hit the gym and make enough of an effort to at least maintain your existing muscle, but ideally you want to add a bit more. You may ask “Why can’t I just diet my moobs away?”. Because the human body tends to retain fat not muscle when it experiences a calorie deficit. Muscle is nutritious and filled with energy, if its just sitting there not being used then your body may use that and hoard the fat for a rainy day. Imagine how much that would suck; your muscle mass just widdling away and your boobs staying put, standing out even more because now your body fat percentage would be even higher relative to muscle. By lifting weights we avoid this. Strengthening your muscles through exercise forces your body to seek alternative fuel, i.e. Fat.

Any strength training regiment that you do has to work to work the entire body, not just the chest. I can’t tell you how many articles and videos I’ve seen from so-called experts that suggest a handful of chest exercises and that’s it. Getting rid of man boobs is about increasing your overall muscle mass to help you burn more calories and ensure that your body turns to its fat stores for food and not to its muscle.

Too Much Fat:

Now that we understand the importance of resistance training for losing man boobs, next we focus our attention on creating a calorie deficit. It wont help you at all if you workout 2 hours a day but are still eating several hundred calories more than yor body needs. You might get stronger, but you’ll still be sporting a C cup. The boobs are going to disappear when the fat that their made up of gets burned off. To do that you need to create a daily calorie deficit of about 15-20%. For every 80-85 calories that you consume, you have to burn off a 100. I know it seems simple but time and time again this is where most guys fail. Infomercials have us thinking that weight-loss is all about gimmicks and secret tricks but it’s really just math. Most guys that set out to lose their man boobs try crash diets or hit the gym for hours a day but never have a clue how much fuel (calories) they’re really consuming on any given day. So first step is to standardize your diet and really understand how many calories you’re eating and what nutritional benefits if any, those calories contain.

Also you need to focus on foods that are filling, not tasty. Food is fuel, nothing more. If you think about it that way your much more likely to succeed that if you spend the day thinking about all the tasty treats you’re missing out on. Your man boob eliminating diet needs to be consistent and maintainable. It doesn’t do you any good to start a diet that you’re going to give up on in a few days or weeks.

Regarding the calorie deficit, cardio is an essential tool for burning calories fast. Cardio is different from weight trainng in that it wont really result in gaining much muscle (there are some exceptions). However, when done right, cardio forces your body to start digging into those fat deposits and using them as fuel. There’s one type of cardio in particular that reigns supreme: High Intensity Interval Training also known as HIIT. It’s brutal, but when done in conjunction with a solid diet and workout plan, it will turn your body into a man boob burning furnace. 3 days a week of this and you’ll be as flat-chested as my first girlfriend

Hormone Imbalance (Too Much Estrogen/Cortisol And Not Enough Testosterone):

And lastly we have the hormone issue. Man boobs aren’t caused by excess body fat alone, otherwise all guys with a few extra LBs would be rockin them. Your hormones and your genetics are going to contribute to whether or not your extra chub accumulates in your gut or on your chest. While you can’t do much to change your genes, you can improve your hormone situation with a few tweaks to your diet and daily activities. In particular what you want to do is boost your testosterone and reduce your estrogen and cortisol. The good news is that usually whats good for one is bad for the other. So just making modest changes in your day to day will tip that teeter totter in your favor.

Get plenty of sleep

Avoid soy and other estrogen inducing foods.

Eat broccoli and other cruciferous veggies

Lift heavy weight/low reps in the gym.

Get enough zinc in your diet

Have sex (seriously, it helps)

And chill out. Stress is awful, that’s no secret, but in case you needed another reason to take it easy, it also causes your cortisol level (the stress hormone) to increase, hence: moobs!

3 Ways to Give Before Receiving When Networking

When I envision "perfect networking", the word reciprocity comes to mind. Business networking is about forming relationships that lead to benefits immediately or down the line. These benefits can include any number of positive outcomes.

In order for great business networking to be demonstrated, one has to be willing to give and the other to receive. Through time, these roles switch and the giver becomes the receiver. It is actually fantastic when this is done with sincerity- When one person offers something of value and expects nothing in return.

Perfect business however, usually ends up with both parties involved in a transaction receiving something of benefit. One party spends their money and in return they receive the desired product or service. The seller, of course, receives the financial compensation.

That's basic business but networking has some extra levels added. When we network effectively, one person typically gives something first. In other words, the first giver initiates the process and whether the receiver returns the favor at a later time, is due to decision and circumstance.

It's good however, when building relationships that will help your career, to be the first giver when you can. Below, are 3 ways to give before receiving when networking;

1. Give them something free from your company.

So, you have just met a good candidate to be a lifelong contact. You really do not know where this business relationship can go but it's always good to have an open mind and foster positivity regardless. A good way to do this is to offer a part of your service or a product free of charge. This has a few benefits;

A. You are giving something of value to a new associate. Of course, you should give something that you honestly feel they will value.

B. You are giving a mini promotion to your product or service. This helps you to stay at the top of the mind of your new associate.

C. You are performing a good gesture. Sincere generosity is an amicable trait.

2. Give them an endorsement.

Giving a person a good endorsement is a sure way to help them look good. When you give a person a good endorsement, the people who trust your word can now view this person in a trusting light. This is a good idea within reason.

You should learn a bit more about an individual before co-signing on them as reputable. It does not take that long to do brief research but you should not be overly adamant within the endorsement. In other words, do not overdo it but speak kindly.

