How To Keep Your Artwork As Fresh As The Day It Was Created

Clueless about how to protect the beautiful acrylic painting you received as a birthday gift? Wondering how to mat and frame your new watercolor? Here’s a handy guide on how to care for your precious artwork, no matter what media it was created in.

. Handling

. Storage

. Transporting

. Matting

. Framing

. Laminating

. Display

. Cleaning

Special care for different types of media

. Acrylics

. Oils

. Watercolors

. Pastels

. Charcoal, Pencil, Colored pencil, Crayon drawings

. Ink drawings

. Digital art


Always use great care in handling artwork. Never touch the surface of the art with your bare fingers as the natural oils, acids and salts on your skin can transfer to the artwork and cause permanent damage. If you must touch the art, wear cotton gloves.


Artwork not displayed should be stored in a clean, dry, dark and well-ventilated area in moderate temperatures and humidity levels that do not fluctuate a great deal. Avoid storage in basements, attics or garages as extreme temperatures and moisture can damage the artwork.

Store unframed art flat with acid-free paper between each item, or store individual items in archival-quality envelopes.

Avoid storing art between cardboard, as it is highly acidic and can damage artwork over time.

Store art created with charcoal, pastels, pencil or crayon between glass to avoid rubbing and damaging the delicate artwork. Preferably mat the item first with an acid-free mat and then cover it with glass to protect the artwork from any kind of contact with its surface.

Never store unframed art in shipping tubes for any length of time. Remove the art as soon as possible and lay it flat until you are ready to frame it. If a painting has been stored in a tube for a long time, consult a professional who will use the utmost care and expertise in unrolling and relaxing the artwork to avoid possible cracking and damage.

Never store framed art directly on the floor. Instead, rest the artwork on blocks or on shelves.


Never leave artwork in your car for extended periods of time. Carry framed artwork by the sides and avoid resting canvas against any items that may damage the surface.

Roll prints carefully and insert into heavy duty shipping tubes. Remove the artwork and unroll as soon as possible after transport to avoid permanent damage.


Have your artwork matted with an acid-free mat board. Poor quality mats may damage art over time due to the chemicals in the board that can transfer to the artwork. The same is true for backing your art with cardboard which also has chemicals that may cause discoloration.

Never use rubber cement or white glue to adhere the art to a surface as it can cause damage to your precious artwork.


Art created with ink, pencil, pastels or charcoal should be framed under glass. You may use Plexiglas only for pencil or ink drawings as any pastel or charcoal artwork may be damaged by the build-up of electrostatic charge emitted from Plexiglas and similar plastics.

Make sure to completely seal the back seams of the frame and backing with acid-free tape.

To further protect your print from harmful UV rays you can ask your framer to use glare-free glass with a UV protective coating to cover the artwork in the frame.

The frame you choose should be slightly larger than your artwork. Humidity may cause the paper to contract or expand and the extra space between the frame and artwork will allow for these changes without damaging the art.

Never frame artwork without also using a mat board between the art and frame. Wood may hold humidity that can transfer to the artwork. You can use acid-free frame spacing instead of matting, if you prefer. Ask your art store to see what is available.

Also, if you have a glass insert to protect the artwork, make sure you add a mat to prevent the art from sticking to the glass over time.


Since nearly all laminating materials have UV inhibitors in them it makes sense to consider this option for protecting your prints, photos and digital art as well as other artwork such as delicate pastels and charcoals.

Consult a photo store to ensure that this process will not damage the artwork you’re thinking of laminating.

Either bring your print or photo to a photo shop to have it professionally laminated to a base, or use a laminating machine if you would rather use a frame.

A laminating machine that uses a heat process will protect the print more than a machine using cold lamination. Be careful of low-end laminators with fluctuating temperatures that can result in bubbles between the print and the plastic, incomplete lamination or variations in thickness of the plastic.

As an added protection, laminating pouches are also available with UV-resistance to protect against color-fade.

If you use low quality photo paper for your digital prints, make sure to test a sample print in your laminator as smearing of the photo may result.


Careful planning of where you’ll hang your artwork should lengthen its lifespan considerably.

Humidity, extreme fluctuating temperatures, direct sunlight, bright light, heating vents and fireplaces can damage your previous art. Avoid contact with fluorescent lighting that emits harmful high-energy rays that can deteriorate the artwork.

Hanging art on exterior walls may subject the art to temperature fluctuations and dampness in climates where temperatures vary greatly with the seasons. Avoid hanging artwork in kitchens or bathrooms for this same reason.

Attach small cork pieces to the back of the frame to prevent mold from forming, by allowing air to circulate behind your framed art.

Never use clip-on lights on frames. The area of artwork exposed to this “hot spot” will cause drying and damage over time.

Canvas stretcher bars may expand and contract with temperature fluctuations. This may make the canvas sag and/or crack the paint. A professional can correct this problem and save the artwork.


Dust frames regularly and inspect for signs of mold or insects. Make sure that all hangers and items used to secure the frame are still in good condition.

Never use commercial products to clean your bare artwork. Use a feather duster to dislodge dust particles from the surface. Cloth material may leave lint.

To clean the picture glass that protects your artwork, never spray cleaner directly onto the glass. Instead, spray your cleaning cloth and then wipe the glass to avoid cleaner from running gown and seeping between the glass and frame and damaging the art. Avoid using a cleaner with ammonia.

Use a cleaner specifically designed for Plexiglas or similar materials such as acrylic, or use a soft damp cloth and spot clean gently to avoid scratching.

