The Evolution of the Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell most likely had no idea that he had discovered what would eventually change the world in more ways than can be imagined. The technology that started out for telephones has led to more discoveries in the telecommunication field that keep people in touch and connected around the world.

The Early Days

On March 10, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first speech using electricity. From that day forward, the telephone system changed every aspect of life. Although it did not immediately change the world, it set communication on a path that would alter the future of communication.

The initial lack of acceptance of Mr. Bell’s discovery was due the telegraph being the dominating form of communication and it had been around for over 50 years. This voice across electrical lines that Mr. Bell was proposing was a new and daunting discovery.

In the late 1870’s Bell took his public telephone demonstrations on the road in an attempt to raise awareness and public finance for the project. Mr. Bell presented the telephone as a broadcasting system.

Initially, phones connected only two lines. In June30, 188 there were 287 phones installed, by July there were 750. Ten years later there would be 167,000 phones and a maze of wires overhead. (Pool, Ithiel de Sola; _The Social Impact of the Telephone_; Cambridge, MIT Press, 1977.)


Mr. Bell wasn’t the only person working on ideas that would impact telephone technology. Thomas Edison invented the first transmitter and receiver that would be practical for commercial use. He had already invented a type of multiplexing that allowed messages to be sent in opposing directions simultaneously.

Many more changes came about in the ensuing years and AT&T incorporated in 1885 to lease phones to homes and offices but maintained ownership of the technology.

Then, in the 1880’s the switchboard came on board. During this time, there was no dialing, no signaling system, and no electronic switches. Callers would crank the handle; get an operator who then connects them to their party and then have their conversation. This type of system had no ringer to alert of incoming calls and no privacy due to the operator being the middle man holding the call together.

By 1946 the number of telephone callers made switchboard operators’ jobs too much for people alone to handle. Nearly a quarter of a million operators were working for AT&T in 1946 but that number would decrease significantly with the invention of automatic call switching.

Although this switching system was invented in 1889, it was not until 1914 that it was installed on a large scale basis in New Jersey. Then, it wasn’t until 1976 that the first computerized switch was put into action and by 1982 almost half of all telephone calls were switched electronically.

Turning the Century

Bell’s patent ran out at the turn of the century and approximately 6000 independent phone companies opened up shop. These independent companies could only connect locally, AT&T refused to allow them to link to the national system. Instead, they waited for the little guy to go bankrupt and then bought them out.

In 1984, AT&T got out of the local telephone service at the end of a ten-year lawsuit pushing to break up the telecommunication giant. This resulted in the forming of the so called ‘baby Bells’.  This breakup also allowed users to own their phones and hook up their own devices to them.

Prior to the 20th century phone systems used twisted copper wires which were expensive to install and absorbed a great deal of electrical energy. The coming years would see copper wire give way to coaxial cables, then microwave stations and then telecommunication satellites.

Digital transmission, though not new, did not come into telephone play in a large way until the 1980’s. Using fiber optic cables, digital transmission was up to 125,000 times faster than that of copper cable. Copper wire is still in use in many areas due to the high cost involved with running fiber optic cable to every home, though many areas have replaced the lines with fiber optic cable.

Beyond the Telephone

Having mastered the basic telephone and communication across great distances, there were still technological advances waiting to be discovered. The fax machine uses telephone lines to transmit digital signals to a modem on the receiving in which decodes the signals into messages. Then along came the mobile or cell phone.

Cell phones appeared in the early 1980’s and today there are millions in use. Cell phone networks use the regular phone system connected to a computer controlled center and transmission towers to transmit messages. Originally, there were few transmission towers and the mobile phones were bulky and had to be used near towers in order to have clear transmission.

Within a few years, the phones became small enough to fit in the palm of a hand and towers were located nearly everywhere. While there are zones with poor reception, most cell phones are always in a usable zone.

Today, cell phones do much more than just allow for voice conversation, cell phones allow access to the Internet, email, business applications, pictures and much more.

How To Read a Property Description

Periodically a property owner who is just looking for information will call or write me asking a question about how to survey (or map out) their own property. A common question that comes up many times is: “How do I get my property records?” The second question asked, usually after they have their description in hand is, “How do I read this?”

People ask these questions for many reasons. Some desire to fence or post their land, others because of pride of ownership, the desire for knowledge, or sometimes to protect themselves from the threat of encroachment. The information in this article won’t make you an overnight expert, and you will want a certified surveyor for any legal issues you may be facing, but this will help you understand your property better.

When reading your property description, you are reading about the imaginary lines that establish the “demarcation” (boundary) between your property and your neighbors, usually referred to as the “adjoiner.” An adjoiner may be another privately held owner or a governmental agency having a title interest such as the street in front of your property.

You will see property description in many formats. The most common are Lots, Metes, or Bounds. In some cases, the description may be a combination of the above three.

Briefly, when a larger parcel of land is divided into two or more parcels, it is called subdividing. The owner is subdividing the property into Lots. The description of each lot is usually created through a government platting procedure. This creates a process called “simultaneous conveyance” because all parcels (lots), at the time of county recording, share equal title rights.

For example a property may be described as follows:

Lot 1, SMITH SUBDIVISION, City of Wheat Ridge, Colorado.

On the other hand, a Metes description is written “in sequence,”with the lines forming the perimeter of the property, whereas a Bounds description describes the limits of the property by calling for the “adjoiner” description. Examples of an adjoiner would be – “Bounded on the west by County Road 119, on the east by Jones property,” or perhaps a natural boundary such as “the Platte River.” These two types of descriptions are considered “sequence conveyances”, in which junior and senior titles exist between adjoining lands.

In order to read your property description in the case of the Lot Description format, you would need a copy of the “Recorded“plat. If you don’t have one, you can purchase a copy at your county seat. Look for the “Clerk & Recorder’s Office“. Most subdivision plats will provide you the necessary geometry as shown next to the lines of your lot. Modern day plats require that the direction and length of the lines comprising your lot perimeter need to be on the plat map, but for some plat maps, you may not find this. If available, however, the units of measure typically are bearings and distances for each of the property lines. The bearing will signify the direction. The distance (length of the line) is generally written in units of feet, and is horizontal values. The deed for your property will identify the particular lot nomenclature, and the plat map will demonstrate the geometrical size, shape, and location along with the bearings and distances that uniquely identify your lot.

Let’s simplify the reading for you. Think of a compass. The heading of the arrow provides the direction with the numbers at the end of the arrow providing the amount of deviation from north. Bearings are purposely placed in four quadrants of the circle. The bearings on your lot will most always start with the letter N or S, signifying North or South, having numbers in between, and end with the letters E or W, signifying East or West. For example, a bearing of N 44 E means to travel along that line in the northeast quadrant of your compass on a heading of 44 degrees east of north. N 45 W means 45 degrees west of north. The beauty of a lot description is that all lines are simultaneously created.

