Salt That Heals and Salt That Kills

Many people are confused about salt and rightfully so-your doctor and health professionals tell you to decrease your salt intake to decrease your risk of hypertension, heart disease, stroke and renal disease. On the other side of the fence, many gourmet chefs and holistic specialists claim that salt is good for you and essential for life.

The American Medical Association (AMA) and the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) claim that Americans are consuming ever higher amounts of sodium, up to 6,000 milligrams a day, instead of the recommended daily allowance of 500 to 2,000 milligrams per day. These high amounts, in a form that is unfriendly to the human body and with no ancillary mineral benefits, are what lead to serious health problems. The sodium that the AMA and the CSPI are referring to is the sodium found in table salt.

There are several distinct differences between table salt and holistic salt.

Table Salt- is poison that has nothing in common with natural holistic salt. Table salt is refined just like white sugar, white flour and white rice. Table Salt is chemically cleaned, refined and dried at over 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit. The excessive heat alters the natural chemical structure of the salt causing the potential for a myriad of health problems in your body. What remains after processing is 97.5% sodium chloride and 2.5% chemicals such as moisture absorbents, toxic iodine and fluoride. In addition, your table salt very often contains dangerous preservatives not required to be listed on the packaging. Calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide are often added to improve the ability of table salt to pour. Aluminum is a light alloy that deposits into your brain – a potential cause of Alzheimer’s disease.

Sodium chloride is an unnatural chemical form of salt that your body recognizes as something completely foreign. This form of salt is in almost every preserved/processed product that you eat, and we Americans eat a lot of processed food. In fact, 90% of the money that Americans spend on food is for processed food. Therefore, when you add more salt to your already salted food, your body receives more salt than it can dispose of. As a food, table salt is absolutely useless, and can potentially act as a destructive poison. In order for your body to try to metabolize table salt crystals, it must sacrifice tremendous amounts of energy.

Sodium chloride from table salt upsets your fluid balance and constantly overburdens your elimination systems, which can impair your health. When your body tries to isolate the overdose of salt you typically expose it to, water molecules must surround the sodium chloride to break them up into sodium and chloride ions in order to help your body neutralize them. To accomplish this, water is taken from your cells and you have to sacrifice the perfectly structured water already stored in your cells in order to neutralize the unnatural sodium chloride. This results in dehydrated cells that can prematurely kill them.

For every gram of sodium chloride that your body cannot get rid of, your body uses twenty-three times the amount of cell water to neutralize the salt. Eating common table salt causes excess fluid in your body tissue, which can contribute to:

o Unsightly cellulite

o Rheumatism, arthritis and gout

o Kidney and gall bladder stones

When you consider that the average person consumes 4,000 to 6,000 mg of sodium chloride each day, and heavy users can ingest as much as 10,000 mg in a day, it is clear that this is a serious and pervasive issue.

The Politics of Salt (Side Bar perhaps)

So why hasn’t the FDA banned the chemical processing of table salt or set salt limits on processed foods?

1978- In 1978 the CSPI urged the FDA to set salt limits.

1982- In 1982, the FDA promised to act if the food industry didn’t bring down sodium levels on its own. Since then, according to CSPI, Americans’ sodium intake has increased, not decreased, and the agency has done nothing.

2003- In 2003, the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, or JNC 7, called for a 50 percent reduction in sodium consumption–a target that CSPI urged FDA to shoot for.

2005-In 2005, after 25 years of false starts and foot-dragging by the Food and Drug Administration the CSPI sued the FDA to regulate salt, but the court ruled that CSPI would need to file another petition with the agency. CSPI’s new legal filing with FDA asks that the agency treat salt as a food additive for purposes of regulation, as opposed to an ingredient the agency designates as “Generally Recognized as Safe,” or GRAS. The agency has greater authority to regulate food additives, including the authority to set upper limits or require special labeling for a given additive. CSPI asked the agency to set upper limits for salt in various categories of processed foods and to lower the Daily Value, or DV, for individuals from 2,400 mg to 1,500 mg of sodium per day. CSPI notes in its petition that several government bodies have urged Americans to reduce their salt consumption, and even FDA itself in

2005 reaffirmed its conclusion that sodium has an adverse impact on cardiovascular disease.

CSPI’s current petition to the FDA was also sent to Secretary of Health and Human Services Mike Leavitt with a cover note of support from organizations including the American Nurses Association, the American Public Health Association, the American College of Preventive Medicine, and the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Prominent physicians and researchers signing the letter include Dr. Carlos Camargo of Harvard Medical School, Dr. Steve Havas of the University of Maryland Medical School, Dr. Jeremiah Stamler of the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Dr. Myron H. Weinberger of the Indiana University School of Medicine, and Dr. Jackson T. Wright of the University Hospitals of Cleveland.

2006-In June of 2006 the American Medical Association (AMA), our nations doctors, added their voice to the war against salt. They are now urging the FDA to revoke the ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) status of salt and to develop regulatory measures to limit sodium in processed and restaurant foods.

“Frankly, the FDA is more interested in racing expensive new drug therapies for high blood pressure to market than it is improving Americans’ diets so they wouldn’t need the drugs,” said CSPI executive director Michael F. Jacobson. “Improving the food supply by gradually reducing the sodium content of processed foods would send a lot fewer Americans scurrying for expensive medical care. You’d think an administration ostensibly in favor of weighing costs and benefits of government action would see that.”

(End Side Bar)

Holistic Salts

A Holistic salt is a salt that is natural, as it occurs in nature and has not been refined or chemically treated by man.

Sea Salt

Many people believe sea salt is a healthy alternative to table salt, but this is no longer the case. The oceans are being used as dumping grounds for harmful toxic poisons like mercury, PCBs and dioxin. Reports of oil spills polluting the sea are becoming more frequent. With some 89% of all the sea salt producers now refining their salt, today’s sea salt simply isn’t as healthy as it used to be. If you were to look into a microscope at sea salt you would see it has irregular and isolated crystalline structures disconnected from the natural elements surrounding them. Thus, however many vital minerals it may contain, they cannot be absorbed by your body unless the body expends tremendous energy to vitalize them. Your body’s net gain is small compared to the great loss of energy.

