Great Plans For Building a Shed

Experience has taught me a few things about building I would like to share with you so that you will not fall into the trap I did.

When we moved into our house some years ago, there was one outbuilding already in place. Before long it was full of lawn working supplies.

Since the stuff a family treasures grows, the time came when my wife thought we were ready to add more storage space. I had built some small birdhouses, maybe a washing well or two for the children over the years. I thought my talents were sufficient to put up a simple storage shed.

I rushed out to the do-it-yourself store and purchased a bunch of lumber. It never occurred to me that I needed a set of plans. After all, we are talking about a simple storage shed here.

That was among the silliest things I think I ever did. Truly not a smart move on my part. I learned that trial and error did not a shed build.

Very soon I realized I was in way over my head, with no way to back out gracefully and recoup my loses. I learned that I wasted money and time because I did not approach my project in the right way.

This was not a birdhouse I was building and I was not using Popsicle sticks for wood. Time was gone, money was gone, and I had boards that I did not know what to do with.

Plus, the wife was not happy with me. To say I had created a mess was an understatement.

The wife encouraged me to understand that the need for a shed did not go away. Soon as I had some money saved and a long week end coming up, I decided to go back to my project, but this time, I intended to approach it differently.

Since my failed attempt to build a shed, I had been visited by the representative of the home owners association who told me as clearly as he could that what I had started did not conform to the association guidelines and it would need to be taken down completely , All the way to the ground.

That was not too hard to do, I reasoned, because I really did not get very far into the project before abandoning the plan I did not have.

The friendly representative cave me some tips, like learn what the guidelines are, get a building permit, get a good set of plans. He even cave me the internet address of a place to find plans to suit any project I wanted to take on.

Following the advice I had been given, I checked out the building codes for my part of town, and the home owners association guidelines. Once I thought I had a good handle on those two things, I was ready to go online and search for the right plans.

I found the website I was looking for and was amazed to find thousands and thousands of plans. It did not take me long to find a set of plans for just the right storage shed.

And, like the home owner association representative said, the plans came with a complete list of materials. I could buy everything I needed, and do not have left over wood or hardware.

The plans I chose even had a cut chart showing what size I needed to cut the wood. I was able to cut all the pieces of wood I would use before I started the building. That would prove to be a real time saver.

Since I was putting up another building on our property, you know the wife had to be consulted. And, lucky for me, I did just that. She helped me to understand how this building needed to blend in or match the house and the other shed building that was on the property.

Together we decided where this building would fit fit on our lot, and even the color to paint it when I finished the building.

With my new knowledge of the building codes and an understanding of the plans I purchased, I was able to get my project underway on my three-day week end. My shed building was finished and even painted before I had to go to work on Monday.

The wife and I think our building enhances the curve appealing of our property. Now that it is complete, we can move more of the stuff out of our garage and I will no longer be embarrassed to open my garage door.

Strategies For Getting Optimal Benefits From Your New Terrace Or Balcony

With the addition of a new balcony, you can have a functional outdoor space for entertaining, relaxation or even work. These home additions can be as versatile and flexible as you need them to be. Best of all, they add character and tremendous value to the properties on which they are installed.

There are a number of ways to use these spaces as part of your home office. Coming outside with your laptop to enjoy the view can refresh your mind, boost your creativity and increase your productivity. Never underestimate the mood-enhancing benefits of working in an outdoor environment that’s surrounded by breathtaking scenery, particularly if you work in a primarily creative role. Look for outdoor laptop stands and small, all-weather tables or desks.

Some people opt to transition their balconies or terraces into functional dining areas. For instance, you can install a covered table for serving breakfast or brunch. Residents can dine outside on warm, sunny days while watching the sun come up. There are even rolling bars that you can put out here for making mimosas and other libations outdoors.

Spaces like these can also be great for hosting outdoor dinner parties, especially if you have a relatively small number of guests. There are small grills, wood fired pizza ovens and other cooking accessories that can be added to this space. Creating entertainment zones in your vertical space is an excellent way to maximise your use of your property area.

If you have yet to construct your balcony and have some flexibility in terms of its overall design, this is a surprisingly great place for a small water feature. You can relax on your balcony in your own hot tub. This will add considerable value to the home and give you the perfect place for unwinding after a long hard day. It can even have year-round functionality.

When placing a hot tub or pool on a large terrace, however, there are obvious structural engineering concerns in order to ensure proper load bearing capacity. You also want to ensure that the space is suitably walled in. This way, when people step out of the water feature, they aren’t at risk of tumbling to the ground. Check out the building codes for your are to determine whether or not an ambitious design like this one is even possible.

Another thing that you can do is to implement a multi-layer lighting design that is sufficiently adaptable for creating the right ambiance for different uses and events. Shop around for outdoor wall sconces, miniature lampposts, task lights and overhead lighting. Versatile lighting options can create the same level of aesthetics that you enjoy with your lighting on the inside of the home.

Irrespective of how basic or ornate your balcony design turns out to be, it must have a suitable railing for limiting liability and keeping residents safe. Start by considering simple, tubular balustrades and move on to glass or even stainless steel. Ultimately, however, the enclosure, railing or privacy screen you choose must be stable, in compliance with local building codes and capable of coordinating with all other structural elements on the property.

VoIP Internet Phone Service – The Future is Here!

In 2004 the terms VoIP, internet phone service and IP phone were foreign to almost everyone except technology professionals and geeky computer types. Now most people I talk with are at least very familiar with these terms, as the internet phone service market is now starting to take off. Contrary to what many people believe, VoIP is not a new technology. It was introduced to the public in 1995, by a company called Vocaltec. By using internet phone software, registered users could make phone calls via their computer using a dialup internet connection. I made my first internet phone call in 2000 using my computer, a headset, a dialup internet connection and a free account with Net2Phone. The sound quality was terrible, but it was an absolutely fascinating experience to be making a long long distance call over my computer. Now in 2005, ten years after the first commercial use of VoIP, the technology is finally ready for prime time!

Significant improvements have been made with VoIP in the past five years, and communications companies have started investing heavily in the technology. The quality and reliability of service has improved so much within the past year or so that VoIP is now capable and reliable enough for everyday residential and business use. In fact, so much attention is now being given to the continued improvement of VoIP technology that it's well on it's way to becoming the PREFERRED method of communication by home users and businesses alike.

