How to Get Rid of Sour House Smell

You should start with the basics first; chances are, if you’ve reached the point of looking for help in terms of getting rid of sour house smells on the Internet, then you need to do some serious cleaning. Set aside a day, or a weekend, specifically for cleaning.

If you don’t want to or you can’t do it alone, enlist the help of those you live with. Perhaps you can also ask for your friends’ help. Bribe them with pizza and beer or brochettes and wine if you have to. Afterwards, use the following suggestions to get rid of your house smell, and maintain a fresh, aromatic or at least breathable living space.

Sour House Smell Removal

* Dry out the living quarters first, and then clean out your basement so it is empty of anything that can hold moisture and run it down there as well. Remove cardboard boxes.

* If you have a forced air heating and cooling system with ducts on your home, get the ducts checked. Decades-old houses can have mold, lots of built-up of dirt and other nasty stuff that can cause a foul odor. Your ducts can also be rusting now, so you may need to have them changed.

The newer ducts available on the market today are much more energy efficient. You’ll save air conditioning costs this summer by getting new ducts. You can also hire a company that cleans ducts to inspect the ducts you have right now. Some have a camera that can show you what is in your ducts. Be careful who you get! Use a reputable company and check with the Better Business Bureau. Ask them for references. Some only clean a short way and spray a deodorizer. The estimate to get your ducts cleaned can be hundreds of dollars less than getting new ones.

* Check your carpets. Sometimes carpets are steam cleaned unprofessionally and a lot of water remains. This causes mildewing and a related musty odor.

Remove your carpets and put in hardwood or similar type flooring, with area rugs that can be cleaned outside of the home and dried before returning to the area. If your carpets are ten years old, it doesn’t hurt to remove them.

* You may have a mold of some sort growing in your carpet or behind your wallpaper. Create a bleach solution (1:10 to start, then up to 1:4 if it does not work) and gently wash down all of your walls and mop boards. Rent a hot water carpet cleaner and put a bleach solution into the reservoir rather than the soap they try to sell you. Add a drop or two of dish soap, but add no more. It is the water that cleans, not the soap. Adding too much soap will actually make your carpet dirty because it does not rinse out of the carpet and soap bonds with dirt.

* Though chlorinated bleach is very notorious in discoloring a lot of things, you may risk using that for really heavy-smelling jobs, even on dark carpets. If you’re still wary, there’s always oxygen bleach. It kills “everything” that may be causing an odor and the hot water cleaning really helps allergies as well.

Keep babies off the rugs as breathing chemicals of any sort is especially bad for them. If the smell comes back more quickly than you think it should, get a dehumidifier.

* Never run a dehumidifier where you have an open window or you will dry out the immediate atmosphere of your home. An air conditioner actually works even better because of the filtering system in it, but if it is too cold where you live to still be using one, then stick with the dehumidifier.

* To rid your linoleum or hardwood floors of that not-so-fresh-smell, simply mix a 3:1 solution of warm water and white vinegar in your mop bucket and get to work. Remember to crack a window or two. Vinegar has a good clean smell, but it’s a strong one.

Sour House Smell Removing Products

* Buy a large pump of Febreze since it works on everything. Smelly hampers, sticky cars, sleeping bags that reek of camp fire… you name the smell, Febreze can quell. You can get it at most supermarkets.

Another idea is to use a citrus odor neutralizing spray; it’s so effective that beauticians actually use this at salons to get rid of perm smell.

* An Ozone Generator or Air-born Hydrogen Peroxide Device can also work, but they tend to be expensive and may not get to the root of the problem. Covering or filtering odors is always more costly than eliminating their source.

* If you want something a little cheaper, you can try Ozium Air Freshener-it’s the best way to keep the air in your home or work space clean and smelling fresh. Ozium does not cover up the odors associated with sour smelling houses – it eliminates them!

Ozium, the original air purifier, is a chemical agent that actually eliminates unpleasant odors and reduces airborne bacteria. Ozium actually cleanses the air through glycolized action. The Ozium glycolized formula acts directly on odor causing particles in the air.

* Electrostatic Air Filters are good for getting rid of dust buildup, but can be bad if they don’t operate properly. Electrostatic air filters work by ionizing the air that passes through the filter, collecting dust from the air by creating an electrostatic field, like a comb collects particles after being run through dry hair quickly enough.

Why are electrostatic dust collectors be bad for you? If they don’t operate properly, they can produce ozone, which is a respiratory irritant. So make sure you do your research before investing in one of these air filters.

* Try Renuzit, in any scent. If you can, try to find the Super Odor Killer scent. The fragrance in SOK (introduced in 1972) is not readily identifiable, because SOK uses a blend of perfumes left over when fragrance manufacturers produced a little too much for another company’s orders.

This blend is not only good at masking a variety of odors, it can slightly be used at higher fragrance levels without overwhelming the user. The popular and more readily available Country Kitchen scent will also suffice.

* Fresh Wave has an array of all natural, non-toxic and earth friendly products for laundry, upholstery, floors and ventilation that are designed to attract, capture and neutralize sour house odors.

Sour House Smell Prevention

* The best way to stop sour house smell from building up is to clean as you go. Put things away as soon as you’re done using them. Throw things away as soon you know you won’t use them. Everyday maintenance is the key to a breathable, livable home.

Have a presence of mind when it comes to cleanliness. Create a small space for things to be donated and recycled and clear it out as soon as it gets full. Limit your storage space and “junk” drawers so you don’t have the opportunity to just toss clutter in a closet and forget about it.

* People will tell you that the best way to get rid of mold – one of the main contributors of bad house odor – is to use an ionizing air purifier to help pull the pollutants and mold spores out of the air. Well, they’re half right.

An air purifier isn’t a bad idea for preventing mold growth, but those ionized air filters can cause health problems if they’re not constructed properly. Sometimes if an ionizing air filter isn’t built right, it will spit out ozone which, as scientists will tell you, is good for the atmosphere and bad for your lungs.

Serious complications can arise if you’re using the wrong air purifier. Choose wisely and make sure you buy from a reputable company.