3. Give referrals.

Lastly, you must use your judgment wisely but offering a referral is the ultimate in giving. When you offer a referral, you could very well be giving someone a client for life. The value that a referral holds is priceless. At the end of the day, reciprocity will unfold and you'll find that giving first can be a valuable activity.

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As A Motor Head

As a motor head, I spend a lot of time studying my favorite thing, and that is muscle cars, I love them right to the end, and I do not think anything can or should ever take them away from us, all these people That do not see the use of the muscle cars or what they did for the automotive industry, I'm about to explain what they did, and will still do for the industry.

The first point that I will make here is simply this, the automated manufactures use racing to test the durability and strength of their cars, they did not just build these cars on a whim, they were planned and thought out very carefully, racing is Used to innovate new ideas for the safety and comfort of the people driving the car.

The competition makes the motor companies continue to develop better and better cars every year, it helps them make new metal alloys designed for strength and longevity, it help the oil companies make advances in their product that will extremely help our cars last longer and run better .

Form racing the motor companies will build better suspension and steering components to help your car handle better and ride smoother, it will help you to feel your car better so you can know what's on the road before it has a chance to hurt you or your car .

Racing is not just about the good old boys going out to have some fun on the weekend, although you can bet they do have fun driving their cars, especially when their in the winner circle in the end, the idea of ​​racing cars is here to Serve a purpose, and that purpose is to help keep you safe, and behind the wheel of your car, rather then in the back of an ambulance.

It's obvious what one of the other this racing is, and that is to help promote the car companies products, because you know everyone likes a winner, so there before it does help promote the sales of cars.

But you can bet without racing, the cars that we drive would not be anywhere near as safe as they are, so while those of you with limited thinking are out there saying that racing is just a waste of gas and time, I'll bet You like all the neat things that it does for your cars, and the safety of the passengers in them, and no the imports do not do it better then we do.

You have no idea how many times I've heard that all muscle cars are gas guzzling dinosaurs that should be eliminated from the entire automated world, and I guess it takes all kinds of people to make the world go around, but this just proves To me that a lot of people are nothing but idiots.

Different Activities Of Boating

Boating is a fast-growing sport. Each year, more young skippers pilot their craft on fresh-water lakes and rivers and inlets at the ocean’s edge.

Boating Activities You Can Try

Swimming – People swim from all types of boats. But prior to swimming, the boat must be moored to a pier or perhaps lying at anchor. Do not forget to stop the motor. It must have a boarding ladder placed at either side so swimmers can climb back into it.

Fishing – This is the most popular activity for most boaters. Most fishing from small boats is done with light poles and lines and small reels. Stop it and cast out the bait into the water. As for deep-sea fishing, this entails big boats and heavy fishing tackle. A boat with a piloting platform at the top is often used to fish for large fishes such as sailfish and marlin.

Camping – This is another great activity that owners can enjoy. Even a small boat can carry the tent, portable stove, sleeping bags, and supply of food that will make an enjoyable, satisfying trip.

Powerboat Racing – This is a specialized boating activity that often requires special boats and motors. Racing boats are classified based on size and motor type. Though racing will require expert boating skills, newbies can still join just to have fun. They can use their boats for nature studies, exploring, for photography and for just being on the water.

Some Safety Rules For Boating

  • Learn to swim. If you cannot swim, you must wear a life jacket.
  • Do not overload your boat.
  • Do not go boating all by yourself.
  • Do not sail during bad weather or when a storm is forecasted. Beginners must always stay close to shore.
  • Sit quietly when boating. While aboard a boat, you must not scuffle. And when the water is rough or perhaps the boat is in deep water, avoid changing seats.
  • Even if you are an excellent swimmer, do not attempt to swim ashore from an over-turned boat. You have to hold on to the boat and wait for help to arrive.
  • To avoid slipping, wear rubber-soled shoes or sneakers. You should also wear a hat to protect yourself from the damaging rays of the sun.
  • Always test for rocks, depths and weeds before diving off a boat into strange water.
  • Be aware of the rules of boating because not knowing such means disaster.

Comfort Food for Winter Days

When winter arrives we want to snuggle under the covers and watch movies all day long. With that we want to enjoy delicious warm foods that make us feel comfortable and cosy. Everyone has their favourite winter dish and here are few of the popular ones.

Soup is a wonderful comfort food for colder days. It heats you up instantly and gives you a warm feeling throughout your body. If you enjoy this dish, then you will love the Soup Kettle because it is a great way to keep a pot of soup heated throughout the day and ready to serve.

Pasta dishes are the perfect comfort food. There are varieties of pasta dishes to choose from and each one can be enjoyed on a cold winter day. Lasagne with the layers of pasta sheets and minced meat along with other tasty ingredients is delicious and flavourful. Spaghetti Bolognaise served immediately after it has been cooked is a great comfort food. If you enjoy cooking pasta and or have a restaurant where you serve pasta dishes then the Anvil Pasta Cooker will be your best friend. It has four individual baskets for cooking individual portions quickly.

Pies are convenient foods that can be enjoyed on the run. If you want a quick warm filler during a busy yet cold day, a delicious steak pie or chicken pie will do the trick. Cafes will benefit greatly with the Anvil Pie Warmer. On cold days, it will keep the pies at the perfect heat ready to be served. Your customers will thank you for this.

A simple yet enjoyable food is the classic cheese toasty. The toasted cheese sandwich is one that is quick to make and the stringy melted cheese makes it fun to eat. The Anvil Toasters brown each slice of toast perfectly in preparation for your classic cheese toasty.

