Sun Tzu Art of War – Momentum & Timing in Strategy

Sun Tzu used two analogies to stress the importance of two aspects and they are momentum and timing. With momentum, even water that does not have a solid shape is able to push big boulders and with good timing, the eagle was able to break the body of the prey without much effort. As seen below, or Chapter Five of Sun Tzu Art of War.

When the gushing torrential water tosses stones pushing boulders, it is because of the force of its momentum. When the ferocious strike of an eagle, breaks the body of its prey, it is because of the timing of the strike. Thus the forces and momentum of the adept in warfare are so overwhelming and ferocious and his timing of engagement is precise and swift.


So where and how can we use momentum in business? One aspect where we can use momentum is advertising. When you are entering into a new market, the first most important thing you should do is to set up your marketing campaign correctly. Your marketing campaign must build up momentum, having constant and continuous exposure of your products and brand to the new consumers. Repetition help consumers to remember your brand and product better. Ways to make the consumers remember your products and brands are logos, jingles, slogans and many more. Many consumers have preferred senses to learn and absorb things. Logos would appeal to people who are more visual in learning, jingles and slogan would appeal more to people who are more auditory. That is reason why most of the marketing campaigns has both. For examples, NIKE, has “JUST DO IT”, HSBC has “The World’s Local Bank” and many more.

So repetition would create momentum for your advance into a new market. With this momentum, you are able to let yourself be noticed in the new market and consumers, who are currently disappointed with what is currently offered in the market, would be willing to try your products or services. Note here is that, you have to do some research on those competitors who are operating in the new markets you are advancing. You have to know whether you are providing any value proposition to the new market at all. If what you are selling is the same, be it the sales process and products, it is unlikely that you are able to maintain the market share that you initially snatch away from your competitors.


So what about timing? Is timing important in business? In an article found in the Business Times, Singapore (23 Feb 2005), many niche restaurants have to close down soon after they opened. This could partly be blamed on the bad timing of the opening of restaurants. They were mostly opened during the bad economics times. So you see, bad timing can kill but good timing can make one prospers. We have seen in investing, if we are able to time our purchase and selling of shares well, we would reap the maximum amount of profits, but this is difficult. In business, the timing of entering a new market is also important, for example, when you enter the new market when the consumers are starting to change taste or bad economics times, you may not be able to gain many sales to sustain your business.

But a note must be made here that, these is good and bad timing to execute business decisions. Bad economic times although results in lower sales, it also means lower costs of expansion as well. SEMBAWANG MUSIC, a listed company in Singapore expanded his branches during the financial crisis because it was only during that time when the six locations that they wanted were cheap and Singapore currency was stable, while regional currencies was tumbling, allowing them to import a lot of Music CDs at a low price. (The Sunday Times, 27 Mar 2005, Page 19). To put it in another perspective, for every time, there is the right thing and the wrong thing to do.

So how are we able to get the correct timing? There are two aspects, one is knowledge and the other is experience. Knowledge allows us to gauge a range of time when opportunities is about to happen as such we can make preparation to take the opportunity. Now, we can gain relevant knowledge on our own but to be able to grasp the timing correctly, it would greatly depend on experience and attitude. Because timing is like shooting an arrow, you can have knowledge of the wind direction, the bow’s strength, the angle to shoot at and many more, but when it comes to practical, which is releasing the arrow, it takes experience. As the common phrase said, “Practice makes perfect” it never says “Knowledge makes perfect”.

Balboa Hot Tub – Should You Get One?

The Balboa Water Group is widely known for its lines of equipment, accessories and control system for the leisure water industry. Such is the completeness of its line of products developed over 20 years of its existence that the company is considered as a one-stop-shop for anything and everything about spas, of which the Balboa hot tub is one of the most notable products.

All of the Balboa hot tubs feature the patented M7 temperature flow sensor technology, which no other company has yet to equal in quality. Basically, you should enjoy the following benefits of the M7 technology that most appeals to other consumers of the product:

  • Electronic non-pressure and dip switches that make for greater ease of operations and repair, when necessary. The Piezo switch technology also ensures that the spa does not have mobbing parts, no air gaps and no exposed electrical currents that can cause safety problems.
  • Smart sensors provide for accurate measurements of the flow and temperature of water in the spa while eliminating excessive cycling.
  • Built-in hardware ensures that the electrical noise present in other spas is eliminated during its use
  • Fewer holes necessary for the installation of a Balboa spa means that the connectors are more protected against corrosion, thus, extending the life of the equipment

Indeed, the outstanding Balboa M7 temperature control technology virtually eliminates all the possible types of failure associated with malfunctioning pressure switches. With easy installation instructions requiring significantly fewer holes than the competitors, the Balboa products deserve their reputation for high quality and lengthy durability coupled with reasonable prices.

You will discover that the customer reviews on these products are biased but in a good way in that your choice in a hot tub for the home will be made easier. After all, who wants to complicate lives when a hot tub is designed to simplify life and its enjoyment thereof? With a Balboa hot tub, life is simpler and happier – just the warm water and you communing to drive the stress away from your mind and eliminate the toxins from your body.

Your benefits do not stop there, fortunately. The Balboa Water Group also offers various parts for the maintenance, upgrading and repair of the hot tub, said parts of which will include hydromassage jets, LED lights for chromatherapy, blowers, heaters and pumps, to name just a few. Now, contrast such completeness with other manufacturers that offer incomplete parts and unsatisfactory services.

These products from Balboa also come in many types to suit just about every use for the household and commercial spas. You have the choices of single and dual speed pumps, cords and lights, as well as ozonators and the highly popular Balboa Control Systems.

Of course, a Balboa hot tub is only a hot tub in the sense that it cannot take care of itself – you have to take care of it, too. In this line, we recommend using foam covers and floating blankets to protect it from the elements as well as to conserve energy. As much as you want to enjoy the hot tub, it also pays to know that you are doing your part in conserving resources like energy and water but that’s another article there.

An Overview On 100W LED Flood Light

Past few years have seen a huge rise in the demand for LED Lights, for indoor as well as outdoor settings LED Lights are environment friendly, utilizes less power, reduces the expenditure on electricity bills, has a cooling effect, lasts 10 times longer than an ordinary neon light and provides a much glowing light compared to the ordinary ones.

Much large scale as well as small scale organizations has resorted to purchasing bulk amounts of LED Lights for their office surroundings. Similarly most residences these days too, prefer installing LED Lights in their homes. Due to the immense benefits that these lights provide, they are bound to be a pricier than the ordinary ones, but still a much healthy investment in terms of durability.

As the demand for LED Lights saw a major increase, manufacturers began coming up with innovative updates to these lights making them available in different varieties, shapes, sizes, colors and watts. An LED Flood Light is one such form which has been put under a lot of use these days. 100W LED Flood Light is preferred a lot due to its salient characteristics that seem to be very useful indoors as well as outdoors.

