Anatomy of the Full Face Motorcycle Helmet – Discover Why Are They So Important

Motorcycle riding is a great experience, it feels almost like flying because you look around and you don’t see yourself encased inside of any machine like if you where, for example, driving a car or something similar in which you see that you are behind a windshield and a dashboard, a steering wheel with an air bag and a roof over your head. You even get a sun visor with a mirror in case you need to touch up your hair. Basically and definitely you are way more protected from the elements than “riding in the wind”… along with bugs, dust getting in your eyes, and if it starts raining, becomes a nightmare. Also other not- so-fun facts like protecting your head in case of an accident or a collision with any flying objects.

That’s why it is so important to wear the Motorcycle Helmet, it becomes your immediate surrounding, it keeps you comfortable and protected so you can really enjoy your “flight”.

Anatomy of the Motorcycle Helmet

If we cut a section of the Full Face motorcycle helmet, this is what we will see:

Outer Shell

A helmet’s outer shell is made out of either Fiberglass, or a Polycarbonate mixture or specially formulated plastics, and in some more expensive models, Carbon fibers or other very strong light weight materials. It shapes the helmet and provides protection against objects penetrating the helmet.

Safety Liner

The safety liner or “cushion” layer is about one inch thick and is made out of expanded Polystyrene or similar synthetic foam material. It absorbs impact energy in case of a collision.

Inner Liner

The inner liner or comfort liner is made with a moisture absorbing antibacterial fabric and stuffed with soft thin foam to provide comfort. It is the inner liner that is in contact with your skin at all times, so it should breathe well and in some models is removable so you can wash it.

Chin Strap

The chin strap is the helmet’s locking device so it does not fly off or falls off your head especially in an impact. It’s made out of a very strong fabric and in some models padded with the same materials as the inner liner.

Two types of locking systems are most common, the D ring type featuring two metal rings with the letter “D” shape in which the strap passes through both rings and back out under the other. It requires a little bit of practice to use but is very fail safe. The second most used locking system is the “quick release”. Very easy to use and very common these days.

Ventilation System

The ventilation system is a key factor for a good helmet especially in full face, flip up or modular, open face with shield and off road helmets.

Good ventilation keeps the rider’s head cool in the hot days, helps keeping the interior of the helmet dry and fresh and when is raining keeps the face shield from fogging. Some ventilation systems are very elaborated and you can regulate the air flow through the vents.

Face Shield

The face shield pivots up and down and has some sort of locking system so the wind does not slams it open at high speeds. It must be of a good quality, optically correct, so your vision does not get tired. It can be tinted for bright sunny days, or clear for all seasons. Usually is very easy to switch face shields if you insist in having both for day and night use.

Liuhe Pagoda (Six Harmonies Tower) of Hangzhou China – History and Information

Liuhe Pagoda or Six Harmonies Tower is a tall multi-storied pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Located on the Qiantang River, at the foot of Yuelun Hill, the pagoda was built in 970 AD during the northern Song dynasty but destroyed in a war. It was then rebuilt and ruined several more times. The current wood and brick structure dates to 1152.

Being one of the impressive masterpieces of ancient Chinese architectures, Liuhe pagoda attracts thousands of tourists every year. The 196.5 feet tall pagoda has 13 stories outside and 7 stories inside. The six harmonies refers to the 6 directions (heaven, earth, east, west, north and south) as well as the six regulations of Buddhism. A bright lamp installed in the top can also served as a lighthouse.

The pagoda was originally built by the ruler of the Wuyue State (which is an area that now become a part of Zhejiang province). It is also believed that one of the reason for building Liuhe pagoda is to calm the tidal waters of Qiantang River as well as to become a navigational aid. During the night, lanterns were lit almost everywhere in the pagoda so that boats and ships on the Qiantang River could see the building and use it as a navigation tower. You can also see 104 large iron bells hung on its flying eaves as this was done to ward off harmful spirits who responsible for the heavy tides which had caused so much flooding before dykes were finally constructed.

Every story of the pagoda consists of 4 elements; the interior walls, the exterior walls, a zigzagged corridor and a small chamber. This octagonal tower also has a spiral staircase which leads to the top floor. Each of its seven ceilings are carved with painted figures such as birds, flowers, animals and characters. When the pagoda is viewed from the outside, it may appears to be layered-bright on the upper surface but dark underneath. That is harmonious alternation of light and shade.

If you climb to the top of the pagoda, you can see a beautiful and impressive view of the Qiantang River Bridge spanning the surging tides of Qiantang River. There is also an exhibition center near the pagoda that displays many details about other important ancient pagodas in China including all the information about their architectural style. That gallery is also known as the Pagoda Park.

What Material Is Best for A Bathroom Sink?

Sink materials

Most pedestal and wall-hung sinks are made from vitreous china, and the same qualities that make this material a good choice for toilets work well for sinks too: a durable, abrasion-resistant, easy-to-clean surface that maintains its luster year after year.Choose vitreous-china sinks-particularly pedestal sinks-with care, especially if you’re unfamiliar with the brand, because any ceramic manufacturing process produces a high number of seconds that may have defects ranging from minor blemishes or depressions in the surface to hairline cracking and out-of-plumb or warped mating surfaces. This can mean drop-in self-rimming sinks that don’t sit flat (particularly larger ones) and two-piece pedestals that just don’t quite go together correctly.

Enameled cast iron has most of vitreous china’s good qualities, and it is much less prone to cracking. Cast iron is strong, rigid, and quiet when water is running into it, although it can chip if mishandled during shipping or if a hammer gets dropped on it during installation. Cast-iron sinks are very heavy, which may not make that much of a difference with smaller vanity bowls, but can make handling larger sinks hard on the back.

Enameled steel is similar to enameled cast iron but considerably lighter and less expensive. It is much more likely to chip than enameled cast iron because its porcelain coating is thinner and the steel is more flexible. Water running into it makes more noise, too, and cools down more rapidly because the thin steel walls tend to dissipate heat pretty quickly. Formerly a low-budget alternative to porcelain and cast iron, enameled steel seems to be rapidly losing ground to synthetic materials that are competitively priced and that perform just as well, if not better. I’ve removed a few of these sinks in remodels, but I haven’t put any new ones back in lately.

Cultured marble is one of those synthetic materials, and it’s been around for a long time. Cultured marble, like cultured onyx and cultured granite, is technically a cast polymer, created by mixing crushed minerals like marble, onyx, or limestone with a polyester resin. This mixture is then poured into a mold and cured at room temperature. Like fiberglass, the surface is usually then gel-coated with the actual sink color and pattern, so some cast-polymer sinks are prone to scratching and damage. One problem often associated with cast-polymer sinks is “crazing,” or cracks and blisters in the gel coat. This typically occurs around the drain opening and is caused by the thermal shock of alternating hot and cold water, by abrasion from cleaning, and/or by a gel coat that is too thin or thick. Much of the do-it-yourself and lower-end sink market has been dominated by these sinks, in part because they’re relatively inexpensive and look good on the shelf. Some of the newer and more expensive cast polymers have a higher percentage of materials like quartz, which is very hard, and aren’t gel-coated. These cast polymers are much more heat and impact resistant and are sandable, making damage easier to repair.