Hot drinks are also thoroughly enjoyed on colder days. Although it’s not a dish it is usually enjoyed after a meal. Hot chocolate, coffee and tea warm every part of your body in a superbly tasty way. Coffee Machines are certainly a must have in every home and restaurant.

Let’s not forget about dessert for those colder days. Waffles are a delectable treat that can be enjoyed with bananas, maple syrup, chocolate syrup and fresh cream. The Anvil Waffle Bakers give you consistently baked waffles every time.

Comfort food is something that we all enjoy on those colder winter days. It’s good to know that there is catering equipment that gives us these wonderful treats to enjoy.

Carbuncles, Furuncles and Boils Oh My!

DO NOT SQEEZE A BOIL. Yes, it looks like a giant pimple and it is red and hot and has a head. Do not squeeze it. It is a communicable staph infection that you don’t want to drive into the blood stream. A Carbuncle is a boil with two or more heads and a Furuncle is a boil with one head. All will be treated here as just BOILS. A boil is NOT an acne pimple. Do NOT treat it as an acne pimple.

Whenever you deal with the boil, wear disposable rubber gloves. Launder some rags with hot water and bleach. Use them or paper towels, toilet paper, gauze or cotton squares. Everything must be clean and cleaned up afterwards. Everything must be thrown away.

With the clean, disposable rags, make hot compresses. Just put the rags in hot water and wring out. Hold a compress over the boil until the rag cools. Do this a few times a day until the boil comes to a head. You will see a green or yellow dot in the middle. The boil will be hot and painful. It may turn the skin red, yellow, gray or even green. Do NOT pick the head or dot in the middle.

Apply OTC Ichthammol 20% to the boil. If your drug store doesn’t have it, you can order it on line. The price is about $6. It is also called Black Ointment or Black Drawing Salve. Use a disposable implement to apply it: a tongue depressor, back of a plastic spoon, a plastic knife, or a gloved finger. Apply rather thickly to the center, and then bandage to keep the black off your clothes. Throw away the tools and gloves.

Some doctors say to leave the boil open to the air to dry it out. I prefer to cover it with a bandage or a cushion of gauze held on with adhesive tape. If the boil pops, the pus won’t get on your clothes and it won’t get on other people. A good pad of gauze can cushion the boil against discomfort from clothes or just daily living. If the boil oozes, it will stick to the bandage. This is GOOD. When you rip off the bandage, the head of the boil will stick to the bandage. This will open the boil so you can clean it.

When you are ready to clean the boil, wear disposable gloves and have an abundance of disposable rags or tissue, etc. Have plastic bags to throw away all the contaminated material. You are dealing with something highly contagious. Look at the boil and how it mounds up. Go the edge of boil where the skin is still flat. With tissue over your fingers, press down and OUT, away from the center of the boil. This is different from how you treat a pimple. Do NOT press IN. Pressing in could cause the infection to go deeper into your body. Press OUT. If nothing happens, leave it alone. Put on a hot compress; remove it; and then bandage.

Eventually when you press down and out, the head will pop and pus will come out. Clean it up with toilet paper or tissue. Look at the pus. What you are looking for is a core of hard tissue. It may be white, red, or green. It may look flat on the top and taper to a point like a cone. It may not come out the first time that you clean the boil. After pressing on one side of the boil, move your fingers perpendicular to the position that they were in, and press down and out again. This will be very painful to the “victim” so be gentle. Eventually no more pus will come out. Clean up the area and bandage. Put all the contaminated paper and gloves into a plastic bag to tie up and dispose of.

The next day, do the same. You may have more pus than the day before. When the core of hard tissue comes out you will feel rewarded because you know that you are on the road to recovery. The boil will drain more easily after the core comes out.

Every day continue with hot compresses, pressing OUT, and bandaging. Anytime that pus comes in contact with anything not disposable, clean the area or item with Clorox. Some people advocating putting a drop of Clorox on the bandage to kill the germs. I don’t usually do this because it can sting.

Eventually no more pus will come out. Keep the area bandaged until all weeping is finished and the boil heals.

Towels, wash cloths, sheets, pajamas, etc. used by the patient should not be shared and must be changed and washed daily in hot water with Clorox. It is better to take a shower than a tub bath. If the boil were to pop in the tub, the pus would get in the water. With a shower, the pus would wash off in the flow of the water. After a shower, the shower floor should be doused with Clorox. Rubber shower mats can be washed in the washing machine with hot water and Clorox. Strict hygiene measures must be followed to prevent the spread of boils to other areas of the body and to family members.

Strengthening your immune system with extra Vitamin C may help prevent and heal a boil. Some people believe that Echinacea and Golden Seal supplements act as natural antibiotics. Pregnant or nursing women should not take Golden Seal, nor should people with high blood pressure, kidney or liver problems.

How To Make Your Own Circuit Workout

Over the past couple of weeks I have been doing a strength training/interval workout that has been making me stronger and toning my muscles!

As you might know from my previous posts, I like to try out a lot of different workouts as I can get bored easily with an exercise routine and like to change it up.

The workout I have been doing lately consists of full body movements done in a circuit with a cardio move in between each round, and today I’m bringing it to you for you to personalize. And of course don’t forget to check with your health professionals to makes sure you are doing what’s right for your body.

Here’s how to make your own personalized circuit workout that is made just for you.

1. The Warm Up

The warm up is a very important part of any exercise routine as it helps to loosen your muscles getting them ready for more vigorous movement. A warm up does not have to be very long to be effective, but it does need to get your heart pumping and your breath moving.