A 100W LED Flood Light is preferred by many businesses and work places because it has been estimated that it helps in saving approximately 50 to 70% of energy, which amounts to a huge reduction in the expenditure incurred on their electricity bills. They can also be installed easily and has greater productivity for maximum time. They are also Eco-friendly therefore do not spread any kind of air pollution. The brightness emitted by a 100W LED Flood Light is just perfect to enhance visibility in most indoor as well as outdoor surroundings. In case of a few darker areas, these lights are available in a variety of lighter shades which can be chosen accordingly.

A 100W LED Flood Light is mostly brought under use for the garden area, Subways, Gym, Billboard lighting, Garage Lighting, Factory, Warehouse etc. Most LED Light suppliers would give you a minimum 3 year warranty with these lights. As compared to the ordinary Neon Lights available in the market for a cheap rate, an LED Flood Light would definitely cost you much more, but would be much brighter, almost as much as 10 times longer lasting and extremely low on maintenance. A 100W LED Flood Light runs on 90W input power and AC85-265V Voltage. There are hundreds of LED Lights manufactures today, but not all of them can be considered as reliable. Hence while giving bulk orders, it is very important to undertake a thorough research on the company background of the manufacturer.

Choosing a Cat Tree, Playground or Kitty Condo – What's Best For You?

Buying cat furniture can be a confusing and sometimes exhausting experience. Nothing is more frustrating than to set up a beautiful cat tree only to have your cats completely ignore it! I've owned cats all my life, and in this article I'll try to share some of my expertise and insight with you to help make your decision a bit easier.

There are a number of factors to consider in choosing a cat tree, condo, tower, playground or gym. Here, in no particular order, are some things you'll want to keep in mind:

  • Your cat's habits and preferences
  • Placement and space requirements
  • Materials and construction
  • Expandability
  • Price

What does your cat want?

As a general rule, most cats share certain habits and habits like curiosity, a desire to hide out in a dark, enclosed space and a love of heights – but as every cat knows knows, each kitty is different!

The first thing I'd suggest is to spend a few days paying close attention to your cat's habits. Where does he usually sleep, hang out or play? What kinds of things does she play with? When you pick her up, does she want to climb up on your shoulders? What kinds of places are you always battling to keep him out of? The answers to these questions should help you decide what kinds of features your cat will appreciate the most.

Features and the kitties who love them:

Kitty Condo : A cat who tends to choose a dark, quiet corner to sleep in will probably want a model with a kitty condo. The same could be said for cats who love to explore shopping bags, boxes, cupboards and other dark, secret places. If your house is one of those busy or hectic ones with kids playing and lots of folks coming and going, kitty might just love the peace and quiet that an enclosed cat condo brings.

Height : Some cats just need to be up high. Some kitties just like to be able to see everything, and some feel more secure up above the reach of the family dog ​​or small children. If your cat is always trying to climb up on your shoulders when you pick her up, or likes to jump up on counters, you might consider getting the tallest cat tree, kitty gym or playground you can. A floor to ceiling tower can be a good solution, and they come in a variety of configurations – some are very simple and take up very little floor space, others can be quite elaborate. There are also a lot of free standing models over 6 feet tall that will satisfy your cat's need to look down on us poor humans!

Secure Sleeping Spot : Our cat Lucy always sleeps leaned up against something (me, a chair cushion, or the raised lip on her favorite cat perch) – she needs the security of feeling something against her back for her to truly relax. If your cat is like Lucy, you'll want to be sure that the cat tree or playground you choose has a place to sleep where she'll feel secure. You might want a sleep tray with raised sides, a curved half moon shaped shelf or a kitty hammock.

Not So Secure Sleeping Spot : Our other cat, George, just sprawls out anywhere – if your cat is like him, he'll be happy with an open shelf to nap on.

Observation Post : Pretty much every cat likes to keep an eye on things – it's simply a survival instinct. Make sure the model you choose has a place where your cat will want to spend many hours of the day, whether it's a flat shelf, kitty hammock, curved shelf or tray. In addition to the style of observation post, consider the height off the floor and ease of access – especially if your cat is older or does not get around as well as he used to.

Kitty Hammocks : We've found that most cats love a hammock, although timid cats may need some reassurance at first due to the extra 'give' they feel at first when they step on it. Once they get used to it, it may become a favorite 'hang out' (sorry – I could not resist!). If your cat is unsure about the hammock at first, put it close to the floor for added peace of mind. As your cat gets used to it you can move it higher if you like.

Play Tubes : Playful cats like tubes or tunnels because they can charge right through them or lie in wait and pounce at unsuspecting passersby – animal or human!


Even if the cat furniture you choose has all the things your cat loves, if you put it in the wrong place he may completely ignore it. Think about where your cat spends time now – is she a 'people cat' who wants to be in the same room as the rest of the family? Is she more of a loner who seeks out quiet spots in unused parts of the house? Does he like to look out the window? (Check for nose prints on the glass!)

Years ago we had a fabulous floor to ceiling cat tower with multiple shelves, a kitty condo – the works! The only trouble was that the one place in the house where we had space for it was a room that was barely ever used. Since our cats like to be with us, they never used the tree, and we ended up donating it to the local humane society. Now we have a smaller cat tree that we keep in the family room where we spend much of our time, and the cats use it every day.

If you can place the tree next to a window there is a much higher likelihood that your cats will use it. A window that opens is best, especially for indoor kitties. The smells and sounds from outdoors will keep them entertained and engaged in the world around them.


Here's where you start thinking about your needs. How much space are you willing and able to devote to cat furniture, whether it's a playground, kitty gym or cat tree? Be sure to look at all the dimensions – baseplate size, overall dimensions and height – and actually measure the space you have in mind to make sure it will fit. Many models are modular in design, so you do not have to put it together exactly as it is pictured. This can give you a bit of flexibility if space is an issue. Look for the phrase 'modular design' – not all cat trees have this feature!

Materials and Construction

One of the main considerations here should be how stable and sturdy the cat furniture is. Cats will not use a wobbly or unstable tree. Look for broad bases and bottom heavy designs that will keep it from tipping when your cat jumps up on it.

Wood : Some cat furniture manufacturers use plywood, others use particle board – and they will all swear that the wood they use is the absolute best! The truth is that each has advantages and disadvantages.

Plywood is quite strong because it is made from thin layers of wood and each layer has the grain running in a different direction from the layer above and below. Since the visible surfaces are covered, the manufacturer can use a lower grade of plywood that will have knots showing and may be a bit rough to the touch. So you may have rough exposed wood on the inside roof of a condo or the underside of the baseplate – not really an issue for most folks, but a good thing to know ahead of time.

Particle board is made of small wood chips bonded together by a kind of glue. It is heavier than plywood, so it adds stability to a cat tree, and the surface is much smoother than plywood. It is more likely than plywood to break – sometimes corners will chip off – but under normal use this should not be a problem.

Coverings : Carpet or fake fur? The debate rages! One thing everyone agreements on is that whatever covering you choose make sure it is not a closed loop carpet or other covering that can catch a claw. I'm sure you've seen a cat stretch out and get a claw done in a bedspread or sofa cushion – in a relaxed setting the cat is usually able to extricate himself, though he may leave a snag in the fabric! Imagine your cat at top speed romping up and down his kitty playground – if the playground is covered in non cut pile carpet (like Berber) and he catches a claw it can cause a serious injury.