There were around 1.5 million internet phone users in the USA in 2004, and around 2.1 million today according to Telecommunications Industry News. According to various statistics I've seen, the number of VoIP users in the United States is projected to be around 17 to 18 million between 2008 and 2010. This in an increase of over 1000% within the next 3 to 5 years! Experts also estimate that by 2007, 75% of long distance calls worldwide will be made via the internet. The US is currently not the largest user of VoIP technology – there are about 7 million users in Japan out of approximately 12 million worldwide today. The internet phone industry is booming, and will continue to grow over the next decade. It seems that everyone including EBay wants in on the exploding VoIP market now, as evidenced by their purchase of VoIP provider Skype in September 2005.

More people are showing interest in obtaining Internet Phone Service because they are starting to hear more about it. This is due in part to more "converted users" raving about the amount of money they are saving and the great features they get for free (I love my VoIP service so much I wrote a website about it!). A greater awareness has also come from increased advertising efforts by major cable and communications companies. Many cable television and phone service companies (like Verizon) have been pouring money into VoIP technology in order to capture some of this new market share.

In an effort to hold on to their customers, many regular PSTN (public switched telephone network) phone companies are now offering "unlimited long distance calling" for a flat monthly fee of around $ 39 per month. Current subscribers are starting to cancel their traditional phone service as they are convinced that VoIP is a better option. Not only is VoIP cheaper (under $ 25 a month for unlimited calling), but most Internet Phone providers throw in all of the optional features for free. Phone companies charge extra for services like voicemail, caller id and call waiting. I think phone companies have missed the boat when it comes to competing with VoIP, but that's a topic for another article ……

With all of the telephone service options now available, it is becoming difficult for consumers to choose the right provider for their needs:

Should you subscribe with a true VoIP service provider (like Vonage, Packet8, SunRocket,, etc …), or should you choose the phone service that your cable company provides? If you compare VoIP provider rates with those of the cable company, "pure" VoIP providers are clearly the winner. Cable companies do provide free installation, but VoIP is really very simple to install. Many cable companies offer discount through "package deals", but it's always smart to compare total cost and included features with VoIP providers before making a decision.

Should you switch to VoIP and get rid of your landline phone, or keep what you've got and pay for unlimited long distance calling? If you do not use the internet, keep your landline phone and forget about VoIP for now. To get the most bang for your buck out of VoIP service, you need to have cable internet service. This eliminates the need for a phone line and "dial tone" that you have to pay the phone company for. To use VoIP in the most cost effective way, calls should go through your cable broadband connection – this eliminates the need for standard phone service. VoIP does not work well over dial up internet; You really need broadband in order to get the best audio quality.

Depending on your long distance calling habits, VoIP internet phone service can save you between 20% – 80% per year vs. Traditional PSTN phone service. The technology is mature now and the quality of service is great (and getting better all the time). It's hard to beat unlimited local and long distance calling for less than $ 25 per month, plus you get free voicemail, caller id, call waiting, call return, and all the other features you're used to paying extra for.

VoIP is definitely here to stay, and cost savings is only one of the many benefits it offers. Internet phones will change the way the world communicates. It's now possible to live in another country and have a US phone number, you can have several "virtual" phone numbers in different states or travel the world and bring your home phone with you. It's an exciting time in the world of communications – are you ready to switch to VoIP?

(C) Copyright 2005, Debbie Jacobsen. All rights reserved.

4 Types Of Office Layouts

The layout of your office determines your business culture. It also determines your output and that of your employees. There are many types of office layouts that you can go with. The most common being:

Cellular office

A cellular office is made up of sequentially arranged offices or cubicles. The offices can be for one person or more people. The cubicles or offices are located along the building façade and you access them from the shared hallways. The good thing about this layout is that it promotes autonomous work. It also allows you to focus more on your work without displaying it to the public. Studies also show that most employees feel secure when they are working in a cellular office.

Combination office

The layout is similar to that you find in a cellular office but here the offices surround common spaces instead of being connected by hallways. Just like in a cellular office layout, your employees have increased productivity as they concentrate on the tasks at hand. When they have something they would like to discuss, they can always discuss it in the common area. Experts recommend this type of layout when the employees have to regularly shift between individual tasks and teamwork.

Open office plan

This layout is characterized by no or low partitions. The employees might share one large table or have separate desks. While each employee has a distinct sitting area with a chair and computer, the entire workspace is shared. The main advantage with this layout is that it promotes a sense of community in the workplace. Due to the open nature, the employees are able to communicate better. If they are handling a team project, they are able to complete it fast as they communicate better.

Another advantage of the layout is that it saves a lot of space. According to experts, the layout is able to hold up to 50% more workstations than in the common cellular setup.

Co-working set up

Here, no employee has a specific working area. The chairs and computers are used by the person who gets there first. The layout is ideal for self-employed people that don’t have a working space of their own. When they pay a small fee they get to enjoy all the benefits of a workspace.


These are some of the ways in which you can set up your working space. To have an easy time you should work with an expert who will guide you on the best layout to go with depending on your needs.

How Much Should I Charge For My Commercial Cleaning Services?

You’ve bought all your cleaning supplies and equipment, told everyone you know that you have started a cleaning business and now you are ready to start bidding on jobs and getting down to work. So your next step is to meet with potential clients and put together a bid for their cleaning services. But how do you know what to charge for cleaning your potential client’s building?

Start off by remembering that you are in business to make a profit and earn a living. Sometimes the tendency is to price our services low in order to get our foot in the door. Pricing your services too low may mean you will end up working for very little per hour. And more importantly, will have little left over to reinvest in the growth of your company. There are cleaning companies that charge more than others and have all the work they can handle and there are companies that have lower fees yet are struggling to find work! Don’t sell yourself short or you will not be able to earn a living off your cleaning business.

The rates for commercial cleaning vary widely depending upon the area you live. Hourly rates are anywhere from $15 to $40 per hour depending on the type of services that you provide, whether or not you’re doing the work yourself, and your company’s overhead and expenses. Monthly square footage rates could run anywhere from $.05 to $.20 per square foot depending on the type of building you are cleaning and the frequency of cleaning. You’ll be able to bid a higher square footage price for medical facilities versus office buildings due to more specialized cleaning needs. You’ll likely bid a lower square footage price for large buildings versus small buildings. For example, you may bid $.08 per square foot for a 50,000 square foot building versus $.12 per square foot for an 8,000 square foot building.

You will most likely be charging your customers a monthly price and you will need to figure that price by estimating how long it will take to perform the services that your client has requested. The more productive you or your employees are, the higher the hourly production rate. If you’re able to clean 3,500 square feet per hour, your profit will be higher than if you’re only able to clean 2,500 square feet per hour, so adjust your price accordingly.