You can choose a number of exercises to help you warm up, from jumping jacks to jogging, slow squats to yoga, any exercise that is gentle on your muscles that still elevates your heart rate can be used as a warm up. My favorite warm ups are ones that incorporate my full body like a couple different down dog poses or plie squats.

Though you might be tempted to skip your warm up to save time, don’t skip it. The warm up helps prevent against injury and in the end will help you do the rest of your exercises better.

2. Whole Body Exercise

After my warm up I like to do a whole body exercise to help continue the warming up process in my body. A whole body exercise would be any exercise that uses most of the big muscles in your body. For example, a lunge and bicep curl or a squat and overhead press.

One of my favorite whole body exercises to start with is a squat and overhead press. The squat works my whole leg area and my core while the overhead press strengthens my shoulders and upper body. Doing two exercises together burns more calories, makes your exercise more challenging, and saves times. Triple score.

3. Upper Body Exercise

Next, I like to incorporate a separate upper body exercise. I do not always do this, but I really do like to whenever I can. I do this because it can be harder to find upper body exercises that cover all your muscles at once. The pushup and variations of the push are a great exercise for targeting most of your upper body muscles, but not everyone likes doing pushups.

I always try to make sure I include an overhead tricep extension in my upper body exercises. The overhead tricep extension is hard to pair with other lower body exercises so it becomes more of a stand alone move. I love this exercise because it really targets my triceps and also works on my shoulder flexibility as I have to keep my shoulders down and in place while I extend my arms and bring them back behind my head. It’s one of my favs!

4. Ab Exercise

Abs are the muscle group everyone wants to work on and probably works on the most. The way I like to do ab exercises are slow with control. You will find you get a much better ab workout this way and it is much safer.

Some of my favorite ab exercises are the standard crunch, bicycle abs, leg lowers, and planks! Yes, I said planks. All of these exercises are great for your abs if you do them slowly with control. Any exercise done quickly with no control is not only dangerous, but also is very ineffective. So remember, quality over quantity. Don’t do fast abs!

5. Cardio

Last but not least, cardio! Cardio is the last type of exercise I do before starting the circuit over again. By adding cardio into my weight workout I create a circuit workout that is also an interval workout since my heart rate is spiking up at different times in the routine.

Some of my favorite cardio moves are mountain climbers, burpees, butt kicks, and jabs. These exercises are all whole body movements that get your heart rate up fast! This will probably be the hardest part of your workout but it is also one of the most encouraging parts as you will be able to really measure your progress week after week when you find yourself panting less every time you do a burpee.

I like to do each section of this workout for 2 minutes each before going onto the next exercise. That would mean 2 minutes of my squat and press, 2 minutes of tricep extensions, 2 minutes of abs, 2 minutes of cardio and then repeat. I like to try to do my circuit 3 times through using different exercises each time around. That would be a total of 24 minutes and 12 different exercises.

At the very end of your workout don’t forget to stretch for about 3-5 minutes. Stretching keeps your muscles healthy and ready for their next workout and can reduce the amount of soreness you might feel later. If you have questions about what exercises might be right for you ask the health professionals or personal trainers at your local gym! The health professionals at your gym can be a great resource for learning new exercises that are safe and right for your body.

This is one of my favorite designs for a circuit/interval workout and hopefully it inspires you to make your very own personalized workout routine. Remember, even loving your workout is important.

Happy Exercising!

~Hannah

Using Software to Plan and Compute Income Tax

Last year, more than 50 million people use various software programs to help in filing for income tax. In fact, the developers have projected an increase in the years to come because this makes the task easier than doing it by hand or with the help on accountant.

There are a lot of companies offering similar features when it comes to filing tax using the computer. Some have to be purchased from the store while there are those that can be downloaded from the net.

Turbo Tax is perhaps one of the best to use in the market. This is because it can be used to compute different things at the same time such as the amount invested in stocks and in other business ventures.

Complete Tax is another program that is very similar to Turbo Tax. The person can open an account here and do the planning and work online. The information here is saved so this can be opened later on and completed.

TaxWiz is another program that is used to filing for income tax. It works by guiding the person through the tax preparation phase from beginning to end. It can handle multiple computations especially for those who need to prepare the same document when filing for state and federal taxes.

QuickTax is very similar to what TaxWiz can do for the individual. There is a version that can be purchased in a store or acquired online.

Another user-friendly program is Tax Cut. The person can plug in the figures, double check everything and then be sure that there are no mistakes when submitting the income tax form to the IRS.

TaxTron is another program that is worth trying out. This can work with anyone who uses either Macintosh or PC that can help in the planning of the income tax regardless if this is personal or for business.

Ufile, which is exclusively only for Windows is an active interface program that helps, plan and file one’s income tax. This is very useful when computing for profit, which will give the entrepreneur an idea on areas to improve in order to sustain the business.

Of the different programs that can be used for the planning and filing of the income tax, only one can be used before this is submitted to the IRS. It will be a good idea to do some research on each to know its pros and cons to be able to use the right one.

Setting Up Your Nikon D3400 DSLR Camera to Shoot Videos

THE NIKON D3400 VIDEO SET UP

The Nikon D3400 is an entry-level DSLR camera designed by Nikon for people who are moving up from bridge cameras or from compact cameras and whilst it takes excellent stills it also shoots superb video. One of the selling points of this camera is that it shoots Full HD video which is 1080 at 60 frames per second, which is really very impressive, and gives you a very smooth and very high quality video reproduction. One of the downsides however is that it doesn’t have an external microphone socket and that is very much in common with most cameras in this category – though ironically its predecessor, the Nikon D3300, does have an external microphone socket and I would say that if you’re going to shoot a lot of video, which will require a lot of sound when you’re actually recording the video – perhaps you are doing interviews or you are recording bands – then you might want to look at the D3300 rather than this camera.