Carpet is soft and inviting, but since one of the purposes of cat furniture is to give your kitties a place to sharpen their claws, some folks think carpeted cat furniture just encourages or even trains your cat to sharpen his claws on the carpet on your floor . Personally, I've never had that problem, but I know some folks have. If you do choose carpet, make sure it is cut-pile carpet to prevent possible injury from a caterpillar claw. Carpet is secured with staples, which have the potential to stick up and scratch fingers or paws, but well made cat furniture does not usually have this problem.

Fake fur is not quite as cushy as carpet, but as long as it is secured with non-toxic glue, there is no possibility of injury from an errant staple. Some manufacturers do staple the fake fur, however, and it is much harder to bury a staple in fake fur than in carpet – if you choose fake fur, make sure that it is glued, not stapled. Like the carpet vs fake fur debate, the staples vs nontoxic glue debate is a heated one. I am of the opinion that as long as the glue is nontoxic and the staples are applied properly glue is best for fake fur and staples are best for carpet. It's a matter of personal preference as to whether you choose carpet or fur. One nice thing about fake fur is that it is washable – often times models with hammocks are covered in fake fur – check to make sure that the hammock covers zip off so you can throw them in the washing machine.

Sisal Rope : Most experts agree that sisal rope provides an ideal surface for your cat to sharpen her claws. It's durable, yet it does not 'catch' claws the way non cut pile carpet can. Most cats love the feel of it under their paws and will instinctively start scratching when they feel it under foot. All of our cat furniture features sisal rope, some on all poles, some in combination with carpet.

Curved Features : Any curved surface on a cat tree is made of thick cardboard tubes – they are used in construction as molds for making round concrete cylinders other other things. They are quite sturdy and should last a long time, but be aware that they are cardboard and will be the weakest part of your kitty gym – especially if they ever get wet. Look for designs that offer extra support to a curved feature – two attachment points is better than one!

Expandability and Flexibility

If you're anything like me, you get bored with your environment and need to rearrange the furniture now and then. Cats get bored too, and so many of the models we offer are of a modular design which allows you to put them together in more than one way and to add or swap out features later. If this is important to you, be sure to look for the phrase 'modular design' – not all models have this feature!

Price and Other Human Concerns

Cat furniture can seem expensive, but it really is an investment in your cat's health and happiness. A cat who has a place to burn off energy and take a safe nap is less likely to develop destructive habits like scratching your furniture or relieving himself outside the litterbox. Indoor cats especially need some extra stimulation to keep them from getting bored.

Of course, you are the one who has to decide how much to spend on your cats, but in cat furniture you really do get what you pay for. If your budget is small, you are better off getting a smaller model than a large cheap model. Cheap cat furniture is likely to suffer from poor quality materials and workmanship which will shorten its life. Also, it will probably be wobbly and therefore less appealing to your cats so they may not use it at all. You may get lucky, but in my experience cheap cat furniture is a waste of money.

Aesthetically speaking, your cat could not care less what the cat tree looks like, cats are much more concerned with function, so please yourself in the aesthetics department! And as far as color is concerned, cats' eyes are optimized for hunting in low light – they do not really see color. So choose a color that works for you, one that matches your decor or a neutral color that will blend in even if you change your decorating scheme. Some cat owners choose colors to match their cat's fur so the cat hair will not show as much, others like a very different color to inspire them to keep the cat tree vacuumed – color is purely a personal decision and will not affect your cat's enjoyment One way or the other!

I hope I've been able to help you sort out some of the maze of decisions that need to be made in choosing the right cat tree for your kitty and for you. Hopefully I have not just added to the confusion!

The Original Solution For Industrial Trucks From Linde

For more than 100 years of operation, Linde Material Handling has gained a reputable name in the industry of industrial trucks. Tracing the facts of the company history, it becomes clear, that there has always been space for invention. For example, the patent for the transport vehicle with hydrostatic drive in 1955, the standard-setting lineup of diesel-powered forklift trucks (labeled as the 351 series) in 1985, the first material handling trucks in Europe powered by fuel cells at the very beginning of the 2010s.

Another practical solution was conceived as an answer to the dilemma of choosing between new and used vehicles while updating or increasing the stock of industrial trucks. The so-called Linde Approved Trucks represent sensible alternatives to both new and used machinery. This offering is particularly aimed at such vulnerable businesses as start-ups, companies with varying operating times and some others, which make certain demands in terms of economy and reliability.

To get the ‘Approved Trucks’ label, Linde forklifts undergo exclusively developed and standardized scheme of renovation. But beforehand, there is a special selection of those used industrial vehicles that are suitable for the program. It is provided by Linde’s own rental fleets, consisting of the units with accurate truck and service history. The scale of the following refurbishment activities depends on customer’s individual operating requirements. In total, Linde Material Handling offers three internationally recognized standards. Each standard presupposes the following renovation stages:

  1. Comprehensive truck history

This is the reason for picking up the units from the number of the brand’s short- and long-term rental fleets, which were serviced by the specially trained technicians on a regular basis.

  1. Extra cleaning

Each piece of equipment undergoes high-pressure cleaning before being examined.

  1. Detailed inspection

The check-up involves a visual and functional inspection of the whole unit as well as any individual component if it is reasonable.

  1. Power unit tests

The diagnostics are made to challenge operational effectiveness and compliance with the necessary emissions standards.

  1. Battery tests

The efficiency of electric units directly depends on the conditions of batteries and chargers. In case of malfunctioning, the specialist may opt for the full battery cells replacement.

  1. Expert approval

A representative from the Head of the Used Equipment department should give the green light to each used Linde forklift in question to further refurbish it with the brand’s original parts.

  1. Painting

A complete or partial re-paint contributes to a first-class outer appearance.

  1. Final examination

If all the stages are successfully passed through, the equipment receives the ‘Approved by Linde’ quality sign and the corresponding certificate.

The Truth of Genesis: When The Brimstone Hits The Fan, Sorrow In The Land

According to our Creator's calendar, the celestial event of the Shoemaker / Levy-9 Comet, began on the seventh day of the fifth month, named Av, on July 16th 1994 AD. The 20th anniversary of that event will about fall on August 4th 2014, which is a Monday, the start of the seven year tribulation period. However, I expect that preliminary turmoil will begin Friday morning, August 1st., When financial institutions say that they will be closed, and will reopen on the following Monday …, but they will not.

Just as in August of 1994, I'm afraid that the Major League baseball season will end, and there may be only one weekend of NFL football this year, the Hall of Fame game. Those of you that are agnostics and atheists, mark those dates on your calendar, and see if what has been said goes down. Will you believe in our Creator then? Or will you continue to refuse to acknowledge Yehuda, our Savior, and King of Israel? Other than in the future article "America's Last Happy Birthday", those dates will not be stated again.