Solid-surface materials like Corian and Surell are similar to cultured marble in that they too can be cast into easily cleaned one-piece sink / counter-tops. They have the advantage of having colors and patterns that are an integral part of the material, so repairs can be made simply by sanding away dents and scratches, and the nonporous synthetics are stain resistant (though not stain proof). Individual sink bowls are also available, though they are generally laminated into larger counter-tops of the same material. Expect to pay a lot more for solid-surface sinks than for cultured marble.

Ceramic earthenware bowls offer a colorful and organic alternative to mass-produced sinks. Because they are handmade, these sinks have irregularities that sometimes make getting them to fit correctly a real challenge, particularly those made outside the United States. Often these sinks don’t have an overflow-a secondary outlet to the drain to keep a stoppered sink from flooding-which is sometimes required by local building codes. And because they are somewhat fragile, they require careful installation to make everything fit together well-tight enough not to leak but not so tight as to fracture the bowl.

But they add a custom touch to a bathroom, particularly when matched with tile work from the same pottery.

Stainless-steel sinks have long been popular in the kitchen, and their somewhat industrial look sometimes lends itself well to bathrooms, too.They are certainly durable and easy to clean. There is a wide range of quality in stainless-steel sinks, with a corresponding range of prices. The best ones have a higher percentage of chromium and nickel, making them more stain and corrosion resistant, and are typically made of 18-gauge stainless steel, making them stronger and giving them a higher luster. Less expensive sinks feel flimsier because they are made of lighter 22-gauge (or less) steel; they have a duller finish, tend to be noisy, and tend to warp.

Metal sinks are also available in brass, copper, aluminum, and bronze. Sometimes these sinks are mass-produced, but more often than not the more esoteric ones are handmade, and the same reservations that apply to ceramic sinks apply here. Like handmade ceramic sinks, metal sinks can be fussy to install and sometimes require some modification to adapt them to plumbing and fittings. Tempered-glass sinks are also available in a number of distinctive styles, including a sink basin mounted above the counter-top.

Drag Racing – The Perfect Launch

Drag racing, a contest between two cars beginning from a complete stop over a distance of a 1/4 mile (1320 feet) depends heavily on first 60 feet of the race, or the launch. The technique used for launching varies greatly depending on the how the car is equipped. The type of transmission, which wheels are being driven, tires, power, suspension and track preparation all play key roles in how to go about getting the best launch possible from the car.

Improvements on the time it takes for the car to travel the first 60 feet down the track have significant implications on the final ET (estimated time). As a general rule, improvements in the 60 foot time, are magnified by 2x on your final ET. For example, a Dodge Viper GTS that runs a 12.2 @ 120 MPH in the 1/4 mile with a 60 foot time of 2.0 can make significant improvements to it’s 1/4 mile times by obtaining a better launch. If the Dodge Viper GTS is able cut .2 (two tenths) of a second off it it’s 60 foot time, by covering the first 60 feet in 1.8 seconds, it’s final ET for the 1/4 mile would be around 11.8 @ 119 – 121MPH. More examples can be found by searching through the thousands of 60 foot records in the drag racing database.

The best possible launch is obtained by obtaining the optimal balance of applying the most amount of power to the ground with the least amount of wheel spin. If too much power is applied during the launch and the tires spin, the resulting 60 foot time will be poor. The same goes for not applying enough power, thereby causing the car’s engine to bog, and having the car limp off the line slowly.

When launching a car with an automatic transmission, a technique called power braking is used. After properly staging the car at the drag strip’s staging lane, tightly hold down the brake with one foot, while slowly applying the accelerator peddle with the other foot. The car’s engine RPM (revolutions per minute) should slowly increase to a point where the car will either start to move or start spinning the tires. Hold down both the brake and accelerator peddles just below the point where the car is starting to move or spinning the tires. When the christmas tree lights reach the last amber light before the green, lift off of the brake and slowly push the gas peddle all the way down. The correct RPM to launch at will be different every car depending on all of the variables mentioned earlier. Start conservative with the first launch and keep increasing the RPM at which the car is launched at during the subsequent runs. If the car starts spinning the tires after the launch, lower the launch RPM and try again.

When launching a car with a manual transmission come to a complete stop after the car is properly staged. Press the clutch in all the way with one foot while pressing the accelerator peddle down with the other foot, raising the engine RPM to a constant moderate level for the first launch. Lift up on the clutch peddle to the point where the car is just about to start moving and hold both peddles still. When the christmas tree lights reach the last amber before the green, slowly release the clutch while quickly applying the accelerator peddle enough to launch the car quickly, but not too much to induce a large amount of wheel spin. Start conservative with the first launch and keep increasing the RPM at which the car is launched at during the subsequent runs. If the car starts spinning the tires too much after the launch, lower the launch RPM and try again.

To obtain better launches and bring down 60 foot times even more, the use of drag radial or full slick tires can be used on more powerful cars that have trouble launching at any RPM on regular street tires. Drag radials and full slicks usually require a burnout to heat up the tires and clean them from debris for optimum performance. A burnout is a rapid spinning of the car’s tires while the car stays relatively still.

All wheel drive cars (AWD) are typically the easiest to launch because the engine’s power is distributed to 4 wheels instead of two. Rear wheel drive (RWD) cars typically launch better than front wheel drive (FWD) due to the transfer of weight to the rear tires during the launch, causing an increase in traction. If the car has aftermarket adjustable suspension, adjustments can be made specific for drag racing to increase the weight transfer to the driving wheels.

The track’s launch pad preparation also plays an important role in how well and how hard cars can launch. The launch area is usually prepped with traction compounds to add to the stickiness of the track. A well prepped track will definitely help drop 60 foot times and result in lower 1/4 mile times.

During the breaks and cool down periods between drag racing runs, make detailed notes about how you launched on the back of each timeslip. These notes can help you diagnose launching issues, fine-tune subsequent launches and show improvements in the search for The Perfect Launch.

How To Use VBA Code To Remove Blank Lines From A Text File

If you’ve ever worked with text files, you’ll know how frustrating it can be to remove empty lines. Part of the problem is that you don’t want to remove every blank line otherwise it might upset the formatting of the document.

This article will show you how to remove a set number of blank lines from a text file using some common sense VBA coding.

Opening And Reading The Text File

The logic of the code involves reading each line of the file, and saving the line into a text string if it meets our criteria. Then, we’ll write the text string back into a new file.

First, we’ll access the file system object (FSO) and open the file, which we’ve named “blanks.txt”. The code for accessing the file system is the sort of procedure you might want to save in a code library for future reference.

Dim fso As Scripting.FileSystemObject

Set fso = New Scripting.FileSystemObject
Dim myFile As Object
Dim filePath As String

filePath = ActiveWorkbook.path & "filesblanks.txt"
Set myFile = fso.openTextFile(filePath)

Removing The Blank Lines

Now, we can read each line in the file but first we need to consider the code we need to discard the blank lines.