Mined Salt or Rock Salt

Mined salt, or rock salt, is also a poor source of salt. While natural rock salt comes close to being holistically intact and is more valuable than industrial table salt, from a biophysical as well as bio-chemical perspective, it holds little value. The elements contained in rock salt lack sufficient compression to be included in the crystal web, but are only attached to the surface and in the gaps of the crystalline structure. It is the considerable pressure that brings the elements to a colloidal state – where your cells can readily absorb them. The valuable elements found in rock salt are useless because your body cannot absorb and metabolize them.

Himalayan Crystal Salt

This Salt Is over 250 million years old and is by far the purest, highest grade of natural salt available on earth and is absolutely uncontaminated with any toxins or pollutants. This salt is mined by hand and washed by hand and is known as “white gold” because it contains eons of stored sunlight. Together with pure spring water, Himalayan Crystal Salt offers all the natural elements exactly identical to the elements in your body – the very same elements originally found existing in the “primal sea.” Because the perfect crystalline structure of crystal salt is balanced, it is not isolated from the 84 inherent mineral elements, but is connected to them in a harmonious state. This means the energy content in the form of minerals can be easily metabolized by your body. When you use this salt it has a vital energetic effect. Your body gets an ample net gain with zero energy loss. It is very difficult for your body to absorb too much crystal salt since there are powerful and effective feedback loops that regulate this process. Natural crystal salt always has a balancing effect and does not contribute to high blood pressure like typical table salt. You can find this salt on the shelves of your local health food store for about $7.00.

Containing all of the 84 elements found in your body, the benefits of natural Himalayan Crystal Salt include:

1. Regulating the water content throughout your body.

2. Balancing excess acidity from your cells, particularly your brain cells.

3. Balancing your blood sugar levels and helping to reduce your aging rate.

4. Assisting in the generation of hydroelectric energy in cells in your body.

5. Absorption of food particles through your intestinal tract.

6. Help in clearing mucus plugs and phlegm from your lungs – particularly useful in asthma and cystic fibrosis.

7. Acts as a strong natural antihistamine and helps clear up congestion in your sinuses

8. Prevention of muscle cramps.

9. Making the structure of your bones firm – osteoporosis can occur when your body needs more salt and takes it from your bones.

10. Regulating your sleep – it is a natural hypnotic.

11. Maintaining your libido.

12. Preventing varicose veins and spider veins on your legs and thighs.

13. Stabilizing irregular heartbeats – in conjunction with water it is actually essential for the regulation of your blood pressure.

Himalayan crystal salt can also be used for therapy. When you take a “brine bath,” the Himalayan salt’s healthy minerals penetrate your skin in the form of ions. This stimulation will cause natural cell growth in your living cell layers and is beneficial for everyone.

Taking a brine bath with Himalayan salt is especially recommended for those with:

o Various skin diseases.

o Rheumatism and joint diseases.

o A post-operative care regimen.

o Gynecological diseases.

o Recurring infections

o Severe insect bites, blisters or wounds.

o Skin irritations from poison oak, ivy or sumac.

When Your Marble Tiles Start to Fade – What to Do

Marble is one of the most stunning forms of stone that was first used for sculpture. Over the years, this hard crystalline metamorphic rock has already been used as building materials, such as tiles.

Marbles are one variety of calcite which are capable of being polished and used for different ornamental and architectural purposes. Its color greatly varies from black to white, and even sometimes red, green, and yellow. They are often beautifully clouded or veined. And because it is porous, it can easily be stained or etched in acid.

Caring for your Tiles

To maintain your tiles, occasionally wash its surfaces with lukewarm water and then wipe them dry with a clean piece of cloth. To avoid streaks, wipe the surface with a damp chamois. Depending on the soil it is placed on, wash your marble tiles with a solution of warm water and dish-washing detergent at least one or twice in a year. Rinse and wipe them dry to achieve a better outcome.

If you notice your marble tiles starting to fade, lightly coat them with wax. Although this is not advised for constant use, waxing marble tiles can help regain is shine while also protecting its surface.

If they are white though, avoid waxing them as they tend to appear yellowish in the long run. Also, try applying a marble sealer to clean them. The sealer will help protect the tiles from staining, thus allowing soil to be easily wiped off using a damp cloth.

Special Cleaning

Marble tiles, when they start to fade and appear already dull, can still be livened up with the use of commercial polish and cleaners. You can obtain these special cleaning products from companies that sell marble.

Normally, these companies carry a wide variety of imported tile polish-cleaners that are normally used on soft imported marbles. Hence, they are safe to use and clean for harder US marbles. Aside from being effective in restoring the luster, these special cleaning agents work easier and faster than those conventional care kits used before.

You can also use putty powder or tin oxide to polish dulled tiles, or when the tiles’ surfaces are etched. You can rub them on the surface using a clean damp cloth, making sure to fold and refold the cloth to clean damp areas. An electric polisher should be used to buff the tiles. However, finding tin oxide or putty powder is very find. If you cannot find these, faded marble can still be restored with the help of people who are in the business of making and selling tombstones.

Stained Marble Tiles

To remove stain from tiles, make a wrapping out of a white absorbent material like a blotter, napkin, a facial tissue, or a paper towel, dampened with chemicals that help dissolve stains. You can find these chemicals from your local hardware or marble tile distributors.

If you notice your marble tiles starting to fade, don’t fret. There are still ways to restore that shine. Contact your local tile distributor if you think you can no longer restore them on your own. They have products and professionals to help you with these concerns. – Tilenet

Fasteners and Their Uses

Fasteners are hardware devices that are used to mechanically join or affix two or more objects together. The bond can be permanent or temporary. The application of fasteners can be home based or in industries. There is a vast variety of fasteners available today with varying applications. Some examples of fasteners used in industrial applications include bolts, rivets, pipe plugs, pins, clinch studs and anchors whereas example of fasteners for home use include zippers, buttons, pins and hooks. Some of these fasteners may be used in both, industrial and home applications. The use of these devices is very important as they hold parts and components together. For example, in machinery, fasteners are used to bind separate parts together. If they are not used properly, it could result in the failure of the machine which may prove to be disastrous in some cases.

We would all have encountered at least one of the most commonly used fasteners which include safety pins, clips, buttons or zippers. New types of fasteners are constantly being invented to match the different needs of people. The fasteners used in a car would not be the same as those used on ships or airplane. Also, the material used to make them varies depending on the application. For example, very strong iron fasteners would be used to bind objects that would be put under great amounts of stress. However, these have some disadvantages. They cannot be used on ships as they are bound to corrode when in contact with salt water. Therefore, a more economical and advantageous alternative to these can be stainless steel fasteners.