In order to read a Metes Description, such as the example below it is important to know that the sequence cannot be read out of order. If there are bearings and distances given, then they must be read in the order as printed. Sometimes the description will start with “Beginning at.. .” That is your starting point.

For example, you may see your description as: Beginning at a point 247 feet due east of Jacobs Fork; thence N 51 W, 210 feet; thence N 44 E, 204 feet to a Pine; thence S 48 E, 210 feet to a cement post; thence S 43 W, 204 feet to the point of beginning, containing 0.98 acres, more or less.

There may be other forms of providing the direction (bearing) of the property, such as utilizing angles departing from the previous property line. They may be recited as interior, exterior, right, left, prolongation (continuation), and many others.

In order to read a Bounds Description, the order of the lines being described is usually not of importance. If you are bounded on the north by a river, on the east by Highway 1, on the south by Jones, and on the west by Smith, the order as presented makes no difference. This type of description is usually the most costly and time consuming to define, because in order to conduct a survey properly, you, or the surveyor must research all the other adjoining properties in the bounds description.

Again, the information in this article is not to make you an expert, and before you layout the expense to put down that shed slab, or that first post hole, we highly recommend you have the property surveyed by certified professionals. However, with a little understanding, time and a decent compass, most everyone can understand the general layout of their property.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cable TV

Cable TV has been facing increasing competition from other communications types like satellite television and even such computer sites as Netflix. With all of these options now available, it is a good opportunity to look at the pros and cons of cable television. In this article, I will examine three positive and three negative points about cable television, to help you make an informed decision.

Advantage #1: Stability

Cable television is especially stable in its service. Both traditional air-wave broadcasts and modern satellite television can and will cut out on you during any serious storm (and often during some not-so-serious storms). Cable, on the other hand, will only go out if there is some flaw in the overall system, like a broken cable or router. This will happen far less often than rainstorms, so cable television will provide far more consistent service.

Advantage #2: Bundling

Often specials are available by bundling your cable television with other services in a single package, usually internet and phone, but sometimes services like cellular phones. These bundles can actually save you quite a bit of money, especially if you bundle all three typical services together. It also provides the convenience of having a single bill.

Advantage #3: Price

Cable television can actually be fairly inexpensive, if you don’t add too many options. The initial hardware costs are fairly inexpensive when compared to satellite, and the FCC requires that all cable companies provide a basic cable package consisting of broadcast channels and a few local channels. As a result, cable television can be the cheapest form of television aside from buying an antenna.

Disadvantage #1: Annoying Monopolies

Many areas only have a single cable television provider, and this creates a monopoly. While the competition from satellite is increasing, the corporate culture of these monopolies is especially poor. Customer service can be terrible, if not non-existent in many cases, and consumer satisfaction with cable TV companies is consistently some of the worst among any companies in the United States.

Disadvantage #2: Confusing Price Packages

Many cable companies are very confusing when it comes to how much their service will actually cost in the long run. Many require you to sign up for two years in order to get a one-year introductory deal. However, you have to really dig on their websites to find out how much the second year will cost. In other cases, there are hidden fees, rental charges and taxes.

Disadvantage #3: Privacy

If you are bundling your cable television with your internet (and many people do), you will have less privacy on the internet. Cable internet works with a stable IP address that doesn’t change, so people will be able to easily track your visits to their sites. Compare this with DSL, where you can easily reset your IP by turning your modem on and off.

With these advantages and disadvantages in mind, you will be in a better position to make a decision about whether to choose cable television.

How to Avoid Mortgage Loan Fraud – Keep Your House, Don’t Go to Jail!

The Federal Mortgage Fraud Task Force is looking for crooked mortgage brokers, dishonest real estate brokers and cheating home buyers and real estate investors. While most people play it on the straight and narrow, good deeds can be mistaken for bad. Stay out of the mortgage fraud spot light using a few simple techniques!

In the current home buying climate the deals are hot, the financing is hot and the buyers are in trouble. The buyers?

Yep. If they can get the loan they can take advantage of some fantastic deals. The question is, can they get the loan? Some buyers want the financing so badly they are willing to fudge numbers or cut corners to get there. Sometimes it does not even take that. In general, you have committed mortgage fraud if:

  • You took cash out of the bank and paid off debt without telling the lender;
  • You bought a car prior to closing on your loan and you didn’t tell the lender;
  • You are getting any credit for anything at closing and did not tell the lender;
  • You make any agreement the lender does not know about at closing, usually called a ‘side agreement’;
  • An adjustment you make at closing is not reflected on the HUD-1 settlement statement;
  • Part of your down payment or closing costs comes from work you will be doing on the property;
  • For bond loans, if you get a substantial RAISE!
  • Any part of the down payment is borrowed;
  • You have had any significant job change, quit your job or started a new job without telling the lender;
  • You don’t move into the property when you certify to the lender you will be an owner occupant;

The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) is very specific about how a closing should proceed,

especially one that is subject to financing.

Mortgage fraud is easy to fall into and hard to get out of. Even judges have fallen into the trap. For example, in Tampa Florida, Judge Thomas E. Stringer plead guilty on August 6th 2009 to bank fraud. He was helping a young dancer “protect” her assets. In the process, he bought a house for her in Hawaii. Things went sour with the dancer of questionable repute and the deal was reported. Judge Stringer had not been completely candid in his loan application. He failed to disclose he had borrowed all or part of the down payment. That is a big “no, no!”

The Judge Stringer case stands for the proposition you don’t have to go into foreclosure to commit fraud. He was current with his loan payments. That was not the problem. His only mistake was not telling his lender he had borrowed the down payment. No losses were reported by the lender!

In the simplest of terms, any statement made to the lender which is not 100% accurate may be considered fraudulent. Any change in the borrower’s financial health, for example buying a car or incurring extra medical bills without advising the lender, may be fraudulent. Any decrease, and in some cases, any increase, in income without advising the lender may be fraudulent. For example, some loans are geared towards low income buyers. If the borrower makes too much money he won’t quality. What do you do if before closing you get big raise? You better disclose the fact.!

The HUD-1 settlement statement lists all of the charges and all of the credits in your sale. If money changes hands and it is not listed on the settlement statement then fraud has been likely committed. For example, what happens if the buyer discovers the picture window in the front room was broken out the night before closing. It is going to cost $600 to fix it. The seller agrees to pay. If he writes the buyer a check at closing to ‘keep things simple’ then fraud will likely be committed. The picture window repair must be on the settlement sheet, as must every cent spent.

Another easy fraud trap to fall into are representations made by the buyer in other loan documents. Do you plan to occupy the property? If you answer “yes” then you better have a pretty good excuse why you didn’t if you are not fat and sassy in the house a year later.