Installing Vinyl Replacement Windows on the Second Floor

If you have a two story house, and you are going to replace the windows on both the first and second floor, there are little tricks that you can use to make the upper floor job a bit safer and easier. If the windows are replacement style frames, you install them from inside the house, so the only thing that you will do different than the first floor windows is to use an extension ladder to caulk the exterior. So, let’s talk about doing retrofit style windows on the second floor. You can usually remove the old window from inside the house, but if you have a picture window, you have to use the extension ladder to remove the stops holding the glass in place. Then, you can go inside the house and cut the glass free from the frame using a utility knife. Put a tarp on the ground below the window, to catch any glass pieces that may fall during the removal. Also, don’t forget to keep people and animals away from the area below the window.

Once you are ready to install the new window, you can do it from inside the house. Remember, when installing retrofit style frames, you install them from outside and raise them into place. Instead, carry the window upstairs. If it’s a slider, remove the screen and sliding panel. Then, using a helper, you can angle the window frame through the opening, extending the retrofit lip completely outside of the opening before pulling the window back toward you, and installing the window as if you were outside. Have your helper hold the center bar while you put a screw into the top center to hold the frame in place. You can do the entire installation from inside. The only time you will need to go on the extension ladder is when you’re ready to caulk the exterior. Make sure you put a generous amount of caulk where the top of the frame meets the stucco or exterior material. You don’t want any water getting past the new frame, otherwise it can work it’s way through the wall and down through the ceiling or the walls. You would be surprised how easily two people can install an 8′ wide by 5′ tall sliding window on the second floor if you remove the sliding panels and screens. In fact, my helper and I did one 10′ wide and 5′ high. That was the biggest one I ever did on the second floor. You can run a bead of caulk on the outside face of the old frame before installing the new frame right from inside the room.

Now, if you are installing a picture window, it’s a little tougher. You can’t remove any panels to lighten the load, and it’s tougher to get as firm a grip on the frame. But, on the positive side, picture windows aren’t usually much larger than 3′ by 5′ on the second floor. If you have a large picture window, or if you have several to install, I have access to suction cups that are used in the glass industry. You can attach them to the glass and use them as handles when extending the frame outside through the opening. Contact me on my website at How to install windows if you want to get pricing on suction cups. You can get the smaller, inexpensive models for around $40 each.

So, if you are hesitating to replace your old windows yourself because you didn’t think you could do the upstairs windows, now you know you can. Next week’s topic is going to be about replacing the rollers on your patio door. If you can’t hardly open your sliding glass door anymore, a couple of new rollers can make all the difference in the world.

Sweet 16 Party Ideas – Plan a Fairytale Party

Your sixteenth birthday party celebration must be very special and extraordinary. Turning sixteen means that you are nearly going to be a full-grown lady. That is why there must be a great plan to make your birthday party a very memorable one.

One of the most popular themes for birthdays is a Fairytale party. Imagine wearing a gown like Cinderella’s, with diamond necklace and earrings, and a pair of gorgeous glass sandals. You will surely look like a princess. This will definitely make your favorite bedtime story come to life.

To make this fantasy real, make sure to come up with the perfect plan for your birthday. Every detail must be excellent to make your day the best party ever. Here are the things that you need to plan for each step.

Step 1. The theme. Think of the princess character that you wish to be. You may be Snow White, Princess Jasmine, Cinderella, or Sleeping Beauty.

Step 2. The Invitation. Come up with a personalized invitation that will tell your guests all the necessary information. Never forget to include the date, time, location, and the proper dress code. Would not it be nice to have all your guests wear fairytale costumes as well? That will make your party look like those in the fairytale world. You can make your invitation artistic and creative. You can even place your picture if you want. That will make it more unique and personalized.

Step 3. The location. Your venue must be fantastic and must blend with the fairytale theme. Decorate it like those you find in the fairytale movies. Make it look like a royalty. A venue that has a staircase would also be wonderful. You can make a great entrance upon the announcer’s signal. Now, that is really cool.

Step 4. The food. Celebrating an enchanted party like yours must be coupled with sumptuous and finger licking food. Have some appetizers, a buffet of delicious menu, sweet desserts, and sparkling wines and champagnes. And do not forget the cake. Your table decorations is important too. You may use golden tablecloths, golden spoons and forks, and beautiful flowers as the centerpiece.

Step 5. The themes and dance. After a delicious meal, there must be some exciting games and activities. Think of great prizes and goodies as rewards, such as yummy candy bars, sweet chocolates, and many more. Afterwards, you can have the Royal dance. Dance with your Dad, your Mom, your brothers and sisters, and your guests. You will be shining like a beautiful star with your gorgeous dress and silver crown.

Step 6. The party Favors. To make your birthday a memorable one, give your guests some fairytale party favors. Some of the great giveaways are Princess Theme Sweet 16 or Quince Castle Cake Topper, Ivory Fairytale Castle Place Card Holder, Cinderella Slipper Fairy Tale Candles, Crystal Long Stem Rose, and a whole lot more.

With this wonderful and enchanting plan, your birthday will be the talk of the town. Your sixteenth birthday comes only once. So make the most out of it. Make it extra fun, cool, and exciting.

Top 6 Construction Site Hazards!

Construction sites are considered the most potentially hazardous and accident-prone parts of any working environment. Excessive exposure to these construction site hazards exposes workers to injury and possible death. To prevent this, a company should know how to identify and be aware of all possible dangers that can be encountered during normal business operations. The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) wants every employee to have sound knowledge of their susceptibility to harm or injury in the workplace.

Listed below are the top six construction site hazards identified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA):