As mentioned earlier in this article, the bonds made by fasteners can be permanent or non-permanent. The need for non-permanent bonds arises when fasteners need to be removed for the object to be dismantled without damaging it. Such fasteners include bolts and nuts and threaded fasteners amongst many others. Screws have the simplest mechanism. They are a piece of metal that have an incised thread and slotted head. They are inserted into a hole which runs through both objects to be bonded and are tightened by simply turning the head. A bolt makes use of a nut to be secured on the opposite side when it is run through a hole to secure the bond as it does not have threads on it.

There are many factors that affect how one chooses which fastener to use for the various applications. Some factors that can be considered are environmental; temperature of the place where the fastener would be used in, is it a corrosive environment, types of forces on fastener; tensile, compression or shear, requirements of the fastener; frequent assembly and disassembly and most importantly the cost of the fastener being used.

Uses of fasteners are evident in everyday life. It’s just that we tend to ignore their presence as it’s so vast. They help to ensure that components are held in place and can function properly.

Teaching Historical Fencing – The Flourish

Is it possible to train in complex movements with the sword without having an opponent or drill partner with whom to work? If so, is this training of any value? Did fencers do this in the Middle Ages or Renaissance? The answer to all three questions is “yes,” and such drills should be a regular part of your historical fencing training.

For over 100 years Japanese martial artists have used kata, series of steps, kicks, punches, or weapons actions as a traditional part of their training. Such kata often include 50 or more distinct movements. Among the founders of modern karate one or two kata formed the basis for lifetime study, although the number of kata have proliferated and their quality arguably declined with the widespread commercialization of the martial arts.

In Europe some 400 to 500 years before the development of karate kata, swordsmen were using series of movements to flourish, a term found in both German and English Long Sword texts, with solo footwork movements and blade actions much like the kata. Lindholm’s and Hull’s translations of Dobringer’s gloss of Liechtenauer’s teaching verse for the Long Sword includes a flourish that starts with the gate or barrier guard, includes displacements, and ends with attacking blade work. This flourish appears to be a prebouting display of expertise for the amusement of spectators and the intimidation of opponents.

The surviving English texts interpreted by Heslop and Bradak include flourishes, as well as a variety of other exercises that can be done without an opponent. They view these as training tools suitable for solo practice. In fact, the more complicated sequences may actually be better practiced without a partner in order to avoid training the partner to excel in the role of target (not something that you would want in an actual sword fight).

Thus there are actual historical flourishes that can be used for training. However, you can construct flourishes for your students using the following guidelines:

The first rule is do nothing that would not make sense in an actual fight. That seems obvious, but it can be easy to forget that these were weapons designed to kill people, and that the people who used them had no interest in training in techniques that would result in their own death or serious injury. Flourish does not mean that you have a license to do unhistorical or fanciful weapon twirling.

Second, decide what mix of technique you will use. You may focus solely on attacks. However, incorporating changes of guard and defensive actions help develop a broader range of abilities. At the same time you should decide what distances the flourish simulates. A flourish with a concentration on renewals of attack at short distance is a much different exercise from one in which the offense is based on passing steps and full arm actions.

Third, restrict your flourish to a number of steps that can be remembered easily. Fifty steps becomes as much a memory exercise as a fighting one. Dobringer’s flourish at its most basic is eight actions; the English Additional Manuscript 39564 flourishes are longer, but still under two dozen movements (depending on how you count them).

Fourth, have the movement flow forward and back. This is a practical consideration to enable you to fit your flourish into your available training area. However, German practice technique is movement based with footwork accompanying strikes; English practice does include actions delivered apparently without footwork.

Fifth, have your actions end up in the right place. Each blade and foot movement should flow seamlessly from the immediately preceding movement. If the students have to stop and reposition out of sequence to make the flourish work, each repositioning would create opportunities to be hit in an actual fight.

Sixth, write down a description, let it sit overnight, and then see if you can execute it as written. Revise if necessary, and then give it to your students to try.

Finally go back and make certain that what you have designed makes tactical sense. Is it something that a Medieval or Renaissance fencer would do if faced with an armed opponent desiring his harm or death? Only after these checks are done can you be confident that it can be assigned for practice.

The flourish can become an excellent tool for warm-up, for solo practice, and for displays of skill during open houses or other recruiting activity. It offers your students a challenge that they bear full responsibility for meeting, helping to create pride in their performance. And it further connects them to the history of fencing and to the importance of fighting spirit in swordplay.

Top 6 Benefits of Fencing Your Garden

A garden develops only when it is nurtured properly. If gardening is your passion, then you must be well aware of the immense hard work and patience that are required to cultivate a garden of your choice. Fencing is one of the many tasks that need to be accomplished for the proper maintenance of your dream garden. Putting up the right fence is not only essential for gardening but putting up a sturdy fence around your property is also of utmost importance to ensure its security. Below are provided some of the key advantages of building a privacy fence.

The following are some of the significant benefits of putting up privacy fences:

Provision of shelter – Installing barriers around your garden or property will provide them with shelter against the natural elements like the gusts of wind that can destroy your garden. This may also give shade to your plants against the scorching rays of the sun.

Putting demarcation – Fences will also assist in demarcating your property from others. This is most required at the time of any controversy in regards to the boundary of yours and your neighbor’s land or home.

Security – The proper barriers will ensure the safety to your garden as well as house against the stray animals. They will also keep your children and pet safe from any external threat. These things will also prevent the intrusion of trespassers in your area.

Beautification – These boundary markers will also help in enhancing the beauty of your garden. You may paint these so that they go well with the house and blend well with the backyard. The charm of your garden landscape will be more magnified if you can install the proper barriers. Just ensure that these grilles are constructed of materials that readily accept the decent paints or stains.

Minimal maintenance – These guarding amenities call for minimum maintenance. After a certain period, you just need to apply varnish on these and put away the debris with the help of water and soap. The loose ends should be tied well so that the hurdles remain robust and stable. The rust formations can be done away with the assistance of sandpaper while the insecticides will help in the keeping away of pests.

Prevention of Noise – Some of these can also prevent the noise from outside enter your property. This will diminish the intensity of noise and thus help to maintain a peaceful environment in and around your home.

All the above benefits can be derived if you go for the proper fencing of your property. Thus, choose wisely and get a tough hurdle for your assets.