We’ll start by defining several variables and give them initial values.

' Include the line in the new file?

Dim includeLine As Boolean

' The text string to write the included lines to
Dim allTxt as string

' The number of blank lines to include in the new file
Dim countBlanks As Long

countBlanks = 1
includeBlanks = 0
includeLine = False

The initial setting for blank lines is set at 1, so we don’t upset any paragraph breaks. If we wanted to remove every blank line we’d set the variable to 0.

Now we can read the file and tell the code which lines to write to the new file.

Do Until myFile.AtEndOfStream

includeLine = False

txt = myFile.ReadLine

The default for each line is to not include it in the new file unless it meets the criteria defined in the next few lines of code. The number of blank lines are counted until a non-blank line is found and then the counter is set back to zero.

  Select Case Len(txt)

Case 0

If countBlanks < includeBlanks Then includeLine = True

countBlanks = countBlanks + 1

Case Else

countBlanks = 0

includeLine = True

End Select

If the line meets our parameters, then we add it with a new line character to the txt string and continue the loop.

If includeLine Then

allTxt = allTxt & txt & vbCrLf
End If

With the reading of the text file completed, we close the file and write the text string to the new file.


filePath = ActiveWorkbook.path & "filesblanksRemoved.txt"
Set myFile = fso.CreateTextFile(filePath)
myFile.Write allTxt
Set fso = Nothing

With this type of file editing, it’s important not to overwrite the original file in case something unexpected occurs and you lose all the data. Even when you are sure the code is working correctly it makes sense to make a copy – using VBA – to safeguard the original data.


Because working with text files is a common occurrence for most Excel developers, it’s a good idea to develop relevant procedures that you can save for future reference – instead of searching for the answer when time is at a premium.

What Is a Wire Map Tester?

A wire map tester is a device that transmits signals through each wire in a copper twisted-pair cable to determine if it is connected to the correct pin at the other end.

Wire mapping is the most basic test for twisted-pair cables because the eight separate wire connections involved in each cable run are a common source of installation errors.

These testers detect transposed wires, opens (broken or unconnected wires), and shorts (wires or pins improperly connected to each other) – all problems that can render a cable run inoperable.

Wire map testing is nearly always included in multifunction cable testers, but in some cases it may not be worth the expense to spend thousands of dollars on a comprehensive device. Dedicated testers are relative inexpensive (from $200 to $300) and enable you to test your installation for the most common faults that occur during installations and afterward.

If you are installing voice-grade cable, for example, a simple wire mapping test may be all that’s needed. There are also slightly more expensive (under $500) devices that do wire map testing in addition to other basic functions, such as TDR length testing.

This type of tester consists of a remote unit that you attach to the far end of a connection and the battery-operated, handheld main unit that displays the results. Typically, the tester displays various codes to describe the type of faults that it finds. In some cases, you can purchase a tester with multiple remote units that are numbered so that one person can test several connections without constantly traveling back and forth from one of the connections to the other to move the remote unit.

The one wiring fault that is not detectable by a dedicated tester is split pairs, because even though the pinouts are incorrect, the cable is still wired straight through. To detect split pairs, you must use a device that tests the cable for the near-end crosstalk that split pairs cause.

Every cable run must receive a minimum level of testing. You can purchase $5,000 cable testers that will provide you with many statistics on performance, but the most important test is simply determining that the paris are connected properly.

The $5,000 testers provide you with much more performance data than the simple cable testers and will also certify that each cable run will operate at a specific performance level. Some customers will insist on viewing results on the $5,000 cable tester, but the minimum tests you should run will determine continuity and ascertain that the wire map is correct. You can perform a couple of levels of testing. The cable testers that you can use include the following:

1. Tone generators and amplifier probes.

2. Continuity testers

3. Wire-map testers

4. Cable-certification testers

Buying and Selling Mortgage Notes

It might be common nowadays to see a sign that reads “mortgage notes for sale,” but since this is about money and business, things could get tricky. Here is a guide meant to help each individual in choosing the right mortgage note and how to wisely purchase notes for sale.

A mortgage note is proof that there was a debt made for a piece of land or property. When a person puts his property for mortgage, it’s like saying that if he is unable to pay, then the property will be the one to repay the fee or cost that the debtor was unable to pay for. Some people sell their mortgaged land or property and are called mortgage notes.

First, contact a mortgage broker. They can be found online, in newspaper ads, or in the local phone directory. It might also be helpful to ask friends and colleagues for referral as trust is already built in. The mortgage broker’s job is somewhat like a matchmaker as his role is to find which note best suits the client.

It is good practice to carefully go through the mortgage note with the broker. Since it will come with some terms, it is best to ask the broker what they mean and how to go about the investment. The broker is supposed to discuss the investment opportunities and the rate of interest as a return on the investment. It would also be helpful to contact the bank or firm which processed the note for better understanding and practical advice.

When buying a mortgage note, a promissory note is required. This formalizes the agreement and makes it bound to legal terms, which is safer since the former owner will have to pay the new lender (the one buying the note) a certain amount of money. The promissory note should also include all the terms and agreements that are written on the note.

When buying these kind of notes, a third and unbiased party is usually involved and that person is in charge of creating an escrow account. A note broker or real estate broker is someone who is authorized to create an escrow account and manage the funds of the mortgage note.

Once bought, the buyer must deposit the funds into the escrow account and the person that’s managing the account will be responsible for the disbursement of the money to the one who sold it.

The new owner of the mortgage note should then receive monthly payments as he now owns the property. Again, the money should be paid to the escrow account and in the same way, the manager of the account will be the one to disburse the funds.

Interior Design, an Ethnic Approach

Designing your rooms around an ethnic theme can be exciting and fun and allows you to bring elements of other cultures and distant lands into your home. You can be more daring in your approach to colour and with such a wide variety of textures and patterns available, this can collectively add a whole new dimension to your interior design project. Unusual artifacts from different cultures can work very well as focal points in a room and as there are no hard and fast rules to stick to and because there are so many variations, you can go beyond the usual or traditional to portray a style that is not only beautiful, it is unique.

So what do we mean by ethnic?

Ethnic basically means native or indigenous people from a particular area so in relation to Interior Design it means to bring the natural elements that are representative of whatever culture, land or peoples you choose to portray into your own home to define your space.

Naturally the world is your oyster as they say so there are countless cultures to choose from, all you have to do is bring a particular ensemble of colours, patterns, materials and artifacts together to create a “look” that is recognisable and distinctive. What about a Mediterranean flavour, Native American Indian symbolism, or perhaps Tibetan Buddhism? Popular themes include African, Mexican, and Asian but you can go with whatever inspires or appeals to you. Here are a few ideas to get you started.