It’s also a good idea to find out what the “going rates” are in your area. A few phone calls to competitors may be necessary to get an idea of the basic charges in your area. Use a script when you call so you can compare apples to apples. So what do you say when you call? Try something like, “Hi, I have a small business office that I would like cleaned once a week. It is 3000 square feet and has two small restrooms. Can you give me a rough estimate of what you what you charge per month?” The person may or may not give you an estimate. Most contractors will insist on walking through the building, but it is worth a few phone calls so you have a ballpark figure on what cleaning companies in the area are charging.

To estimate what you should charge for cleaning a building, start by doing a walk-through with the building owner or manager. Keep track of the following:

* Frequency of cleaning (once a week, three times a week, five times a week). If frequency is one or two times per week, it’s best to estimate your time and multiply by your hourly rate. If cleaning 3 or more times per week you can estimate your time by the square foot.

* Overall square feet

* Types of floor surfaces and square footage of each (carpet, vinyl flooring, ceramic tile)

* Types of rooms – general office, break room, restrooms. Also note the number of toilets/stalls and fixtures in each restroom, as well as the types of restroom supplies used.

* Any special considerations – heavy traffic areas, elevators, unusual requests, etc.

* Make note of the specific services the client is seeking such as emptying trash, dusting, restroom cleaning, mopping and vacuuming.

The following services are specialized services and you should bid them separately, and list a per-service charge on your bid:

* Stripping and Waxing (.25¢ – .50¢ per square foot)

* Buffing/Burnishing (.03¢ – .07¢ per square foot)

* Machine Cleaning of Ceramic Tile floors (.12¢ – .21¢ per square foot)

* Carpet Cleaning (.12¢ – .25¢ per square foot)

* Carpet Spotting ($20 – $40 per hour)

* Cleaning appliances (microwave, refrigerator) – $10 – $35 per appliance

* Window Washing ($1.00 – $5.00 per pane)

Make sure you take enough notes so you can put together a realistic price that is fair to the client and one in which you will make a profit. After your first meeting with the client, go back to your office look through your notes and decide what it will cost you to clean the building. You may have to consult a production cleaning rate chart to determine how long it will take you and your staff to clean the building. Once you have an idea of how long it will take to clean the building you can put your cost estimate together:

* Estimate the time it will take by using a production cleaning rate chart or calculator.

* Determine your labor cost for cleaning the building one time.

* Determine your monthly labor cost to clean the building.

* Estimate a monthly cost for supplies. This will be a fairly low figure, perhaps 1 or 2% of monthly sales.

* Be sure to add in a profit margin!

Add up the figures and you will come up with your monthly cost. If you have access to a bidding calculator you will be able to put in a series of numbers and come up with a price. A bidding calculator will also show what profit you can expect to make. It is also advisable to add a first time cleaning charge. This is usually an hourly rate of perhaps $20 – $25 an hour. The first time you go through a building it will take longer and you may find the previous cleaning service may have left dirt in cracks and crevices that you will have to clean the first time through.

Once you have your price established, put your bid packet together. Your bid packet should specify what you are responsible for and what the client is responsible for (buying their own trash can liners, restrooms supplies, etc.). It should also include the monthly charge for cleaning services, how long the agreement is for, and the procedure to cancel the contract if either party is unhappy.

It is important to learn how to price your cleaning services so your customers know you are providing a professional service at a realistic price and so that you make a profit. After all, if you do not make a profit you won’t stay in business very long!

Copyright (c) 2006 The Janitorial Store

3 Ways to Collect and Use Solar Energy

If you measure the sun’s power in terms that compare it to the energy produced by oil, the sun gives enough energy to the Earth in about 20 minutes to fulfill all of the planet’s requirements for a year! And in fact, solar energy already provides a great deal of power to the Earth by transforming through a variety of natural means, by heating surfaces, influencing weather phenomenon, and even through photosynthesis, which provides plants with the energy they require in order to grow.

So what are some ways that we on Earth can take better advantage of all this freely distributed solar power? Energy from the Sun can be processed in three primary ways:

1. Passive Solar Techniques

This refers to the ways that the sun’s light and heat can be used to advantage without any further processing needed. This category includes things as simple as allowing sunlight to stream through a window and into a home, warning the rooms naturally.

Some ways to take advantage of passive solar techniques would be use of energy efficient windows, and planning the best placement of concrete and ceramic floors so that they can collect and store more sunlight.

A building that has been optimized for passive solar may have additional windows placed on the south side, for instance, to take advantage of the most hours of sun per day. Even something this simple can greatly reduce home energy bills.

2. Collection of Solar Energy

Solar power can be collected and stored as heat energy. Solar Collectors take in solar radiation and then concentrate it into very defined areas, increasing the strength and heat of the energy. These can be used to heat or cool water or rooms, or to create power to enable air or liquids to transfer heat to a separate location.

Different types of solar collectors include:

– A set of pipes that fits into a copper or metallic flat plate that has been insulated inside a box under glass. The sun streaming through the glass produces heat in the plate, which is then directed into the liquid in the pipes. This is known as a “Flat Plate Collector”.

– A tube is a more efficient way of collecting solar energy at high temperatures. This type of solar collector is made from a series of tubes, which are then installed in separate glass vacuum tubes. These prevent the inner tubes from cooling, and ensure that more heat is sent into the fluid. At extremely high temperatures, a reflector may be used in order to concentrate the solar energy into the tubes.

– Heating water using solar power was the first use of solar energy, starting in the early twentieth century. These systems can be used year round (even in cold climates when combined with use of anti-freeze), and are now commonly seen in many countries.

– Solar powered air heaters mounted to a wall are used primarily to heat the ventilation air for buildings that have large open spaces. The air comes through holes in a dark metal container where it is heated and is then taken into the building.

– A newer form of solar collector involves the use of mirrors to run steam turbines that create electricity. These thermal power systems are becoming particularly popular in hot, dry climates where there is a great deal of both sunlight and open land.

– Evacuated tube collectors can also be used to power cooling systems by taking the high temperature heat from the tubes. This technology can help reduce the use of natural gas, which would ordinarily be used to run cooling systems.

3. Solar Cells

Solar energy can be turned into electricity through use of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. This method uses modules each consisting of an array of solar cells which are connected together inside a glass covered container. Any number of these modules can be used together in order to produce a larger or smaller amount of power, depending on what is needed for a particular application. PV solar cells are usually made from crystalline silicon or quartz. Other materials that can be used are amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, or copper indium di-selenide.

The cost of making PV cells and solar panels (modules) has been decreasing recently with the development of new manufacturing techniques. These are widely used to provide power for remote stand-alone structures such as lighthouses and radio towers, and for heat and lighting in developing countries. The use of solar panels to supply energy for home use is increasing in developed countries as well, and many governments are encouraging their use by providing financial incentives to those who install solar panels for their residences. In addition, improvements in the process of constructing solar panels is now making it much easier for people to build their own, at a dramatic cost saving over commercial panels. It is now quite feasible for a homeowner to save a great deal on electricity by building and installing their own solar panels.