But what happens if you get a last minute job transfer or change in life circumstances? Must you live in the house just to solve the potential fraud accusation? Of course not! The question is what were your intentions when you signed the loan docs. If you said you were going to move into the property but you got a job transfer 2 days after closing then you have met the intent part of the law. You planned to live in the house when you bought it. As fate has it, a job transfer to another town 2 days later precludes living in the house. No fraud.

Proving your intent is not always as easy as it sounds. Let’s say you bought a house, closed on it, and then the house of your dreams comes on the market two blocks away. The price is too good to pass up. Can you ive in the new house or do you have to live in the old one?

This is a tougher argument to make to an investigator since it is difficult to prove your intentions. Should you buy the second house and risk it? Assuming you have documented your path why not buy the second house. However, if you do that 13 times over a few year period, as happened in Colorado recently, you are probably in hot water. As a general rule, if you are not living in the house after the first year, even though you certified you were going to live in the house, be sure you have your documentation ready! You could easily get called on the carpet as occupancy is checked for many loans.

Unfortunately, everyone in the chain of a real estate deal, from the loan originator to the closing agent and the brokers and lawyers in-between, are potential fraudulent actors. For example, if the figures at closing are significantly different from the fees you are being charged at time of settlement then you may be the victim of loan fraud. Be vigilant for fix and flips where sellers are making a huge profit on the house. In these cases, you will want to double check the com parables and maybe even hire another appraisal company to check true market value. One has to wonder how a house worth $400,000 a month ago is now worth the $550,000 you agreed to pay for it. There may be appraisal games going on with the property.

The easiest way to get caught by the Task Force is through foreclosure. Properties that go on the auction block are frequently examined to see if the underlying loan was legit. However, as in Judge Stinger’s case, you don’t have to belly flop to get free room and board in crime school. Let’s hope those who end up in prison for their illegal activities don’t come out with a new fraud scheme!

Characteristics of a Modern Office Interior Design

A conventional workplace is no longer the norm, as many companies around the world are seeking more creative interiors for their offices. As a result, most of the top corporate organisations have given up the traditional concept of having plain walls and individual cubicles. Instead, they are opting for an office interior design that creates a more open work environment, where their employees can simply plug in their laptops anywhere to do their work. A creative interior design can help the overall environment in the offices as they fulfil the following purposes:

Encourage an Open Work Culture: Today, many businesses are letting go of the traditional concept of individual offices and are introducing more creative and stylish work spaces for their employees. One such revolutionary concept is an office without walls. It encourages transparency and team spirit, whilst making it easier for managers to supervise their sub-ordinates and communicate with them.

Ensure Optimum Utilisation of Space: At times, there is a possibility that a workplace may occupy less space than the original planned work area. No organisation would want to pay for the extra space, and besides, many businesses today allow most of their employees to work from home. This is the reason why it is necessary to plan the required amount of space before designing the office interiors.

Create a Warm and Friendly Reception Area: When clients visit the office of a business enterprise, the reception area is the place that they see first. The reception will create an image of the organisation in the client’s mind and can also leave the client with a lasting impression. It is, therefore, essential for businesses to get the reception area of their offices designed in a way that creates a professional and welcoming atmosphere.

Provide Some Private Spaces: Having an open design is a great idea, but certain private spaces may be required for a private meeting between a manager and sub-ordinate or for an interview. Such spaces would also help some individuals at times to work without any distractions and enable them to be more focused on their work, thus enhancing their productivity.

Inspire Positive Employee Behaviour: It is easier for companies to inspire a particular behaviour in their employees by incorporating certain elements into the office design. Installing recycling stations throughout the office would encourage employees to recycle. A centralised breakout area would encourage employees to build relationships and bond with each other during their breaks.

Allow Flexibility of Space: Keeping the workplace as flexible as possible can be helpful when it comes to adding new employees. Dividers can be used to increase or decrease the space between work stations. The organisation can buy desks and tables that facilitate easy movements, while certain areas lying vacant can be used for team meetings.

When an organisation wants to create a new office or remodel the existing one, the emphasis must be on flexibility, productivity and creativity with less clutter. Hiring an interior design consultancy that uses holistic design principles and the latest technologies in their projects would help companies to create great office interiors.

What’s Wrong With My Glass Block? Tricks of the Tradesman

Glass block is a beautiful architectural detail, often found in bathrooms as windows or shower walls. It is a very durable and low maintenance product that diffuses light and adds value to any home. One of the best uses is as a window in a shower or over a tub, where privacy is essential, yet light is desired.

I have installed thousands of windows and showers in the last seven years in Florida, and have seen several puzzling occurrences. Let me reiterate that of the thousands of installs, I have only seen a handful of issues, and have been able to easily remedy them. The following are my favorite:

Foggy Block

This appears like a opaque or hard to see through block, unlike those around it. Sometimes moisture can be seen condensed inside. The cause is simple. Glass block is formed by casting molten glass into two forms, then sealing those two forms together, creating one block. During the sealing process, the block is typically vacuum sealed, preventing moisture to get into the block. Occasionally the seal is not complete, or sometimes movement once installed will break the seal, which lets air (and humidity) into the block. This moisture will eventually fog and condense on the glass. The only solution is to remove and replace the block, best done by a hammer and a chisel (with eye protection) or even better, pick up the phone and hire a professional!

Black spots inside the black

Another result of the sealing process is the occasional presence of ash inside the vacuum sealed block. This appears like black matter, and is not mold! This is harmless, and the best solution is to ignore it! If it really bothers you, remove the block as directed above.

Spider lines on the inside of the block face

These are birthmarks that result from the heating and cooling of the glass. The best solution in this case is also to ignore them, or, if it really bothers you, have them removed as directed.

Leaking grout joints

This is a particularly troublesome occurrence, as you will undoubtedly experience water running down the block, and sometimes pooling. There are several possibilities in this case.

  • The first and most benign is that the moisture in the air is condensing on the window. Grout is a cementacious product, which is porous by nature. While glass block mortar does have a waterproofing agent present, moisture will sometimes come through the grout. If the moisture is present regardless of rain or wind, and results in faint white streaks running down the glass, simple condensation is probably your problem. Buy a grout sealer and seal the grout on both sides of the window.
  • The second possibility is a broken seal in the grout or a poorly mortared window (the joint may have mortar on the inside and outside, yet be empty in the middle, providing little matter to block the water from wicking inside). This is often seen in instances of heavy rain, or rain from a particular direction. The grout needs to be cut back with a 4″ electric grinder, packed full with mortar, and regrouted. Seal as indicated above.
  • The third and most difficult to resolve option is that of a leak somewhere else in the house, that is finding its way out through the glass block window’s porous joints. First, this leak must be detected, which can be done by visual inspection, water test (with a hose spray water continuously on the side of the house) or a moisture meter. A good mold remediation company can do the water test and will have a moisture meter if you need assistance. Things to look for–cracks in the stucco above the window. Voids in the stucco banding or joints above the window. Holes where two stucco beads or bands come together. Roof junctures that have no flashing behind the stucco or siding material. A good home inspector can resolve these issues. Note that this last issue has nothing to do with the glass block, and needs to be resolved at the source of the leak.