Atheists and agnostics not only refuse to acknowledge Yehuda, but just like the Muslims, they deny the divinity of Yeshua, the Messiah. Muslims have to deny that Yeshua was Divine, in an attempt to give Islam some sort of credibility. Yet they are just another false and evil religion, that denies the truth of the Bible, created by an evil person (Muhammad). Even Orthodox Jews, who relegate Jesus to just a "minor prophet", acknowledge His life on Earth, but have trouble justifying His death, and avoid any discussion about His resurrection. The Pharisees, practices, and Sanhedrin of the day tried their very best to discredited His resurrection, but could not. That alone should have been enough to make them accept Him as being "the Prophet", of which Moses spoke.

Yet Atheists and agnostics foolishly fail to acknowledge anything that would connect to the existence of our God. As of this article, I no longer feel sorry for them. When the events written in the book of Revelation begin to occur, starting later this year (2014 AD), they can rest assured that they have a waiting eternal reserved seat in the Lake of Fire with Lucifer, which they serve.

There are those that wonder, "what happened to our country"? For more than fifty-five years, school boards have been only teaching evolution (Atheism) to our children, and now those mis-informed adults are in leadership roles and elected offices. Members of Congress and the White House have committed treason against America since the death of President John F. Kennedy. The atheists, Muslims, and the ungodly are in positions of power, and only disaster can be the result.

For over twenty years, churches, Bible schools, and seminars have denied to examine and teach the truth of Genesis, which is the "Observations of Moses", the correct opposing view to evolution. Instead of teaching the truth, more than 15,000 assemblies choose to celebrate "Evolution Sunday." What advantage has there ever been, to teaching a lie, and refusing to have the truth taught? So of course, you can expect a rise in Atheism, Agnosticism, and ungodliness, because the "so called" church has refused to teach the whole truth of the Bible. This is what we as a nation has asked for, and this is what we now have.

When the USA crashes and falls, and the world bankers try to piece together what is left, our Asian debt will confuse the issue, and certain past secret deals of treason will come to light. The followers of Lucifer (the Illuminati), who have sold their souls to Satan for (mega) riches, will join forces with the evil of Islam, along with the remnants of the Constantine statute, aka the Vatican. A "one world government" will be set up, but it will not last long. Satan is the author of confusion. Dissention shall abound in the ranks, and the evil of Islam will overcome and destroy the Catholic regime. The Illuminati, who for centuries has orchestrated wars and civil unrest, will learn that they can not control the arm of Islam, and will fall victim to its will.

A year later, after all of this starts, Israel will begin construction of its Temple. I am persuaded that the present Muslim Mosque will come down first, and great delight will be in Israel as they begin construction of the long awaited Temple of Yehovah. I hope to see it, before the man of sin defiles it in 2018 AD. Perhaps others have more insight on how war in the Middle East will play out. My guess is that Israel will defeat her enemies as "evil fire" flies across the land (Zech 5).

Let me repeat this again. There is no "pre", or "mid" tribulation rapture. When Yeshua (Jesus) appears in the sky, for all to see Him, and He destroys the armies of the anti-Christ, only then are the dead in Christ raised. The living and once dead saints are changed to "glorified" bodies, and they will be gathered by the angels to meet Yehovah in the air …, after the seventh trumpet ! Find and read the previous two articles, " The Biblical New Year, Passover, And The Final Countdown ", and " The Seven Years of Tribulation, Virtual Hell On Earth !" For more detail.

Yes, the next seven years will be a terrible time. But think of it as a woman in her last hours of travail, before the relief of a successful birth. Creation of our universe was over 4 billion years ago. For the last billion years, Earth has suffered from the evil of Lucifer, and he is down to his last 1,015 years, and he knows it. Rather than submit, repent, and accept his punishment, he wants to destroy all of mankind that he can, and take them down with him. It puzzles me because certain people are willing to serve him, knowing that there is no future with him.

How are the rest of us to survive? It's not all "doom and gloom". I suggest to all that they leave their trinitary assemblies (since they do not teach the truth of salvation) and seek out churches that teach the "Oneness doctrine". Today, they are known as Apostolic Pentecostal assemblies (Jesus Only). They are "the elect" that Jesus will come for. If you decide "that's not for me", you are saying "Heaven is not for you" and you will have a VERY hard time reflecting the "mark of the Beast", when hunger for you and your loved ones takes hold, and Evil men begin to kill all who refuse to agree with Satan's henchmen. By the way, there is a plan is place to massre most of the current population of Earth.

This, and only this, is the truth of obtaining salvation (the kingdom of God). Repentance of all sin, water immersion using the name of the Lord Jesus (Yeshua the Messiah), and receiving the Holy Ghost (of Yeshua), evidenced by the spirit speaking, aka "other tongues", whether or not you have the human power Of speech. Water baptism is the only way to obtain remission of sins. The blood of Jesus is the cleansing agent, and is applied when calling on His name (Acts 22:16). When the Holy Ghost is received, it makes an audible sound (Matt 3:17, Mark 16:17, Acts 2: 4, Acts 10:46, Acts 19: 6).

There are many Jews and gentiles that will not have salvation, which will survive into the 1000 Year Millennium, and will not have submitted to the Beast. I say to all, when the "brimstone hits the fan", do not cause trouble. Do not riot or act disorderly, giving authorities an excuse to impersonate Martial Law and internment. Peacefully resist evil compliance, and do not ever accept the "mark of the Beast". If you do, you will be forever tortured in the Lake of Fire.

In our next chapter, we'll speak more of the anti-Christ, and reveal more information about the false prophet (the Beast, the False Jesus, and the Rapture).

Herman Cummings

Popular Songs Featuring The Voices Of Children

Spring is a popular season for many events, including festivals at local school districts throughout the United States. Perhaps the least appreciated, save for doting parents and grandparents, are the annual performances of various children’s choirs.

Generally, people enjoy the spontaneous singing of children more than an organized performance weakened under the supervision of adults. The presence of grown ups tends to drain the carefree joyousness of children singing while they play, a big reason few children’s songs have ever become enduring hits.

Nevertheless, some children’s voices are heard on some popular records, including one from a number album that also won several Grammy awards. In that particular case, the child can be heard crying rather than singing.

No one would expect that hit to come from Alice Cooper and, indeed, it was not from that ghoulish hard rocker who made Welcome To My Nightmare. Yet Alice Cooper does own the distinction of including more children’s voices in his discography than any other artist in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

His first instance of including the voices of children came, quite appropriately, on his the hit title track from his School’s Out album. The kids can be heard cheering near the end, when Alice declares that “School’s out completely… “

An individual child can be heard asking a question on a song from the minor hit “The Ballad of Dwight Frye” from the album, Love It To Death. “Mommy, where’s Daddy?” the boy says. “He’s been away for so long.”

Welcome To My Nightmare contains the hit Department of Youth,” which features singing children in the chorus. The voices belong to Dave Ezrin and the Summerhill Children’s Choir, who stump Cooper as the song fades outs.

After the line in the chorus that declares, “We’ve got the power,” Alice yells, “and who gave it to you?” In unison they answer, “Donny Osmond!” prompting Cooper to jokingly shout them down.