A professional may be needed to clean your artwork if you notice color changes and dullness from contact with smoke, whether it was from cigarettes, heavy use of candles, or if the artwork was subject to smoke damage from a fire. See your professional if you notice any signs of mold or insects.

Special Care for different types of media

Acrylic Paintings

Not to be framed under glass, acrylics are fairly sturdy and can survive in various lighting conditions. Dusting the surface lightly will prevent any build-up. Be careful when shipping acrylics in the winter as extremely cold temperatures may cause cracking. You’ll have the same problem when storing your acrylics in unheated attics, basements or sheds if you live in areas that experience very cold winters.

Oil Paintings

Also not for framing under glass as these have to “breath”. Direct sunlight will fade oils over time. Choose its location with this in mind.

Make sure to dust frequently as build up may crack and peel the paint. Never spray commercial cleaners on your painting. Should the colors appear dull after awhile, you can have your painting varnished at your art store to renew the colors and protect the surface from possible cracking.

Transport your painting carefully wrapped in cardboard and protected with bubble wrap. Avoid leaving the artwork too long in the packaging as moisture may form and damage your painting.


Frame watercolors behind glass. Colors may fade if fragile watercolors are exposed to strong lighting conditions.

Oil Pastels and Chalk Pastels

Pastels are very delicate and must be handled with extreme care. Framing under glass as soon as possible is a necessity to protect the easily damaged surface. Full sun can fade the colors but they can survive strong light or indirect sunlight. Never touch the surface of the art or place anything on its surface to avoid smearing.

Charcoal, pencil, colored pencil, crayon drawings

These are just as fragile as pastels; therefore they must be handled and protected in the same manner. Do not touch the delicate surface of these drawings.

Ink Drawings

Also very light sensitive, fades quickly in direct sunlight. Frame under UV-protected glass.

Digital Art

Avoid touching the surface of your digital art. Mount your artwork behind UV-protected glass to reduce fading. Make sure that the artwork is dry before doing this. An acid free mat inserted between the artwork and frame will prevent the art from sticking to the glass. Aluminum frames should be considered as humidity does not affect them and will not transfer to your prints. Make sure to keep your digital prints away from excessive heat for long periods of time, high humidity, direct sunlight and extreme temperature fluctuations.

Taking extra care of your precious artwork today will ensure many years of enjoyment later on.

The Right Way to Maintain Your Foot Rails

Bars, kitchen islands and even tables for card games now boast of added functionality unlike in the past. Its added feature today is the foot rail that provides a comfortable resting place for the feet. With this fixture in place, people using those areas can enjoy their time and not worry about getting tired their feet.

The foot rails are those long tubing that you see attached at the bottom and front part of a bar counter or kitchen island. It can be made from different types of material such as wood, stainless steel and brass. They not only serve an important purpose but they also improve the beauty of your home bar or island counter of your kitchen.

But as in any fixture in the home, maintenance is crucial for the foot rail. This is to prevent it from getting scratches, dirt, dust and stains. Additionally, polishing is vital especially for the stainless steel and brass rails to maintain their glow.


For your brass foot rails, applying brass polish and lacquer will help prevent tarnishing going forward. Keep in mind that this material is prone to corrosion. This occurs due to the condition of the environment including chemicals, salt air, pollutants and ultraviolet rays and when this happens, the lacquer may disintegrate.

Experts recommend applying a non-abrasive automobile wax on the tubing’s surface at least two to three times each year. This is to prevent tarnishing.

Also keep the material away from paints and other chemicals that can affect the brass’ condition. Another option should you see signs of tarnishing is to apply a lacquer remover and apply a new coat of polish on the brass. After that, you can add a polymer car wax cleaner, wipe it clean and apply a coat of polyurethane sealer before buffing the material using a clean and soft cloth or rag.

An ideal way of cleaning your brass foot rail is to use a mixture of water and mild soap. Wet your rag with the solution and wipe the rail. Do not use abrasive cleaners as much as possible as they can result in scratches.

Stainless steel

For your stainless steel foot rail, you can either use a soap and water or detergent and ammonia along with a sponge to keep it clean. Never use scouring pads with metal or metal scrapers.

If you see stains and some discoloration, you can use a stainless steel cleaner or just a mild cleanser. You can choose from several types such as the alkaline, alkaline chlorinated or non-chloride cleaners. A toothbrush with soft bristles can be utilized.

If rust exists, mix nitric acid and warm water with a one is to nine ratio. The right to mix this is to add the acid into the water and not the other way around. Leave the mixture for about half an hour to keep the corrosion from spreading. Rinse afterward and let dry.

Follow these steps on a regular basis and you’ll make your foot rails more durable and attractive for a long time.

How to Swap an H22 Into a CRX Chassis Using a Hasport Mount Kit

This can be a rather difficult swap if attempting it without any instructions or guidance. However, these step-by-step directions can make it a breeze. An H22 engine in an 88-91 civic or CRX chassis exaggerates the old power to weight ratio theory for unbelievable acceleration.

Let’s begin with assuming you have already removed the stock engine. We will start this engine swap by prepping the engine bay. The first step is to remove the passenger side transmission mount bracket that is welded to the frame. It will require the use of a drill with a large drill bit or spot weld drill bit to drill through the factory welds and remove this bracket from the framerail. After removal, use a grinder or similar tool to smooth the framerail of any debris or sharp spots left from the drill.