Mysterious cracking glass block

This is my favorite, because it is so unusual. You are asleep in the middle of the night and you hear breaking glass. You search the house and find that your glass block window is cracked. Or you go to take a shower and notice broken glass in the floor of the shower, only to discover that your glass block window is broken! As time goes by more and more cracks appear and glass blocks break. I fixed quite a few of these before I realized what was happening (as a disclaimer, I did not do the original install!) The original installer decided to save a few dollars and forego using glass block panel anchors as directed by the manufacturer. Instead he used thick roofing straps. Eventually these straps rusted, which caused them to expand in the mortar joint. Something had to give to accommodate the expansion. Mortar has great compressive strengh, and is dense in composition, so it had no room to spare. The only other option was the glass, which finally gave under the constant and increasing pressure of the expanding metal. Amazing that rusting metal can break glass!

As you proceed to resolving any of these issues, please be careful! Removing glass block is tedious, and dangerous. Always wear eye protection, and be advised that it is very difficult to remove one block without breaking the one next to it. Clean all broken glass meticulously, to prevent future harm. It would probably be well worth a few dollars to hire a professional to either inspect or resolve any of these issues, as this is beyond the basic home maintenance project.

Don’t let any of these issues dissuade you from using glass block. As you will notice, most of these issues can be avoided by using an experienced installer who follows manufacturer’s instructions. If you cannot find someone in your area, feel free to email me and I will do my best to locate a qualified installer in your area.

Prominent Deployment Roadblocks That the ESB Integration Tool Circumvents With Precision

The term digital transformation is becoming relevant for almost every industry and companies are embracing potentiality disruptive technologies to stay ahead of the rest. However, there are many businesses which are failing to get the benefits of transformative technologies as they are less prepared to manage the change that takes place. The biggest challenge with digital technologies is not deployment but effective management of application & B2B integration issues. A response developed to address this need is ESB integration tool that integrates applications (on premise and cloud based), automates business processes and creates rich workflows for effective business process management.

Four Barriers to Successful Deployment that ESB Integration Tool Surmounts

Data Integration: One of the biggest challenges to successful deployment is data integration. Keeping the databases and software coordinated and getting access to huge piles of data for accessing valuable information is a herculean task. To tackle this issue, the ESB integration tool leverages services-oriented architecture (SOA) with process centric approach and seamlessly automates data flows. Its ability to securely fetch data from any source with adherence to compliance has also been recognized by industry experts.

Compatibility Issues: Compatibility is another prominent roadblock to faster deployment that surfaces even after using standardized database. It is obvious that database models of different organizational departments, i.e., CRM, marketing, support, finance, etc. generate humongous data in the due course of business. Different data formats don’t work together and pose compatibility issues during transitioning phase. This problem is bigger for a company that wants to move its confidential data stored in legacy to cloud or any other premise. For dealing with such adverse scenarios, the advanced ESB integration tool is embedded with controls to integrate business processes and seamlessly synchronize data between different applications. The tool fetches data from any source and converts it into a proprietary data format. So converting the latest PIDX format files into Oracle AQ, XML, CSV or text becomes amazingly easy with ESB’s data mapping controls.

Expertise: Lack of technical know how is a similar valid reason that hampers digital initiatives. Integrating critical business processes and application requires a lot of computational force, complex coding, and technical know how. ESB overcomes these challenges with a unified platform that enables even non-technical users to manage complete application-specific integrations. It makes use components like Data Interfaces, Web Services and APIs, Data Mapper, Process Designer, Process Engine, Human Workflow, Dashboard Reporting, Portal Functionality, Real-time Batch Triggers, Extensibility, and Rules-based Routing to minimize coding. These features relieve IT team from complex coding to allow it to focus on other productive operations.

Inability to make data meaningful: Similarly, companies fail to make the most of their raw data because of their inability to and refine their data. The ESB integration tool ensures that BI data is organized and readily provides valuable information. The tool’s dashboard enables its user in creating business reports with minimum touch points.

In a nutshell, the ESB integration tool is a powerful and complete process management tool that can ensure faster deployment, increase IT efficiency and productivity. In the long run, the tool delivers tangible benefits like enhanced IT & revenue efficiency, increased productivity, and faster time to market.

Differences Between Engineer Grade, High Intensity Prismatic, and Diamond Grade Reflective Sheeting

Question: What is the difference between Standard Reflective (Engineer Grade or Type I), and High Intensity (Type III) and Diamond Grade (Type XI) reflective sign material?

Answer: Engineer Grade Reflective Sheeting typically meets ASTM D4956 Type 1 standards and is an enclosed film or lens using glass beads or prismatic optical technology.

This material is specified for use on non-critical street and road signs such as parking signs or way-finding signs. It has less reflectivity than the other types mentioned in the original question. Standard colors are white, yellow, red, blue, green, and brown.

Engineer grade reflective sheeting is also used often for reflective stickers and decals, as it is printable both with digital and screen printing methods. It is also cut-table using a die cutter or a vinyl plotter, which makes it useful for creating reflective decals that are cut to a specified shape.

Engineer grade reflective vinyl utilizes and aggressive acrylic adhesive which makes it difficult to remove. Use of heat from a heat gun or hair dryer will aid in the removal of EG reflective sheeting, but often the vinyl will separated from the adhesive, and it becomes necessary to use a glue remover to soften and remove the adhesive.

Most EG reflective films have a 5-7 year outdoor durability warranty, and are not considered a “long-term use” material.

High Intensity Prismatic (HIP) Sheeting meets ASTM requirement standards for D4956-09 Type III and Type IV, as well as ASTM 4956-07 Type X. It is a non-metallized micro prismatic lens reflective sheeting that is used mainly for reflective traffic and road signs, barricades or other road construction zone devices, and traffic delineators such as cones or barrels.

HIP sheeting is highly reflective, and it’s durable topcoat protects signs and other traffic control devices against scratches and abrasion. Not only is it highly reflective at night, it also commands attention during the day as well.

HIP Reflective Sheeting is used for more permanent traffic signs, work zone devices, etc., and comes in white, yellow, red, orange, blue, green, and brown.

The manufacturing process for HIP sheeting is also considered to be more “green” as it produces 97% fewer VOC emissions than engineer grade reflective sheeting, and 72% less energy to manufacture. However, the reflectivity value stands alone as a better reason to use HIP.

Finally, HIP reflective sign materials will last longer than its EG reflective film counterpart. This material is considered to be mid to long-range durability, and typically will last about 10 years.