5 Questions to Consider Before Downsizing Your Home

As retirement approaches, your lifestyle and priorities begin to change. Chances are the days when you wanted more space – the sizeable dream home with the backyard big enough to entertain a growing family – are long gone. Instead, many retirees are looking for convenience, simplicity and accommodations more suited to their needs as “empty nesters.” As you approach this new life stage, take time to assess how your current living arrangements suit your changing lifestyle.

Here are five questions to consider as you decide whether downsizing is right for you:

1. Does your home still have the right feel?

A big house that was perfect for a family may seem overly spacious with just one or two inhabitants. It may be time to consider a change if you find that there are under-used rooms in your home or if you’re ready for a new environment. However, if you are enjoying the freedom more space brings, then your current house may be just the right fit. That might also be the case if your home is a gathering place for extended family and friends.

2. Is the upkeep sustainable?

In general, a larger house requires more work and regular investment. As you move into retirement, you may want to reduce the stress of cleaning and home projects. If working around the house and yard is something you enjoy, it may make sense to stay put. But, a smaller home will likely be less of a burden, especially if it’s move-in ready.

3. Are you ready to de-clutter?

Moving to a smaller space is a reality check for many people. All of the things you’ve been accumulating and storing for years probably won’t fit in a smaller home if you decide to downsize. That means you need to spend time going through your personal belongings to determine what’s of real value and what can go. This can take time, so it’s a good idea to get started well before it is time to move.

4. Are there cost savings?

In many situations, a larger house can be sold for a price that is higher than the cost of a smaller home. This could result in a smaller (or no) mortgage and potentially some extra money in the bank. But it is not always so simple. There are costs associated with buying, selling and moving into a new place that could impact your retirement savings if you’re not careful. Evaluate how downsizing would affect your budget and review your situation with a financial professional before taking action.

5. Where are you spending your time?

If your retirement dreams include traveling, visiting family or owning a vacation property, you may be away from home more often in retirement than you were in your working years. Having a smaller home that is easier to maintain could make sense in these situations. Alternatively, you may be looking forward to staying put and finally having time to enjoy the home you worked so hard to maintain over the years.

Downsizing doesn’t need to be rushed. Consider your priorities and if you decide to downsize, give yourself plenty of time to do it right.

7 Women Business and Leadership Role Models From the Bible to Inspire Christian Women in Business

Christian women today have many women mentors and role models from Bible days on which to base their business and leadership ventures. The qualities and characteristics of these women from long ago provide patterns for running successful enterprises as well as for being involved in government, legal matters, community organizing and even military operations. Most of these women were married and some functioned from their homes. The activities of these women are often not discussed, leaving some of the best means of motivation and encouragement for contemporary women unknown. This article presents a brief background along with the qualities and skills of only 7 top Bible women in business and leadership who have lessons to share for today.

1. Rahab: Joshua 2:1-22; 6:17-25. Rahab was a businesswoman who ran a lodging place and provided for her family members. Often misrepresented as a prostitute, there is no evidence of this in the Bible. She became known for her willingness to take great risks to negotiate with new people for the protection of herself and her family. Running a lodging facility meant being able to manage a staff of workers, keep clients happy and serve the needs of people from all backgrounds. It also meant being misunderstood by those who didn’t understand this nontraditional business role for women. The leadership qualities and skills of Rahab included being industrious and wise, having a business plan, management abilities and negotiation skills.

2. Lydia:Acts 16:14-15, 40. Lydia was a well-known businesswoman who dyed and sold purple cloth. Royalty and the wealthy wore purple cloth. That meant she had a high end target market. Her business had to provide a consistent, high-quality product to meet the standards and needs of a wealthy clientele. She also had employees, which means her company provided jobs for people in her community. Lydia was an entrepreneur who probably would have had a corporate structure. She displayed qualities and skills that included organization management and growth, employee training and development, and strong target market skills.

3. Priscilla:Acts 18:1-3; 24-28. Priscilla worked alongside of her husband, Aquila, as partners in a tent making business out of their home. She was first mentioned as the mentor to the great Apollo who she helped mentor to preach with more direction and authority. She also traveled extensively in the capacity of evangelist. Her qualities and skills were in working in harmony in a business partnership, managing a home-based business, business development and growth, multi-tasking, coordination, human relations, and mentoring skills.

4. Huldah:2 Kings 22:14-20: 2 Chronicles 34:22-28. Huldah was a prominent prophetess and married woman who was sought out by the King’s Advisors for counsel about spiritual matters. Huldah was known for being honest, highly intelligent and a scholar of the Scriptures. The qualities and skills she shares with contemporary Christian women include being a strategist, teacher, strong communicator, life-long learner and a leader who advised others and made hard decisions.

5. Phoebe:Romans 16:1-2. Phoebe was a preacher who worked closely with the Apostle Paul. She was sent by Paul to teach and preach the gospel to the new believers in Rome. Paul strongly urged the believers there to accept her preaching and to support her while in Rome. Phoebe understood the right time to approach others with new ideas and came with the proper introductions. She went to Rome as an evangelist and some believe as a deaconess. The qualities and skills presented by Phoebe are project manager, evangelist of new ideas, teacher, preacher, and collaborator.

6. Deborah:Judges 4 – 5. Deborah was the first woman to be a judge over a nation. She was willing to take on necessary hard tasks that others would not do. Through her leadership the laws of the land were understood and she promoted ethical behavior through the law. Deborah led the Israelite army into a victorious battle in a particularly difficult war situation when her General refused to ride into battle without her. Deborah was a powerful law-maker with qualities and skills as an Army Commander, leader of large groups, decision-maker, motivator, judge, and political official.

7. Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, Acts 8:27. The Candaces were female rulers of in the African nation of Ethiopia (also known in ancient times as Kush). Unlike Queens of some other African Nations of that time, the Queens of Kush, who were independent rulers, known as Candaces, a distinctive title that existed for 500 years. One Candace received the information about spiritual matters from her treasurer who was baptized by the Apostle Philip during a long journey on state matters. She was receptive of new and better ideas to benefit those she represented. These powerful women had qualities and skills of being national political leaders, rulers, and warriors. They were decision-makers, negotiators and goal-oriented.

Christian women in business have some fabulous role models from Bible women for doing business and being a leader in these contemporary times. The few examples given in this article only provide highlights to the types of activities women had as spiritual and church leaders. These women were ministers, servant leaders, organizers, motivators, and persuaders. They used effective communication skills, organized church events, meetings and services. Knowing their lessons can inspire women even in these modern times to reach higher goals.