Next, bolt the passenger side transmission bracket that is included in the Hasport mount kit to the passenger side framerail using the 12mm battery tray bolts and factory threaded holes. You will need to use a sharpie or other marker to trace the outline of this bracket on the framerail. Remove the bracket and grind or sand the paint from the area you traced to prep it for welding.

Bolt the bracket back into place and stitch weld the bracket onto the frame rail. Be careful to fully penetrate the weld, but not burn through the factory frame rail. After the area has cooled, spray primer over the exposed welds and apply your color choice paint over the primed area to prevent corrosion.

Next comes the tricky part. The factory F/H series transmissions are very large and will require some modification to the lower portion of the rail below your newly installed bracket. It is easiest if you lift the engine partially into place to see what area needs to be cut. After cutting enough clearance, you will need to fabricate a brace out of sheet metal or similar material to properly reinforce the frame rail. This can be skipped, but be advised!

Now, some fun stuff. You will have by this time already gotten over the fright of cutting into your car, so this will be a breeze. Use a medium sized sledge hammer and put a large dent in the upper portion of the firewall to make room for the huge H22 intake manifold. It may help to partially lift the engine into place to get an idea where to “put” this dent.

Bolt the rear Hasport Mount onto the lower crossmember using the supplied hardware included with the Hasport Mount Kit. On the timing belt side of your new H22 engine, remove the timing belt covers and unbolt the factory engine mount bracket. Bolt the new Hasport motor mount bracket into place and reinstall the factory timing covers. The covers may need slight trimming to clear the billet hasport mount bracket.

Remove the H22 transmission vehicle speed sensor and replace with your factory 88-91 civic / crx cable driven speed sensor. This should be a direct fit into place. Bolt the Hasport cable to hydro conversion lever assembly onto your H22 transmission. Due to the large size of the H22 engine, you will need to either shave the outer power steering pulley, or install an under-drive style crankshaft pulley that does not have a power steering groove.

Bolt the included Hasport alternator bracket onto your h22 engine using the hardware supplied with the Hasport H22 mount kit. Then bolt your factory D series alternator bracket to the Hasport alternator bracket. You may need to slightly bend your dipstick tube for clearance. Using the remaining factory hardware, bolt your stock D series alternator “upside down” onto your H22 engine. For easier installation into the engine bay, you can wait until the engine is installed to bolt on the alternator.

Now comes the fun part. The easiest way to install an H22 engine using a Hasport Mount Kit is from the bottom. You will need to lift the car up on a hoist and “lower” it down onto the engine. When the engine is nearly in place, bolt the rear engine “L” bracket into place using just the two upper bolts. Leave the two lower bolts for the rear bracket out until the other mounts are bolted in. You can now bolt the timing belt side mount into place, followed by the transmission mount. Only hand tighten these for now. Go back to the rear bracket that bolts the engine to the rear mount and install the two lower bolts. Now tighten all of the engine mount bolts to factory specs.

For wiring, you will need to modify your stock engine harness to fit the Prelude engine. For simplicity, a new custom wiring harness can be also purchased. The axles you will need to use are custom made by Hasport and are to be installed using the H22 intermediate shaft.

What Happens When You Change Your Roof? – A Feng Shui Perspective

Houses can and do outlive people. And periodically, a house will need a new roof. Professional roofers suggest a new roof every 20-30 years. In classical Feng Shui, we know that the interior energy of a house is captured when it was built and specifically when the roof has been installed to close out the direct energy of the Sun into the house. During the building process, the roof may go on before the ceiling or ceilings in the case of a multi-storied home.

So, a common question amongst Feng Shui clients and students is whether or not the removal of the roof will change the inherent and semi-permanent energies inside the house. The answer to this question is multi-faceted depending on a number of circumstances. But for the most part, if a roof is removed while leaving the ceiling intact, then the original energy of the house will not change or “escape.” These are the kinds of things considered also when a person adds on a second story and how they do it.

We call this energy the flying stars, or the flying star chart for the house, which is a combination of energies from “heaven” above and “earth” below. It is a merging of time and space components which ends up having a profound and continuous effect on the people who dwell in the house or building.

A ceiling will act as a second roof, so unless a major portion of the roof and ceiling are removed together at the same time, you will not see a major change in the interior energies of a house. The same holds true for an ordinary small skylight, even though both the roof and ceiling have been cut open. If it is a small opening, and not of atrium size, then this would be a non-issue.

As well, now that people are adding solar panels to their roofs, people wonder if there will be any Feng Shui influence one way or the other and I do not think there is. In fact, when it comes to adding solar panels to a roof, it would be considered less of a “construction sha” situation than actually removing a roof, which is more of a disturbance to the area.

There are still some well known practitioners who say that you can change the flying star chart of a house by removing a couple of roof tiles. I would disagree. There was also one very famous author who said that if your roof tiles are blue in color that you will meet with some serious misfortune. To be blunt, I think this is not true at all. But everyone should know that the real goal in receiving Feng Shui advice is to empower a person with a larger skill set for controlling one’s own destiny, and not to scare the pants off of people. Very rarely will one real or perceived Feng Shui flaw cause a serious mishap or disaster in a person’s life. There would usually need to be an accumulation of many things off balance and for some time before the momentum could build into manifesting any event of significance.

Greyhound Racing: What The Coloured Jackets Mean

The typical greyhound race in the UK consists of six dogs. Each dog is identified by the coloured jacket it wears for the race. The colour signifies its starting position – in other words the trap number it races from – and helps you to identify the dogs as they are racing. The colours are standard so it helps to become familiar with them for your night at the greyhounds. Let’s take a run through them.