On the other hand one of the things that I really do like about this camera is that it has a lot of effects and modes, so that you can be quite creative with the way that you shoot stills and those effects are translated through to videos too which is really quite fun. So you can have a lot of fun with photo illustration which shoots a sort of comic effect but in video. You can have fun with the miniature effect which shoots a sort of time lapse but within the miniature effect option, and you can also have some great fun which I found with toy camera effect which gives a really OLDE WORLDE type of shot through video with vignette and quite unsaturated color.

Before you shoot video you need to change some of the settings in the menus. So first of all switch the camera on and press the menu button and you are looking for the shooting menu. The video options are right at the bottom of the page so you could use the multi selector to go all the way down or you can press it one up and, because it’s on a rotating dial, it means that you go straight to movie settings. Then you can choose your FRAME RATE and FRAME SIZE. There are two different frame rates one is NTSC which is mainly for America and that will give you 60 frames per second or 30 frames per second, and the other is PAL which is mainly for Europe which will give you 50 frames per second and 25 frames per second. It is quite important that you choose the correct one for your country so it’s worth checking if you are not sure. I would recommend 1080 at the highest frame rate, obviously. It will go down to 720 which is perfectly acceptable for social media for YouTube etc. If you move one down on the menu you can have a look at movie quality which, of course, should be high rather than normal and then go down one more option to microphone. The D3400 doesn’t have an external microphone socket, but it does have an internal microphone which can be reasonably effective over short distances.

You have three options for microphone – the first one is AUTO, which is okay and worked reasonably well for ambient sound, the second one is MANUAL, which I would recommend because it gives you more control over the sound that you’re recording. If you are in manual you should be aiming for your sound to peak at 12, so if you can test out the recording before hand – if somebody’s talking for example – then what you’re really looking for is when that person is at their loudest, to peak on 12 and you can use the multi selector to move the sensitivity up or down to ensure that that happens. The final one is to switch microphone OFF and I don’t recommend that at all even if you don’t intend using the sound used having the sound on the video is actually a very useful way of selecting clips when you’re editing. Coming out of that you then go on to wind noise reduction which doesn’t make a huge amount of difference. The final option is manual movie settings. If you leave that off, then even if you go into manual on here you won’t be on manual settings because you’ve switched it off here. If you switch it on here you can use the manual settings and the auto settings so I would recommend that you switch that on.

Once you’ve changed the menu settings you can start looking through the camera to see what you’re actually seeing when you want to shoot a video. In order to do that you have to press the Live View button at the back. There are two quite important buttons here for when you are in Live View and one is the info button on the top and the other is the i button which is down on the bottom left-hand corner next to the screen. When you switch initially to Live View you will see a lot of information going along the top of the screen. Now, because you have switched on to Live View this isn’t yet on to video mode and so a lot of the information is, in fact, for stills so for example you will have what mode it’s in, whether it’s on auto or manual aperture priority, flash on/off, the shutter setting, the auto focus settings, the picture control setting, the white balance and whether the stills size and quality. If you press the info button on the top once then, you will now be in video mode, and that tells you more relevant information about what you have actually got as settings for video. If you are in this mode and you press the i button, that gives you all the things that you can change when you are in this mode. If you are on auto it allows you to change the frame size and quality, the microphone settings, the wind noise reduction and the focus mode. If you switch the camera to M for manual and go into that setting then it will give much more information. It will show movie frame size and quality, the white balance, the microphone settings, ISO, the picture control, wind noise reduction, auto focus area mode control and the focus mode. So that is one really useful way of seeing what is available to you when you are shooting video. If you press the i mode again to come out of that and then press the info button again, then that information disappears, so that the screen is fairly bare, but we do get the marker showing the extent of the video. When you’re shooting video you will notice that you don’t get the entire full screen that you would when you’re shooting stills and that is because the area of the sensor being used to shoot video is smaller, and so you get a smaller area on the screen that actually is included within the video range. That will change slightly if you’re shooting 1080 or if you’re shooting 720 so it’s worth keeping an eye on. If you press the info button one more time, then you get the grid so that you can keep everything level.

In many ways the settings for shooting stills or videos on a DSLR are the same. For example, you can use the dial mode to select the mode in which you want to shoot either stills or video. You can have it on AUTO you can have it on Manual and the parameters are effectively the same. You can change your ISO, you can change your aperture or you can change your shutter speed. The only extra element when you are shooting video is your frame rate and that is selected when when you chose 1080-60 or 1080-50 or 30 or 25 or 720, so the frame rate is the extra element for video. Now if you are shooting at a given frame rate it is recommended that your shutter speed is twice that frame rate. So if you are shooting at 30 frames per second, the shutter speed should be about 160th. Likewise if you’re shooting at 60 frames per second then your frame rate should be about 125th. You do have some flexibility here, you could easily go up to 1/200th or 1/400th if that’s what you want without the video suffering too much.