  1. Electrical- Electricity is one of the greatest hazards to people either at home or at work. Power line workers, electricians and electrical engineers work continuously with electricity and can face exposure to this hazard on a daily basis. At the construction site, the best way to prevent this kind of hazard is for the power line workers to be a safe working distance away from the power lines. Other precautionary measures includes guarding and insulating of the vehicle from which they might work. This would help prevent electrical hazards from injuring them while working.
  2. Excavation and Trenching – OSHA has recognized excavation and trenching as the most hazardous construction site operation. From the year 2000 to 2006, the United States Bureau of Labor and Statistics (USBLS) recorded 271 worker fatalities in trenching and cave-ins. These hazards are preventable yet injuries related to these hazards are still happening. Both employer and employee must follow safety standards and use protective equipment to minimize hazards while trenching and excavating.
  3. Falls – Falling from scaffolding over six feet or a fixed ladder over twenty feet is the most dangerous and common construction site hazard. Falling from high places such as a ladder, scaffolding and roofs account for more than fifty percent of the accidents that happen at the workplace. The usual cause of this incident is slipping, tripping and using unstable ladders. There are thousands of reasons for fall hazards and to eliminate such risks, employers must have a fall protection program as part of any overall workplace safety and health program. Workers should be trained to identify and evaluate fall hazards and be fully aware of how to control exposure to such risks as well as know how to use fall protection equipment properly.
  4. Stairways and Ladder – According to OSHA’s construction safety and health standards, stairways and ladders are major sources of injuries and fatalities among construction workers. These recorded injuries are serious enough to put a worker out on sick leave. OSHA registered approximately 24,882 injuries and 36 fatalities yearly that are related to falling from stairways and ladders used at the construction site. To prevent such accidents and injuries, employers and employee must comply with OSHA’s general rule for the safe use of ladders and stairways.
  5. Scaffolding – Every year, approximately 60 workers die by falling from scaffolding; one out of five construction site falls are fatal. The most potential risk of scaffolding is due to moving scaffold components; scaffold failure related to damage to its components; loss of the load; being struck by suspended materials; electrical shock; and improper set-up. Construction workers who assemble and dismantle scaffolding and work platforms at construction sites face the risk of serious injuries due to falls. The scaffolding hazard is addressed by stated OSHA standards. They give specific requirements for the maximum load, when to use scaffolding, bracing and the use of guardrails.
  6. Heavy Construction Equipment – Approximately 100 construction site workers die each year due to heavy construction equipment. The main causes of such accidents includes: ground workers struck when a vehicle is backing up or changing direction; equipment rollovers that injure the operator; mechanics run over when brakes are not properly set; and ground workers crushed by falling equipment from backhoes, buckets, and other moving construction vehicles. To prevent this kind of risk, workers should follow all construction safety guidelines necessary to eliminate the exposure to such injuries and accidents.

Safety risks on construction site are unavoidable; however, these can be prevented if workers are instructed on how to identify the hazards that might be present at the work-site. The employer must establish proper safety standards that meet the maximum requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This will ensure that workers will have a safe working environment during normal operation.

This is not meant to be an all-inclusive list of construction site risks; however, these top six items are certainly important ones that all construction site employers should be aware of and continually working to eliminate them from happening.

Will These Story Starters Tips Help To Improve Your Home School Student’s Or Gifted Child’s Writing?

When you pick up a book, you usually do three things: you look at the cover; read the blurb on the back and you read the first paragraph to see if you like it.

As an author, you often don’t have much control over (1) the book cover or (2) the blurb, BUT every writer knows that a sizzling story start is vital! That first paragraph has to grab the reader’s attention instantly. Smart writers know you reveal more about your characters by showing them in action, rather than by writing long slabs of description about where they are and what they wear.

There are lots of ways to create Sizzling Starts. Here are just five suggestions.

Start with a bang

I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it hit me.

Make the reader curious

Let me explain about the divorce, the beach house and the bacon.

Create a Moment of Change

Everything was going well, until my Mum said ‘I’ve got a job in California.’

Use humour

Never let your three year old brother hold a tomato.

Dialogue quickly introduces your characters

‘It’s just a rat,’ I said, breathing hard. ‘It’s an old house.’

‘Rats don’t growl,’ said Mike.

Share these ideas with your children. Then get them to look at the first paragraphs of books from the library or your home and see what other types of starts they can find.

Here is an Action Activity the whole family can try:

Scaffold a Sizzling Start

Start stories with action! Give your kids one minute to write a start for each of the following phrases. The one minute limit makes them think quickly and not fuss about being perfect — and that allows the creative side of their brain freedom. (Tell students not to worry about spelling until later too.)

  • ‘Stop! There’s a…’
  • It was a trap, but…
  • ‘Get out of my way. You never…’
  • The chocolate was great, but then…
  • Suddenly he coughed and…
  • The car stopped. Then it turned around and started back ..

If your children enjoy the activity, get them to create more story starters. Next time they can run the same activity for you (yes, YOU write, too) as well as your other kids.

Don’t forget, the most effective way to teach children to write is NOT to write full stories all the time. Just practice starting stories well and let kids learn in small, confidence-building chunks.

(C) Jen McVeity – National Literacy Champion

30 Uses for a Laminator at Home

Never thought you would have use for a laminator at home? Think again. There are hundreds of uses for these machines, which will leave you wondering how you ever managed without one. From gifts to practical home applications, laminating items makes them more durable, waterproof, and attractive. Laminating can intensify colours and lends a smarter look to any project.

1. Important business cards gain a longer life in your wallet.

2. Thrill grandparents with a wallet-sized laminated photo of their grandchildren.

3. Create a ‘whiteboard’ by using a plain white piece of paper or card. Before laminating, decorate the edge with cut-out pictures, drawings, or doodles.

4. Make placemats from children’s artwork or favourite pictures from a calendar.

5. If the cost of framing a photograph is prohibitive, laminate it instead.

6. Important phone numbers, emergency instructions, and rosters make cleanable additions to the refrigerator door.

7. Favourite recipes become easy to clean and sturdy for storage.

8. Make gifts for children and avid readers in the family by using paper and craftwork or pictures to form bookmarks and then laminate. If desired punch a hole in one end and thread through ribbon or decorative yarn.

9. Make lasting flashcards for teaching children or adults.

10. A well-worn card essential to a board game can gain new life through lamination.

11. Laminate behaviour charts for children to which they can apply stickers or draw on with a whiteboard marker.

12. Decorate the bathroom with posters protected against moisture.

13. Arrange dried flowers in a laminating pocket to preserve colour and add strength. Cut close around the flowers to mount on a greeting card, or trim the laminate to bookmark size.

14. Create jigsaw puzzles for the children. Laminate a photo, calendar picture, or other suitable image and then cut into pieces. Tailor the number of pieces and complexity of shape to the age of the child.

15. Protect important documents such as product guarantees and certificates.

16. Preserve old or favourite knitting, crochet, or cross-stitch patterns for using over and over again.

17. Make colourful window hangers and mini ‘stained glass windows’. Place fragments of cellophane of various colours inside a laminating pocket. Trim to desired shape and size, punch a hole, and hang with fishing line. They also make pretty drink coasters.

18. Individually laminate the letters from a Merry Christmas or Happy Birthday banner for longevity. Use the type which are strung together on a cord or tinsel, and remove the letters from the connecting thread. They are easy to hang, and provides more flexibility in where and how to hang them. Removing the sticky tape afterwards will not harm them.