Finally, Diamond Grade Reflective Sheeting (DG3) is a full cube prismatic reflective sheeting that returns almost 60% of the available light to vehicle drivers which is about double what HIP reflective sheeting reflects. DG3 reflective sheeting meets the specifications of ASTM Type XI standard.

It is likely with pending legislation in the US, that this material will be required to replace many existing signs. Currently all new “critical” traffic control signs (such as Stop signs, speed limit signs, etc.) are required to utilize this sheeting.

Similar to the other two sheetings aforementioned, diamond grade reflective sheeting has a pressure sensitive adhesive and is applied to (typically) alodized or anodized aluminum sheeting either with a hand roller or a mechanical squeeze roll laminator/applicator.

This material can be decorated either using screen printing or by using transparent film that comes in various highway sign colors.

DG3 sheeting was engineered to reflect the newer headlights in late-model automobiles, as well as to help older drivers (like me) with greater luminescence, as well as truck drivers whose lights are able to pick up signs that utilize DG3 better and at greater distances.

Available stock colors include white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue, and brown. Another color, fluorescent yellow-green, is also available and is used primarily in school zones, and has superior luminescence both during the daytime and night

Living With An Alcoholic Spouse: A Healthy Detachment

The best thing you can do when dealing with an alcoholic spouse is to detach from the abuse of the alcoholic. You can do this if you truly love your spouse and want to help them to possible sobriety. The more you focus all your energies on the alcoholic, the less likely he is to get sober. This article focuses on how you can detach and remain healthy mentally.

Don’t Make Alcoholism Your Problem

If you have never read any of the Al-anon material then you probably don’t know that you are making the disease of alcoholism YOUR problem. One of the sad facts of living with an alcoholic is we become just as mentally and emotionally sick as the alcoholic. This happens because every step of life we take, and every breath of air we breathe has some involvement with the alcoholic. Our emotions overtake our own mental health as we try and cope with the deterioration of the alcoholic in our life. What are we doing wrong? We are concentrating too much on the disease, instead of concentrating on our mental and emotional health. We may as well be tipping the bottle for them. Better yet, we may as well be drinking with them!

Don’t Enable

Most spouses of alcoholics don’t realize they are helping their spouse drink just by a few simple behaviors and actions. Several ways in which you may be enabling your spouse to drink is by buying them alcohol, drinking with them, calling the boss and or family members for him because he is too hung over or too drunk to do it himself. Lying to friends, boss, family and co-workers about him and his drinking problem. Taking them to the store, arguing with them, and behaving like a victim. You are not the victim of alcoholism until you make yourself BEcome the victim.

Get Off The Pity Pot

Get off of the pity pot and begin living for yourself, instead of living for the alcoholic. “Oh poor me, everyday I am suffering and I can’t take it anymore” attitude won’t get you anywhere. You need to take care of yourself and that cannot be done if you are focusing all of your attention on the alcoholic and what he is doing or what he isn’t doing. Start focusing on what you can do for yourself. Get out of the house, don’t hang around the alcoholic, and don’t let them abuse you with their words. If you care about the alcoholic in your life, this is what helps them more than anything else.

Detach With Love

You are powerless to getting your loved one to stop drinking. The first step in being able to detach is by realizing that the shenanigans of the alcoholic is not your problem. Don’t try and fix their messes for them. Not only does this enable them to continue drinking, but also it justifies their drinking. Don’t have any interaction with the alcoholic while they are drinking; that includes, talking and arguing with them. Why fuss and fight with someone who has lost the ability to make any sense? Don’t become ensnared in the alcoholic trap with them. Stay out of the trap, so you can help them. Ninety-five percent of what an alcoholic says is manipulative and hogwash anyway. Don’t start believing in the lies of the disease. Separate yourself from the antics of the alcoholic.

Pray For The Alcoholic

I can’t tell you how important the process of daily prayer can be. Not only does it bring you closer to God but it will also get you into the habit of going to God with your life challenges. God does hear your cries of pain and He will give you the answers you need to get through your trials and tribulations, even if your spouse continues to drink. Be patient and remain faithful in the Lord and He will deliver you from your suffering.

Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. (Philippians 4:6)

What Are the Characteristics of Styrofoam Insulation?

Styrofoam insulation is not a type as much as it is a brand name. But its wild popularity causes folks to associate the name with rigid insulation much like people associate the brand name of Kleenex with tissues!

Styrofoam is actually a brand name produced by the Dow Company and is best known as an insulation product, although you will also recognize this product for its use in flower arrangements as well as in crafting supplies, such as the backing for a homemade wreath, for example. You’ve more than likely recognized the foam used in cups, plates, and for packing material as well.

What is Styrofoam? It is actually an expanded form of polystyrene foam that is effective as insulation because of its unique properties. Besides having a closed cell structure, which gives it a high R – value (highly desired in insulation as it will resist the conduction of heat), Styrofoam insulation is also lightweight and water-resistant, making it a great choice for a building material. You’ve probably heard that insulation will lower your heating and cooling bills. That’s because its ability to prevent drafts and resist heat transfer will keep your abode cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.

Because it is rigid and closed-celled in structure, the material is strong and thus resistant to both water and insect damage. This makes it very popular in construction, both for the outside foundation of a home as well as its usefulness for both floor and roofing insulation. It is most often cut into blocks or sheets, and may be referred to “blue board” in construction circles.

Its durability easily lends itself to reuse, which can be a plus when it comes to environmental concerns. Styrofoam insulation is a popular choice for home energy savings and its popularity is likely to continue because of its inherent energy-saving properties.

How to Treat a Hemorrhoid That Won’t Stop Bleeding

It is a golden rule that you should never ignore bleeding hemorrhoids. Though it is true that bleeding is a perfectly normal symptom of hemorrhoids there may occasionally be a more serious underlying cause — so if there is any doubt at all it is strongly advisable to consult a physician to confirm that this is not the case. Apart from the few cases that require more serious medical attention, creams and ointment solutions often provide symptom relief as well as reduction in swelling. Treating hemorrhoids as quickly as possible this way can also help to prevent a more serious condition developing.

Hydrocortisone creams are available on a non-prescription basis for the self-treatment of bleeding hemorrhoids. These help by reducing the swelling and discomfort of the condition. This type of cream is powerful and so it is vital that it is used carefully in accordance with the directions on the packaging (or as otherwise given by a doctor.) Also be aware that a hemorrhoids response to these creams normally requires a certain amount of time to allow things to return to normal and so you should not expect instant results.

There are also many natural treatment methods such as ointments containing herbs and vitamins available. These may also reduce discomfort and hemorrhoids size though success may not be so certain as their action is likely to be milder — some people may still prefer this kind of approach though. In addition to this simple changes to your diet, such as increasing fruit and vegetable eaten, may help by reducing straining when passing a motion. This straining is a major reason that hemorrhoids become worse. For this reason increased hydration is also important.