African Theme

Think of Africa and all that it conjures up in your mind, the landscape, the sounds, the smells, the colours, the mood, and then if you try to pick out the key points, what would they be? Colour schemes might include earthy colours like green, beige, browns and tans, set off with orange and splashes of red. Think about floor and wall coverings, natural substances would probably work best. Finishing touches can include wall hangings, African artifacts, drums, rugs, African fabrics and prints, animals made of stone, clay or wood, ceremonial masks hung on the wall, brightly coloured African bowls and pots, and so on.

Mexican Theme

What does Mexico mean to you? Perhaps desert colours with sandy tones, beige and khaki, along with reddish, rustic colours and hues. Blankets and woven fabrics in bright colours, perhaps terra cotta pots and bowls, pine wood is popular for furniture. Artifacts can include symbols of the South West or from the Spanish influence, or from the Aztecs, Mayans and other ancient civilisations, all of which can add an interesting and authentic Mexican look and feel.

Asian Theme

There are many variations within an Asian theme but two quite popular ones are Japanese and Chinese. Japanese themes tend to lean towards a more minimalist look and have a tranquil and peaceful feel. Consider a futon and using screens to get that Japanese ambiance. Colours tend to be natural and objects from nature often feature as focal points, for example, smooth stones and pebbles, water fountains and bonsai trees. Chinese themes on the other hand might involve brighter and bolder colours, lanterns, dragons and other mythological creatures, artwork depicting the traditional people colours and landscapes and Chinese handwriting.

How to get started

Once you have established which particular ethnic culture appeals to you, browse through books and magazines and the Internet to get ideas that will spark off your own imaginative flair. Identify what elements go together to make up that particular look or feel that you want to create.

Consider the walls, ceilings and floors carefully as this will provide a base for you to work from and then you can add in the details to finish it off. For example, is the texture and appearance of the walls and ceilings rough or smooth? What floor covering is appropriate, should it be wood, stone, tiles or carpets? Will rugs and mats make a difference and if so what are they made of? Are the windows better suited to drapes, blinds or shutters? What style of furniture works? What about plants, motifs, pictures and wall hangings?

The theme you adopt and the way that you choose to portray specific elements of that theme is entirely up to you and your imagination, the end result will be your own unique interpretation of a culture or a place and you will have added a touch of the exotic to your home.

Losing Weight by Cleaning Your Intestine – How Do You Remove Fat Inside Your Colon?

Our body accumulates a lot of toxins from the food that we eat and these are flushed out of our system by the colon. What is the colon? It is the last portion of our “digestive track” where all the wastes are segregated from the useful parts of the food we eat. Colon cleansing has been introduced in the past few years to aid in the flushing out of harmful toxins accumulated by our body. But did you know that fat is also accumulated in here and you can begin losing weight by cleaning your intestine? So how do you remove fat inside your colon? Read on and find out.

There are a lot of cleansers that are available in the market and they also come in various forms. You may find some tablets, capsules and even shakes. You’ll see that are a lot to choose from. So how does losing weight by cleansing your intestine work? You do this by literally flushing out toxins from your intestines. How? You may take colon cleansers or you do this naturally. There are many foods that are good in cleaning your intestines. And these are foods that are rich in fiber. Foods that are high in chlorophyll content are also good in cleaning your intestines. Here are foods that you should eat and will help remove fat in your colon:

o Green leafy vegetables

o Fruits and juices

o Cereals and grass: wheat, barley, oatmeal, fax seeds

By maintaining a diet that is rich in fiber, you are able to remove the fat inside your colon. Fiber “drags” little bits of food that were not flushed out during normal bowel movement, including fat. Fiber-rich foods also give the feeling of being “satiated” and hence keep you from being hungry easily. When you have less food intake, you lose weight in the process. Keep your intestines clean and expect a huge effect on your lose weight plan.

An "Almost" Free Wood Turning Tool – Under $10 for $75 Results

Wood turning tools are becoming more expensive all the time and wood turners are “tool junkies.” It seems that more and more tools are wanted all the time, even though most turners use only a handful. There is a proliferation of tools that all promise to make you a better turner or to transform you into Joe Fantastic Turner if only you use that tool. No one seems to mention the practice needed for any new tool.

Back in the 1970’s Knud Oland, a Scandinavian who had emigrated to the United States, would have only dreamed of the quality and diversity of today’s tools. What was available to him was either of poor quality, poor design or hideous expense. Being an innovator he designed a tool that any one could make cheaply in the home shop and one that worked well.

All wood turning tools have three parts, a handle, a shaft, and a cutting or scraping tip. Generally the cutting tip is also part of the shaft but this is not necessary. One of the problems that this gives is simply that over time, as the tool is sharpened, it shortens to where the tool is no longer usable and becomes scrap. What if the tip and the shaft were two different pieces? This is the point that Knud Oland made the difference in turning tools.

The handle was easy to take care of. Woodturners after all, turn wood. Making a handle is easy. Just turn wood round to a comfortable fit in your hand and drill a hole in the end to take the shaft.

Shafts are not hard either. Cut a steel rod to the right length and put it in the handle. The ip made the difference.

Until this time, most turning tools were made by first the local smith and later the tool companies, by forging the shaft and tip as one out of carbon steel. Carbon steel is far easier to forge than is high speed steel but does hold an edge as long and loses temper easier. That is, the shop user can ruin a carbon steel tool much easier than high speed steel, especially sharpening on the grinder. Since turners use a grinder for sharpening, this was a real problem.

Meanwhile, in the metal machining industry, metal lathes were using high speed steel cutting bits to cut brass, copper, and steel as well as other metals. The cutting bits were square rods of high speed steel. Oland took a shaft, drilled a hole in the end, inserted a cutting bit held with a set screw, and a new tool was born.

The grind had to be different from that of the metal turners but was only a few minutes at the grinder. He took the edge to forty-five degrees and rounded it. Then he turned a bowl and knew he had a winner in his hands. To encourage the wood turning world, he both sold the tool and let others know how to make it. It was his intention that anyone could make the tool at home and that every turner had the chance.

The tool now known as the Oland tool does quick work of making the shavings fly. It handles both the outside and inside cuts of a bowl with ease. Not only is it effective for green wood in roughing down a bowl but it also does a fine job of leaving a clean surface for sanding when finish turning. Some turners claim it is almost impossible to get a catch with an Oland tool, but dreams come in every pursuit.

A good bowl gouge can set you back easily $75 and some of the cream of the crop will go for more than $150. A handle for the Oland starts out as scrap wood. The shaft will likely cost a couple of dollars while a 1/4″ cutting bit tends to go for $1.50. The set screw might be as high as fifty cents and if you need to buy a tap add in about $3. So for under $10 you have a tool that works as well as a $75 or $150 gouge. To me that is almost free.

Knud liked to work with the 1/4″ tool and seldom went any larger. His widow still turns bowls thirty inches and more in diameter using only the 1/4″ tool. I have made mine from 1/8″ all the way to ½ ” as well as variations on the theme. For the low cost, they are great to experiment with and try some new cuts.

To see some of Knud’s work as well as that of his widow and to see some pictures of her at work visit . Information on making the tool can be found at It is a pleasure to pick up the tool and know that a generous turner’s legacy continues.