19. Need inspiration in your home office, or other area of the house? Print out favourite motivational quotes on a printer or handwrite them. Laminate and apply to any area they are needed.

20. Birth and death notices or other clippings from newspapers and magazines desired as keepsakes.

21. Collector cards – sports, anime, etc.

22. Laminate a photo and written description, including valuation details, of all household valuables. This is a great method of recording items for insurance purposes.

23. Pet feeding instructions.

24. Make magnets for the refrigerator or clean/dirty signs for the dishwasher. Put desired text and decorate before laminating, then affix a small magnet to the back. Magnet strips are available for purchase from craft stores, or recycle the ones from old shopping list pads and advertising.

25. Make a calendar, laminating a photo or other picture to last right through the year. Create a page for each month on a computer and staple these to the bottom. As each month passes tear the page off to reveal the next month.

26. Create all sorts of teaching aids for children. A simple idea is a clock. Draw a clock face and laminate, then use split pins to attach movable arms.

27. Organize collections of items such as books, movies, or music. Laminating these lists gives a robust and transportable catalogue for taking to stores, or sharing with friends.

28. Make waterproof, resilient labels to attach to children’s school bags, lunch boxes or other belongings. Include whatever details you like and decorate with stickers or punch art. Punch a hole and thread with string, a rubber band, or a shoe lace to tie it to the item.

29. Make labels to adhere to kitchen cupboards, pantry shelves, or freezer baskets.

30. Print out the names of vegetable seeds to be planted in your garden and laminate. Attach to a stick, chopstick, or small stake and use to mark out the planted rows.

Laminators provide an extra dimension of functionality and creativity to many areas around the home. Quick and easy to operate; who can go past the tidy and clean presentation laminating brings to so many items around the home?

Advantages Of Wood Deck Railings

Wooden railing is the first choice for any owner or the builder as the elegance and the style that you get from wooden railings is nothing compared to other materials. Some time the light reflection from all sources disturbs you. Wood does not reflect light as much as steel does, a kind of sereneness, and tranquility that you get from use of wood, you cannot get from any other material.

Advantages Of Wood Railings

There are many advantages of wooden railings particularly indoor railings.

1. The elegance of wood is unmatched by anything else.

2. Contrary to popular belief, wood railings are maintenance free, particularly those used indoors. A nice polishing, a coat of lacquer while installing, is all that is required, and no further maintenance is required.

3. Another advantage of wood is that it massive in construction and will last for several decades if not centuries.

4. With its wide top, children (and some times grown ups too!) enjoy the wood railing sliding down the railing for coming down instead of coming down by steps. Oh what fun!

Choice Of Wood For Railings

Wooden stock rails, balusters and newel can be made in Burma teak, Cherry, Maple, Red Oak, White Oak, Walnut, Mahogany, Poplar, Beech, Yellow Pine, Ash or Cedar. Many manufacturers can give you the top rail design that you desire or dream. Manufacturers use CAD systems, CNC machinery, and hand artistry, to give you any rail profile, baluster turnings or newel post.

Care Of Wood In General, Railing In Particular

Wood when properly treated and cared for requires no maintenance. The major enemy of wood is the life forms capable of living and thriving on wood. The microscopic life starts first and then it is like a jungle, where the food chain starts. Therefore if you treat wood with chemicals to stop the growth of micro-organisms and keep water away from it, the possibility of wood rot gets much less. Regular cleaning, annual polishing, waxing when the wood railing looks dull is all that is required for caring the wood articles and railing in general. Out-door railings may require painting to keep them looking new.

Some Reasons Why Incarceration Does Not Work Very Well

There is no satisfactory answer to why people become criminals. Theft crimes, for example, rise and fall with unemployment, but that’s only one of many factors. Trouble sometimes begins with birth into environments of physical, sexual, or substance abuse, criminal activity, divorce, head injuries, poverty and ignorance. But none of those precursors causes crime. Most people with those disadvantages do not become criminals. Criminals also come from the better side of the tracks. In his book Inside the Criminal Mind, Dr. Stanton E. Samenow, a clinical psychologist, powerfully demolishes much of the conventional wisdom portraying criminals as victims of their parents, poverty, mental illnesses and life circumstances. Instead, Dr. Samenow found that criminals are defined by how they think; and they definitely think differently than law-abiding people. Most criminals are manipulative, use people as they please, fancy themselves in control, con others successfully, posture as tough guys and do not like to work hard at school or regular jobs. They thrive on intimidation and stealth. Crooks dish it out, but cannot take criticism. A minority pity their victims. Most have little remorse until caught. Crime progresses when these profoundly selfish young people bully others, get high, sell drugs, steal, gamble, rob stores, join gangs, rape and participate in violence, thrill seeking, intimidation and depravity. Drugs, intoxicants, theft, gangs, sex, violence or some combination of them help create new age slaves. People decide to disobey the law for their own self-centered reasons.

Prisons are supposed to act as a deterrent to criminal activity. Being unpleasant, potential offenders should be so afraid of going to prison that they do not commit crimes. But it doesn’t work that way. That’s how law-abiding citizens think. The criminal mind works differently, with less foresight and conscience. Criminals enjoy the excitement and risks, do not anticipate capture, and instead focus on what they want. By one computation, only 1.2% of burglaries result in the burglar going to prison. A low risk of punishment increases crime. Successful burglars celebrate their accomplishments. Good deterrents are certain, severe and swift. Prison is not certain, probation or youthful offender status often being granted or crimes are not even prosecuted. Prison is not always perceived as severe. Many never see a prison until they arrive. Inmates often sleep or just sit in their cells. When Mike Tyson first went to juvenile detention, it was like a reunion for him, because so many of his friends and acquaintances were already there – of course he was one of the few who did not worry about being attacked. Confinement is definitely not swift, either in the judicial process or in the sentence itself. Prisons are usually very bad places to be, but the prospect of going there fails to deter massive numbers of crimes and criminals. Out of sight, out of mind. Criminals do not always know or compute the number of years they are likely to serve for a given crime. They do not usually believe they will be caught. When they arrive behind bars, offenders often think they are the victims, that they got a raw deal in life, that they would plan better next time, that prison is a mark of accomplishment for a gangster like them, etc.