Here are five other popular songs that feature the voices of children.

Playground In My Mind by Clint Homes

This hit reached the Top Ten, partly because of the children refraining “My name is Michael, I got a nickel, I got a nickel shiny and new.”

Dear God by XTC

A boy representing a young Andy Partridge sings the first verse of this anti-religious hit whose success was aided by a disturbing video, highlighted by Partridge himself taking a hammer to a tree filled with a stereotypical family.

The Pros and Cons of Hitchhiking by Roger Waters

Actor Brandon De Wilde, who played the young son in the Western classic Shane, should actually get the credit for the child’s voice in this title track. After the Pink Floyd leader mentions Dick Tracy and the title film character, De Wilde can be heard saying to Alan Ladd, “Mother wants you.”

Big Dipper by Elton John

Rocket Man employs the talents of the Watford Football Team and the Audley Street Girl’s Choir for backing vocals on this track from A Single Man, his first release after the departure of songwriting partner Bernie Taupin.

Clair by Gilbert O’ Sullivan

The girl after which the song was written can be heard giggling toward the end of this Top Ten hit, not long after “Alone Again, Naturally” reached number one.

Isn’t She Lovely? by Stevie Wonder

Songs In The Key of Life spawned numerous hits on its way to number one, including this ode to Wonder’s new born daughter who can be heard crying in the song.

How to Get Your Paint Color Selection Right

Are you having problems with your paint color selection?

Do you find that you sometimes ask for the wrong paint color at the store?

Or you get home with your new paint color and find that it doesn’t look how you thought it would in the room you are painting?

Do you go to the paint shop and then can’t remember the name of the color you have chosen, or find that the color you have chosen isn’t available in the paint you want to use?

Not only can this cause frustration and stress, but it can end up costing you a whole lot of extra money!

Following these simple tips on paint color selection, will make things a lot easier, less stressful, and can even save you money too!

When you are picking your colors, your first step should be to decide on the brand and quality of paint that you are going to use and then make your paint color selection from the colors that are available for that brand of paint. Whilst many colors can be put into different brands, that is not the case for every color, you will save yourself a lot of frustration and disappointment if you make your paint color selection from those colors that you know can go into the brand of paint you wish to use.

Once you have chosen the colors you want to use, get them mixed up into sample pots and then use these in the room you want to paint. Colors can look very different in your own home as opposed to how they look in the store or on the color chart. The color of your carpet, furniture or even the colors outside your house can all affect the way the color will look on your wall.

Once you have made your paint color selection, then write them down. Or better yet bring in the sample pots that you have used to the store. You would be amazed at the number of people who go to get their paint colored and then ask for the wrong color because they can’t remember the exact color name.

Make sure that you ask for the complete color name, if the color you want is called Antique White U.S.A., then that is what you need to ask for. Don’t just ask for Antique White, or you will end up with the wrong color and waste money. The same goes for Color Bond colors. Make sure you state that it is a Color Bond color.

Most importantly, you need to remember which brands color chart the color has come from, paint companies can all have a color with the same name, yet these will all be slightly different paint colors.

Keep these points in mind when you are next selecting your paint colors and you will save yourself time and money.

Glass Coffee Tables – One Would Be an Awesome Finishing Touch in Your Living Room

You really want to give your living room an elegant, finishing touch, yet aren’t quite sure how to do it. You’ve been flipping through magazines and browsing different websites, yet nothing is really catching your eye. There is a nice solution to your decorating dilemma and it is glass coffee tables. One is just the thing to have your space looking better than ever.

Glass coffee tables have a beautiful appearance for a few different reasons, starting with the materials that they are crafted from. They will generally feature glass table tops and be supported by some other substance, most likely metal or wood. However, others are sometimes used including marble or stone and even plastic.

These substances are where the beauty of glass coffee tables really take shape, but what really sets off the look of one is the ways that their styled and the different finishes that they can have. For example, you can get a very plain one crafted from glass and wood with a clear glass table top with a cherry finish wood base. Nothing frilly about it because it just has simple, clean lines, making it extremely pleasing to the eye. Or, if you want something frilly, that is a possibility as well. Like, you can get one that features a scrolling metal base with looping designs and accents, which is then finished in an antique black finish with gold tipping.

All of the material and finishing options yield selection of all sorts of styles. Like, the first option mentioned would be more on the traditional side of things while the second is one that is more antique in appearance. There are a slew of other options available as well since you can get ones that have a modern feel, some that are more art deco in appearance, and there are even options that combine styles.

Basically, with glass coffee tables, the possibilities are endless and a stress free way to check out all the options without being harassed by sales people is to hit the Internet for some online shopping. You can browse through all that there is to offer in no time at all and when you do decide on something, what you buy will be shipped right to your home. Man, shopping has never been so easy.

In addition to capping off the look of your space, glass coffee tables are also a good way to infuse some practicality to it as well. It is a table and for that reason, it has a surface where you can set down and even display things if you wanted, like a decorative face or having a place to put your remote control.

When it comes down to it, if you want to really cap off the look of your living space, a great way to do it is with glass coffee tables. There are many fine options to choose from that will definitely leave others with the impression that you know how to decorate.

Teleprospecting: Potholes And Minefields

1. When you are new to a business your work-study ratio should be 80-20, you should work the business 80 percent of the time, leaving 20 percent of your working day for study manuals, jumping on training calls, watching instructional videos, etc. One of the major causes of failure in business, especially sales, is newcomers getting it backwards and studying almost 80 percent of the time they devote to the business. Most in this category never get off the launching pad.

You want to learn a business (?) – then real world work the business, starting from day one. You will learn the business faster while making m-o-n-e-y.

2. Run advertising/promotional copy inviting your prospects to call you first. When you call a prospect first you reduce yourself to the level of a desperate “numbers game” telemarketer. And you reduce your prospect to being an opportunity seeking “tire-kicker.” And you get rudely brushed off because you are interrupting dinner time; or because the Giants are on the Cowboys 10-yard line; or you get the “I need to talk to my wife/husband” cop-out. Worst of all is when your prospect likes your program but has no starter capital to invest. Don’t you get tired of taking losers and overgrown babies by the hand?

How many thousands of rejection calls like these do you have to suffer for the light to go on that there must be some successful, business-oriented winners out there you can actually reciprocally network with? What you are doing now is not networking, it is masochism taken to an extreme.

3. When someone calls you first that person has a need and an interest in what you are offering so that you have “success image” power and control over the call. You become the “money bags” expert and your caller becomes the buyer who is open to being sold on your program.

4. Time Management: When cold calling is your default marketing strategy of choice you have to commit to working 40-60 intense hours per week because of the high rejection ratio. The smart alternative is to spend no more than 1-2 hours daily filling your pipeline by placing ads, and by inviting your online contacts to take a look at your business and then call you, using a website link or a little sizzle to motivate them to do that. It’s called “having a life.”