Housing Prices and Incremental Substitution

A friend who lives in Great Falls, Virginia posed the question recently: Is there a premium for a house in the Langley High School district versus South Lakes High School? Langley High School is predominately located in the postal addresses of McLean and Great Falls, and the majority of the South Lakes High School district falls in the boundaries of Reston. This question has at its core the basic principle of “incremental substitution” that Thomas Sowell addressed in Basic Economics. In the example of housing selection, what can a homeowner give up in exchange for a lower price, or reverse is there a higher price paid for a certain part of an element of the commodity of housing.

To try and determine if there is a statistical difference in value between these two schools, I prepared a Comparative Market Analysis from the Multiple Listing Service for all detached homes sold price $500,000 to $1 million from April 1, 2010 to date (August 4, 2010). I selected those homes that the listing agent identified as falling within the Langley High School pyramid and then those that were listed as being in the South Lakes High School pyramid. The data gleaned is below.

Langley High School: Average Sold Price $828,385; Median Sold Price $828,762; Average Seller Subsidy: $1,537; Average Sales Price Less Seller Subsidy: 826,848

Average Days on Market-Property: 62, Median 20; 70 Single-Family Detached Homes Sold; Average age 1974; Average Lot Size.97 acres.

South Lakes High School: Average Sold Price $656,177; Median Sold Price $635,000; Average Seller Subsidy: $3,970; Average Sales Price Less Seller Subsidy: $652,207

Average Days on Market-Property 55, Median 22; 61 Single-Family Detached Homes Sold; Average age 1984; Average Lot Size:.47 acres.

This data shows that there is approximately a 26.2% price premium for Langley over South Lakes. It takes a few days longer to sell in the Langley pyramid but that could very well have to do with the fact that it typically takes more time to sell a more expensive property, no matter where it is located. Other factors that could be coming into play is that the average lot size is almost twice that in the Langley pyramid than it is in the South Lakes pyramid, but the average age in South Lakes is ten years newer than that of Langley. Selecting a high school that is the right place for a particular student to flourish is very much an individual decision. Langley is well respected, listed #47 in the U.S. News and World Report December 9, 2009 issue: America’s Best High Schools 2010: Gold Medal List. And South Lakes offers the well regarded International Baccalaureate program. The Fairfax County Public Schools is the 12th largest in the nation and offers a variety of programs that help determine which school offers the educational environment that enriches the experience for each particular student.

Evolution of the Basketball Hoop

Basketball has been around for more than 100 years, and while even within the past 30 years the game has gone through major changes, what’s really impressive is how much the actual equipment has changed since the game was first invented, in particular how far the hoop has come.

The original basketball hoop was just a peach basket nailed to a 10 foot high track by Dr. James Naismith as a way to create an indoor game for his students to play when it was too cold outside during the New England winters. This “hoop” still had the bottom to the basket and required that somebody retrieve the ball (which was just a soccer ball at the time) after each score.

Eventually the bottom of the peach basket was cut out, but the ball was still too large to just pass through on its own and required a long dowel rod be used to pop the ball out after each score, which broke up the flow of the game, but was still faster than having to manually retrieve the ball after each score.

Eventually in 1906 metal hoops began to be used and a backboard was introduced to prevent spectators from interfering in the game, a problem that had arisen in the past when the hoops were just nailed to the mezzanine level balcony in whatever hall the game was being played in. The introduction of the backboard also changed the game as it introduced rebounds.

Eventually the backboards were moved from being nailed to various balconies and the upright basketball hoops that we know today were introduced. The backboard material itself has changed over the years, moving from the white plastic/fiberglass materials of the past to glass, which in turn gave way to shatter-resistant safety glass not unlike what’s found in cars.

The entire hoop setup went through numerous changes in the last 40 years, in part because of the advent of players destroying backboards with dunks. In addition to the advent of shatter-resistant glass, tear-away rims were introduced that also helped reduce the safety hazard presented by the potential for a slam dunk to destroy the backboard.

More recently, the entire basketball system was redesigned when larger players became capable of tearing down the entire hoop and backboard system, creating a safety hazard no just to themselves, but to the players and spectators around them. The new hoops have several mechanisms in place to prevent them from being torn down, including more pieces that can just tear away in smaller pieces as opposed to bringing the entire backboard down.

It will be interesting to see what changes the sport continues to make to the equipment as technology advances. Will we one day see floating hoops and backboards that eliminate the upright post that can be a collision hazard? Only time will tell, but I for one look forward to finding out.

Death by Fire

Burning at the stake was a form of execution practiced at least as far back as Babylonia and ancient Israel. Treason, heresy, and witchcraft were among the crimes for which this choice of capital punishment was most often used. Death by fire was a slow and excruciating execution. Occasionally, if a large fire was built, the victim would succumb to asphyxiation before the flames touched his or her skin. Most often suffering was part of the plan; therefore the fire was deliberately made small. In this situation, death could take up to an hour and would usually result from loss of blood or heatstroke.

Various methods are known to have been used for burning people at the stake. In one, the stake would be driven into the ground and the prisoner would be fastened with chains or iron hoops. The stake would then be surrounded by a low pile of burning wood. The second method, popular with witch burnings, was be to hang the prisoner from the stake and pile the wood high enough so that observers could not see his or her face as it burned. Another method was to tie the prisoner to a ladder that was suspended on a frame over the fire.

The Japanese practiced a brutal variation of burning at the stake. The prisoner was hung upside down by his/her feet, with his/her head inside a pit. A platform enclosed the prisoner’s neck and the fire would be built on top of that platform. This method kept the head from the smoke and fire, prolonging the agony and postponing death for as long as possible. Burning was the capital punishment the Old Testament often recommended for crimes pertaining to sexual misconduct. A few of the Bible verses on this issue include:

Genesis: Tamar, thy daughter-in-law, hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burned.

Leviticus: If the daughter of any priest… profane herself by playing the whore, she profaneth her father: she shall be burnt with fire.

Leviticus: If a man takes a wife and her mother, it is wickedness; they shall be burned with fire, both he and they; that they be no wickedness among you.