Youth, gender, and lack of education, more than other factors, explain violent crime. Well over half of all prisoners in America are high school dropouts. The vast majority are males. Males between the ages of 16 and 28 commit an overwhelming percentage of violent crimes, including first-degree murder. The very basic leading cause of violent crime in America is young male aggression in one form or another. Younger offenders are more likely to fail at probation or parole than are older convicts. In 2008, 45% of all murder victims were 20 to 34 years old. Studies show the human brain does not fully develop until age 28.

Prisons are revolving doors for recidivists. The number released is about equal to the number imprisoned. Every year, a large and poorly disciplined American army of released prisoners – over 700,000 ex-cons – goes back to the streets, many to make the world worse. Released prisoners carry extremely high rates of communicable diseases, AIDS, HIV infection, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and tuberculosis, often undiagnosed, into their communities, families and neighborhoods. Released convicts face many re-entry obstacles, most do not make the transition successfully, and huge numbers are recycled back into prison. Instead of making people less prone to commit crimes, prisons increase the likelihood that convicts will commit more crimes upon the completion of their sentences. Prisons, especially overcrowded ones where different levels of offenders are mixed together, are “criminogenic,” they cause more crime. Prisons are, as Jens Soering’s 2004 book title reveals, An Expensive Way to Make Bad People Worse.

Possessions are removed, family excluded, sexual desire frustrated. The sex ratio is at its most forbidding for normal sex, 100% of one sex versus zero of the opposite sex. Sexual deviancy increases. Life is unpleasant. Sanity depends upon mental toughness. Worries remain. Most prisoners are unhappy, many all of the time. Pagan, satanic, racist and occult religious texts are much more popular in prison than outside. Many contemplate, attempt or commit suicide or self-mutilation. The suicide rate for American prisoners is five to 15 times greater than it is for the general American population. Fewer chaplains and programs for inmates exist than in prior years.

We take every prisoner away from spouses, friends and family, constantly replicating the awful fate of many antebellum slaves. The free world isolates and abandons prisoners with long sentences. Many prisoners do not receive any visits from friends or family. Solid barriers separate the prisoner and any visitors during visits. Social isolation harms the prisoner’s self-esteem, as rejection often does, including the isolation we start with, suspending and expelling students from school. Gangs then successfully recruit members in prison from among the isolates, metastasizing their anti-social ideas and breeding virulent racism and religious bigotry. Prisonization occurs, which is the process whereby prisoners take on the penitentiary’s sick underclass values, codes and dogma. The longer the prison sentence, the more prisonization affects the prisoner.

The closed environment of prison is kept from view because prisons severely restrict the media’s access, routinely prohibit press interviews, and monitor and censor mail and telephone communications. Dreadful things often do not receive investigation or publicity. Through the centuries, lack of communication between prison and the outside world allowed abuses to grow undetected inside the closed prison environment.

Prisons harm people in several ways, but do not make enough of them “penitent.” Incarceration teaches depravity, affects minds adversely, and then releases its damaged products into the free world on their mandatory release date or on parole. Prisons are warehouses for criminal minds. Criminals learn better how to commit crimes, but not how to be productive in the free world or how to abandon their selfishness. Solid evidence proves that returning parolees increase crime rates in their neighborhoods.

In the last 20 years, the use of segregation or solitary confinement has increased markedly, far more than the already skyrocketing prison population as a whole, worsening outcomes and significantly increasing expense to the prison system. Solitary confinement – known as isolation, punitive segregation, disciplinary segregation, segregated housing, and other names – causes psychiatric harm in manifold ways, especially to those with previous mental illnesses. Solitary confinement can cause psychotic disorganization, self-destructive behavior, delusions, panic attacks, paranoia and an inability to adapt to the general prison population. Hypersensitivity, rage, aggression, plus memory, concentration and impulse-control problems also can stem from segregated housing units. Intolerance of social interaction is one of the more common results. America’s Super-Max Prisons improve safety for correctional staff and are essentially jails within prisons, increasingly concentrating dangerous inmates in solitary confinement instead of dispersing troublemakers throughout the system. Prisoners typically receive only one hour per day outside their Super-Max cell, often alone. Nelson Mandela knew men in prison who preferred half a dozen lashes with a whip to solitary confinement. Mandela wrote that the absence of human companionship is most dehumanizing. Modern psychiatrists agree with Charles Dickens and Nelson Mandela. Speaking of the ill effects of solitary confinement, Harvard psychiatrist Stuart Grassian, M.D. said our systems of solitary confinement, “deeply offend any sense of common human decency.” When one reads the names of a few famous criminals housed in Super-Max, sympathy declines, which is probably why our society permits this clean version of hell.

Our society does a poor job of punishing someone’s first few crimes. We most often opt for probation, juvenile court or youthful offender status. Very inconsistent aspects of the criminal justice system involve the decision whether to grant probation or send someone to prison at each of several junctures. Fines are meaningless for criminals without money or property, so only one hard punishment now exists. Convicted felons either go to the misery of prison or receive a very light punishment: probation. Probation often sets them up for a prison sentence. Many receive probation, do not learn their lesson, offend again, and eventually go to prison. The need for intermediate punishments was highlighted in Graham v. Florida, a recent Supreme Court decision, where a juvenile received probation for his first offense of armed burglary with assault or battery, and for his second offense of home invasion robbery, got life-without-parole. Juvenile court may shield their first few crimes from scrutiny, because juvenile records often don’t count in adult courts. Young offenders sometimes have to rack up one or two felonies as an adult before they go to prison. Convicts regret committing that very last crime, the one that sends them to prison. Deciding whether to punish with a feather or a sledgehammer does not give criminal judges much flexibility.

We built massive corrections systems without any scientific proof they were effective as deterrence or rehabilitation and with no recent effort to make them profitable. It’s as if we put a toxic chemical in consumer products without any toxicity studies. Modern researchers – along with the rest of us – tend to ignore and forget prisons and prisoners. Scientific research is still woefully lacking given the enormity of the current crisis. Incredibly, there are no rigorous studies or statistics about people who change their thought patterns, behavior and criminal lifestyle after soul-searching in prison. We do not know how to succeed. The architecture of prisons is impressive from the outside, but the way to successfully deal with their inhabitants has always been uncertain and unproven.