5. So forget initial contact “cold calling” and “warm market” minefield marketing strategies. They are directly responsible for the overall 97 percent failure rate in the MLM/networking industry, yet most companies still encourage their reps to stumble down that rocky, dead-end road. Better to test-market your promotional copy until your find the tape-measure home run that mass-produces the hotline opt-in response you want, and stay the course.

And give yourself a break and resist the impulse to push your business card on flinching strangers in elevators. Like yourself enough not to punish or humiliate yourself in the course of your daily living routine. People who are not looking for a home-based business are not prospects for you, and will never attempt to sell a concept they do not believe in to others.

Winners do not repeatedly employ losing strategies. Just do the right thing, work smart – not hard, and the money will arrive like a flood at high tide.

Using Character Sheets in Fiction Writing

Writing fiction is a bit like baking a cake. You need the right ingredients in the right amounts, or it will turn out awful. For fiction, you need the right combination of plot, action, description and character development to bring your story to life for your reader.

Character development can be one of the most important things about writing fiction. You want to create a realistic group of characters to move your plot along and to do that you need to know them. But how much do you really have to know about them before you start writing?

Well, that depends on the kind of story you are writing. The length of your tale will dictate the amount of character information you will need to make them come to life. For simplicity’s sake, I’ve broken my character sheet down into what I use for each type of writing. Your character sheets may vary.

Flash Fiction

Writing flash fiction is one of the hardest types of writing. You have to create a story with just the minimum of words and it has to make sense. For most flash fiction, you only need the most basic character information.





Hair color and style:

Eye color:

Complexion and skin tone:

Character’s body build:

These should be enough to create a flash fiction character.

Short Stories

Short stories have a higher word count, so the characters in those should be more developed. You have more leeway with your character’s descriptions and can even give background information, which will make them more real for your readers. Use the above information and add the following:

Character back story:

Identifying marks:

Facial features:

Hand features:


Mannerisms or gestures:

Novellas and Novels

Novellas and novels require the most detailed characters because they are as much character driven stories as plot driven. Character sheets with more detailed physical description, personality traits, and an extensive background will go a long way to making your story one that pulls a reader in and keeps them reader from beginning to end. Use all of the above plus the following:

Strongest personality traits:

Weakest personality traits:

Needs of the character:


Father’s name:


Physical appearance:

Mother’s name:


Physical appearance:

Sibling’s names and descriptions:

Favorite sayings:

Interests and hobbies:

Favorite foods:

Favorite colors:




Financial situation:

Future plans:

Possessions this character values most:

What drives your character:

How does your character handle conflict:

What is standing in your character’s way:

What is their favorite room and why:

What vehicle do they drive:

Favorite sport(s):

What are your character’s prejudices:

How does your character feel about love:

About crime:

What is their neighborhood like:

What is your character’s philosophy on life:

What is your character’s family life like:

You also should have a rough background and timeline for this character, from childhood through the start of the story. Break it down into 5 year spans, unless your character is fairly old, then go with 10 year spans. Finally, have a profile summary, taking everything you have for the character and write up a one or two paragraph summary. It is a good way to focus your character’s information, and could be used in your story.

Book Series

When writing a series of books about the same characters, it is imperative to keep some kind of record of their traits. Do not rely on your memory when it comes to writing each book. As an avid reader of series books, it is amazing the number of times a character’s eyes have been dark blue in one book and dark brown in another then gone back to blue. While most casual readers won’t catch that kind of mistake, your dedicated readers will. It costs you nothing to keep a notebook with your character sheets and reference it when writing the next book in your series. It will go a long way to keep the continuity of your books intact.

A note on describing clothing. Unless clothing change is crucial to your story’s plot limit your fashion descriptions. You do not need to tell every single piece of clothing your character is wearing. A basic idea of their attire is enough for most readers.

Your characters are as important to your story as your plot. Developing them will help bring your tale to life, but taking the time to plan them out prior to writing is a great way to make them real to you and your reader.

5 Quirky Traditions To Watch Out For On Your Peru Vacation

Random. Surprising. Frustrating. Strange.

If you’ve ever taken a Peru Vacation, one or all of these words will float into your mind sooner or later. If you were expecting to encounter life in the same form as back home, you’ll be in for a shock. Why is Peru so different?

It could be thousands of years of civilizations steam-rollering over each other, each leaving their own mark on the population and its behaviors. Peru today is an anthropological melting pot with modern and colonial Spanish influence in towns and cities while in the countryside Inca and pre-Inca cultures dominate day-to-day life.

As a result of this cultural mega-mix you’ll bear witness to some quirky, and often disturbing, practices on a Peru vacation. Here are 5 common ones to watch out for.

1. Two Bulls, a ladder and a cross on the roof

Something that is very common in the highlands is the placing of two ceramic bulls on the roof of the house. The roofs of traditional houses are covered with red clay tiles and as you wander the streets of cities like Cusco, Pisaq and Ollantaytambo look up and you will see many pairs of bulls sitting side by side.

The most traditional bulls come from Pukara on the altiplano between Cusco and Puno and two bulls side by side (male and female) are said to signify various things; they keep the house safe with a blessing to the “Apus” (the Inca mountain gods) and ensure wealth, health and unity of the occupants. The bulls may be combined with a ladder and a cross allowing an easy passage to heaven when the time comes. This is a curious mixture of Inca and Catholic symbology, but one that is typical of many things Peruvian.

2. Red plastic bags on sticks

As you drive through the Sacred Valley of the Incas near Cusco you will see lots of red plastic bags on the end a very long bamboo sticks projecting from houses. These are signs! They say, “We sell Chicha,” a maize or corn based alcoholic drink which is very (and in some cases, a little too) popular in the countryside.

On Sundays you will not only see the red signs but the effects on the people drinking Chicha as they stagger around small towns and villages mumbling and being overly friendly or abusive to tourists depending on what sort of week they have had.

It is said that, as yeast is expensive, people spit into the brew to make it ferment. To add to the fun, it is said that in some parts of Peru and Bolivia a severed dead baby´s hand is thrown in too for good measure. Make mine a double…

3. Babies shoes hanging inside or underneath the car

When you are taking a taxi, public bus or even some private cars in Peru you may notice a small shoe hanging by its laces. This is mostly done within the car, which makes sense (who wouldn’t want a memento of their kid when on the job?), but sometimes logic is stretched when people hang the shoes underneath the car. This shoe is from the first born in the family and is said to bring wealth and luck to the family and aid family unity (a recurring theme it seems!).

4. Chewing Coca leaves

This is a very common habit in the countryside but you will see it in town markets too when country people come in to sell their goods. It is an Inca tradition where people build up a ball of Coca leaves in one of their cheeks and allow the resultant liquid to seep into the blood stream. The alkaloid ingredients of the Coca plant, containing around 1% actual cocaine, allow the fanatical chewers to fight fatigue, hunger and cold more easily and therefore work harder in the fields.

Many people will chew the leaves when they are not working hard, maybe when they are just sitting around chatting, and while it is not necessarily an addiction many people will go through 300 to 400 grams a week. Is that bulge in your cheek coca leaves, or are you just pleased to see me?