The red jacked is always worn by the dog starting from trap one. This is the starting position closest to the inside rail. Such animals generally have a preference for running along the inside of the track and are known to race goers as “railers.” A railer typically requires a good burst of early speed to hold its position in to the first corner and not get baulked by the opposition.

The blue jacket is always worn by the dog starting from trap two. This trap is also generally favoured by railers with such dogs seeking to get over to the rail in front of the greyhound in trap one.

The white jacket is always worn by the animal starting from trap three and the black jacket is always worn by the greyhound staring from trip four. Such starting positions are generally favoured by greyhounds who have a natural preference for running along the middle of the track as signified by the (M) notation next to their name in the race card.

The orange jacket is always worn by the greyhound starting from trap five and the black and white striped jacket by the greyhound starting from trap six. Such staring positions are generally favoured by greyhounds who have a natural preference for running towards the wide outside of the track as signified by the (W) notation next to their name in the race card. A potential advantage of wide running is that the frequent first turn scrimmaging can be avoided.

Trap position does make a difference and should be taken in to account when looking for betting opportunities. A greyhound running out of position can be harmful to its chances though usually for graded races trap preference is taken in to account by the racing manager and a wide runner will not be placed in to an inside trap and vice-versa.

This is to avoid trouble in running. For example if a greyhound which is normally a wide runner was to be placed in trap one its natural instinct would be to seek the outside rail and move right out of the traps. This could cause interference with other dogs in the race.

It can be a fun night out and need not break the bank as entry is not expensive. Many race goers like to enjoy a meal as they watch the racing from the comfort of the restaurant. A few minutes familiarising yourself with the different coloured jackets, the starting position and if your chosen greyhound has a noted preference for trap position can aid your enjoyment when going for a night at the greyhound racing.

How Long to Wait Before Applying Decals on Newly Painted Walls – Can Wall Decals Be Re-Applied?

Question: I just painted my walls. How long should I wait before applying my new decals?

Answer: First, it will depend on what type of paint you used. Latex paint takes up to 30 days to cure, although we’ve put wall decals on walls that have been painted less than a week. However, in our professional opinion, it would be better to wait 30 days.

If, on the other hand, you are using an oil-based paint (not common in most areas nowadays), you can apply vinyl graphics or decals or stickers within a week or so, as oil paints dry from the outside in.

When making signs using vinyl letters and logos, we always use oil-based paints as they last longer. But if you’re applying wall stickers to a wall in your home or business, it is unlikely in the modern era that you’ll be using oil-based paints.

So, while you may get away with installing vinyl wall stickers on your latex painted wall a week after it has been painted (yeah, we know it’s hard to wait!), it would be more ideal to wait a full 30 days.

Question: Can I reuse Wall Decals after I take them off the wall?

Answer: Wall Decals may not be reusable IF the vinyls used are very thin.

Using thin vinyl doesn’t mean that they are low quality, though. Do note that we don’t sell this brand of decal, but we’ll vouch for them that the thinner the vinyl, the better the quality is. Likely they are using “cast” vinyl, which doesn’t shrink like “calendared” vinyl will.

Most of the time if you remove a wall decal, you will stretch the material, thus decreasing the adhesion of the stretched material. If you put it on a textured wall, often it will lift paint flecks and plaster when you remove the sticker, also decreasing the adhesiveness of the vinyl.

On a general note, vinyl decals are rarely re-useable. If you get a removable decal or a static cling decal, these can be removed and re-used to some degree, although adhesion will tend to decline after the first usage.

Static cling decals particularly loose elasticity over time, and the thinner the static cling material, the sooner it will lose the ability to be re-applied. Static cling materials use plasticizers to maintain a soft and supple surface that will adhere to glass, acrylic, or very smooth painted surfaces. Over time, static cling material loses this suppleness and hence its re-usability as well.

On the other hand, repositionable decal adhesives are also available. The degree of removability varies from 6 months to 3 years. Some decal materials are employed only for interior use, and some for both. Obviously, any decal that can be used out-of-doors can also be used indoors.

Do You Know The Proper Hand Signals For Knuckleboom Trucks?

Whenever operating equipment such as industrial or heavy equipment, being able to clearly communicate with co-workers or other people at a job site is essential for everyone’s safety. Due to the noise common when operating many types of equipment, OSHA has added to crane operator requirements the ability to understand and communicate with certain hand and verbal signals; workers are even beginning to be qualified for this job to help keep communication open between equipment operators and anyone observing the work without being a direct part of the actual machine operations.

Knowing Job Site Hand Signals

Even in the best of environments, listening for cautions and warnings is not always possible. On a noisy industrial job site, there is little chance that a worker’s voice would be heard over noise generated by the equipment or truck itself. In such situations, the best way to communicate clearly has always been with hand gestures and OSHA is working to increase all crane operator awareness to such signals and meanings.

When operating many commercial heavy-duty vehicles, all it takes is a fraction of a second for something to go wrong, which means there should always be spotters and other trained personnel watching work progress, ready to stop it should a problem develop. The most reliable way to communicate with equipment or vehicle operators from a safe distance is through hand signals, which every operator should watch for and be able to interpret quickly in order to act accordingly. Through fast, precise, non-verbal communication between signal person and operator, accidents damaging the vehicle or the job site can be avoided – which is the main goal.