In terms of keeping quality as good as possible then you’d like the ISO to be as low as possible and the aperture, of course, will control your depth of field. The three elements here, ISO, Aperture and Shutter Speed can all be changed when you are in the manual setting. The odd one out, in a sense, is aperture because you cannot change the aperture when you are actually shooting the video, so you need to pre-set your aperture and you can only do that outside of Live View. When you are in the back screen you can change aperture by pressing the exposure button on the top and using the main dial. Now at this point you can also change the ISO and the Shutter Speed in exactly the same way. You can change the shutter speed by using the main dial on its own and you can change the ISO by looking at the i button and moving across and choosing the ISO and changing it. However you may want to change either the ISO or the shutter speed whilst you are actually shooting the video, in which case you can either use the function button which you have preset to change ISO and use the main dial which will change the ISO, even if you’re shooting at the same time. Or you can use the main dial on its own to change the shutter speed. Again even if you’re shooting video at the time and the great thing about using the back screen is that you can instantly see the change, in either changing shutter speed or ISO, the image will go lighter or darker.

Emotional Blackmail – Is Your Child's Behavior Holding You Hostage?

When your child acts out in public to get their way, you CAN get control back. Here we lays out some step-by-step techniques for you to use next time you hit the mall or grocery store.

I've worked with many parents over the years who routinely gave in when their children acted out. One mother I met, I'll call her Linda *, had a twelve-year-old son who often used emotional blackmail and threats of misbehavior to get his way. Linda dreaded taking him to the mall, because she knew she'd end up buying him anything he asked for in an effort to keep him from calling her names, stomping and yelling at her, and making a scene that left her feeling humiliated and powerless . In effect, her son's behavior was holding her hospitality.

So what happens if we always respond to this type of behavior by backing down? Your child learns that if he misbehaves or threats to misbehave, that will solve his problem, because somebody's going to give in. Make no mistake, the message you're sending your child is that misbehavior works. When your child acts out in public, if they're not responded to in an effective way, they develop a pattern of behavior where they learn how to blackmail you to give them their way. And their mindset is, "Give me my way or face my acting out." That may involve yelling, screaming and tantrums if they're younger. It may be angry faces and a disgusted tone, disrespectful remarks and even cursing when they get older. Either way, the whole game they're playing involves using behavior to try to control outside circumstances, instead of learning how to solve the problems they face.

When kids learn this lesson, there are two outcomes. Your child discovers there's absolutely no reason to change, no reason to mature. And every time you reward them for misbehavior, you're making that portion of your child's personality stronger. That's right: you're actually strengthening the part of them that wants to misbehave and that does not want to follow social rules or be civilized. In fact, you can look at parenting in that way: our role is to teach our children the rules of how to be civilized and live in our society. And in our culture, we go to the mall, we go shopping, we treat people with respect, and we have in an acceptable manner. When you give in toappropriate behavior, your child grows up without the coping skills to deal with the difficult situations that life presents.

The other thing that you need to understand is that when your child uses acting out as a problem-solving skill, they are not learning how to develop other more appropriate problem solving skills. Kids will throw a tantrum when they're frustrated or upset-that happens. But whether they're throwing a fit because they're frustrated, upset or overwhelmed, the same rules still apply. If you give in, you're simply teaching your child to continue acting out in public.

A Word about Younger Kids

When children between the age of two and three throw a tantrum, there should be no consequences other than to have them sit some place until they calm down. When most youngger children get tired and overwhelmed, they have a hard time controlling their emotions. It's part of a parent's responsibility to know their kid, know how much stimulation they can take, and when they're tired or hungry and need to leave.

When I'm at the mall or downtown where I live, in the late afternoon I'll see little kids around the age of three, four, or five years old crying or really shutting down. I think most parents recognize that their kids are overly tired. But the adult mind managements stimulation very different from a child's mind. We know how to compartmentalize everything and weigh things out. For kids, stimulation comes at them like a wave. And being in a mall is like being at the circus for a child. I think that parents have to be aware of that and be tolerant of some frustration their kids will express. Parents also need to learn how to either avoid those situations or find ways to manage them.

When your young child throws a tantrum, whether it's because he's tired or because he's angry at not getting his way, the management skills are the same: You wait it out. You give a little reassurance. You do not give in.

5 Techniques to Help You Manage Your Child's Acting Out Behavior

  • Remember, you're the expert on your child. You know what makes your child tired. You know the extra help he needs. And you know the situations that are frustrating for him. Prepare your child before you go into any new or stimulating situation. Say, "If you start getting frustrated, let me know. We'll take a rest. All right? If you get frustrated, if you can not handle it, let me know, we'll go home. A tantrum, this is what I'm going to do. " I think by being realistic about your child's temperament and discussing plans with them ahead of time, you can really enhance your ability to manage situations in public.
  • Train your child by taking small steps first. I think if parents have a child who acts out in public, you want to try what's called a "slow immersion." So in other words, if this kid can not handle going to the mall, take him to the drug store first. Say, "Let's see how you handle this. We're going in for five or ten minutes." Lay the rules down. That way you're not at the mall, you're in a more manageable location and you're close by your child. Start to train them by taking small steps, by coaching them in little pieces: little pieces of learning how to socialize and solve problems and act like everyone else.
  • Write the Rules Down and Keep Them Handy . Before you even go into public, I think you need to decide what your limits are for your child in terms of behavior. Let them know exactly what's going to happen. For pre-teen kids and under, keep a 4×6 index card in your car with 3 rules on it:
  • 1. Response to first request.
  • 2. Accept "no" for an answer.
  • 3. Do not raise your voice or misbehave physically.

Read that card in the car before you go inside the mall or store. That one small act is going to help your child keep it together; Reading the rules to them is like lending them structure. You can not assume that kids are going to recall information that will help them change. Here's another way of looking at it: Let's say you're speeding and you get a ticket. The assumption is that the next time you're in a hurry, you're going to remember how it felt to pay that ticket and you will not speed. Even though that may be true, each state still has the speed limit posted every five miles. So give your child consistent reminders that will keep them focused.