Idealists originally thought penitentiaries would make prisoners penitent, leading to religious conversions and rehabilitation. To accomplish this, they did the worst thing they could do: they isolated prisoners in a very bad environment. Sometimes prisoners had to keep silent, another form of solitary confinement. Cutting off prisoners from society made it difficult for inmates to keep their sanity or cope on the outside. Isolation from normal society made it that much easier to learn criminal ways inside the prison. Prisoners lost feelings of self-worth. While appropriate punishment promotes pro-social cooperation in normal human society, punishment that completely removes individuals from cooperative society also deprives normal society of any pro-social behavior brought about by that punishment.

Idealists and vindictive people who did not understand the effects of confinement wanted others, beneath themselves, to go there, just as non-drinkers obtained passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to initiate Prohibition: another failed social experiment. The public agreed to the idea of prisons because it got rid of the problem temporarily and seemed better than capital and corporal punishment. Imprisonment was considered civilized and modern. Prisons were out of sight, so slumbering humanity could ignore them. Idealists gave birth to a monster, just as those who sought to create a workers’ paradise had done. Few of the great ideals and theories about penitentiaries produced a system that worked as anticipated. Most reform efforts merely made an impractical institution better for several years in certain locations.

Abandonment of corporal punishment in favor of incarceration turned out to be a change from an emphasis on rehabilitation within normal society to one on incapacitation outside it. Reformers thought they would isolate prisoners and shape their behavior. They placed prisoners in the equivalent of Skinner boxes, but then provided very few rewards or punishments inside those cells. The all-powerful pro-social forces of school, family, church, employment and community were abandoned, subtracted from the process. Prisons rewarded inactivity with food, clothing and shelter, but pro-social activity was nearly impossible to have or reward inside the cell. Concentration on specific prisoner behavior became logistically and financially prohibitive. Altruistic punishment and the cooperation it supports work best in smaller groups, but those small groups were abandoned in favor of huge groups.

In addition to keeping prisoners in, prisons made it tough for free people to enter them for purposes of assistance or monitoring. Monitoring prison conditions over the course of many years became even more difficult for outsiders to accomplish. The inability to shape prisoner behavior was obvious well before we built a million cells. Regular attention to individual behavior only comes about when a financial incentive exists for those in control to monitor individuals.

Crime victims are not satisfied, society and taxpayers pay an enormous price, massive amounts of time and money are wasted, correctional professionals are frustrated and overworked, and prisoners come out of prison in worse shape after years of bullying, violence and isolation. In a land rightly concerned about the declining percentage of younger workers who have to support increasing numbers of retirees, we cage millions of young, able-bodied people and keep them inactive most of the time. When the Thirteenth Amendment specifically allowed involuntary servitude as punishment for crime, we halted almost all of it decades ago. Only a tiny fraction work hard behind bars. Former Chief Justice Warren Burger called for making prisons “factories behind fences,” but special interests thwarted most attempts to expand prison labor.

By taking over two million workers out of the economy, we create labor shortages. Foreign workers, many of them illegal aliens, are then enticed to work in the United States. If we counted prisoners in the national unemployment calculations, the unemployment rate would rise significantly, because about 1.5% of the entire U.S. civilian labor force is sitting behind bars. Every prisoner requires direct financial subsidy and we suffer lost production, a true cost of inactivity. Our current system preserves “often intolerably stupid and unjust practices,” just as one prison historian noted early in the twentieth century. During incarceration, the social support network prisoners need to survive on the outside is destroyed or damaged. Mass imprisonment hurts the entire American economy and the families who are without family members at home. Prisons deprive American families of family members, and the American sex ratio is unbalanced as a result. Poorer communities and families suffer. Kids grow up without parents. Over half of male prisoners are fathers; many female inmates are mothers. Without doubt, children with parents in prison are far more likely to go there themselves.

By no means does this short article spell out all the reasons modern mass incarceration is a disaster. But you get the general idea: change is needed.

Roof Shingle Wind Damage – Clearing Up the Confusion

You may think that wind has not damaged your roof if you don’t see any shingles blown off. Think again. Wind can cause a multitude of damages to your roof that will decrease its life and leave it susceptible to leaks and further damage. And you may never even know it!

When the wind blows, it creates an enormous amount of pressure on the shingles. Damages don’t occur from the wind itself getting underneath the shingles, but rather from the vacuum-like forces created on the surface. Have you ever watched video of a tornado approaching a house, and suddenly the entire roof lifts off the house as though it were a lid? It is the same uplift force that can cause damage to your shingles, albeit on a smaller scale.

The first thing wind uplift will do to your shingles is break the adhesive seal. Once that seal is broken, the shingles become susceptible to tearing off completely. These loose shingles will often flap up and down during the next thunderstorm, allowing rainwater to get underneath, where it isn’t supposed to be! Wind driven rain can then cause leaks and damage the interior of your home. Though many insurance companies and their engineering firm partners claim a broken seal is not damage, there is no doubt that it is damage. The shingles must be sealed down in order to do their job correctly. Every manufacturers specification emphasizes the fact that the shingles must be sealed. At a bare minimum, these shingles must be hand-sealed back down. This may not be possible with older shingles, depending on their condition.

In some cases when the seal of the shingle is broken, it will cause de-lamination of that shingle, or the one it was sealed to. In this case, the shingle cannot simply be resealed. Both shingles must be replaced. It is very possible an entire roof could need replacement because of de-lamination, even though all of the shingles are still in place.

Another common form of damage caused by wind that cannot be seen from the ground is creasing. This happens when the seal has been broken, and with the shingle flapping in the wind, it folds it back far enough to form a crease. This will usually happen before the shingle tears off completely, which is the most obvious form of damage, and readily visible from the ground.

Don’t wait until your roof springs a leak! Have your roof inspected at least once a year, and following any major storm to insure you are aware of its condition. You may be able to get a new roof through your homeowners insurance!

The Color of Mucus – Deciphering the Hues

Whether created to lighten the weight of the head, serve as a “crumple zone,” give better resonance to the voice, just simply to produce mucus, or for a combination of all those reasons, the sinus cavities play a vital role in our breathing mechanism and in keeping us healthy. Without the yucky stuff they produce our lives would be miserable.

It is interesting that we do not notice the sinuses’ constant production of mucus until it becomes thick or excessive-although normally we produce up to a quart a day–or it creates sinus pressure. Besides giving moisture to the air when needed, mucus acts as gatekeeper warding off viruses, bacteria, foreign particles, pollutants, that otherwise would compromise our breathing mechanism and cause infection and other problems. It does not catch only those elements, but it also washes them away.