It goes almost without saying that scrupulous care of the infected area is also essential. The area must remain as clean as possible which can be achieved very simply with warm water. On the other hand, while you do this, do not rub the area too vigorously as this may lead to further irritation.

Surgery may be required in the case of severe bleeding which does not reduced by other methods. Laser surgery is a highly successful up-to-date method and involves the use of a laser light beam which can remove most of the hemorrhoids while not affecting the surrounding area. So called rubber band ligation removes hemorrhoids by cutting off their blood supply, eventually causing them to die and fall off. These procedures are quick and minimize discomfort and pain, though they may not always provide a permanent solution as some of the tissue forming the hemorrhoids may remain. These procedures are normally performed as an outpatient allowing you to return home the same day.

The most severe of cases your physician may advise a called hemorrhoidectomy to remove the hemorrhoids altogether. When this surgical removal is done it may require stitches and can require a longer and more uncomfortable period of recovery — typically with a couple of days in hospital and a week or two to recover.

The best strategy with hemorrhoids is to take action early on. Make the lifestyle changes described, apply appropriate medication and visit your physician if you have any doubts at all. Taking action now may well save far more complex and expensive treatment in the future.

Home Remedies For Stretch Marks That Work Surprisingly Well

Stretch marks or striae distensae can appear on boys and girls, men and women, usually on the abdomen, thighs, hips, breasts, upper arms or lower back, anywhere fat is stored.

Approximately 90% of pregnant Caucasian women develop stretch marks, with women of color fairing slightly better.

Your genetics play a role, so if your mother has bad stretch marks, you probably will too; as does your skin type, stress, poor diet and sudden environmental change.

What is the cause of stretch marks?

They appear during puberty, pregnancy, the bulking up phase of bodybuilding, obesity, intense physical activity and Cushing’s disease. Oral steroids and over-use of low potency topical steroid creams/ointments driven deeper into the skin when covered with plastic wrap, can also cause stretch marks.

During these critical times, increased hormones in the bloodstream prevent the dermis from forming collagen and elastin fibers.

At the very time your skin over-stretches and you need elasticity and strong underlying support most, you do not have it. Unsurprisingly the dermal layer tears, it flattens the epidermis and leaves red surface marks.

Stretch marks are actually bands of elastin broken beneath the skin. When the tears heal, the collagen fibers do not line up properly, resulting in an uneven appearance and white marks.

What it boils down to is that stretch marks are scars created by your own body to heal damage on the inside caused by over-stretched skin which is too thin.

Unfortunately stretch marks stay with you forever because the damage is in the dermis, far below the surface of the skin, and no cream on earth can undo it.

How your skin normally heals indicates what your stretch marks will look like. With time all stretch marks are less noticeable, and with treatment, even less so, but their striated appearance rarely returns to its original smooth appearance and the texture remains different to normal skin.

Although aesthetically stretch marks may bother you, they are harmless and do not require medical treatment.

How to fade stretch marks

Instead of trying expensive, painful, invasive procedures which may or may not work, with just a little diligent self-maintenance and patience your marks will fade dramatically.

The regimen we look at entails repairing your multi-layered skin from the inside with water, good nutrition and exercise; and from the outside with exfoliation, massage and oils.

All the natural, chemical free ingredients are conveniently found in your kitchen or local health store, generating the same results as expensive creams, but saving you a ton of money.

The earlier you start treatment on red scars, the faster they heal; but do not give up hope, there is still a lot you can do for older white scars.

Let us start by replenishing the inside:


Drinking 8-10 glasses of water a day naturally hydrates your tissues, keeps your skin soft and elastic and helps keep collagen production at normal levels. Think of it as an internal moisturizer.

For every mug of coffee, tea or soda you drink, have an additional glass of water.


Eating foods rich in essential fatty acids, zinc, silica and vitamins A,C,D,E,K nourishes the body and replenishes your skin. Include oily fish, eggs, liver and lean meats, citrus fruit, tomatoes, almonds, pumpkin seeds, carrots, spinach, green cabbage, kale, Swiss Chard, turnip greens, broccoli, tomatoes, collards and low fat dairy products in your diet.

Stress, oral contraceptives and hormone therapies can deplete your body of essential nutrients vital for skin health. Good nutrition helps correct the balance.

Biochemistry/tissue salts

Calcium Fluoride, Natrium Muriaticum and Calcium Phosphate restore tone and elasticity to muscles, connective tissue and skin, and help maintain the body’s water balance.


Stretch marks look worse on flabby skin than they do on toned, firm flesh.

Working from the outside, focus on the stretch marks themselves, twice a day:

Exfoliate or dry brush the stretch mark areas.

Apply lemon juice to fade the scars.

Dry your skin.

Generously moisturize with one or more of the oils below.

Massage as vigorously as you can to increase circulation.

Moisturize generously, preferably after showering when your pores more receptively soak up the oil.

When you can, cover your oil saturated stretch marks with plastic wrap, put a hot water bottle, hot towel or heating pad on top for 20 to 30 minutes.

Remove the wrap and wipe off any excess oil to obviate stained clothes.

Use whichever oils appeal to you; there is no wrong one. Just stick to the general principles – exfoliate, moisturize and massage.

Let us look at each factor in more detail.


Exfoliating and/or dry brushing removes layers of dead skin to unveil soft, fresh skin. Some marks may be difficult to reach and areas like the breasts are more sensitive, but do what you can.

Use a loofah or an exfoliator, bought or home-made — sea salt, oatmeal, baking soda, ground coffee or apricot scrub, with a wet washcloth. Add any of them to olive oil to make a paste and then massage the stretch marks for 10 minutes in a circular motion while you are in the shower.

Or use this as your exfoliator:

5 tablespoons of scrub

1 teaspoon aloe vera gel

1/2 teaspoon vitamin E

1 teaspoon cocoa butter

Rinse off afterwards.

Apply lemon juice which helps stretch marks fade. Allow it to dry, then rinse with warm water and towel dry your skin.

A derma or skin roller helps oil penetrate more deeply. If using one, use it now before you moisturize.

Moisturize and hydrate

The more you infuse your skin with moisture the better.

Massage any natural oil into your stretch marks. What oil you use matters less than that you regularly and vigorously massage these areas, thereby improving circulation and promoting rejuvenation.

If you are pregnant and the skin of your expanding stomach feels ticklish, keep your nails short; scratching tears the dermis. Apply oil and gently rub the area with a cloth to relieve the itch.

A word of caution if you are keen to try one of the packaged remedies for stretch marks: many are laden with dangerous chemicals which should not be applied when you are pregnant and most especially not to your abdomen.