  • When the rules are broken. If your child breaks the rules when you're out, I would take them out of the department store. If they throw a tantrum, I would stay with them in that tantrum and when they are done, I would take them out of the mall. At this point, the show is over; There's no way there's going to be any more shopping. With younger kids, you can just hold their hand and take them to the car. But if they resist you, do not get physical. Let them throw their tantrum. Have a seat, watch the show. And if people ask questions say, "He's throwing a tantrum and there's nothing I can do." I think parents have to do that every time until the acting out in public stops. If possible, bring a magazine or a book so that the child can see that he's not getting your attention through that inappropriate behavior.

Let me assure you that I know how embarrassing this can be for parents. But you have to understand, your child also knows how uncomfortable their behavior makes you; That's how your child is blackmailing you. So, in their mind it's, "Let me have my way or I'm going to blackmail you in front of all these adults. I'm going to embarrass you and make you uncomfortable." It's just that simple. And you need to stop letting them hold you host with their behavior.

Remember this: When you do not give in to your child, they have to figure out another way to solve their problem.

  • Leave them at home. I do not think there's anything wrong with leaving your child at home with proper oversight and telling them, "You can not come today because you can not handle it. You made a scene last time we went shopping and so today you ' Re staying home. " And if your child promises and begs and swears, say, "No, let's see how you have staying at home." If you handle that OK, then we'll see. " And make them sit at home. Make them understand that you're not going to be blackmailed and that you're strong-and that when you make decisions, you're going to stick with them.

Here's the simple truth: when children resort to appropriate behavior to get their way, they do not learn how to solve problems. And when they do not learn this skill, they go into adulthood with a real handicap. You see many adults who only know how to get angry and yell at each other whenever there's emotional stress. Part of that is because they have very poor communication skills and very poor problem-solving skills. When confronted with a problem, they only know how to avoid it, which means they let it build up on the inside until they explode.

So make up your mind that you're not going to let your child hold you host with their misbehavior. Do not give in to emotional blackmail when your child threatens to act out. I tell parents to think of it this way: your child has gotten to get bed tonight without a crisis. That's their goal. And our goal as a parent is the same thing: to get bed to night without a crisis and to teach our children the skills they need. If you can do that, then you're all set.

How Sewing Needles Are Made

Was the invention of the wheel really what changed the future of mankind? Consider this. The man who invented the wheel was wearing animal skins that had been sewn together with a needle.

Being able to sew skins together to craft clothing for warmth and protection enabled Stone Age men to remain in northern areas of the globe, so breaking away from their nomadic existence.

The needle has always been a simple tool. Whether it is made of bone or metal, the concept remains the same – a pointed instrument that pulls a thread through some type of material. The key elements being a sharp enough point to poke through the material (be it fabric, leather or something else) and a hole or hook to carry the thread.

During the Bronze Age, needles were developed that were made from metal instead of the primitive bone or horn. Access to early metal needles was limited by cost, since only gold and bronze were used to manufacture them.

Once iron was developed, manufacturers could make lower cost needles, so allowing farmers' wives to afford these much-improved tools for sewing.

Records indicate that the Spanish became proficient at making excellent sewing needles, and guarded their secrets well, slowing down the spread of manufacturing to other parts of the world. Sometimes, though, the English developed a process that continues to be the high bar for modern needles.

The process and the number of steps required to make a needle – even today – is amazing.

Beginning with a coil of wire, the first step was to cut the wire into 3 inch lengths and then straighten the curve. This seems like it would be simple, yet it required that the wire be heated, pressed and then cooled.

Once cooled, the wire was turned over to a grinder who made points at both ends of the wire. Because this step required a water wheel, early needle makers lived in villages near streams or rivers where they could harness the water for energy to run their water wheels.

As you can imagine, the work of a needle grinder was fairly deadly. Standing over a grindstone breathing particles of jagged steel from the needle and stone dust, these men refused to take any safety precautions since they believed it limited the number of newcomers to the trade. That it did, but it also limited their life expectancy.

Once the points were ground on the ends of the wire, it was taken to the stamping shop where two eyes and two gutters were stamped in the middle, and the eye was punched out.

Using fine wires between the new eyes of the needles, they were separated, the burrs were ground off the ends, and the needles were ready for tempering and finishing.

Tempering was done by heating the needles on trays, then dunking them in oil, making them brittle. The metal is heated and turned by hand with hatchet-like tools, causing it to turn colors from pale red to blue and then to a straw color.

When the tempering was right, the heat was removed and the needles were ready for the more finishing.

Needles were felt (yes, by hand) to find small warps. If there were any, the needle was tapped with a small hammer on a tiny anvil to straighten it out. Every day for eight hours a day for 8 days, the needles were rolled in a heavy canvas with oil, soap and emery which made them smooth and shiny.

Then they were dumped into a copper pan filled with soapsuds to be cleaned. The needles were then rinsed and dried in a bin of sawdust.

The challenge at that point was to remove the needles from the sawdust, line them up so they were even and then clump them together so they could be sized. After the needles were sorted into various sizes, they were weighed and put into equal-sized bundles, called a "company."

But the process was still not yet complete!

In the final steps, the heads were heated to give them a blue tint and to soften them in order to countersink the eyes. Countersinking was to ensure smoothness so the needle would not shred the thread.

Once the countersinking was complete, skilled grinders once again polished the heads and points of the needles until the desired quality was achieved. Finally, the needles were packaged and sold.