Sadly, this barbaric method of punishment was used to some degree, all over the world, for more than a millennium after the Old Testament was written. Burning at the stake was used by Christians and non-Christians alike. The fourth-century writer, Eusebius of Caesarea recorded the scene of a death sentence handed out by the emperor Maximian. Maximian was a zealous pagan with no tolerance for Christians. The victim was a man named Apphianus (also known as Amphianus), who had converted to Christianity. According to Eusebius, Apphianus’ feet were first wrapped in cotton that was soaked with oil, then set on fire. In his words:

The martyr was hung up at a great height, in order that, by this dreadful spectacle, he might strike terror into all those who were looking on, while at the same time they tore his sides and ribs with combs, till he became one mass of swelling all over, and the appearance of his countenance was completely changed. And, for a long time, his feet were burning in a sharp fire, so that the flesh of his feet, as it was consumed, dropped like melted wax, and the fire burst into his very bones like dry reeds.

In 1307 France, a sect called the Templars was suppressed and many of their knights were burned at the stake. This action seemed to trigger an obsession with witchcraft throughout the country. By 1350, 1,000 people had been prosecuted for witchcraft and 600 of those had been sentenced to burn. In 1401, Henry IV signed the Statute of Heresy, which gave the clergy the power to arrest anyone they believed to be guilty of heresy, which is any religious opinion contrary to the current, popular church dogma. Those who refused to recant were burned at the stake.

Perhaps one of the most infamous cases occurred in 1431, when Joan of Arc was charged with witchcraft and heresy and was publicly burned at the stake. Henry VIII’s Catholic daughter, Mary I (Bloody Mary), ordered at least 274 Protestants burned for heresy. One of Mary’s many victims was Dr. John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester, who, in 1555, was burned in front of 7,000 spectators. An eyewitness, Henry Moore, wrote about the event in his book The History of the Persecutions of the Church of Rome and Complete Protestant Martyrology. Some of what he had to say follows:

At length, by renewing of the fire, his strength was gone, and his hand fastened in the iron which was put round him. Soon after, the whole lower part of his body being consumed, he fell over the iron that bound him, into the fire, amidst horrible yells and acclamations of the bloody crew that surrounded him. This holy martyr was more than three quarters of an hour consuming…

Death by burning was a popular method of execution during the Spanish Inquisition. The first Inquisition, established by Pope Gregory IX in 1231, primarily took place in northern Italy and southern France. The second, more well-known Spanish Inquisition was sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV in 1478 at the request of King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile. By some estimates, the number of victims burned during the second Spanish Inquisition ran into the hundreds of thousands. The majority of victims seemed to have been women. Children were also frequently burned along with their parents when found to be heretics.

King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella appointed the Dominican Tomas de Torquemada as their Inquisitor-General. During his fifteen-year career as head of the Inquisition, Tomas de Torquemada was personally responsible for burning more than 2,000 people at the stake. His targets were mainly non-Christians and recent converts.

One particularly gruesome ritual during the Spanish Inquisition was the Auto-da-Fe (Act of Faith). This ritual took place on Sundays, as well as other holy days, when large crowds were available to attend. People who were considered heretics were secretly rounded up on the prior evening and brought to the inquisition panel. These supposed heretics were then tortured until they either confessed or died from their injuries.

On occasion, the panel would spare an individual who asked to be reconciled with the church. That person would then have to endure the penance of being whipped half-naked through the city streets on six successive Fridays. Heretics who either refused to reconcile or who had relapsed were sentenced to public burning.

The following is taken from a spectator’s rather disturbing and all too visual account of one burning during the Middle Ages:

You could see the white bones showing through as the skin and flesh of the man slowly dragged itself away from the skeleton and fell, in a pink and orange and red-raw curtain, down towards his feet, which were festooned with flames. Further in-depth description is followed by: Thousands of spectators watched these burnings and it could take three-quarters of an hour to die.

In 1629, Burgstadt Germany burned 77 of its 3,000 citizens for witchcraft.

Colonial America also did its share of burning at the stake. In 1741, 29 black and 4 white people were sentenced to death for the crime of conspiring to burn down the city of New York. Of those 33 individuals, 22 were hanged and 11 were burned at the stake. Unfortunately, burning is still used in some areas of the world. South Africa and Haiti at times execute prisoners using a method called necklacing. Necklacing is done by forcing a rubber tire, filled with gasoline, around the prisoner’s chest and arms. The tire is then set on fire, causing the rubber to melt into the victim’s flesh.

In the late 1990s, a number of North Korean army generals were executed by burning alive in Pyongyang, North Korea. In 2006, in Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, at least 400 women were burned alive. And in the first half of 2007, in Kurdistan, Iraq, approximately 200 women suffered the same fate.

Types of Bows – Archery Lessons

A bow is a weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow itself. It has been used for thousands of years for both hunting and war. The reason for this was because the bow could cause damage from a distance, unlike melee weapons (swords, axes, etc…).

As time went by, with technological advancements, the bow was replaced with gunpowder weapons. Nevertheless, the bow made a comeback for sports competitions and hunting.

There are 4 types of bows in use nowadays, and no archery lessons are complete without explaining their differences.

The Longbow

The longbow is one of the oldest types of bows. It has existed for ages, and its usage was widespread in the middle ages. These are bows are made out of a single natural piece of wood, usually as tall as the user of the bow itself, but accessories are not available for it. This makes this type tough to master, and relatively weaker than its modern counterparts, but its advantages come from it being quicker to prepare for shooting, lighter, and having it shoot more quietly. If you’re a beginner interested in longbows, then I highly recommend you take archery lessons specifically oriented towards that, simply to avoid frustration and to learn correct technique.

Recurve Bow

Recurve bows saw prevalent use mostly in Asia starting in the second millennium B.C. The name of the bow is due to the fact that the bow tips curve away from the archer when the bow is unstrung. Nowadays, this type of bow is used by archers in the Olympic and many other competitive events, though it is more technologically advanced than in the older days. It also sees the most widespread used nowadays considering the big majority of beginners start their archery lessons with one. In addition, a recurve bow stores more energy than a straight-limbed bow such as the longbow, which possibly gives a greater amount of cast to the arrow. It will also permit for for a shorter bow, which is more useful in environments where a longer bow could prove cumbersome, such as forests or on a horse.

The Compound Bow

The compound bow is a modern bow that uses a levering system, usually of cables and pulleys, to bend the limbs. It is the most technologically advanced type of bow. It is barely affected by changes in temperature and humidity, and it gives better accuracy, velocity, and distance in comparison to the other types of bows. The compound bow was first introduced in the mid-to-late 60s and it is said to be the most dominant type of bow in use in North America. It is commonly popular among bowhunters since its technology enables the archer to hold the bow fully drawn to take more aim with the least amount of force.