5. Decorating graves

When you are traveling by road you will inevitably see graveyards in nearby fields and often there are shrines at the side of the road where people have died in traffic accidents. Around special public holidays such as Todo Santos these graves are decorated by family members with many articles that the deceased used to enjoy. This ritual often happens on the birthday of the deceased person too. Things are placed on and around the grave like football related objects, model cars or dolls, photos, beer or rum bottles, favorite clothing, families may play favorite music etc.

Have you seen any of these traditions on your Peru vacation? Are there any others that you can think of?

Useful Information About Dry Risers

Dry risers are the vertical mains fitted into staircase enclosures or other appropriate positions, with outlet valves on every floor and inlets fitted at ground level to enable the fire brigade to connect supply of water in case of fire in the building. The only function of the dry risers is that they provide a ready made means of distributing substantial amount of water to stub out or prevent the spread of fire.

Where dry riser should be installed?

Riser should be installed in the building where any floor is higher than 18 meters above ground level. On the other hand, buildings where there are floors higher than 60 meters above ground level, wet risers are used.

The number and disposition of dry rising mains should be such that:

1. One is provided for every 900 square meters of floor area at each level other than ground floor of the building

2. Rising mains are not more than 60 meters apart in a horizontal direction of the building

3. No part of any floor area is more than 60 meters from a landing valve measure along a route appropriate for hose lines.

Design Consideration for Dry Riser:

1. In dry riser pipe work and fittings should be of Galvani wrought steel and pipe work should be joined by screwing

2. Changes in pipe’s direction should be made with standard bends rather than elbows

3. Dry riser should have a nominal bore of 100 millimeter where only one outlet is provided on each floor. If two outlets are provided on any level on any one riser the main should have a nominal bore of 150 millimeter

4. Each riser should be provided with a 25 millimeter drain valve at the lowest point of the pipe work. When drain valve is not in use, it should be strapped and padlocked

5. An appropriate automatic air release valve should be fitted at the highest point in each rising main to allow the pressurised air in the pipe to discharge when water is pumped in.

Electrical Earth:

Dry riser should be electrically earthed and bond those joints which do not provide electrical continuity. These considerations are very important and need proper concentration at the time of installation. There are many professional companies in UK which are providing quality services for dry riser servicing, installation and maintenance.

Everything You Wanted to Know About Carpet Patching (But Didn’t Know Who to Ask)

A patch is one of the most common types of repairs that we do. We use a carpet patch to solve several types of carpet problems where small to mid-sized portions of wall-to-wall carpet have been damaged. People usually call us to patch their carpet when other methods to restore their carpet won’t work.

Common causes of carpet damage that require this type of carpet repair include carpet burns, carpet stains, carpet tears, carpet holes, pet damage (Bad Kitty!), and remodeling as well as worn traffic paths.

We remove the damaged area, and replace it with an identical piece of carpet. When done correctly, it’s normally, but not always invisible to the eye. Depending on the type of carpet you may be able to see the patch, but it will almost always look far better than what we started with.

Reasons why your carpet patch may not look as good as you’d like

* The patch is a different color due to the original carpet fading.

* The patch is new and the area where it’s going is old and worn.

* The patch has a gap or overlap in the seam.

* The carpet is running the wrong direction.

Start with the essentials: carpet anatomy

The greater the damage, the more complicated the repair, so it helps to understand what exactly your carpet is made of so you can assess how far the damage has gone.

Every carpet has several layers below what we can see with the eye. That top layer, which comes in various colors, weaves, heights, materials, and densities, (and which is the fun part to pick out when you go carpet shopping) is called the pile. The pile is made from many different materials: nylon is the most common encountered in both commercial and residential carpet repair, because it is relatively stain- and heat-resistant and doesn’t crush easily.

Most people are familiar with the fact that padding lies below the carpet, which helps give it its comfortable feel when you walk on it. This is the bottom layer. Common types of padding include foam (cheap), rebond, frothed foam, slab rubber, waffle rubber, fiber (such as jute, recycled textiles, synthetic fibers, etc.), and in some cases special Berber padding.

Between the pile and the padding is the backing, which is made of two layers and holds the fibers together so the carpet doesn’t fall apart. When the carpet is manufactured, needles are used to push the fiber through the primary backing. It’s then sealed against the secondary backing with very strong adhesive to keep everything in place.

Once you’re familiar with how your carpet is constructed, it’s easier to envision how patching works, even if you’ve never done it before. These are the basics of your carpet’s anatomy, and should help you in assessing how far down the damage has gone, which is an important step in carpet repair and carpet patching.

#1 Carpet Patching Requirement: Carpet Patches!

Just as important as removing the damaged carpet is replacing it with well-matched good carpet. There’s a few different ways to find a fresh carpet patch:

· In ideal situations, the new carpet patches come from spare scraps left over from the original installation. Always save the scraps!

· If you don’t have any leftover carpet from the installation we may be able to steal some carpet from a closet, beneath a radiator or from under a piece of furniture that you never move. (Now you’ll never move it for sure.)

· If your carpet is a relatively common style, a nearby retailer may have a perfect or near-perfect match that you can purchase. (The chances of finding a perfect match are somewhere between slim and none.)

· If you need to patch a significant area that matches the rest of the house (such as several steps in a stairway or a hallway, one great carpet patching alternative is to re-appropriate matching carpet from another room, such as a bedroom. Re-carpeting just that one bedroom means the hallway/stairway still matches the rest of the house, and costs a LOT less money than replacing the carpet for whole common area.

Basic Steps of Carpet Patching for the novice.

1. Removing the damaged carpet: Start by using a straight edge and a row finder. An ice pick or a Phillips screwdriver can be used instead of a row finder. Place the straight edge on the carpet with the groove side down. Use the row finder to separate the nap. Do this by dragging the point of the row finder across the carpet up and down and against the edge of the straight edge.

2. Use a slotted blade knife with a fresh blade. You can use a slotted blade knife (butted up against the straight edge to cut through the carpet without cutting through too much of the nap if you used the row finder properly. The more nap you cut off, the worse the carpet patch will look.

3. Choose a scrap of carpet that’s leftover from the original installation for the carpet patch. If you don’t have any leftover scraps of carpet then you’ll need to remove a piece from a closet or from under a piece of furniture. Some people try to find a piece of matching carpet at a carpet store but it’s nearly impossible. On occasion we will have the customer buy some carpet from a carpet store that is very close to matching. We then take carpet from a closet to do the patch with and use the new carpet in the closet.

4. Determine the direction of the nap. Carpet lays down more when you brush your hand in one direction than in other directions. It’s incredibly important for proper carpet patching that all the carpet runs the same direction. Sometimes it’s really hard to tell which way the carpet nap runs. All I can say is to keep brushing your hand in different directions until you really get to know the carpet. If you keep at it, you’ll figure it out.