Fragrances in baby oil dry out the skin and petroleum jelly moisturizes when applied, but the skin becomes drier when you abstain, so stick to natural organic oils:

Cocoa butter

Rose hip oil

Extra virgin olive oil

Castor oil

Emu oil

Lanolin oil

Vitamin E oil

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Vitamin K cream

Jojobo oil

Natural shea butter

Aloe vera

Let us elaborate on some of these oils. Ideal by themselves, or combine as in these recipes.

Vitamin E oil

Alpha Tocopheral in Vitamin E is an antioxidant needed to regenerate the skin by promoting the growth of cells.

Squalene, a natural antioxidant which promotes skin regeneration, enhances the effects of vitamin E.

To get your vitamin E oil, break open the capsule, discard the casing and rub the oil into the affected areas.

Mix almond oil, castor oil, avocado oil and vitamin E oil together.

Combine vitamin E oil and cocoa butter.

Make a paste of vitamin E rich oil such as olive oil or castor oil with aromatic herbs like mint, lemon grass, lavender, thyme, and massage for 20 minutes before going to sleep.

Bio Oil is great.

Essential oils

To one ounce of carrier oil (avocado, sweet almond, jojoba, grapeseed) add seven drops of lavender and a few drops of chamomile, and apply to the affected areas.

Lavender essential oil, applied directly to scars will help them fade, especially newer injuries.

Vitamin K cream

Apply Vitamin K cream topically to stretch marks, and depending on how severe they are, your skin type and activity level, you will see results in as little as 8 to 14 days.

Cocoa butter

Cocoa butter is probably the best known stretch mark home remedy and also keeps the skin soft and pliable.

1/2 cup cocoa butter

1 tablespoon wheat germ oil

1 teaspoon apricot kernel oil

1 teaspoon vitamin E oil

2 teaspoon grated beeswax

Heat the mixture until the beeswax melts. Store in an airtight container in the refrigerator and apply to your stretch marks.

Some people prefer the 100% cocoa butter stick to the lotion. Quite dry when first applied, it becomes oilier as you rub it on.

Olive oil

Massage onto the stretch marks.

Warm olive oil slightly in the microwave, spread on scars and leave for 20 minutes.

Mix equal amounts of olive and coconut oil.

Rub a mixture of olive oil and lemon on the parts of your body where the stretch marks are, then apply cocoa butter immediately afterwards.

Some people find cocoa butter has no effect on them, but olive oil works well. Experiment to find what best suits your skin.

1/2 teaspoon each of cod liver oil, olive oil and aloe vera gel doubles as an anti-aging skin treatment.

Flaxseed/linseed oil

Good for any scar tissue, mix equal amounts of olive oil and flaxseed oil. You can add this to your favorite body cream if you wish.

Flaxseed oil is excellent for internal use too. Add to yogurt, shakes or salad dressing.

Castor oil

Apply castor oil to any scars including warts, moles, dark spots and wrinkles for 30 minutes a day. Combine it with rose hip seed oil, tea tree oil and vitamin E oil. Even though you apply it externally, it works as a laxative and your lymphatic system detoxifies.

Then apply some of the following cream:

200 ml unscented aqueous cream

20 ml collagen cream

10 ml olive oil

5 ml coconut oil

5 ml tea tree oil

Mix and leave in the sun for one day before you use it (more natural than microwaving). Apply at least twice a day and see an improvement after three days. Good for eczema sufferers too.

Aloe vera gel

Known for its healing and soothing properties.

1/2 cup olive oil as your base

1/4 cup aloe vera gel

Oil from 10 vitamin E capsules

Oil from 5 vitamin A capsules

Blend and store in an airtight container in the refrigerator. Rub into the skin until fully absorbed.

Vicks Vapor Rub

Smear Vicks onto the stretch marks.

Or combine lemon juice, aloe vera gel and Vicks, microwave for 5 seconds. Leave it on your scars for 10 minutes. Rinse it off and apply cocoa butter stick, rubbing it into the stretch marks.

Hide them

Until they have faded sufficiently, consider hiding your stretch marks with clothes, a swimsuit offering more coverage, a self-tanning cream or body makeup. Tanning itself will not help – the stretch marks are less likely to tan than surrounding skin and their appearance may actually be emphasized.


Be wary of promises made by those flogging stretch mark creams. No cream can truly prevent or remove stretch marks.

If you feel self-conscious about your stretch marks, take comfort in the fact that most people have them, and with the passage of time together with the above, they will barely be noticeable.

In the meantime learn to live with them. Being proud of your body, stretch marks and all, is a very appealing quality.

The Various Types of Water Solutions Being Used in Industries and Chemical Laboratories

There are different kinds of water solutions used intensively in industries and chemical labs today and many companies are providing them for other companies who need them. It so happens that each type of solution may vary in concentration and strength and different industries may demand for different types of such mixtures. Thus, it may be imperative to communicate with your supplier to discuss your specific needs. These chemical solutions would range from reagents in aqueous solutions to indicator solutions, each of which has different uses and different properties.

Perhaps one of the most widely used chemical solutions is buffer solutions. At the same time, they are the most naturally occurring solutions in nature. Did you know that seawater and blood are some of the best examples? Buffers are actually mixtures of a weak acid and its salt or a weak alkaline and its salt. An example is the mixture of acetic acid and sodium acetate. Buffer solutions are vitally important in controlling the pH range of the system where they are present. This pH control is important in many industrial applications that include manufacture of chemicals. In processes involving biochemical reactions, a limited pH range keeps such reactions at normal pace, whereas too much acidity or alkalinity could slow down or stop chemical reactions. Thus, buffer solutions are important in fermentation process and in pH measurement.

Another kind of water solution is indicator solution, also known as acid-base indicators. These are actually solutions of weak acid or weak base and are used to determine whether a solution is alkaline or acid. However, most indicators work only within a particular range of pH. The common indicator solutions include thymol blue, methyl orange, bromthymol blue, phenolphthalein, and bromphenol blue. These solutions are basically used in analytical chemistry when titrations are needed, during which a color change can indicate the alkalinity or acidity.

Standard solutions are another type of laboratory solutions used in titrations. The importance of these solutions comes from their determined concentration which is basically ideal in appropriate measurements of the presence of a substance or solute in a solution. Standard solutions are expressed in their normality or molarity. Substances used include acids like acetic acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid in aqueous solution; bases like potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide; and salts like potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonium sulfate. Since the standard solution has a known amount of a substance, this can be used to determine the precise amount of another substance during chemical analysis. For example, if you have a solution of sodium hydroxide whose concentration you need to determine, a standard solution of hydrochloric acid may be used. By computing the amount of HCI needed to neutralize the solution, the amount of NaOH will then be calculated.

Aqueous solutions may also include percentage solutions, which are more comprehensible to people with little knowledge in chemistry than molar solutions. A percentage solution may refer to the proportion of the mass of solute to the mass of solvent. Nevertheless, there may be differences. For instance, percentage may mean volume to volume ratio or, in some cases, mass to volume ratio. However, the use of volume may not yield accurate measurements in thermodynamics, since volume changes with temperature and pressure. In any case, percentage solutions are used to determine the amount of solute present in the solution. This is relevant during chemical analyses and computations.