Qualifying As a Signal Person

Since equipment operators, workers, and other personnel will be depending on the signal person to be observing the work and ready to relay warnings quickly and accurately, candidates for this job must meet the following:

  • Understand Crane Operations – Before a signal person can work effectively, it is important to understand how cranes and knuckleboom trucks operate, any limitations, and typical use or maneuvers that could be dangerous. This person will only be able to provide correct directions to operators by understanding ahead of time how the vehicle is likely to react or must be operated to prevent problems.
  • Know Standardized Hand Gestures – Every qualified worker must know and explicitly understand all standardized signals and be able to accurately display them in all situations. Although some companies may continue to use localized hand gestures, this is being discouraged by OSHA as emphasis is being made for all companies to adopt standardized gestures for personnel training and qualification.
  • Know Voice Signals and Usage – There are also verbal cautions related to the different hand signals, even though most of the time voices cannot be heard. In any situations where verbal warnings can be used, it must be done in certain ways, in certain tones, etc.. to be recognized. Knowledge of correct verbal warnings is an important part of passing the certification exam.
  • Understand Routine and Special Assignment Zones – The primary job of a signal worker is to oversee and assist during routine equipment use. Certified workers must also be capable of overseeing and evaluating special lifting situations, such as relaying information between such workers, lifting in prohibited areas, and any lifts that involve raising workers to a higher level.
  • Reaction and The Breakdown of Correct Communications – If communication through gestures has somehow broken down, qualified signal workers should be able to quickly determine options to regain control of the situation and be able to use such options. It is essential to be able to prevent accident or injury in spite of any glitches in communications.

Although most of this seems to be common sense, a thorough understanding of hand gestures on the job site is essential because of the precise and specific language spoken between signal persons and team members. Extensive knowledge of communications must be known and used when working with equipment such as knuckleboom trucks in order to keep things moving as safely as possible!

How to Build a Small Flat Wooden Bridge for Your Stream

Building a flat wooden bridge can really be great fun and involve the entire family as a project. We have a small stream running to our lake that in most areas is about ten feet wide. The embankments are about three feet high on each side so we chose one of those areas for our bridge. I decided to make three large beams as supports for the walkway. I chose six, two inch by twelve inch, by fourteen foot, pressure treated planks for the support beam materials. Each of these planks are quite heavy for one person to handle so I moved them one by one to the place where they would ultimately end up at the stream. Next, I dug two trenches, one on each side of the stream, to construct footings to support the three wooden beams. Using the largest, flattest, stones I could find, I created a flat rock ledge in each trench. The rocks being an average of three inches thick would support the beams with no problem. As each end of the bridge needed to be buried for a smooth transition to the ground on each side of the stream, the pressure treated lumber would allow me to just bury the rock footing and the end of the beams with earth holding it in place. Dragging the 2 x 12 planks across the water was no fun as the September weather had already cooled our mountain stream but I got it done.

Once all six planks were placed spanning across the stream, I was able to start to assemble them using both construction adhesive and galvanized three inch deck screws. If you are going to just use the bridge for foot traffic, two beams would be more than enough on a twelve foot span. I wanted to be able to take my lawn tractor and trailer across the bridge to the lake. With the additional center beam, the bridge easily handles the tractor, myself, the trailer loaded with camping or fishing supplies, chain saws and whatever else we needed that day. My bridge is six foot wide clear inside so there is plenty of room for all to cross.

Next, I added a 2 x 12 plank vertically at each end of the beams to connect them all together and also hold them apart in the six-foot, four inch width that I needed. Hand rail posts made of four by fours will reduce the width to an even six foot wide when installed. Before you start installing any decking, install two pieces of lumber, one by three inches wide or larger in an X pattern under the bottom of the beams. Crisscross them in the center by nailing the ends and the center point to the underside of the beams. These pieces will prevent the beams from “rolling over” as time passes and will hold them nice and straight vertically. These pieces must be pressure treated.

Next, apply your decking pieces. I recommend using two by six inch, PT lumber material as it’s added strength will make your bridge last a good many years.

Again, I used three inch galvanized deck screws to fasten the decking boards to the beams. Leave a very small gap between the boards of about 1/4 inch or the thickness of a twelve penny nail shank. These gaps will allow water to quickly pass through the bridge and gives melting snow a place to drip as well.

This bridge is flat so water runoff has to be considered to avoid premature decay.

You may want to install one set of cross blocking at center line of the bridge before installing that last piece of decking for added protection against any bouncing of the bridge deck. Mine did not need it at all.

Handrails come next in the assembly. Although the bridge is short it does add added support for the older folks crossing over on the way to the lake. On the fourteen foot span I installed three vertical posts on each side of the bridge by notching the post bottoms a full twelve and one half inches high to allow the posts to half sit on the full 2 x 12. You will need to install some small blocking around the posts to support the decking pieces. Next I added another four by four for the handrail on each side all in one piece. A little pricey but after twenty plus years of use it is still in perfect condition. After fastening the handrails in place, I added one piece of cross bridging created out of 1 x 3 PT material and I inverted them into a V shape from post to post.

Mostly decorative but but it does say “Whoa”, there is a three foot fall here.

Since I have a battery operated sander and five inch skill saw, I took the time to cut a slight bevel on the top of the handrail and then ran some sandpaper over it. This helps water shedding and makes the rail a little more comfortable to hold or lean on and stare at the steam below.