What is the Basic Difference Between Music Production and Sound Engineering?

Music production involves creating the music from scratch and sound engineering involves mixing the different instruments together so it sounds nice.

I will reveal both aspects as they relate to D.J.’ing but more so on the production side.

For most established D.J.’s, meaning those who have been D.J.’ing for a while whether it is in their bedroom or in the club, music production is the next logical step. Because D.J.’s play so many different types of music they come across a lot of beats and sounds. This inspires some D.J.’s to sample those beats and sounds and make up their own songs.

This is the beginning of the music production stage. There are 3 stages to music production: pre-production, music production and postproduction.

Stage 1 Pre-production

The music production stage is the crafting of the new song. I call this the pre- production stage because you are just experimenting with music. This is where music from the record or mp3 is sampled using a sampler or drum machine like an Akai MPC. But before you can sample and produce music you have to make sure your gear is properly connected:

So that I can sample sounds into my Akai drum machine I have my Technics turntable going into the phono input of my stereo unit. Then I take the phono out of my stereo unit to the input of my MPC 3000. My MPC gets connected to my Akai DPS 24.Then the DSP 24 is connected to the CD input of the stereo unit so I can hear what I produce.

In order to sample I have to make sure I select the phono option on my stereo unit. After I sample the sounds I have to switch to the CD option on my stereo unit so I can hear the playback from the drum machine. Once you’ve completed your musical arrangement and saved all of your work and you are satisfied with it you can move into the part two of the pre-production phase.

During this phase is when you bring in artists to perform on you track. This is where you begin to rearrange the track or music you created with the artists. This collaboration period enables you and the artists to make minor adjustments to the music and the lyrics. You may also add to or take away parts of the track such as adding additional drums or strings. The artists will practice their song using your track. Once this is very tight you move to the studio to lay the music and the vocals on separate recording tracks. The reason why you want to practice before you get to the studio is because studio time is very expensive and you don’t want to waste time practicing in. That is where you need to focus all of your time making sure the music and vocals are recorded cleanly without pops and clicks.

Stage 2 Music Production

When you get to the studio this is where the sound engineer comes into play. This person is responsible for making sure all of you music sounds excellent. These people have years of experience. Some D.J./Producers also like to engineer their own music because they know how they want their music to sound. If this is the case then the sound engineer simply assists the D.J. with mixing the music and using the studio equipment.

The mixing part of the music production phase is done in the studio where all of the music tracks and vocal tracks are blended together to give you what you hear on your CD.

Each musical instrument and vocal track is mixed and adjusted using what is called a mixing board like my Akai DPS24 only larger or software based mixing console like Pro Tools.

Stage 3 Postproduction

After the mixing is done the postproduction process begins. The final mix is taken to what is called a Mastering Studio where specialized equipment is used to bring out the best possible sound. When this process is completed the final results of the song are then pressed on CD or vinyl and sold to the customer.

The Stages of Relationship Breakdown and How to Recognize Them

The breakdown of a relationship – any relationship – is always painful. You can’t expect to invest your hopes and dreams, your emotions and intimacy in another human being without making yourself vulnerable. And that means opening yourself up to the possibility of being hurt.

Yet the human condition is such that we have a fundamental need to love and be loved. So if we’re coping with marriage breakdown, even in its early stages, the depth of pain experienced may be overwhelming. It’s easy to delude ourselves into thinking that we will do anything to avert that situation. But the truth is that we may well want to avoid stress at all cost: denying the signs; burying our heads in the sand; worse, turning to drink or infidelity to mask the pain. Consequently, we may, actually, aggravate what appears to us to be a boiling cauldron of indefinable events without cause or effect.

The truth is, however, that there is a predictable pattern in the stages of relationship breakdown. And recognising the sequence of each phase may well prove to be the first step in preventing their escalation. I’m not saying that this can be achieved without help from agencies such as the excellent Care For The Family, but the old truism ‘forewarned is forearmed’ couldn’t be more relevant. Because facing up to the truth at any point opens up the opportunity of arresting further emotional damage. It enables us to make a considered change of direction.


  1. Conflict: Most of us have our ups and downs when it comes to our closest relationships. The euphoria of the early years of marriage rarely lasts beyond childbearing years (there’s some speculation about whether this ‘high’ is nature’s way of getting us to procreate) and it’s when we have dependent children that we’re most likely to experience conflict. The combination of this change in the way we love one another and the demands of raising a family put pressure on our relationships which were absent in the early years. Many couples cope with the conflict; some even thrive on it; others crumble.
  2. Misunderstanding: ‘My wife doesn’t understand me,’ must be the most clichéd statement ever. But the biggest misconception, or misunderstanding, is to think that we can ‘make’ our spouse understand us by constant repetition. The truth is that in the early stages of our relationship – the elation of new love – we are so tuned into the attributes that attract us to one another, that we may have been blind to the differences that were there all along, but which now repel us. Additionally, the pressures of raising a family may throw up a disparity in our values and standards of behaviour – qualities which have not, until now, been evident. At this point, we’re open to the temptation of flirtation, flattery and infidelity.
  3. Contempt: As the pressures mount and the sense of being misunderstood increases, we become filled with disdain for one another. Where once we felt a pride and admiration in our spouse’s abilities, now we see only their faults. Dislike leads to derision; scorn to contempt; dislike to loathing. He/she can’t even . . . we think. And those thoughts rapidly turn to vocal expression. The screaming matches begin, and the children fear for their future.
  4. Defensiveness: This may manifest itself in self-pity and a sense of helplessness and hopelessness. What’s the point, we think? All the energy that epitomized the conflict and contempt stages drains away, leaving us feeling as if we’re dragging ourselves upstream through a torrent of treacle. All we experience is pain. At this stage we may feel overwhelmed; become clinically depressed.
  5. Loss of Trust: Our imaginations run riot: we see betrayal everywhere around us. The overtime at work, the unanswered mobile telephone calls, the secretive text-messaging – everything becomes, potentially, an act of treachery. We rifle through pockets, bank statements, telephone bills. Sadly, our mistrust may not be misplaced.
  6. Self-protection: We may, if we haven’t gone under in Stage 4, begin to withdraw from the relationship completely, avoiding any attempt at communication. Separate bedrooms; speaking to one another through the children, ‘tell your mother …’; and social detachment as each pursues their own interests may follow. The relationship, unless drastic action is taken, is in terminal decline.

I began by saying that the breakdown of a relationship is always painful. For many reading this today, fresh wounds may bleed, and old scars may be opened. If you need someone to share in your anguish, may I invite you to leave a comment at the end of this article. I promise I will respond to your need in whatever way I can. Or if you have anything to add which might help someone else, please take the trouble to write a short message in the comments box.