There are also conductivity standard solutions manufactured by water companies for their own use or for other companies’ utilization. Conductivity standards are important in testing pure water quality, which involves a test to determine the electric conductivity of water. Such conductivity standard solutions contain potassium chloride (KCI). Since the aim of any analytical measurement is accuracy, standardized solutions are deemed necessary in preparation and testing of chemicals.

Women Health Tips – How to Shrink Fibroids

Fibroids are mild tumors that develop inside a woman’s uterus. However, they are not cancerous. They occur most commonly among women during their reproductive age. It is also more common among obese and black women. While some fibroid cases are not evident and rarely cause problems, there are others that grown large and become a major problem. Patients with cases like these are required to undergo treatment.

Treatment for fibroids range from natural to surgical procedures. Those who opted for a natural treatment have to undergo changes in their diet and their overall way of life. This requires full commitment and discipline in order to fully treat the illness. Vegetables, fruits, whole grain and legumes are included in the diet as these foods are known to have medicinal attributes that help cure fibroids. Moreover, patients must avoid processed or commercial foods as well as meat, dairy products, and egg among others because these foods increase the estrogen level therefore making the fibroids grow.

Research shows that menopause is advantageous to end or totally eliminate fibroids but this is not the only option left for the patients. Apple cider, vinegar, and baking soda which can be found in your kitchen can potentially reduce fibroids or cyst because it is an alkaline substance. Research also claims that these kitchen ingredients reduce excess calcium in the body tissue making the ovary function normally for regular menstrual cycles. Since fibroids can cause infertility; reduction of them will increase women chances of pregnancy.

Lemon or lime and baking soda also has the same effects as apple cider and baking soda. Lemon or lime has a greater amount of alkaline substance while apple cider has the ability to increase metabolic rate causing weight loss. Either of the two options must be taken two or three times a day. The recipe for this kitchen cure is 2 tablespoon of natural apple cider vinegar and half or one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in eight ounces of water.

These tips are a few of the natural treatment that have been proven to bring wonderful results. Actually, there are various types of natural procedure known to cure fibroids and it may vary from one person to another. Some might be effective for you but not for others.

How to Care for Cleaning Equipment

As a cleaning business owner, how many times do you walk into a janitor closet and find dirty equipment, filthy mop buckets, vacuum cleaners that haven’t been emptied, and spray bottles that no longer spray properly? Have you or your supervisors taken the time to train your employees on how to properly care for your equipment? Use this checklist to keep your supplies and equipment in top working condition.

Plastic Spray Bottles

  • Wipe bottles as necessary to avoid residue and buildup
  • Replace label when needed
  • Periodically take apart trigger and clean to avoid clogging

Brute & Caddy

  • Wipe down inside and out as needed


  • Do not leave lying around – they are a disease and safety hazard. Keep in a bag for dirty rags
  • Discard greasy or oily rags

Dust Pans

  • Disinfect and wipe front edge as needed


  • Rinse in clear, cold water, shake out excess. If brush is dirty, wash it out in lukewarm cleaning solution and rinse with clear water. Let dry with bristles straight.
  • Storage – hang brush – do not put the brush weight on the bristles.


  • Do not use when wet, do not stand on its straws. Do not use broom for scrubbing. Rotate frequently so it will wear evenly.

Putty Knife

  • After each days use, wipe knife to remove moisture and debris.
  • Store in clean, dry place.
  • Edge the blade as needed to keep it sharp

Measuring Cups

  • Rinse with water immediately after use.

Dust Mops

  • Do not use dry mops to pick up liquids. Do not use dust mops on oily floors.
  • Remove loose soil frequently, using a vacuum cleaner if possible; otherwise shake into large waste receptacle.
  • Never store a mop on the floor. Hang the mop so air can circulate.

Wet Mops

  • Before using a new mop, soak for several minutes to remove sizing and toughen the fibers.
  • Rinse after use.
  • Do not twist the mop in the wringer. If it is twisted or squeezed too hard it can be destroyed because the actions will break the fibers.
  • Use your fingers to straighten the strands.
  • Cut off loose or uneven strands.
  • Hang mops to dry in a light, airy place. Never store on the floor or in the mop bucket.

Floor Finish Mops

  • After using, wash out all floor finish or wax with clean water.
  • Wring out as much water as possible, shake to fluff strands.
  • Never use detergent or soap on a mop intended for floor finish.
  • Put mop in a clean plastic bag after use.

Buckets & Wringers

  • Do not use force on a wringer lever – use only enough hand pressure on the lever to wring out the mop.
  • Remove any loose mop head yarn, string or foreign matter that becomes tangled in the wringer.
  • Wash and scrub all surfaces of the bucket with disinfectant. Rinse with warm water and wipe dry.
    Keep wringer oiled and tight.
  • Keep wringer in “release” position when it is not being used.
  • Rinse blade in clean water after use.
  • Wipe dry, do not store with blade down or bent.

Upright Vacuum Cleaners

  • Empty bag regularly.
  • Wipe outside of vacuum after emptying.
  • Check for strings, carpet yarns, etc. wrapped around beater bar.
  • Check belt for cuts and change when needed.
  • Empty magnet bar after each use.


  • Wipe down entire surface after each day’s use. Also wipe cord.
  • Check pad for replacement.
  • Blow out motor approximately every 2 weeks.
  • Once per month check screws and bolts to ensure they are tight.

Slow Speeds

  • Wipe down entire surface after each day’s use. Also wipe cord.
  • Rinse tank after each use.
  • Check drive unit for cracks on wear.

Synthetic Floor Pads

  • Floor pads can be used on both sides. Once both sides have been used, the pad should be set aside for cleaning or soaking.
  • Floor pads can be cleaned by rubbing one against the surface of another. Or you can use a hand scratcher. Follow by rinsing with a sharp stream of hot water and giving a final rinse of cold water. Pads that do not respond to this method should be soaked overnight in a concentration of synthetic detergent or stripping solution. After soaking, each pad should be rinsed under a sharp stream of hot water. After a final rinse of cold water, the pads should be shaken and placed on a flat, non-rusting surface for drying. Pads are not ready for re-use until they are completely dry.
  • Tip: When pads become excessively worn, they can be cut into small sections that can be used as hand or foot scratch pads.

Wet/Dry Vacs

  • Rinse out inside, wipe inside and out after each use.
  • Rinse and wipe hoses and attachments.

Carpet Machines

  • Rinse out inside of tank, filters, hoses and attachments.
  • Wipe down outside.

Pump-Up Sprayers

  • Release pressure.
  • Wipe outside.
  • When empty, rinse out, spray water through sprayer to keep from getting plugged up.