Before cleaning up, I applied a treatment to the ends of all my saw cuts to protect against the weather. Also try doing all your lumber cutting away from the water to avoid getting the PT sawdust chemicals in the water.

My bridge is now over twenty years old and other than some occasional up-keep at the bridge ends after the spring snow melt and heavy water runoff takes place to replace washed out stones or earth, this bridge will last forever.


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BICES-Building Inspection & Code Enforcement System software

Prevent Thong Wedgies From Showing

It seems like just yesterday when I first wore my thong and was quite happy about it. It made me feel really hot and out of the ordinary when I was just making up my mind to slip into those. However, my entire day got ruined because of the nasty wedgies that kept on showing from the rear and I had no option to keep them low. That day I decided to never wear that men’s underwear again until, one day I discussed this problem with my friend (who’s supposed to be a thong lover). He put forward the secret of loving the style without complaining about the showy wedgies.

Hence, I had to share this with you all because I know there are men around the globe who ditch the fashion underwear style because of the wicked wedgies. This article would help you all find the option of avoiding or preventing the thong wedgies for a comfortable appeal.

Size: When it comes to men’s underwear, anything and everything that goes wrong can be rectified with the help of the right size (more or less). It is an essential aspect that will help you out of the situation sooner or later. Once a host of a show tossed a question related to men’s apparel. A man from the crowd replied with a question that how do I get my perfect pair of thongs? Nothing seems to please me. The author replied, “You’ve changed all the thong styles, have you ever tried changing your size?” the gist of the talk was, whenever you think the specific thong does not provide what you’re looking for, change the size. It is a tried and tested method that if your correct sized pair does not feel good, a bigger one would definitely be a better option.

Fabrics: You wouldn’t agree more if someone said that fabrics play a prominent role in providing the best feeling down there. Whatever the style of the underwear is, what matters more is the fabric composition. If you take a closer look at the fabrics available in the apparel industry, you’d find that they are either stretchable or inelastic. Looking further, you would come to know that the ones with high elasticity move around with you without bunching or riding up the butt crack. However, the ones with minimal or low elasticity tend to get rigid and ride up when you are in motion (whether you stretch, bend, sit, etc.).

All you need is patience: You remember the time when your mother made you wear those age-old sweaters that you didn’t like at all? How did you feel when they were sternly given to you to be worn? You must not have felt comfortable in those at once, but you got used to it eventually and liking it at the end. Likewise, you need to be patient with the thong underwear. Though they are the most comfortable pairs according to regular wearers, the respective style can be a little tricky to handle if you don’t handle it properly. Once you’re done with the testing time, you’re all good.

Contact the customer care: There is no doubt about the fact every person needs help at some or the other point of time. So, what do you do then? It is very obvious that you ask someone who, you think is capable of giving you a probable solution to your issue. Likewise, you must contact the customer care department of the men’s underwear store if you think you have issues while buying a thong. Make sure you are specific about the thong wedgie problem and get the right solution to it.

Thong wedgies are not an integral part of the respective men’s apparel style. However, you should be careful about buying the enhancing underwear style and feel happy as well as comfortable in the same.

What is Contract Furniture?

When searching for furniture, you may have come across the term ‘contract furniture’. But what exactly is it, and how does it relate to furniture use and furniture design?

The simplest definition of contract furniture is furniture that is used for commercial purposes. Typically, contract furniture is used by landlords and letting agents, university halls for student accommodation, hotels, B&Bs, guest houses, offices, bars, restaurants and leisure facilities. The furniture itself can range from contract bed frames, mattresses, sofas, chairs, lighting, desks, bedroom furniture, dining facilities, upholstery and linens. The list is almost endless!

The term ‘contract’ itself refers to the written agreement between the seller and buyer when the goods are bought. And when furniture is sold for commercial use in the UK, it has to meet a strict set of criteria to meet a number of British Standards.

Contract Furniture and Crib 5

The legislation ensures that any upholstered furniture sold has been rigorously checked and meets safety standards (BS7177 ignition source 5/Crib 5). Furniture for contract use must meet minimum standard of Crib 5. The regulations apply to everyone in a business chain, from manufacturers and suppliers through to landlords, upholsters, second hand furniture suppliers and letting agents.

In what way is contract furniture different to ‘normal furniture?

In essence, apart from the applicable regulations, furniture for contract use doesn’t appear to be different from furniture intended for residential domestic use. In fact, there’s no reason why contract furniture can’t be used in this way.

However, because contract furniture is intended for heavier commercial use, it needs to be durable. For this reason, if you’re buying for commercial use, you should look for a product guarantee of a minimum of 5 years, to ensure durability.

Items such as contract bed frames and mattresses need to be able to withstand heavy use, so must be particularly strong and robust – the more superior quality you can afford, the better return on investment you’ll get. For instance, if you’re buying contract bed frames, try and opt for solid steel and always make sure that the bed frames meet British Standard Safety Regulations.

How Shipping Container Modifications Work

The shipping containers, which are no longer used for their main purpose, never have to turn into waste. They can be modified to be used for another functional purpose. Find out more about the modifications, how they are made and what results they produce.

What determines the shipping container modifications which have to be made? These large boxes are modified in line with the new purpose which they will have. They can be used for many different things from storage facilities to holiday homes and from small shops to saunas. Typically, they are modified so that they have the functionality of a traditional building. Here we will focus on these modifications.