What about the colors of mucus? According to some authorities here are the meanings:

Clear and watery– this is the normal, healthy kind; it is constantly being produced and is needed for the protection of our breathing apparatus, digestive organs, etc., by guarding them against contamination and disease. It contains antiseptic enzymes, salts and water, of course. Mucus also serves as a lubricant. Clear, again, is the natural healthy color of mucus.

Yellow– produced when the air is too dry, can also be an indication of a sinus infection, bronchitis–when accompanied by coughing, wheezing, fatigue, chest discomfort, shortness of breath after a mild exertion; not all these signs or symptoms need to be present when having bronchitis.

Green– can be a sign of a sinus infection or bronchitis-see additional signs and symptoms for bronchitis under yellow, above. If there is a green nasal discharge accompanied by a sinus pain or fever and this has been going on for several days it can be a sign or symptom of a bacterial infection and a doctor should be seen.

Brown– if you smoke or have spent some time in a place filled with tobacco smoke chances are that this is the cause of that mucus color. Smoking exacerbates any respiratory health issue and makes much worse any mucus problem in the upper respiratory organs and passages. It pays to quit smoking.

White– this is not a common hue of mucus and it can be caused by the use of dairy products, especially when one is having congestion and pressure in the sinuses and a dairy product, especially milk, is used. It can also be an indication of bronchitis-see additional signs and symptoms for bronchitis under yellow, above.

Blood– whenever blood accompanies any of the above mucus colors or appears by itself it should be taken seriously and a physician should be consulted soon.

Mucus not only helps us detect what is wrong with us, but it aids our body by protecting it, as we have seen, against unwanted elements in our environment. Mucus is a friend.

How to Use Acrylic Paint As Watercolor – Learning to Paint

I like to use acrylic paints because they are so versatile and can be used just like watercolor. Acrylic paint is water-based meaning it dissolves in water. You only need a small amount of paint mixed with water and you instantly have converted the acrylic paint into watercolor!

Here are five reasons that I love using acrylic paint as watercolor!

  1. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but are water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted with water, the finished painting can resemble a watercolor or even an oil painting. To get a watercolor effect, dilute just a small amount of paint into the water. Mix it well and you have created a whole new medium to paint with.
  2. Use the thinned down pigment in a spray bottle. I have even used a small amount of paint in a spray bottle of water to mist on tiny specks of color in fields or for falling snow. Hint, make sure your painting is laying flat when you do this! These techniques would not be possible unless diluted to a watercolor consistency.
  3. Bolder Colors are possible. Acrylics paints can be used in place of watercolors because acrylics dry closer to the desired color which is slightly darker, while watercolors dry lighter and the colors are sometimes unpredictably.
  4. Watercolor techniques can be used. The wet on wet is a favorite technique use by watercolor artist. To apply this technique, apply a layer of color to the watercolor paper. While it is still wet, add another color. The two colors blend beautifully almost as if by them-selves to create soft subtle variations in color.
  5. Acrylic techniques can be used. Later add more objects with a thicker version of paint to create objects that appear closer or of more detail. You can also do the reverse where you add a layer of watercolor wash over a painting to soften it by subduing the colors whereby a fog or mist is added

Acrylic paints are so versatile, that I only purchase them because I can create so many different effects with one medium of paint. Turning acrylics into watercolor is so easy that there is no reason to buy both.

Selecting the Right Boom Truck For Drywall Deliveries

Of course, choosing the right crane is just the first part of selecting a boom truck. The truck chassis also requires some thought – the wrong specs on the truck can impact the overall performance of the crane.

Here are a few tips for choosing the right combination of truck and crane for drywall, which has to be delivered to high heights and, sometimes, across wide distances.

Crane Specs

At one time articulated cranes came second to stiff boom cranes. That is no longer the case, as companies in the building supplies industry have come to understand the many benefits of articulated cranes. Because they are so widely used, this article discusses articulated cranes.

  • If you are delivering materials at a site and require a long reach, ensure that the crane has a boom with very little flex. For example, you may need to deliver drywall or other materials to high floors or maneuver around objects. A typical articulated crane used for large drywall loads has a 70 ft. vertical height and 50 ft. horizontal reach. The crane’s rated capacity at its full vertical reach should be 7,500 lbs. or more. For its full horizontal reach it should be rated at about 3,000 lbs. These ratings ensure maximum accuracy in deliveries.
  • Radio remote controls are vital to precise and fast deliveries. Check the options on remotes and evaluate them for smoothness of operation and varying speeds. High flow, load sensing hydraulics also increase the speed of delivery.
  • Medium drywall cranes – those with a maximum 50 ft. boom length – do not always come equipped with radio remote controls, but that feature is becoming increasingly common since radio controls offer greater precision and safety. You may want to ask your vendor about the various options for controls for smaller cranes.

Truck Specs

If you are carrying heavy loads, like drywall, you need to consider the strength of the truck chassis and additional safety features, like hydraulic outriggers.

The main considerations in the chassis are the frame and the axle capacities:

  • The term “section modulus frame” refers to the relative strength of the frame as it relates to its shape. Frames with a large section modulus will have the greatest strength and the best ability to resist sagging under heavy loads. Ensure a large section modulus for your drywall truck.
  • A truck deck of 24 ½ ft. is usually recommended, since it can carry 12 ft. lengths of wallboard.
  • Although there may be different regulations in your geographical area, the standard axle rating for large drywall trucks is 20,000 lb. front axle and 46,000 lb. rear tandem.
  • Hydraulic outriggers should be sufficient to help increase the rigidity of the truck’s platform.

If you have any doubts about the compatibility of your truck and crane, ask your vendor for a computerized equipment matching service to ensure that you select the right combination to maximize performance, safety and payload.

The History and Importance of Firefighter Turnout Gear

As one of the most dangerous professions in the present day, firefighters everywhere must rely on their protective clothing and years of experience in times of peril, pressure and life-threatening danger. To ensure their safety, PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) is an absolute necessity, typically comprising of a helmet, pants, coat, gloves, breathing apparatus and a PASS (Personal Alert Safety System) device. PPE is popularly referred to as either “Turnout Gear”, “Bunker Gear”, or “Fire Kit” (in the UK). Specialized outer protective clothing was originally worn for warmth and dryness instead of protection against the flames.