LED Benefits

Light-emitting diodes – once they were limited to simple indicators. Today they are so much more. Incandescent lighting is slowly replaced by these amazing creations of technology.

What makes these LEDs so important and why they promise to be so beneficial to you? This article is made to answer this question and let you glance at the face of technology today as it is.

For a long time LED's only visible color was red. And this was not the only thing limiting their use. Maybe this is why today there are still some manufacturers who keep their old habits on using the incandescent lighting.

The light made from a LED is not like the light made from incandescent bulb because it has only one color (wavelength) and one direction. This is a focused light source and it could be perfect for many applications like indicators but for too many others it's not so good.

It took some time for the LED designers to move around this obstacle but now there are two major solutions – multi-chip arrays and high-flux LED chips. These more advanced LEDs could achieve a closer effect to the one made from incandescent bulbs. That means that with this advancement LEDs are one step closer to the parameters that make the use of the old bulbs a need.

Some major advancement in the technology of LEDs provides the solution for any color you may need. The full visible spectrum of light could have been made as a LED: red, yellow, amber / orange till the cool looking vivid ultra blue. Even the white color is possible. Some time ago the developers of the LED technology believed that this will never be achieved. The new "doping" technologies increase LED light output by 20 times. That allows for the LEDs to be visible during day even in a sunny environment.

Let's take a look on what the incandescent light is giving us. We have a breakable glass package which could be a nasty hitch. Then we have a fragile inner body which life could have been shortened by a simple vibration. And finally the specialty of every incandescent bulb – 90% of the energy goes to heat.

With all these bad hints in mind let's proceed to the high efficiency of the LED technology with almost no heat generated during the process of energy transformation.

Some applications require colors. Let's compare the incandescent light and the LED technology regarding this use. The incandescent bulb will waste 90% of the energy on heat. In order for a color to be used a special filter should be placed in front of the light to filter only the color (wavelength of the light) we need. In the process 90% of the light is blocked by the filter. Simple math will easily show you that in the end you are using only 1% total efficiency for a colorful light made by an incandescent bulb. In the other hand we have the LED which will transform almost 100% of the energy directly to a one color light.

The truth is that what a marginal light source was before is not so marginal today. To see this for yourself examine the cars around you the next time you are in the traffic. Look for the taillights. Some of the cars are using a filtered red light from an incandescent bulb and some from red LEDs. See how more vivid the LED is in compare with the other one.

That's why today we could see on the market even standard LED lamps. And these lamps have it all – they are durable, daylight visible and a real blessing for every overworked observer.

It's time to look at a few indicators which will tell us more about LEDs. The first one is cost saving. For a facility of 1000 lamps after one year we will have approximately $ 3000 cost if we use incandescent bulbs. This is if we take in account only the major factor – the short life of these bulbs. But there are many other factors which are also important – the labor cost, power savings, operating downtime, incandescent bulb inventory and ordering costs.

The life time of the device is a very important criterion. LED lamps life is predictable and if they are used within their design parameters they will last around 10 years. One very important thing is that the life of the LED is not shortened when you turn them on and off. This however will not be true for the incandescent bulbs.

LEDs provide cooler operation. Taking in account the 90% losses on heat in the incandescent bulb technology this is not so hard to be accepted. But it's not just that. In the LEDs there is not filament that is heated for light generation. Their very design is not using the heat. Of course there is some heat dissipation in the LED body but it is far from the one in the incandescent bulb because there the whole idea is to generate heat and through this process – a light to appear.

Power consumption is another important parameter of every energy device. A standard 6S6 / 120V incandescent bulb use 50mA and its LED analogue is using 11mA. Almost 5 times lower power consumption means almost 5 times lower cost for energy every day. Do the math and you will see for yourself how much this efficient way of using the energy will help you reduce your costs per year.

One pretty nasty factor that comes with the incandescent bulb technology is called Cold Filament Inrush. This happens when the filament in the bulb is cold and you turn on the lamp. The lamp in this case will draw 10 times more current. If more lamps are powered simultaneously this will make a significant voltage surges which will shortly result in complete lamp failures. In LED lamps there are series resistors limiting the operating current. This will result in no current variations even if the very power grid is providing fluctuations. Some LED lamps have a shunt resistor too to bleed-off residual current.

In conclusion I should say that it is always up to you to choose what is best for you and everything under your control. LEDs are available and they could easily become your way of lighting things up.

Mountain Biking Review – Fox Suspension Fork 32 FLOAT RLC

In the last 2 years I have been fortunately to have spent a good amount of time mountain biking on Fox suspension set ups. I have driven the Fox 40, the TALAS and FLOAT series forks. What I have learned over the years is simply put; Fox knows mountain bike suspension. In this review we will cover the air sprung 08 Fox 32 FLOAT RLC.

This fork sits comfortably between the XC and all-mountain class of suspension. Of course we all live in different neighborhoods of the world, so definitions may vary depending on where you ride. The FLOAT offers 5.5 inches of air sprung travel, and in my part of the world (Pacific North West) that sits as an aggressive XC fork, and that is how we rode it.

The RLC version is loaded with all the goodies one could ask for in a performance fork. The fork's interface is convenient and easily adjusted. Redesigned levers with smooth edges compliment the forks ease of use, but also compliment its look looks. Rebound is located at arms-reach on the top of the right leg; Low speed compression is on the outer ring of the rebound and below the lockout lever, providing easy adjustments for action on the go.

It is really hard to find any fault with the plush qualities of this high-end offering. Adding improved dampening to an already proven system furthered the Float's luxurious performance. I honestly did not feel a huge difference between the 07 and 08, but that is nothing to complain about.

The compression lockout is the only area in which I found any weakness to the FLOAT. Not to be misunderstood, the compression lockout functions flawlessly but being locked out at 5 inches of travel will set the bike up with a higher front-end. Which is where the problem lies, the higher front-end pushes the rider back on the saddle and on up hills is where the lockout is not a perfect system. We found on certain bikes it was a chore to keep the front wheel on the ground during moderate to steep climbs.

This is not really a weakness, because you should know this before you buy. It is not something that any manufacturer is hiding but comes with any fork without adjustable travel lockout. The way around it is to spend a few more bucks and get a model (TALUS, Rock Shox U-Turn, etc …) that is capable of locking out at adjustable intervals. This will add a small amount of weight, but well worth the trade off in uphill efficiency but I think it is one of situations where, if you have never experience the better version then you might not even care.