The Main Modifications

In order for a large box which is resistant to the elements to be used as a traditional building, it has to have doors and windows. Doors of various sizes and designed can be fitted into a shipping container. You can go for a traditional side opening door, sliding door or rollup door. It all depends on what the box will be used for. Secure locks are typically installed along with the doors.

There are no limits when it comes to the number, size and style of the windows either. A storage facility may require only a few small windows while a shop will require several large ones. In fact, a whole wall can be replaced by a set of windows.

Windows and doors may not be sufficient for providing ventilation, especially if the facility is used for storage or less often. In such cases, purposefully designed container ventilation systems can be installed. They prevent condensation inside without compromising the security of the facility. If the container is used for residential purposes or the items stored inside require a set temperature, an air conditioning system can be installed.

Shelves and fixed work stations can be installed inside as well. They are typically made from steel, but the owner can select other materials. The design and size are also individually determined.

Beauty modifications can be made as well. Both the exterior and interior can be painted in virtually any colour. If the facility will be used for commercial purposes, signs can be added as well.

The modified shipping containers should not be set up directly on the ground. It is best if they stay on a platform or on specially designed blocks. Other more specific modifications may be required before they become ready to use. Once they are fully ready they can be used just like any regular facility of the respective type.

The Overheating Window Or Central Air Conditioning Unit – How Much Heat is Too Much?

Is your Central Air Conditioner Condenser or Window Air Conditioner overheating? Maybe they are and there is a problem or maybe not. The First thing to remember is that the main purpose of the air conditioning unit is to remove heat from the space they are cooling. This means that heat will be coming from the discharge of the unit. How much is normal and how do you tell what is normal?

Heat is a normal by-product of cooling. The process of cooling any space will require that the refrigerant is cooled and the excess heat discharged to the outdoors. In the case of central air conditioning this is done through the condenser fan and is usually discharged straight up. If the condenser coil is hot and the fan is not running then there is a good chance that the fan motor has gone bad. Check for power to the wires going to the motor. If there is power going to the motor (110V) then the motor probably needs to be replaced. The most common problem with the condenser fan motors is the failure of the bearings in the motor. This will cause the fan to turn hard and then it will not run.

If the condenser fan motor is running and there seems to be very little air coming out of the fan, then the coil may be plugged with dirt. I have written an article on cleaning the condenser coil for information on how to fix that problem. A dirty condenser coil will kill the efficiency of the unit and also make the compressor work much harder which will kill that more quickly also.

On window air conditioners the coil can also over heat. If the fan fails on them you will not have any discharge air on the inside either. This is because the same motor through a double shaft runs both the inside fan and the condenser fan. Most of the time the problem with overheating on window air conditioners, is because of a dirty outside coil.

This outside coil can be cleaned, but the air conditioner should be removed from the window to do it. You also have to be careful when you clean window units so you do not get anything wet that will fail because of water. If you can pull the unit out of the outside chassis, do that before trying to clean it. Make sure that it is totally dry before reinstalling it and applying power to the unit.

As you can see the most common cause of overheating with any air conditioning unit is a lack of maintenance to the unit. Always make sure to keep you air conditioning unit cleaned thoroughly for the best performance. Make regular cleanings a practice that you do faithfully every year. In very dirty places you may have to clean the unit more often than that. Lastly remember that heat will be given off of the unit when it is running. Do not confuse that heat with a problem heat. When an air conditioner is running it will seem to be very hot in some places. This discharge of heat is normal operation of the unit.

Westward Air Compressor Product Review

For anyone who wants to purchase air compressors, there are a number of products out there. In case you want really good and reliable quality products for very affordable prices, you should look for Westward air compressor products. These products are designed to deliver high performance for prolonged periods of time. They are designed to be easy to use and at the same time these machines are also very powerful. If you want to make a long term investment., Westward products are what you should be looking at.

The people who are looking at entry level products from this company should company should consider Westward 3JR70. This is an oil-less air compressor so you need not worry about oiling the motor etc. This is a very compact sized machine. It is 10 inches high, 11 inches wide and 27 inches long. These compact dimensions make is an easily towable device.The machine is equipped with a 0.75 HP running motor. It can generate a maximum pressure of 135 PSI. The machine is fitted with a 3 gallon tank.

For the people who want an air compressor in the pancake shape, there is Westward 4YD76 air compressor.This is another low maintenance oil-less air compressor. It is a equipped with a motor that has a capacity of 0.75 HP. At 125 PSI, this machine can have Free Air Flow. It can contain maximum pressure of 135 PSI. Being a pancake machine it is very compact. The dimensions of this machine are 21.7 inches length, 18.3 inches height and 18.3 inches of width. The machine has a 4 gallon tank and it is powered by 11 Amp current.

For the people who want a more powerful model, there is Westward 4B220 portable air compressor. This machine uses a powerful Briggs engine. Its powered by a powerful 5.5 HP motor. The machine uses a 2 cylinder pump made of cast iron. It has a horizontally placed tank which has a rated capacity of 20 gallons. It uses a four cycle aluminum block engine. The machine has 21 oz engine oil capacity and 12 oz of compressor pump oil. The machine uses a time tested reliable type H tank which makes it one of the longest performing and most reliable machines that you can buy.

Westward goes extra miles to make sure that its products are specially designed to be simple and easy to use. The company is involved in sustained research and development. Every Westward air compressor uses very reliable parts including gauges, switches and piston etc. The result of this is that the company has made some of the most technologically advanced products available at prices you have always dreamed of. Source: Aircompressorinc dot com

The 9 Pillars of Gesture for Public Speaking

Gesture, embracing movements of the head, body, arms, hands, legs and feet, is a natural and necessary part of public speaking. Mastering this art and making it appear natural take much practice, but can not be mastered any other way. So here are the top tips to help speed you along your way.