5. Turn the carpet patch over and use the straight edge to cut a perfect patch from the back. If you are untrained, chances are that you won’t be able to cut a perfect patch. (Tip, use a fresh blade in the slotted blade carpet knife)

6. Now that the carpet patch is cut exactly perfect without any gaps or overlaps at the seams it’s time to seal the edges. You can seal the edges with latex or with a glue gun. Just use the slightest amount of glue along both edges so that there won’t be fraying in the future. Not everyone seals the edges but it is highly recommended.

7. The carpet patch is cut to perfection, the edges are sealed and now you’re ready to adhere the carpet patch to the rest of the carpet. The way we do it is to use a special carpet seam tape with an iron or with a hot glue gun. For the beginner I’d recommend using the glue gun.

Cut the seam tape to the size of the carpet patch. Line up the carpet seam tape so that half of it is under the existing carpet and the other half of it will be under the patch.

Use the glue gun to apply a generous amount of hot glue under the seam of the carpet. Slowly work your way all the way around the carpet until you have glued the carpet patch into place. (hint, have a glass of water right next to you for when you get molten hot glue on your fingers. A quick dip will cool it off right away and prevent you from experiencing nearly as much pain.)

When gluing the carpet patch down using the glue gun, pay special attention to the backing. You want to glue the backing down so that it’s butted up just right. Also be especially careful to avoid getting the nap of the carpet pushed down into the hot glue. It’s a mess when that happens and there’s no recovery.

As you glue the carpet together, push the carpet backing down into the hot glue using a carpet tractor. It’s a good idea to put a flat weight on top of the seam for a few minutes as you work your way around.

If you’re a novice, I wouldn’t recommend that you try to use the carpet seam iron to patch a carpet. It takes a skill that doesn’t come on the first try. You can get a better idea by watching the free videos that you can find on the main website.

The Scarlet Letter: Archetypal Fates of Hester Prynne

References to mythological characters that people recognize consciously or unconsciously offer a writer good examples of allusion for use in all genres, but the metaphorical quality of the archetypes in Greek mythology engenders powerful plots and characters in fiction. How many stories have we all read-or perhaps films we have watched-in which a woman saves the man she loves through her own ingenuity? The Greeks perfected this tale, the one, for example, in which Theseus volunteers to enter the labyrinth with the intention of slaying the Minotaur but is successful only because of the woman who loves him. Ariadne gives him the blueprint of Daedalus’s labyrinth as well as a ball of twine to find his way back out of this deathtrap.

Or how about Medea, whose rage leads her to destroy the ones she loves the most, her own children, to spite the man who has betrayed her? We all know real life stories of women possessed with mental illness who tragically choose this path. Even Medea’s lover Jason reminds us of the heartbreaking consequences when, despite the woman who sacrifices all for him, he shuns her and chooses another who is wealthier and more politically connected. Sound familiar? They should. These examples from ancient mythology are the sometimes dark archetypal patterns of our own lives, and subsequently the lives of literary figures whose consequences evolve from this tension. One such character is Hester Prynne, the well-known heroine of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter.

Hawthorne and Greek Mythology

Hawthorne, the most celebrated writer of fiction during the nineteenth century American Renaissance, drew ideas for a number of his characters and plots from his knowledge of Greek mythology, the stories which he admired and ultimately retold for children in The Wonder Book and The Tanglewood Tales. While the structure of fiction often parallels the motifs of mythology, the three Fates, or Moirae, lend the imagery of thread and weaving destiny especially well to Hester.

Parallels between Hawthorne and Hester

Life is the stuff of literature, and Hawthorne chose to create a character whose situation, at least the emotional grief he felt, mirrored his own. He had lost his job at the Custom House, money was scarcer than ever, and he had not yet earned the distinction of an established writer that he believed he had earned. Pouring his sense of loss and injustice into Hester’s troubles, he handed his publisher Ticknor and Fields a partial manuscript of The Scarlet Letter, and the book was published on March 16, 1850, resulting in good reviews. Today scholars consider the seventeenth century protagonist of the novel, Hester Prynne-a moral and practical exemplar of the nineteenth century-a literary exemplar of modern day. The book established Hawthorne as a literary exemplar in his own time as well.

Thread and the Three Fates

In the seventeenth century patriarchal setting of the book, the Puritans consider women to be the weaker sex, an attitude that actually saves Hester from hanging, the usual punishment for the crime of adultery. Her new husband, having two years earlier sent her to Boston without him and later having been lost at sea, returns unexpectedly to find her standing in public humiliation on the scaffold with a child who isn’t his, but the name of the father of this child will be carefully and painfully withheld by the mother until the end of his life. Before the story opens, Hester has already fallen in love with her minister, the Reverend Mr. Dimmesdale. Although the minister is supposed to protect this defenseless woman alone in the New England wilderness, he becomes the father of her child, yet she is steadfast in her decision not to reveal his identify and ruin his esteemed position in the Puritan community. At this point she must, if she is to remain near him in Boston, provide for the welfare of herself and her child Pearl, and she does this through her skillful sewing and embroidery.

Thread and needlework in any context seem to suggest connections or ties that bind people, places, actions, and ideas together. The Greeks personified this thread imagery in the form of the three Fates, or Moirae: Clotho the Spinner, who spun the thread of life; Lachesis the Disposer of Lots, who assigned a length of thread to each man or woman; and Atropos, who cut the thread at the end of that life. Hester Prynne embodies all three Fates as she literally uses her needle and thread to weave her own destiny, to thrive in a hostile environment and alter an entire community’s perception of her-from adulterer to angel and able-and at the end of her life to return to the place of her sin and her loving commitment in order to live out her life and be buried next to her partner Arthur Dimmesdale.

Thread as the Axis Mundi

In ancient mythology the thread passing through the sphere of the pearl is the axis mundi, and Hester’s beloved daughter Pearl, the union of fire and water, is the center of her world, a constant reminder of the mother’s sin. It is only when mother and father stand together on the scaffold in the final revelation of the truth that the demon-child Pearl will acknowledge her dying father, an act that calms her spirit and enables Pearl to move on, grow into a woman who will have her own family, which she does.

After Dimmesdale, the man who cuckolds Hester’s husband, dies, the wicked husband in disguise who calls himself Roger Chillingworth, has no will to live now that Dimmesdale is gone, and he dies as well, leaving Hester’s daughter Pearl with his wealth. Mother and daughter disappear to Europe, but Hester, an elderly woman now, returns to Boston to minister to women in need of the kind of comfort and solace that Hester desired long ago. She wears the finely embroidered A once more, though faded, and when she dies, she is buried side by side with her beloved Dimmesdale. They are separated in life but also separated in death, with a space between them, and there is just one grave marker which reads, “On a field sable, the letter gules.”

If the thread of life weaves and binds together the universe of Hester Prynne, it is also a primary motif of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s personal journey as well as the microcosm of our own lives.

For more information about Hawthorne and The Scarlet Letter, see the following sources:

Hamilton, Edith. Mythology. New York: Back Bay Books, Little, Brown and Company, 1969.

O’Connor, Susan. Dance of Language. Bloomington, IL: AuthorHouse, 2008.

Reynolds, David. Beneath the American Renaissance. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988.

Wineapple, Brenda. Hawthorne, A Life. New York: Random