While in lockout mode, you still have the comfort of not being completely rigid. The 'blowoff' sets waiting for any unexpected impact and will give you relief in the form of suspension to help keep you on your bike. The blowoff is adjustable to suit your needs and is located at the bottom of the leg, out of the way.

All who spent time on the FLOAT raved about its steering, stiffness and abilities to keep the track tracking the ground, and not bouncing us off of lines or the trail. The plush suspension certainly transported us through a few rough and rocky moments. Which is why I call this an aggressive XC to all-mountain fork. The performance allows you to be confident and predict the ride, which is crucial if you like to come in hot.

After a long summer of abuse, in the form XC racing, epics, all-mountain climbs and descents our test pilots, and myself all agreed that the FLOAT RLC is an extremely smooth riding high performance mountain bike fork. None of us had any complaints except that we all at one point or another wished for the adjustable lockout; Other than that the fork is tops and ideal for your all mountain – mountain biking adventures.

New Life For Route 66 Motels

John Steinbeck dubbed Route 66 The Mother Road, a road that was and is today the lifeblood of Williams, Arizona. Unlike most of historic Route 66 communities, Williams has preserved the heritage of The Mother Road and the historic motor hotels are experiencing a renaissance as new owners take over, in many cases run down properties, and re-energize them with unique furnishings and a fresh exterior. The business district with vintage shops and restaurants line old Route 66 and the entire town is very walk able with motels and shops along about ten blocks of historically preserved architecture.

When Rob Samsky first considered rehabilitating a vintage Route 66 motel he knew he had a big project ahead, the building was on the slate for condemnation by the city. Rob says “It was a labor of love and hard work for over a year with a whole lot of family and local community resources going into the rebirth of our motel. The pine wood that we used for the exterior treatment was cut from the forest right here and milled by a local sawmill. We combined many of the original rooms to create suites to make a very comfortable lodging experience.” The Lodge on Route 66 has the exterior character of the small vintage Route 66 motor hotels but the owners redefined the standard of luxury in all nine standard rooms and nine suites with wood and travertine flooring, top of the line pillow top mattresses with luxurious cotton linens, and solid wood furniture. Complimentary breakfast is served in the covered exterior cabana which is central to the motor court.

The Samsky family took on another significant renovation project to bring the motel across The Mother Road, the Downtowner, back to life. In this project the rooms have an upscale “downtown” feel with flat screen TV’s, granite & slate appointments and two of the 16 rooms have whirlpool tubs. The essence of the original Mother Road architecture has been preserved an, of course, a quieter and tamer Route 66 is right out the front door.

The Wild West Junction is a unique development that connects visitors to an era gone by that is the true Wild West heritage of territorial Arizona. Owners, Mike DuCharme and Jay Redfeather, dress the part of the vintage west as do all the employees at the Junction. The original motel has been totally reconfigured and is now one of the most unique tourist facilities in America. Staying in one of the six one-of-a-kind guestrooms in the Drover’s Hotel is like being invited to stay in someone’s museum. Each room portrays a theme from the Old West. A highlight of the Bordello single-queen room is a mural on one wall depicting an upscale brothel from the late 1800s. The rich décor of the room is worthy of the Madame of the establishment. The China Camp, with its two comfy Queen beds and Chinese motif, was decorated with the Chinese in mind who were such an integral part of the building of the West. If you like Westerns, then the Movie Memorabilia single-queen room is the perfect place to slumber, with movie posters on the walls, one of the ten original hats worn by Clint Eastwood in “Pale Rider”, as well as the “Quigley” gun, and a portrait of Tom Sellick over the bed. The Hacienda is a two-room suite, with fireplace, wet bar, Jacuzzi tub, and two private patios.

To recognize the heritage of the Chinese laborers who built the railway that comes through Williams, the Junction owners created Hop Sings Chinese Restaurant. The building is new but, like the rest of the Junction, it looks like it has been standing since the heyday of the era of the wild west. Dining is on two floors with four outdoor patios and an upstairs bar with a terrific view of the sunsets, mountains, and the Ponderosa Pine forest that surrounds Williams. With the Typhoon Saloon Restaurant & Bar within footsteps of the Drover’s Hotel, as well as the Territorial Museum, the Courtyard where most days cowboys hang out (and most nights there is live entertainment), the Wild West Junction is a great place to relive the Old West and stay right on The Mother Road, Route 66.

Job Interview Dress Code for a Rainy Day

What to wear to a job interview can be a complicated decision. You want to make a great first impression at the interview and you have painstakingly planned what to wear. Problem is, mother nature didn’t get the memo that your perfect job interview outfit did not take into consideration a rainy day.

So what do you do?

Well, you still want to show up dressed for a job interview, looking sharp and ready for success. Even though the interviewers may not remember what you are wearing, they should remember that your appearance was polished and professional. In the job interview, you will be evaluated on what you are wearing as much as what you are saying.

Here is a quick “job interview clothes” guide for a rainy day:

Clothes – The default job interview dress code is conservative or business attire. Wear a pant suit or dress pants on a rainy day. You will protect your legs from getting wet and it won’t be as noticeable. Stick to darker neutral colors like navy and black because you will still look sharp even if you get a little wet. I usually recommend a dress shirt or blouse in white or a light pastel color like pink, blue and green. But for a rainy day, I recommend staying away from white because you will end up with a see-through shirt if you do get soaked.

Shoes – You should never wear open shoes or sandals to an interview and a rainy day is no exception. Wear conservative pumps and make sure you select a pair of heels that isn’t too high since you will be navigating through wet and slippery terrain. Trust me, there will be puddles everywhere and your goal will be to do everything possible not to trip and fall in the parking lot, at the entrance of the building or in the lobby.

Accessories – If it’s raining, your best accessories will be a nice umbrella and matching raincoat. It’s hard to look professional when you are holding a multicolored umbrella with polka dots and wearing a bright red raincoat. Stick to dark neutral colors like black and navy to match your job interview outfit.

Hair – Your job interview hairstyle is the first to go on a rainy day and the hardest to put back together when you have left the house. Pick a simple hairstyle that is easy to fix in the event that it’s also a windy day. It can make or break your entire look. Again, you want it to be polished, not messy and out of place when you arrive. Choose to pull your hair back in a ponytail instead letting it hang loose if you can.

Purse – You’ll have plenty to hold already with an umbrella and raincoat in your hands so keep your purse or handbag small. Stick to a leather bag or briefcase since it wipes dry easily and carries off a professional look regardless of the weather.

Your attire for job interviews even on a rainy day only needs a couple of adjustments to work. Sounds pretty simple right?