The crossbow consists of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles. Typically, bolts were used as projectiles for crossbows, but recently, crossbows can now shoot the same types of arrows used with recurve bows or compound bows. The modern crossbow also comes in the recurve and compound varieties.

It provided several advantages compared to the bow, but also several disadvantages. In general, with a crossbow, archers could release a draw force that far exceeds what they could have handled with a bow. In addition, crossbows could be kept cocked and ready to shoot for longer times with very little effort, while also providing better accuracy. The disadvantages are due to the clumsiness of it, the greater weight, and the slower rate of fire.

These are the main types of bows that are used nowadays. Most people start out with the recurve bow and then either stick with it, or move on to the compound bow. Figure out what is of interest to you, and make sure any archery lessons you’re taking or any archery tips you’re reading would apply to the correct type of bow, and you’re set to better enjoy this great sport.

Bandages and Dressings for Hidradenitis Suppuritiva

Hidradenitis occurs when a plug of dead skin in the duct of a gland emptying into a hair follicle in areas of opposing skin surfaces like the armpits, under the breasts and in the groin initiates an infectious process as bacteria multiply within the plugged gland creating a skin boil. The obstructed gland or boil ruptures into the deep layers of the skin; adjacent glands become involved; and abscesses form. Subsequently, multiple draining sinuses or holes appear on the skin surface and the whole hair bearing area may become inflamed. We call this process Hidradenitis Suppuritiva (HS).

As I described my first choice of treatment for this process is surgical removal of the involved skin and closure of the resulting wound with a flap of adjacent normal skin. However, this aggressive surgery is not always the best near term option because of insurance, financial, work or personal reasons. For early stages of the disease temporizing the situation with topical treatments is appropriate and can provide significant relief.

The Hurley stages of the disease are as follows:

  1. Solitary or multiple isolated abscess formation without scarring or sinus tracts. (A few minor sites with rare inflammation; may be mistaken for acne.)
  2. Recurrent abscesses, single or multiple widely separated lesions, with sinus tract formation. (Frequent inflammation restrict movement and may require minor surgery such as incision and drainage.)
  3. Diffuse or broad involvement across a regional area with multiple interconnected sinus tracts and abscesses. (Inflammation of sites to the size of golf balls, or sometimes baseballs; scarring develops, including subcutaneous tracts of infection. Obviously, patients at this stage may be unable to function.)

We now know that there is an inflammatory process present in hidradenitis before there is any sign of infection such as an abscess and I call that pre-stage I. In that stage the skin is intact with redness, tenderness, warmth and burning pains just before an abscess appears. In this early stage there is no drainage and a raised swelling may form a nodule which is very different from an abscess. Some doctors prefer antibiotics and injections of corticosteroids into the affected areas to treat early Stage 1 disease. Others give larger doses of steroids by mouth or testosterone antagonists. Stage III is not amenable to these temporizing measures because of the degree and depth of skin damage but these measures can delay disease progression when employed early in stage I.

Staging of the disease and its appropriate treatment is complicated by a tendency of the disease to go through quiescent and active phases. The person afflicted with HS applies a medication, swallows a pill or changes their diet in some way at a time when the process is about to go quiescent and then mistakenly attributes the quiescence to the medication, pill etc. The treatments described here have been vigorously studied by numerous groups on a variety of wounds including HS. They are employed at assisted living facilities and nursing homes across the country each day.

The topical treatments can be divided into types of dressings and medications either applied directly to a wound or impregnated into the dressing.

A dressing is something such as gauze that is applied directly to a wound to promote healing, stem bleeding, absorb wound drainage, remove dead surface tissue, prevent medications applied to the wound surface from evaporating or falling off and protect from or treat infection. In medieval times they were applied mostly to prevent others from seeing ones wounds. Historical belief that a wound should be kept dry in order to heal faster without infection were dispelled in the 1960s when studies showed that wound surface cells died when they were allowed to dry out thereby prolonging the time required for healing. In the last 20 to 30 years a vast number of different types of dressings with different properties or functions have been introduced.

The TYPES OF DRESSINGS can be grouped as follows:


are made of seaweed alginate and expand as they turn from a gauze like consistency into a gel consistency while absorbing drainage from a wound


are made of low or non-adherent material that allows drainage to pass through the material


are made of material that absorbs drainage and actually sucks fluid out of wounds


prevent leakage from a wound and keep the wound surface moist while preventing outside moisture from reaching the wound. They look like thin pieces of pliable plastic that come in a variety of thicknesses and shapes and stick directly to the skin around a wound. The most common brand used is Duoderm.


are waterproof keeping outside moisture and bacteria away from a wound while keeping the wound moist and easy to evaluate as you can see through them. The most common brand used is Tagaderm.


are impregnated with sodium chloride. They clean up the wound a bit by moistening devitalized tissue and are also used for moderate draining wounds especially those with tunneling or undermining

Once you have picked a dressing the next choice is whether or not to apply medication on the wound and under the dressing or impregnated into the dressing. Dressings impregnated with medications from the manufacturer can be very expensive in which case you can save significant money by applying the medication to the dressing rubbing it over the surface of the wound and then taping the dressing in position. Unfortunately that is not possible with silver.



are mostly water in a gel base and are applied to dry wounds to keep them moist and prevent wounds from drying out


In 1983 a double blind study found that topical clindamycin antibiotic performed better than a placebo in diminishing abscesses, inflammatory nodules and pustules of hidradenitis in the first month of treatment with less of a difference between the 2 groups after 2 and 3 months of treatment. No side effects were recorded and the treatment was easy to administer. Topical clindamycin is best used in preparing patients for surgery so there is less chance of a complication after surgery.


is an antiseptic and disinfectant that is the active ingredient in over the counter acne medications like Clearasil. In a 2010 study, topical treatment with 15% resorcinol reduced pain from painful nodules in all patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. The medication cannot be used over areas that have lost skin integrity because it can be absorbed into the circulation and cause a blood disease called methemoglobinemia (resorcinol poisoning). Drainage is a sign of lost skin integrity and therefore precludes the use of resorcinol.