Mobile Home Weatherization – Underbelly

By weatherizing your mobile home, you have the largest opportunity to save on heating and cooling bills by addressing the underbelly of the home. Due to the factory construction process by which they are built, they have a large open cavity between the bottom board insulation and the underside of the sub-floor. This cavity is referred to as the “underbelly”. Some homes have larger than others ‘underbellys’. Typically when you are performing air sealing measures on the home, you will get the greatest reduction of air infiltration by filling the void that is the underbelly. There is little to no insulation directly behind the rim joist, which gives the home a broken thermal envelope. Blowing insulation into the underbelly will not only give the home a true thermal boundary but drastically reduce air infiltration by closing the void. This is done by using an insulation blowing machine coupled with approx 100′ of hose. Most big box stores offer rentals of the machines. Blown fiberglass insulation is to be used instead of cellulose. Fiberglass is naturally water repellant which makes it a much better choice by comparison.

  • Patchwork – The first thing to address before insulating the underbelly is any tears or holes that the bottom board might have. If these are not fixed then there is nothing to hold the insulation up. The most cost-effective way to accomplish this is by using a “Tyvek or Typar” house wrap as your closing material. You can staple this up to the existing material or you can use screws and washers aimed at the bottom of the floor joists. For smaller holes or for sealing up the patches, two-part spray foam insulation works well.
  • Blowing Insulation in the Center of the Mobile Home – The key to blowing insulation is knowing where to put the material. Mobile homes were designed to have the plumbing lines run through the floor near the heat duct so as not to freeze in winter months. The center of the home, where plumbing lines exist have to be blown with a low density. Do not over-insulate, otherwise the heat from the heat duct cannot get to the pipes, and they will freeze most definitely. You want to install the insulation to where you are filling the cavity but the material still has some fluff or buoncy to it.
  • Blowing Insulation at the Perimeter – Blowing insulation around the house, including the ends only if they do not have plumbing near, is where you get the most bang for your buck. The perimeter is defined as the outside of the I-Beam sections. Again watch out for plumbing, there is usually a couple of these sections that have plumbing. Blow the insulation to a maximum density, filling the void completely and packing the material in. This is where you stop the air infiltration and radiant heat loss/gain from the bare rim joist. Treat the ends of the center the same, if there is no plumbing.
  • Entrance Point – Gaining access to the cavities can be done one of two ways. Removing skirting or siding on the exterior and drilling holes through the rim joist is an option. An aluminum pole attached to the insulation blowing hose is typically used to enter the cavity. The other is crawling under the home and cutting holes in the bottom board, inserting the hose directly and patching holes when complete. The both have their pros and cons.

By keeping these ideas in mind, you can easily and confidently weatherize your mobile home’s underbelly.

A List of Foods That Burn Fat Fast: Go Catabolic

It’s a basic principle of weight loss.

Every item of food you put in your mouth contains calories. If you burn more calories than you consume, you will lose weight.

Some foods, like a piece of chocolate cake slathered with chocolate icing, are high in calories, and take a while to burn off. Other foods, like lettuce, are low in calories, and can be burned off faster.

Your body is always burning calories, even if you’re sitting still and doing nothing. But being physically active helps you burn calories faster.

So, what are the foods that burn fat fast?

Catabolic foods burn more calories than they contain. For example, an apple contains around 80 or 90 calories. But the energy your body uses to metabolize the apple burns about 180 calories. So, when you eat an apple, your body burns off up to 100 calories more than you consumed.

Sounds pretty good, doesn’t it?

Here is a list of high catabolic foods.






















Sweet Potatoes





Now, this doesn’t mean you can eat a slice of chocolate cake, and then eat five apples to make up for it. What it does mean is, if you are on a diet, eating certain foods will help you burn calories and lose weight faster. These are also foods you can snack on throughout the day, satisfying your hunger without worrying about ruining your diet.

Fighting Cellulite and Winning

Cellulite – a word most women are very familiar with. Cellulite is the formation of tiny dimples on the skin, usually appearing on the thighs and your bottom.

Now dimples were really cute when we were children, but the puffy puckering dimples we find on our body are a curse to most women. Statistics say that over 80% of women develop cellulite.

Cellulite is very difficult to treat. Cellulite is constructed of small pockets of waste and studies indicate is tied to poor circulation and a sluggish metabolism.

The most effective treatment involves enhancing your natural cellular function and speeding up your metabolism so it is better capable of eliminating toxic waste from the body.

There is a huge selection of cellulite remedies on the market, all claiming to reduce or rid the body of cellulite. It’s pretty easy to get caught up in the hype of the miracle cellulite cure.

So how does one determine what will or will not help? Below is useful information to help you make an intelligent choice.

Up until recently most of the treatments for sale were merely topical treatments which by themselves are not very effective at treating cellulite.

It is important to remember that until now very few if any remedies were more than simple topical treatments, which alone are not very effective in treating cellulite. There are many creams on the market the mix combinations of vitamins, herbs, and antioxidants. Some will do no more than make your skin appear smoother and healthier.

Although a superficial treatment, it will reduce the appearance of the cellulite areas.

The better creams will contain antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, and ingredients that stimulate the flow of blood. Cellulite areas are damaged skin pockets which are normally dehydrated. . Increasing the blood flow and reducing inflammation help the skin repair itself. The best treatment comes from the inside out.

We’ve all heard the commercials or ad campaigns that claim that “their cream” can decrease the size of the thigh and repair cellulite.

What these products actually do is draw waste water away from the area, thus temporarily decreasing the size of the thigh and the appearance of the cellulite. T

his is “not” a cure, but a temporary fix. Any size you lost will be regained as soon as you drink water. Body size is not relevant to having or not having cellulite.

Topical cellulite remedies can be beneficial, however they have little effect if they are used alone. Creams reach only the epidermis [top layer] of the skin. They are unable to penetrate the dermis where much of the damage is.

Because they are unable to penetrate the dermis layer and fight the skin damage, many of these treatments are not successful. The surface dimpling caused by cellulite is merely a symptom of the underlying cause.

To reverse the damage you must go beyond treating the top skin layer. Internal treatments and technological treatments can be very successful in treating the underlying problem. Combine science and nature with your topical treatments for real help.

To “really” fight celluloid you need to go within the body. By working inside the body and outside with topical treatments, you’ll have a better chance of fighting cellulite.

The more of them that you use, the more success you will be in reducing, preventing, and even eliminating your cellulite.

It is very important to strengthen blood vessels/increase blood flow. Strengthening blood vessels and increasing blood flow you increase circulation.

Increasing circulation will then allow more blood flow to the celluloid areas so the body will better be able to break down the toxic areas.

The first stages of cellulite and are not visible to the naked eye. The first stages are the result of blood vessels breaking down. Nutrients reach the skin via blood vessels and when the blood vessels are unable to feed nutrients to the skin damage occurs. This damage is called cellulite.

It is very important that the right nutrients are actually able to reach the areas that need them. Feed your body antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, water, and collagen. These will act as reinforcements to help nutrients reach the affected areas. etc., the skin has no way to attain reinforcements. It eventually loses the battle to cellulite

It is important to encourage the Production of connective tissue. This can be done by increasing production of the matrix (GAGs) that make up connective tissue in your body. A strong dermis will help in preventing and repairing cellulite.