Effective Treatments To Control Bleeding Quickly

Everyone has had a cut, a nosebleed, or a tooth pulled. Whatever the reason, any time a blood vessel is torn, blood leaks into the tissue. Usually, this bleeding stops within minutes. Certain substances (factors) in your blood, together with special blood cells (platelets), react quickly to make your blood clot. If you have a problem with your platelets, your blood will not clot properly, and you will continue to bleed even after minor injuries. Bleeding may occur anywhere in your body with possible acute blood loss. Abnormal clotting, or the lack of clotting, may be caused by malnutrition, infections, drug reactions, anemia, leukemia, or inherited disorders like hemophilia.

If your blood vessels are weakened or damaged for any reason, you may bruise easily. The bruises that some women notice on their thighs or hips called “devils pinches” are usually not serious, but should always be evaluated by a doctor. Elderly people with fragile skin may also bruise easily, especially on the backs of their hands and on their forearms. That is usually not a cause for concern.

Probable Treatments of Bleeding

If you are bleeding heavily (hemorrhaging), the first step is obviously to stop the blood loss and determine the cause.

  1. If possible, apply direct pressure to the bleeding site.
  2. If the bleeding is from an arm or leg injury, you may use a tourniquet, but loosen it every few minutes.
  3. If your gums are bleeding, try packing with cotton gauze temporarily.
  4. For nosebleeds, lean forward and pinch your nostrils. Never bend your head back; avoid swallowing the blood.
  5. If your bleeding is caused by a clotting abnormality, you may need tests to determine the exact problem.

Severe internal bleeding may require emergency surgery to prevent significant blood loss or damage to an organ. Know your blood type and carry adequate identification with you at all times in case you require an emergency blood transfusion.

There are many other types of bleeding that needs to be sorted out on time. Otherwise, results could be worst. Such as implantation bleeding, Rectal bleeding, bleeding after sex.

Implantation Bleeding

Implantation bleeding can deem as an intimation of pregnancy. This particular bleeding shows one of the earliest signs of pregnancy that occurs for almost 1 out of 3 women who conceive. You can have a better idea for implantation bleeding if you see pink or brown spots.

Bleeding Emergency – Call Your Physician When

  • You are bruising with no apparent reason.
  • You notice bleeding that does not stop after a few minutes – call immediately.
  • You have blood in your urine, stool, vomitus, or sputum – call immediately.
  • If you have excessive bleeding.

Bird Control – It’s Not Just For the Birds

Bird control is for home and boat owners, property and city managers, architects, churches, sports fans at ballparks, the list goes on and on. Basically it’s to keep our structures and statues clean and sanitary by safely discouraging our fine-feathered friends from landing, pooping and nesting on our prized possessions, including our food. While birds destroy many worms and insects that infest orchards, blackbirds and starlings will attack apple orchards and peck holes in apples just as they begin to ripen. So even here, bird control is essential.

More importantly, bird control can save lives. The FAA says that birds are attracted to airports with disastrous results. A tragic example is U.S. Airways flight 1549, which was forced to make an emergency landing in the Hudson River after a flock of geese flew into its engines. Between1976 and 2007, there were 76,000 reports of accidents with birds and aircraft, and of those, 11 people died.

So whether it’s pigeons, sparrows, seagulls, starlings, crows or geese, bird pests can cause all sorts of problems. Not the least of which is the high concentration of uric acid found in bird droppings. It can discolor paint, stain wood, erode metal, even crumble concrete and expensive stonework. And don’t forget the health risk of bacteria, fungi and parasites that live and grow in bird droppings, which can carry and transmit any of 60 known diseases. The fleas, mites and ticks that attach themselves to birds can also carry disease. All told, the costs to cleanup and repair what pest birds do runs into the millions of dollars annually.

One especially effective bird control device is the bird spike. Ideal for keeping pest birds from landing on rooftops, awnings, gutters and girders. Some spikes are made of rigid U.V.-resistant unbreakable polycarbonate. Others have flexible stainless steel spikes. They come in a variety of widths and colors, are easy to install and won’t harm birds. Be sure to install a sufficient amount of spikes to cover an entire ledge to keep birds from sneaking around them. And close off corners and all open sides of a ledge.

Bird control netting is another highly effective bird control solution. Ideal for courtyards, patio covers, and rooftops. Properly installed, pigeon netting presents an impenetrable barrier against these pest birds. If you want to keep birds away from fruit trees, crops, vineyards, you’ll need agricultural netting. For buildings and other structures, try heavy-duty bird netting. It’s most often prescribed by architects. Its ISO 1806 mesh test polyethylene fabric is U.V. stabilized, flame resistant and rot and waterproof. The sub-zero stable, non-conductive webbing comes in 3/4″, 1-1/8″ and 2″ mesh sizes to control a variety of birds. Be sure to place the netting over window recesses, balconies or even whole rooftops to prevent birds from reaching nesting areas.

Another simple, but effective bird control measure is the bird slope. These slippery PVC panels are ideal for ledges, eaves, beams and other 90-degree areas where birds tend to nest and roost. The steep angles they present won’t allow birds to get a grip, causing them to simply slide off and move on. Bird slope panels come in a variety of colors to match any structure’s décor. They can be easily glued to any surface or screwed to wood. Be sure to use UV stabilized polycarbonate panels that can be painted to match the structure.

Other bird control products used by many building managers include electric-track bird repellers. These present birds with a harmless, but irritating mild electric shock that discourages them from landing. Once shocked, birds alter their habits to nest or feed on that particular building. Ideal for use on ledges, rooftops, and flat or curved surfaces like signs. Building and restaurant owners often prefer this method of bird control because its low-profile electrified track conforms to any architectural configuration. And because it’s almost invisible close-up or to those looking up from below. Choose a flow-through design to prevent water from damming up on rooftops and other surfaces. These systems use copper knitted wire mesh that’s stronger than steel, resistant to corrosion and highly resistant to alkali and acidic environments. The knitted design features a single strand of higher gauge wire and a tube-within-a-tube design for greater conductivity, strength and reliability.

One novel bird control device is a Solar Powered bird repeller. Its arms rotate at 30 RPM and gently sweep birds away. Ideal for pigeons, seagulls and larger birds, the repeller can be used on signs, billboards, parapet walls, roofs, or any flat surface, including outdoor eating areas. Their are also a number of sonic bird repellers available for a wide range of outdoor applications.

For bird control on a budget, there are an almost endless number of “bird scare” products currently on the market. They discourage birds from landing on trees, overhangs, gazebos, patios, eaves, pool areas, and other areas. They include iridescent reflective foil or flash tape and inflatable balloons imprinted with lifelike reflective predator eyes and markings. Some bird repellers have iridescent foil eyes to scare away birds by day and glow-in-the-dark backsides to keep them away at night.