Firefighters didn’t have the same quality of protective clothing in the past, and the majority of fires were fought from the exterior of burning buildings if possible. Early in the history of firefighting, structures on fire were hardly ever entered into, until the emergence of rubber boots and long trench coats. Racing into risk-filled, flame-fuelled buildings, firefighters needed gear that would safely protect themselves, and these aforementioned trench coats were the early forerunners to PPE gear. SCBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) items began to materialize after World War I, featuring a metered compressed breathing air system that sent air into an accompanying face mask. These were very expensive to produce, and highly cumbersome for firefighters to wear.

Numerous technological advancements improved the efficiency of turnout gear over the years. At first, firefighters wore turnout gear consisting of red shirts and thick wool pants, as well as rubber slickers over their uniforms. After World War II, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) drew up compulsory requirements for all firefighter uniforms to utilize triple layers. One layer was moisture-resistant, another was flame-resistant and the third had to provide thermal insulation. A blend of three-layer PPE gear, along with SCBA, PASS devices and modern communications equipment made it more practical for firefighters to enter burning buildings.

In the 1980s, fire-resistant materials such as Kevlar were used in the manufacture of the outer shell of PPE pants and coats. The first turnout boots were knee-high and made of leather, while current versions were smaller and made of vulcanized rubber with a Boron Steel toe cap. Fire proximity suits are specialized versions of PPE turnout gear that have an additional metallic heat-reflective coating, and are used in jobs involving intense heat, such as chemical fires and aircraft fires.

In an occupation where extreme variances in temperature and humidity are an everyday occurrence, many firefighters suffer from hot and cold feet, as well as getting continuously wet and dry. For those who are vulnerable to chilly temperatures and large amounts of cold water, wet boots must be dried as soon as possible. This helps decrease serious medical conditions, such as Pseudomonas Cellulitis and Athlete’s Foot

Making Lavender Ice Cream for Your Solo Birthday Celebration

You woke up this morning feeling a little bit older. Yes, you are a year older. It is your birthday and you are hoping that you are also a little bit wiser. And being wise starts with a low-key celebration with just yourself and a well-deserved gift for making it to another year in this crazy world.

But, as it is a special day, why don’t you ditch buying yourself expensive presents like birthday flowers, and try making your own ice cream with fresh floral elements? Here is a simple recipe for lavender ice cream made from fresh lavenders.

What are the ingredients needed?

4 cups of milk

2 cups of whipping cream

8 egg yolks

1 cup of fine white sugar

1 tablespoon of salt

1 cup of honey

stalks of fresh lavenders or dried lavenders (used for cooking)

What materials do I need?

ice cream maker (borrow from Mom or from the lovely neighbor)

mixing bowls

sauce pans



How to make all these into ice cream?

Step 1: Pick lavender petals from the stem. Set aside.

Step 2: Pour in honey, and half of the lavender petals into a sauce pan. Allow it to cook and simmer on medium heat. Set aside.

Step 3: Once the lavender and honey mixture simmered, set them aside for an hour for the honey to steep the lavender petals.

Step 4: After an hour, pour and strain lavender and honey mixture into the mixing bowl with the whipping cream. Set aside.

Step 5: Bring together milk, sugar, and salt in a saucepan and allow to simmer.

Step 6: Use the whisk to beat the egg yolks.

Step 7: Whisk together the milk mixture and beaten egg.

Step 8: Pour the milk and egg mixture into the saucepan and allow to simmer until thick. This will take approximately 7 to 10 minutes. Set aside after.

Step 9: Pour and strain the milk and egg into the lavender, honey and whipping cream mixture.

Step 10: Add the other half of the lavender petals.

Step 11: Stir. Stir. Stir.

Step 12: Transfer the mixture to a bowl covered with cling wrap and place it in the freezer for 5 hours.

Step 13: After five hours, pour and strain the mixture into the ice cream maker. It is important to strain the lavender petals.

Step 14: Follow instructions on how to use the ice cream maker.

Step 15: Transfer the mixture into a container and chill it for a few hours.

Viola! 15 easy steps to ice cream heaven and just in time for your afternoon movie marathon. Now serve and surprise yourself with what you can do now that you’ve grown up. Happy Birthday!

Contracts Which Need Not To Be Performed


Contract is the outcome of mutual agreement between two or more parties. In the similar manner parties to the contract may consent to terminate the contract.


Sect 62 to 67 of Contract Act 1872.


Following are the circumstances when any original contract duly entered into need not be performed.


If parties to contract agree to novation, Rescission or alteration, the original contract need not be performed. In such cases original contract disappears and is substituted by a new contract.

(a) Novation:

When the parties to a contract agree to substitute a new contract for a contract, that is called novation.

(i) Kinds:

(a) A novation involving change of parties, (a) A novation involving substitution of a new contract in the place of old contract.

(b) Rescission:

When all or some of the terms of contract are cancelled. the contract is said to be rescinded.

(i) Modes of Rescission:

Rescission may occur.

(a) By mutual consent of the parties.

(b) Where one party fails to perform his contractual obligation, the other party may rescind the contract.

(C) Alteration:

When one or more of the terms of the contract is altered by actual consent of the parties the contract is said to be altered.

> Example:

A promises to supply certain goods to B one year after date. By that time goods go out fashion. A and B mutually cancel the contract. A need not perform the contract.


Sec. 63 provides that a person who has right to demand the performance of the contract may:

(a) remit or dispense with wholly or inpart or

(b) extend the time of performance or

(c) accept any other satisfaction instead of performance of the whole debt.

> Example:

A owes B Rs – 10000. A pays to B and B accepts Rs 5000 in full settlement of the debt of Rs – 1000. The old debt is discharged.


When a person at whose option a contract is void-able rescinds it, the other party there to need not perform any promise there in contained. In which he is promisor.

> Example:

A promises to buy certain goods from B under Fraud. B can avoid a contract If B rejects a contract. A need not perform the contract.


If any promise neglects or refuses to afford the promisor reasonable facilities for the performance of his promise, the promisor is excused by such neglects or refusal as to any loss due to non performance caused there by.

> Example:

A contract with B to repair B’s building B neglects or refuses to point out to A the places in which the building requires repair. A is excused for non performance of the contract. If it is caused by such neglect or refusal.


To conclude I can say that, under contract Act 1872 There are some circumstances when an original contract duly entered into by the parties need not to be performed. E.g. by agreement of the parties, voidable contracts etc. etc. The fulfillment of the legal obligation in a contract is called performance of the contract. Chapter vi of the contract Act deals with the performance of the contracts.