The connective tissue is the primary water reservoir for your entire body, so it stands to reason if you have healthy connective tissue your body will be much better able to hydrate itself when needed, keep all of your cells, from your liver to your skin, supplied with their ideal component of water, thereby functioning at their optimal level.

The most important Internal needed to form GAGs in your body, is glucosamine. Glucosamine is the primary building block of GAGs. Your body also needs B vitamins and trace minerals so that your body can metabolize the glucosamine into GAGs.

It is also important to stimulate the production of collagen and elastin. Your body needs ample collagen and elastin to keep the connective tissue strong. When the dermis is strong, fat cells are not able to break through and appear on the surface, with the familiar dimples.

Your need to supply the body with amino acids to build collagen and elastin.

Make sure that your cells are fully hydrated. De-hydrated cells become weak and are then unable to hold back the fat from surfacing. By drinking plenty of fluids you keep your body hydrated, which revitalizes your cells.

They are then able to push the cellulite forming fat cells back below the surface into the deeper layers of the skin. Keeping your body hydrated has other benefits also, it will keep your skin looking young and beautiful and allow you to better fight disease and infection.

By optimizing the health of your cells they will be able to function at peak levels. Your skin will look younger, smoother, and overall more beautiful.

It is also important to ensure waste is properly removed from the body. If your body is retaining wasted water it can cause problems such as bloating, weight gain, edema, and puffy eyes. It also interferes with your body’s ability to repair cellulite damage.

All of us are exposed to the damage caused by free-radicals. Free radical damage occurs from many sources, such as sun exposure, smoking, and a poor diet.

Free radicals damage the skin making it more susceptible to cellulite. The best way to prevent and repair free-radical damage is with the use of antioxidants, both topically and internally.

Your body responds to damage by rushing defensive nutrients to the affected area. It accomplishes this by dilating the blood vessels and releasing specific chemicals.

What you witness is the skin becoming warm and red. This is inflammation. Prolonged inflammation causes the free-radical damage and cell wall deterioration that it is attempting to prevent.

That is why it is so important to use soothing ingredients, both topically and internally, to calm inflammation before it begins doing more harm than good. Anti-inflammatories are widely available in a variety of products.

Exfoliation is a must. By the time we reach adulthood, the rate our cells turnover has drastically decreased, leaving us with a surface of dead skin cells that not only looks dull, it no longer provides an adequate barrier against the elements and water loss.

The most effective way to combat this is to exfoliate. Exfoliation removes the surface layer of dead cells. There are many ways to exfoliate. Chemical formulas use mild agents to dissolve the dead cells.

Textured soaps, sponges and brushes strip away the surface cells. When you remove the dead cells from your skin’s surface, a message is sent telling your body to create replacements.

The dead cells are replaced with strong young cells that look and feel healthy. But more than that, these cells are better equipped to stand up to the onslaught of cellulite.

Many effective ingredients include essential oils and botanical extracts. Before using a product is always wise to do a patch test. Some botanicals and antibacterial agents can cause reactions in sensitive skin types.

Aloe Vera juice or oil is extracted from the aloe Vera plant. The leaves are made up of water, enzymes, and minerals such as calcium, aluminum, iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium, and sodium.

But wait there’s more. Aloe Vera juice also contains twenty amino acids. Aloe Vera is well known for its healing and anti-inflammatory properties.

Alpha and Beta Hydroxy Acids are used in many cosmetic products. Certain combinations of AHA products increase cell turnover rate and increase the thickness of the epidermis.

The effect depends on the product’s pH level, the AHA concentration, whether it is a cream or cleanser, as well as how the product is used AHA products make the skin appear smoother and younger.

Lactic acid is commonly found in milk, pickles, and other foods made by bacterial fermentation. Lactic acid can help reduce the effects of photo-aging and can play an important role in the treatment of sun-damaged skin.

Glycolic and salicylic increase the cell turnover rate and uncovering younger skin.

Hydroxy acids unclog embedded cellular debris from pores and shedding the outermost layer of dead skin.

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent fat- and water-soluble antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. ALA penetrates the skin cells the lipid-rich cell membrane and continues to be effective once inside the cell due to its water solubility. ALA works with vitamins E and C, boosting their antioxidant abilities.

Basil extract is used to relieve pain and muscular spasms, and to stimulate blood flow. It is also known for its restorative and anti-inflammatory properties.

Bioflavonoids’ have strong anti-inflammatory powers, and are also a strong antioxidant.

Niacin improves the ability of the epidermis to retain moisture. When used topically it produces softer, smoother skin with less dryness and flakiness, and it reduces the appearance of fine lines.

Butcher’s broom root extract strengthens and tones blood vessels. In Europe it is a popular treatment for varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

Carnitine is found naturally in the body. It transports fatty acids to your cells, where they are metabolized. It burns fat and strengthens cells.

Cat’s-claw is an effective anti-inflammatory, which also increases blood flow throughout the body. Recently is has been successful in stimulating the immune systems of cancer patients.

The active ingredient in cayenne is capsaicin. Capsaicin not only increases circulation. It also alters the action of the body’s substance P which transfers pain messages to the brain. As a result it is effective in reducing both pain and inflammation by short-circuiting the pain message.

Coenzyme Q10 is a powerful antioxidant. Studies have shown its ability to increase resistance to disease and to strengthen the heart. It creates a substance known as ATP in the body’s cells which is vital for energy. It also has great antioxidant abilities, as well as boosting the antioxidant effect of vitamins C and E.

Peptides are the amino acid, the building block for collagen and elastin. Copper peptide is a trace mineral that helps the body convert amino acids into this connective tissue. Copper peptides are an excellent source of collagen and elastin production.

Essential fatty acids are so vital that they have been referred to as vitamin F. They have amazing hydrating abilities in topical creams, and when taken internally they help to build up the cell membranes and attract water to cells.

Fennel is a diuretic and an anti-inflammatory that needs more research to find its full abilities.

Ginkgo Biloba is an antioxidant, but it also increases the blood flow throughout the body, expanding the reach of any nutrients in the food you eat.

Grapefruit oil and extract have been used for muscle fatigue, stiffness, acne, fluid retention, and skin tightening, and as an antiseptic and astringent.

Grape-seed extract inhibits the enzymes collagenase and elastase, which break down collagen and elastin. Because grape seed is able to prevent the damage from ever occurring, it is very effective in the prevention of celluloid.

Green clay is sometimes referred to as a cellulite solution but does need more study to confirm this. Green clay contains many of the trace minerals that your body needs to metabolize nutrients into new tissue.

Juniper berries extract is high in vitamin C. It is used to treat pain and inflammation from arthritis and varicose veins, and to increase circulation.

When Lecithin is taken internally on a regular basis, it aids your body in repairing and strengthening its cell membranes.

Kelp is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties on the skin. It is rich in minerals and has been used to supply the thyroid gland with iodine in some instances. Kelp can also be used to hydrate the epidermis, nourish the skin, and protect elastin fiber.