Finally, for a fast and economical bird control solution, there’s bird gel. This non-toxic, sticky chemical leaves a surface that’s tacky and uncomfortable to most birds. The gel skins but never sets hard, providing an unstable surface for the birds to land on. Birds hate it, yet it’s safe for both birds and people.

Putting the Finishing Touches on Your Parking Lot

After sealing a parking area or paving your lot, you know you'll need to have new parking lines striped and other pavement markings made for things like handicapped spaces and crosswalks. But, what some people overlook when freshening up the appearance of their parking area are their parking lot signs.

Parking lot signs are important to the organization, safety and security of your parking lot. From directional signs to pedestrian crossing signs there are hundreds of different types of parking lot signs to choose from.

Your paving contractor can not only handle all of your asphalt paving needs, but they also usually experts in line striping design and pavement marking layouts. They can also install high quality traffic signs and safety devices.

What type of signage do you need?

Directional Parking Signs – This type of sign helps drivers find entrances, exits, specific buildings, parking areas, and more. These signs help clearly and professionally indicate where parking is available or point the direction to an exit with an arrow and the word exit clearly marked.

Fire Lane Signs – To ensure that fire trucks and ambulances have access to your building and parking area as quickly as possible, fire lane signs clearly designed fire lanes and no parking areas.

Pick Up and Drop Off Signs – Posting pick up and drop off signs or loading zones signs on your property will indicate to drivers where the proper zones are in your parking facility. These signs can be beneficial to your customers who may have purchased a large item. They can pull their vehicle directly into the designated loading area. For visitors dropping children or elderly people, a parking lot sign that designates a drop off area can be beneficial to a driver so that they will know where it is safe to stop and left their passengers away.

Parking Lot Property Signs – If you're looking to enforce safety and security policies in parking lots to deter unwanted activities, consider getting a few parking lot signs to display your properties notices, regulations or restrictions. You've seen them at other facilities, the words may vary but will read something to this effect: NOTICE, We are not responsible for theft or damage to vehicles or contents, park at your own risk. Or, another option would be one that read: Private Property, NO loitering, soliciting, skateboards, rollerblades.

Pedestrian Crossing Signs – To clearly mark crosswalk areas, crosswalk signals get the attention of drivers and pedestrians and offer crossing directions. Some signs may read: State Law, Stop for Pedestrians within Crosswalk.

Introduction to Documentary Credits

Introduction: Banks, as we know, lend money to the public, for various purposes. Like purchase of a home, a car, or other consumer durables etc. They also extend loans to Industries that manufacture various goods, and machineries, and also to service industries that provide various services, like a salon, internet kiosk, etc., to the community.

Banks play a vital role in the development process of any nation, by providing finance for different activities related to trade and commerce. This includes both domestic and international trade and commerce.

One of the ways in which commercial banks facilitate international trade and commerce, is by way of extending a non fund financing facility or mechanism called the Documentary Credit (DC), or the Letter of Credit (LC).

This mechanism to facilitate international trade was developed under the terms of the International Chamber of Commerce, Paris. The rules and regulations etc., governing the Documentary Credits, and the transactions thereunder, are contained in what is known as the Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits.

Definition: A Documentary Credit (DC), or Letter of Credit (LC), (they are one and the same), is a legally binding undertaking given by a Bank on behalf of its customer, in favor of a third party, to make Payment to him (the third party), the stated sum of money against submission of the required documents, as per the terms of the DC.

A simple example of a DC transaction goes thus: English Oriental Bank, a commercial Bank, based in London, UK, establishes a DC on account of one of its clients, M / s. Hudson Industries, favoring Software Company in Bombay, India, by name, Zed Software Co., Ltd. Details of this Documentary Credit and how it works is discussed below.

The under contracting contract of this DC is as follows: Zed Software Co (ZSC) has a contract to supply to Hudson Industries, technical software, related to the maintenance of a gas turbine, under contract, by Hudson Industries. The value of the contract is Pound Sterling 500,000.00. The typical problems and issues that can arise from a business proposition like this, may refer to the different rules and regulations of trade, in the relevant countries; The different currencies, and the differential exchange rates applicable to them; The different customs and practices awaiting in the two countries, that can pose communication and other problems between the buyer and seller etc. That apart, the buyer and seller, in this case, the Hudson Industries, and Zed Software may not know each other, and may not be sure as to how far they can trust each other.

Each of them may confront questions for which they have no answers. Like, Zed S0ftware may find more comfort in receiving advance payment from Hudson Industries, before supplying them the software. On the other hand, Hudson Industries is not sure of receiving the contracted for software, if it makes advance payment. Or the software may not be of the same quality etc that they had thought and paid for. So they would like to receive the software in advance, so they could check the same and satisfies themselves. Here, there would be a stalemate here, with either of the parties budging from their relevant positions.

It is here that Banks come into the picture, along with their tools to facilitate transactions like these, between buyer and seller, based in different countries. Now, in a case such as this, Hudson Industries would approach their Bankers, the EOB, to open a DC in favor of their Indian supplier, Zed Software, for the supply of the software, in the value of Pound Sterling 500,000.00.

Let us assume that EOB accede to the request of their customer, and establish a DC for the amount of Pound Sterling 500,000.00, favoring Zed Software Co, subject to terms and conditions as per their credit policies. EOB then advises this DC to Zed Software, through their Correspondents in India, say, Indian Future Bank (IFB), who, in turn, would advise the DC to Zed Software. Let us assume that Zed Software is a client of IFB. Upon receipt of the DC, the company would know that they kind of product or service it is expected to supply to Hudson Industries, and other details relevant to the contract.

According to the terms of the DC, ZSC is required to submit documents as per DC terms, in relation to the contract for the supply of the software to Hudson Industries, and claim payment from their own Bank, the IFB. Some of the most important documents to be submitted under this transaction include the commercial invoice, the bill of exchange, the certificate of origin, the transport document like the airway bill, etc. The IFB, upon receipt of the documents, from ZSC, scrutinize the same, and if they are in consonance with the terms of the DC, make necessary payment to their customer, and in turn, claim reimbursements from EOB, the Bank that established the DC. EOB, in turn, scrutinize the documents submitted by the IFB, and if found in order, reimburse IFB for the amount claimed by them. Thereupon, the EOB present the documents to their customer, Hudson Industries, and recover the money paid by them to the IFB.

This is a simple example of how a DC works. This example pertains to one particular type of DC, of ​​which there are many. It is also assumed in this case, that there are no complications throughout the transaction, and it ends peacefully, with all the parties concerned happy about the outcome.