1. The head should be well-poised and not held on one side as if scrutinizing an audience. When held erect it denotes a normal attitude, courage, joy, pride, or authority; when upward it indicates hope or prayer; when downward, shame, modesty, or reflection; when forward, appeal, listening, sympathy or anticipation; when backward, surprise, terror or independence; when shaking, denial, discontent, or emphasis.

Frequent and meaningless movements should be studiously avoided. In bowing, incline the head and upper body together, so as to bring the bend from the waist. It should be done slowly and pleasantly, with the eyes looking down.

2. The face should be trained to promptly and truthfully reflect the emotions of the speaker. Quintilian says: “The face is the dominant power of expression. With this we supplicate; with this we threaten; with this we soothe; with this we mourn; with this we rejoice; with this we triumph; with this we make our submissions; upon this the audience hang; upon this they keep their eyes fixed; this they examine and study even before a word is spoken.”

3. The eyes are wide open in joy, fear and surprise; closed in faintness, half-closed in hate and scrutiny; raised in prayer and supplication; drooped in modesty and veneration; look askance in envy, jealousy, and appreciation.

4. The nostrils are extended in fear and indignation, and elevated in scorn.

5. The lips are closed in repose; partly open in surprise and wonder; wide open in terror; turn upward in pleasure, courtesy and good humor; turn downward in grief and sorrow; pout in discontent; and compress in anger, defiance and determination.

6. The body should move in harmony with the other members as required by the thought. In turning from side to side the movement should be from the waist and not from the neck.

7. The arms move from the shoulder, excepting in conversational gesture. They should rest at the sides without crooking the elbows. Movements may be slow and gentle, slow and intense, swift and light, or swift and strong. The size, length, and velocity of a gesture depend upon the thought. The lines are usually in curves, expressing grace, while straight lines are used when special emphasis is required. The general purpose of gesture is to locate, illustrate, generalize or emphasize.

8. The hands should be carefully trained for flexibility and expressiveness. The fingers should be slightly apart and curved. A gesture has three divisions:

– The preparation, made in an opposite direction from that which the gesture is to take.

– The gesture proper, which must be precisely upon the word intended.

– The return, in which the hand should be dropped gently and slowly without slapping the sides of the body.

And here are the most common hand gestures:

– The supine hand, palm upward, is used to express good-humor, frankness and generalization.

– The prone hand, palm downward, shows superposition, or the resting of one thing upon another.

– The vertical hand, palm outward, is used in warding off, putting from, and in repugnant and disagreeable thought.

– The clenched hand is used in anger, defiance and great emphasis.

– The index finger is used to specialize and indicate.

– Both hands are used in appeal and to express intensity, expansiveness and greatness. Usually one hand should slightly lead the other. The hands are clasped in prayer and wrung in grief.

9. The feet. The standing position should be easy, the feet at an angle of forty-five degrees, one foot in advance of the other, the width of the base depending upon the height of the speaker. The knees should be straight, shoulders even and chin level. Avoid rising on the toes and too frequent change of foot position. The most graceful effect is secured when the left foot is forward and the gesture made with the right hand, or vice versa. This combination gives balance, though it is not always possible to use it. The change of foot position will not be so noticeable if done in the act of making a gesture.

If you practice these gestures with each speech, working them in naturally. In due time, this skill will become second nature, and your overall ability and presence as a speaker will improve drastically.

Reverse Phase and Normal Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is used as an analytical instrument to separate certain compounds in a sample. The HPLC consist of a pump that delivers the mobile phase and sample throughout the system, an auto sampler or injector port for sample introduction, a stationary phase where separation of compounds takes place, a detector to detect the compounds and an integrator or a computer system for the visual output.

HPLC first started with normal phase. Normal phase HPLC means the stationary phase is made of polar packing material while the mobile phase is of non-polar or low polarity solvents. Commonly used polar stationary phase or column is packed with silica. Silica is relatively the most polar compound compared to all other packing materials. Another polar column is cyano column which has a more intermediate polarity. Examples of solvents used to make up a normal phase mobile phase are hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl ether, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Most of the solvents used in the mobile phase are water immiscible and have low polarity. In most cases, these solvents are used together in a mixture of in order to achieve compounds separation. For example, Hexane: IPA (9:1) means the mobile phase consist of a mixture of hexane and IPA at the ratio of 9 to 1. In a normal phase application, the non-polar compounds will be eluted faster than the polar compounds.

In the 1970s, reverse phase HPLC was developed. The principle is opposite of normal phase system, where the stationary phase is packed non-polar material and the mobile phase is polar. Commonly used packing material in reverse phase columns are silica linked with carbon-18 (C18). There are other columns of more intermediate polarity, such as C8 and cyano. Note that cyano can be used in both normal and reverse phases and some column manufacturers produce two types of cyano column to suit each phase. The mobile phase for a reverse phase system usually consists of water or buffer solution, methanol, acetonitrile and IPA. IPA can be used in both reverse and normal phase as it is miscible with water as well as water immiscible solvents. However, large amount of IPA in a mobile phase will cause high pressure in the HPLC system due to its high density value. In a reverse phase HPLC, the non-polar compounds are retained in the column longer than the polar compounds. In another words, the polar compounds elute faster than the non-polar compounds.