Pine oil is used as a disinfectant, anti-inflammatory, as a diuretic, and to stimulate circulation.

Pomegranate is fast becoming recognized for its antioxidant qualitites. Studies have showed the that the topical application of pomegranate extract has an effect on preventing skin cancer. Pomegranate is a very potent antioxidants that work primarily in the skin.

Retinoids applied topically over a long period of time temporarily thicken and strengthen the dermis, making it more difficult for cellulite to push its way through.

Zinc, manganese, copper, selenium, magnesium, boron, chromium, molybdenum, silica, and vanadium are all trace minerals. Our body needs these minerals in trace amounts to r metabolize nutrients. Trace minerals are vital to cellulite.

Vitamin C fights an ongoing battle against cellulite and skin damage. Vitamin C breaks down collagenase and elastinase, two naturally occurring substances in the body that attack collagen and elastin.

Vitamin C is also a natural anti-inflammatory and powerful antioxidant with proven studies that it is effective in battling free-radical damage within the skin.

Vitamin E, both topically and when taken internally, is a very potent fat soluble antioxidant. Because it is fat soluble it can work its way into the fat-rich cell membranes in our bodies, protecting the cell walls from free-radical damage. Vitamin E is also an excellent hydrating and sealing agent in topical creams.

Many popular treatments claim to reduce cellulite. Treatments range from body raps to massage to surgical procedures.

Body Spa Treatments are beneficial on many levels. Great for exfoliating, toning, and stimulating blood flow. A terrific skin care regime.

Body wraps induce sweating thereby having a temporary diuretic effect. However, fat cells and connective tissue are not affected by sweating.

With a body wrap you are covered from head to toe for up to an hour in herbal or seaweed-soaked cloth strips to increase circulation and firm the body’s contours. Once you are unwrapped you body is massaged to enhance circulation and send oxygen to blocked tissues.

Watch your alcohol and caffeine intake prior to a body wrap as both are dehydrating. Body wraps are not recommended for anyone with high blood pressure, anyone who is dehydrated, or pregnant women.

Deep-tissue massage consists of slow strokes to create micro tears at the surface level, making tissue longer and smoother. It also loosens the connective tissue so that it moves more freely and no longer adheres to underlying structures. Deep massage followed by lymphatic drainage can make the surface layer of skin more flexible.

Massage can improve the condition and appearance of your skin, however it does not remove or decrease fat cells. It is excellent for increasing circulation and thus moving nutrients to tissues.

However, if deep massage is too intense, it can also damage blood vessels, which defeats the benefits for cellulite reduction. Areas with cellulite are already sensitive, so be sure to tell the therapist it it feels like too much pressure is being applied. Deep massage provides relaxation and can stimulate the blood vessels and reduce stiffness.

Dermal fillers are expensive. They are a temporary method that improves the appearance of cellulite dimples. The treatment consists of a serious of human fat injections which make dimples less obvious.

Other filling agents can be used rather than fat. The dimples appear less noticeable until the fat is absorbed by the body, then the dimples return to their normal appearance. Not only is this procedure quite costly it is a lengthy procedure.

Electronic Anticellulite Devices are a few noninvasive, nonsurgical treatments for skin contour irregularities. This procedure temporary reduces the appearance of cellulite.

A vacuum type device creates suction to temporarily immobilize and lift the fatty tissue, while dual rollers create deep, subdermal massage to the connective tissue. This stretches the connective tissue, increases blood and lymphatic flow, and exfoliates the skin.

A session can take from forty to ninety minutes, and entail from ten to thirty treatments as well as a monthly maintenance treatment. If you stop treatments your skin reverts back to its original condition. Long term results have never been established either clinically or scientifically.

The lymph system is the body’s waste disposal system. It is the body’s natural defense system, clearing away bacteria, cell debris, excess water, proteins, and wastes from the connective tissue and returning it to the bloodstream for ultimate removal by the kidneys.

If pathways become congested or damaged fluids build up in the connective tissue, leading to edema, swelling, and inflammation. When this occurs the lymphatic system transports the damaged cells, inflammatory substances, and waste away from the area. The sooner this occurs the faster the recovery.

Manual lymphatic drainage is a technique that involves a gentle lymph massage, which enhances and stimulates the lymphatic system to remove wastes more rapidly from around the cells and in the tissues, sending it back into the lymphatic system for removal and ultimate cleansing.

For cellulite treatment, the therapist first assesses the condition of the skin: color, texture, temperature, moisture, and elasticity.

The next step is to look at the contour of the hips and legs, and hunt for skin thickening, ridges, lumps, and visible scars that run across lymph vessels and may obstruct lymph drainage.

The therapist also examines for visible veins, looking for redness, swelling, heat, and pain. Lymphatic drainage is very useful before and after cosmetic surgery to decrease bruising, edema, and inflammation. The effects are only temporary, and it has not been proven to reduce dimpling in the long term.

Mesotherapy are micro injections injected into the middle of the dermis at a trouble spot, to deliver healing or corrective treatment to a specific area of the body. They can be made of conventional or homeopathic medication.

They are mixed with isoproterenol, vitamins and a diuretic when treating cellulite. Isoproterenol is touted to melt fat although no clinical studies are available to back up this claim. Up to two hundred deep injections are delivered into trouble.

The biggest problem with mesotherapy is that there is no standardized mix for the formula. Long-term, chronic cellulite and wrinkles may require at least fifteen sessions before you notice any result.

Microdermabrasion is a popular alternative to chemical peeling that utilizes a blast of aluminum oxide or salt crystals to exfoliate skin superficially, by passing the particles through a vacuum tube to gently scrape away the aging skin.

The results are similar to a light peel. Microdermabrasion devices are available for home use, although not as good as a professional treatment the cost is significantly less.

Nonablative Lasers point the laser beam at the affected area, causing the collagen and elastin bundles to heat up and move closer to the surface. This firms the skin and reduced imperfections. The results are temporary.

Peels utilize a strong concentration of a chemical exfoliating agent to resurface the skin. New cells made by the remaining dermis result in a newly healed surface, and healthier, more radiant skin.

Chemical peels are very flexible and can be adapted to various levels depending on how deep a peel you want and how sensitive your skin is. Glycolic acid is a common ingredient in peels as it is generally gentler and safer than trichloracetic acid

Peels work by damaging the skin to a stage where the body needs to build new collagen and elastin bundles. You might feel a burning or stinging sensation, and there will be moderate swelling of the treated areas for about a week and minimal scabbing, followed by healing and a toughening of the skin

Thalassotherapy is rich in sea minerals and nutrients.

The therapy combines the sea nutrients with warm sea water to dilate pores and blood vessels, opening the skin to absorb the sea minerals.

In the end the best way to cure celluloid is simply to avoid getting it. Eat a balanced diet low in fat, drink plenty of water, eat fiber foods, and plenty of fresh vegetables and fruit.

Exercise for 20-30 minutes daily to help keep the body in shape, and avoid smoking, alcohol. A healthy life style will go along way towards prevention.