In real life situations, of course, many a problem arises, either in respect of the documents submitted by the beneficiary, or the manner in which the two Banks, or the parties handle the transaction, or any other reason related to the transaction.

Conclusion: Banks, as facilitators of international trade and commerce have been served well by the mechanism of the Documentary Credit. The beauty of these credits is that they provide appropriate protection, as required, by the seller, buyer, the seller's Bank, and the buyer's Bank, while extracting their share of responsibility under the transaction.

The DCs have acted as a sort of bridge between buyers and sellers of goods and services, based in different countries, bringing them together, through the agency of the Banks.

Since they came into being in 1933, DCs have no doubt played a significant role in cross border trade, overcoming the barriers of language, customs and practices, currencies, etc. And last, but not the least, they are an important source of business and revenues to the Commercial Banks, and are expected to grow even more in importance, in the coming years.

My Air Bag Did Not Deploy – What Went Wrong?

One of the most common phone calls we receive is from consumers wondering why their air bag did not deploy during a crash. This article describes how air bag deployment thresholds are established, the kinds of crashes during which air bags should deploy, and crashes where they may not deploy. It also provides information on several different defects that may be liable for the air bag failing to deploy when it should deploy.

Air Bag Deployment Thresholds

Conventional air bags are generally designed to deploy in certain frontal crashes above the thresholds selected by the manufacturer. Unfortunately, the consumer often can not determine the thresholds for their car, as they vary widely between manufacturers, and even vary among different models from the same manufacturer. However, there are some general guidelines that are helpful for consumers.

Although there were some variations, most frontal air bags from the 1990s were designed to deploy in crashes above a threshold level of 14 mph into a solid concrete barrier. At the same time, most air bag systems were also designed to never deploy in crashes below 8 mph into a solid concrete barrier. Between these two speeds, the air bags may or may not deploy, depending on the specifics of the accident and vehicle.

However, please note that these times are based on crash tests into a solid concrete barrier. Therefore, if your car has stuck something that moved or deformed (like another car, utility pole or guardrail), these thresholds could have been considered higher. For example, a 14 mph barrier test may be equivalent to a frontal crash at 28 mph into a parked car. Also, these thresholds for air bag deployment have generally increased since the 1990s, with some now reaching 18 miles per hour, recognizing that air bags can cause more injuries than they prevent in minor accidents.

If your crash severity exceeds the car company's thresholds, and yet your air bags did not deploy, you may well have a defect in your vehicle's air bag system.

Crashes Where the Air Bag Should Deploy

Your air bags should deploy in every crash where they will help prevent your injuries. This means that your air bag should deploy in those crashes where you would otherwise suffer injuries of the type that the air bag is designed to prevent: head, neck, and chest injuries. For example, your frontal air bag should deploy in an accident where your head would otherwise be injured fromitting your steering wheel.

Although frontal air bags are generally not designed to deploy in side impacts or rollovers, in some cases they should deploy in those kinds of crashes. That is because some side impacts or rollovers also cause front-to-back deceleration that causes you to move forward inside your vehicle. One example would be if you were driving at highway speed and were hit on the side of your car: in addition to crushing in the side of the car, your car would also slow down its forward motion quickly, which could be enough to deploy your Frontal air bags. Similarly, frontal air bags should generally not deploy in rear impacts; However, if you are hit from behind and pushed into a car in front of you, that second impact to your car's front end may justify deployment of your air bags.

For side impact air bags, they should generally deploy on the side of the car experiencing the side impact. Similarly, rollover "curtain" air bags should deploy when the vehicle experiences a rollover, to help prevent head and neck injuries and to reduce the risk of being ejected through an open or shattered window.

Examples of crashes where air bag deployment would be expected include moderate to severe crashes involving your front bumper or the front corners of your vehicle, frontal impacts to a utility or telephone pole, and under-ride impacts where the front of your car goes under the Side or back of a truck.

Crashes Where the Air Bag Should Not Deploy

Your air bags should not deploy in those accidents where they will not prevent your injuries. After all, air bags can deploy at speeds of more than 200 mph, and you should not be exposed to those kinds of forces if it will not help you. Thus, your frontal air bags should not deploy in side impacts, rear impacts and rollovers where there is no significant deceleration from front to back.

Other examples of crashes where your air bags should not generally deploy include:

O Minor frontal crashes
O Most impacts to the undercarriage of the vehicle, such as when crossing a railroad
O Impacts with animals such as deer or dogs
O Impacts with street curbs or parking blocks
O Driving on rough roads, including those with large potholes, gravel or bumps

Of course, your air bags should never deploy when your vehicle is not in an accident. Although this looks obvious, there are actually many cases where this has occurred, often due to poor design of the air bag system software, or due to electrical issues with the air bag system.

Why Your Air Bag Did Not Deploy

There are several reasons why your air bag may not have deployed during a crash. The first reason is that although your crash is not the type of accident where air bag deployment would be helpful. For frontal air bags, this includes many, but not all, side impacts, rear impacts and rollovers. This category also includes minor accidents in which the driver and front passenger (if there was one) did not suffer any significant injuries requiring medical treatment.

The second reason is that there could be a defect that preceded the crash sensors from detecting the crash properly. Our investigation and analysis of air bag systems in hundreds and hundreds of crashes has revealed numerous causes that fall within this category. In some cases, the air bag deployment threshold is simply not set appropriately, often due to insufficient testing. In other cases, a flaw in the software of the air bag control module has caused it to ignore the data from one of the crash sensors. In still other cases, there are simply too few sensors to properly detect real-world crashes; This often results from overly zealous cost-reduction efforts by car companies that are trying to improve their finances. In a few cases, quality control efforts have failed to prevent defective sensors or air bag control modules from reaching the public.

The third reason is that there could be a defect that preceded the deployment signal from reaching the air bag modules and deploying them. Here, the problem usually lies with the electrical components and wiring between the crash sensors, control module and the air bag modules. The most frequent defect in this category that we see is when the driver air bag fails to deploy, but the passenger air bag does deploy. In many cases, this is due to a defective clockspring located in the steering column. Millions of defective clocksprings have been recalled, generally due to poor quality control at either the supplier's production plant or the car company's assembly plant.

Another defect in this category is when the wiring is routed through vulnerable areas, resulting in wires that get cut early during a crash sequence. Although the sensor then detects the crash, the cut wires prevent the signal from reaching the air bag modules.

The fourth reason is that there could be a defect that preceded the actual air bag modules from deploying correctly. In a few cases, the crash sensors and air bag control modules have commanded deployment of the air bags, but the air bags failed to respond. This is almost always due to defects within the air bag modules themselves, usually due to poor quality control.