Although completely automated, modern needles are still made from coiled wire, the pieces cut into the length of two needles, and points are ground on both ends of the piece. Two eye shapes are then stamped in the center of the piece, the holes are punched out and the needles are separated.

Modern needles are tempered and frequently electroplated with nickel. Often the eye portion is gilded, creating a kind of gold look.

There are actually about 70 processes that wire goes through to transform it into a needle!

It's amazing what it takes to create a short, straight, pointy thing with a hole in one end.

What Leaves You Cold And Makes Others Hot?

You know straight off the mark most women I speak with say without a second thought swallowing fluid during oral sex with their partner. It leaves them cold. Then there is the gagging. Yet like anything communication is the key. You can not expect your partner to be so tuned in to you during such a pleasurable act that they remember to have your best interest registering on their dial.

Seriously most men never intend to put you off, or choke you, so let them know if he thrusts too much, it makes you gag. Mostly a little thrusting is OK, but being over ambitious isn’t. Also there are clever pointers that lessen the gagging. Try using your mouth and tongue more on the area just on the underside of the head of the penis. Very easy if your partner is lying on his back and you are on top. Unless he is looking, he probably won’t know. Always use your hands to slide up and down the shaft of the penis at the same time. It is also smart to let any saliva dribble down a lovers penis as it helps with lubrication. Flicking, licking, sucking makes it a hot experience for your lover. Talking about hot and cold – try sucking on ice cubes or drinking hot chocolate before giving oral sex.

There are women who receive oral sex and know it is hot. For others it leaves them cold. But you know whatever it is that rocks your boat; as long as it FEELS good, go for it. Getting right into oral sex, some women start bucking with pleasure and can almost knock their partner’s teeth up into the eye sockets. So guys, wrap those arms right around those thighs so that you can control what is happening. Grinding your way into your lover’s mouth may mean feeling a few sharp edges, yet as blissful sensations carry one into another realm you may not really notice.

Another hot and cold topic – anal sensations. This is often repulsive for some, then again with the anus having as many if not more nerve endings as the clitoris, then maybe this view needs to be revisited. Anal play can be enjoyable. Whether using a finger, a pleasure object or a penis, lots of lubricant is a must. Some men enjoy having their anus massaged, whilst other sexual activity is taking place at the same time. If your finger is inserted and you press their prostate gland, chances are they will experience a mind blowing orgasm. Females may like their anus stimulated whilst receiving oral sex. The finger does not have to be too far up, usually just past the sphincter muscle does it. The key issue is to be gentle and slow, especially with penetration. The resulting feelings can be very intense and pleasurable.

Foreplay – is hot! What leaves a women cold is some stud trying to ram his penis into a vagina that has not had a chance to become oiled and lubed either naturally or with a bit of help. There is nothing wrong with a rampant quickie from time to time, but even then it helps when both parties to be hot and ready. The occasions where a quick flick is supposed to have a female ready to receive penetration are indeed chilling. It is best when the caressing continues until the female initiates the entering into the vagina. Patience is always more likely to pay off.

It is probably dangerous to generalise about how any of us experience sex. We are all different and bring different perspectives into the equation. Making assumptions and generalisations only ever describe how it is for some of us.

Some like it hot and some like it cold. Each to their own.

©copyright 2007 – Marie-Elise Allen

The Opening of the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization

Cairo, the Egyptian capital, might be the city that hosts the largest number of museums in the whole globe. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities would be the star of all museums in Cairo often visited by all the tourists who spend their holidays in Egypt. However, Cairo hosts no less than 30 to 40 museums with all sorts of displays from different eras.

During the last period, the city of the thousand minarets witnessed the opening of an interesting new museum. The National Museum of Egyptian Civilization which was partially opened in February. The museum is quite remarkable and travelers who tour Egypt are encouraged to visit them while they are in Cairo.

The idea about establishing a national museum of Egyptian civilization emerged in 1982, when the UNESCO announced it will establish such a museum together with the Nubian Museum in Aswan. The foundation stone of the museum was set in 2002. Today, the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization welcomes several visitors who travel to Egypt.

The museum has a huge surface area of 33.5 acres with surface area of the buildings being 130,000 square meters. It is expected that the museum would display 50,000 exhibits from various periods of the Egyptian history ending with contemporary pieces. The complex also has storage houses which are equipped following the latest technologies that are used in other famous museums around the world like the Louver and the British Museum.

The partial opening of the National Museum of Civilization hosted the exhibition of the Egyptian crafts over the years. The collection includes 42o pieces which demonstrate four traditional crafts Egyptians excelled in producing; pottery, carpentry, jewelry, and weaving. This collection of displays would interest many travelers from different places around the world who visit Egypt.

The displays demonstrating the Egyptian crafts include exhibitions from the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities, the Weaving Museum in Al Mui’z Street, the Coptic Museum, and the Islamic Art Museum. This is in addition to the storages of the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization. The result was in fact quite notable and amazed the attendees in the opening ceremony.

Among the most interesting displays exhibited in the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization include some pottery collection that date back to the pre-dynastic era in Egypt. There is also the chair that belongs to the mother of King Cheops, the builder of the Grand Pyramid of Giza. Travelers who tour Egypt are quite recommended to explore the museum.

Another interesting chair in the museum is that which belongs to the Old Kingdom period. The chair contains 120 complicated pieces of wood which illustrate the talents and the skills of the ancient Egyptian craftsmen. There are also some wooden doors with magnificent decorations and jewelry that were made in Upper Egypt in different periods of time.