References and formulas for honey-based wound dressings can be found throughout the medical writings of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, and China. Honey was used as a first line treatment until the mid-1900s when synthetic dressing materials and antiseptics grew in popularity. Multiple studies going back to 2004 show antimicrobial, anti-inlfammatory and wound healing enhancement properties of honey. More recent studies have shown that the addition of wound honey to topical antibiotics improves their effectiveness. This is not your usual cooking or table honey that you put on pancakes. Medihoney and manuka honey are the main wound honeys. They are bitter and not fit for consumption as a food item.


  • Silver Impregnated and Honey Impregnated Alginate Dressings
  • Medihoney impreganted alginate


Before employing any of these medications or dressings you should be cleared by your personal physician and have your ongoing care including frequency of dressing changes and bath soaks supervised by them to avoid sensitivity or allergic reactions that can present immediately or after multiple applications of an initially well tolerated product. Even the adhesive in a bandage or on a tape can be problematic. Obviously if you are allergic to bee stings or honey medihoney is not a viable option.

If you are pre-stage I resorcinol or medihoney under a transparent dressing is a good option as they will reduce the inflammation while allowing you to directly observe the area for disease progression.

If you are stage I with visible abscess infections but no drainage clindamycin ointment and/or medihoney under a transparent dressing is a good option. This should treat the infection while allowing direct observation of the area. The ointment cannot be used for prolonged periods because you will end up with resistant bacteria.

Once you start having drainage alginate or foam dressings are better options to soak up this drainage. Foam is better when the wounds have depth to them as foam is thicker than alginate allowing more wound packing with less dressing. Either one can be obtained with silver or medihoney impregnated to fight the infection at the same time as the drainage is collected. They come in sizes as large as 6x6cm. The impregnated forms are quite expensive while tubes of medihoney can bought on Amazon for $15 a tube and applied to the cheaper non-impregnated forms prior to application.

As the disease process subsides you can move on to mesalt dressings and if there are open areas without drainage hydrocolloid dressings are very good options. Hydrocolloid dressings applied to raw areas after surgical excision of hidradenitis have been proven to minimize discomfort, allow faster mobilization, remain dryer longer and reduce nursing time compared to conventional gauze dressings. One of my patients had a raw spot on each buttock after surgery whose edges would stick together when sleeping and tear apart when sitting or walking. The areas could therefore not heal. Application of Duoderm to each spot stopped them from sticking together at night and they healed over.


Taping dressings in place can be problematic if the drainage has an odor or large volume as the frequent dressing changes, removing the tape each time, chafes the surrounding skin. These are 2 good options to keep the dressings in place.

–Tubular Elastic Net Dressing

You can create shorts made of tubular elastic to hold dressings on the groin or buttocks.

–Montgomery Straps

The outer white parts of Montgomery Straps stick to the skin on either side of the wound and laces are threaded between the holes to keep a dressing on/in a wound. You untie and tie the laces to change the dressing that way you don’t have to keep ripping tape off of your skin. This is especially good for wounds that drain a lot of fluid. You can put an alginate in there and hold it in place with the laces. The alginate will soak up the drainage like a sponge. You can even change the dressing 3 or 4 times a day if you need to.

You can make your own by using 3 inch wide medical tape and folding the adhesive side onto itself along one edge. Punch holes in the double thickness portion of the tape to thread laces through and you have made your own montgomery strap.

How to Unblock a Stormwater Drain – The Plumbers Way

Most people do not want to have clogged storm water drain pipes because it’s a huge hassle if they have to clean and fix it by themselves. Indeed, if you are not comfortable with what you’re doing, and you do not have the right knowledge to fix it, the best option is to dial the number of your favorite plumber. They can fix it for you immediately.

Calling a plumber can be costly but can make your plumbing concerns disappear immediately. However, if you are one of those who are confident enough to take the challenge and are not afraid to get dirty, unblocking a storm water drain can be easy.

It is best to know the possible causes why your storm water drain has blockage. You need to assess the gravity of blockage. It may be caused by leaves, tree roots, dirt buildup, collapsed pipe and more. Unblocking the storm water drain is essential to have a pipeline that is functioning well and free from debris which cause blockages.

For cracks you can apply plaster to restructure the pipe. Hand rods are often used to locate the position of a blockage in a drain. This will not repair the drain itself but can help unblock the drain. Rods can be used to push the debris or to unhook dirt clinging on the side of the pipe lining. A high pressure water jetter is specifically designed to blast away debris that causes the blockage in your drain pipes. With the high pressure water gushing through your pipes, it allows you to flush away sediments thus water can flow freely.

Another way to unblock a storm water drain is by using a plumbing electric eel which chews the debris blocking the pipe. The strong blades propel into the blocked pipe to remove the obstruction. It really depends on how much damage there is.

To avoid this kind of incident we need to check our pipes regularly and to make sure that wastes are disposed of appropriately. If all methods have been exhausted and the issue persists, calling for professional help is always a good move. It would be more expensive if the damage gets bigger.

Drilling Holes – Lubrication Tips And Tricks

While drilling holes using the diamond drill bits the most heat generated needs to be cooled off and that is best done by water or a coolant. This lubrication helps in making the life of the drill bit longer as well as prevents the bit from being damaged during the drilling operation.

Lubrication can extend the life of the drill bit quite a bit if the lubrication is done whenever drilling holes. While drilling into glass or tiles the drill bit tip should never be hot and it should be almost warm. This lubrication can help drain away the burr from the drilling process. Another important thing is that the drill bit should be always wet when drilling is happening. While drilling holes into concrete it is advisable to drill in water or have a water pipe or a shower of water over the drilling area as concrete drilling generates a lot of heat.

There a variety of techniques which can be used to lubricate the drill bit while drilling. The most basic method is to use a water hose which will supply water onto the top of the hole as well as the water will get into the hole. Another thing mostly for home users is to have a small water bottle, make a hole at the bottom of it and then keep it near where the hole is being drilled. The water will come out of the bottle and will reach the drill bit as well as inside the hole.

Another technique most widely used to keep the material being drilled into a pan or a plastic cub filled with water. Make sure that water is enough to cover the surface being drilled. Place a small plastic board beneath surface being drilled so that you do not accidentally drill into the pan.

Last but not the least, the best way to make sure that the water as reached inside the hole also, is to do drill using a pumping action. Pumping action action means that you merely drill half an inch each time and then take the drill out , water will go into the hole , then again take the drill into the hole and drill a little bit and then again take the drill out. This repetitive action is called pumping action and it makes sure that the water goes inside the hole and lubricates the bit.