6 Top Reasons why Air Conditioners Leak Water

An air conditioners primary job is to remove moisture from the room to give us a feeling of comfort. During this process they create a lot of water. How much, is dependent upon humidity in the air, size of the air conditioner, its operating efficiency, and whether it was properly installed.

Water removed from the air during operation falls down the cooling coil and drops into the base. From here it follows channels or passages to the rear of air conditioner. Some of the water is lifted up by the fan blade and used to cool the heating coil, while most proceeds to the rear. Once at the rear it drops out of the base and onto the ground. That is, if everything is working perfectly.

The reality of window air conditioners is that they can leak water. One that leaks can drive you crazy trying to find the cause of the problem. The following are a few suggestions of the most common reasons why water leakage occurs.

1. Improperly installed.

A window air conditioner must be slightly lower at the rear than the front. This allows the water being removed from the room to drain to the back of the machine. A difference of one inch is sufficient. This is always the first thing to check. Many are improperly installed in the haste to get relief from the heat. If installed too low at front the water will flow into the room rather than outside. If installed too low at rear, water can roll out front edges before has chance to exit towards rear drain.

2. Icing up.

Water being de-humidified can turn to ice if there are problems with the cooling system. There are many reasons for an air conditioner to produce ice. Remove front grille while machine is operating. If ice is present on the cooling coil you will probably need service. For more information see our other article: Why window Air Conditioners Ice up.

3. Air leakage around air conditioner.

If warm air is able to enter around the air conditioner it will encounter cooler, dryer air. When they meet condensation will occur. If water leaking from front of air conditioner inspect to see if dripping from body of machine, or water droplets clinging to front area. To test, operate machine for 30 minutes and then use flashlight to check under front edge of base. Small water droplets here indicate an air leakage problem. Add foam insulation to stop warm air from infiltrating.

4. Drain hole blocked.

Rear of air conditioner base has a drain hole or groove to allow water to escape. If becomes blocked water can back up. To test, operate machine for 30 minutes and then inspect if draining properly. If appears blocked use a small piece of wood to open drain hole at rear of metal base. CAUTION: Never be tempted to drill holes into the air conditioner body to relieve water pooling. Severe damage can result.

5. Internal drains blocked.

There are small passageways that allow water to drain from front of air conditioner to the rear. If they become blocked water will pool at front of machine and overflow onto floor. If this happens the air conditioner will require removal from window and servicing.

6. Outside temperature too cold.

This occurs at end of cooling season. If outside temperatures drops below 60 degrees Fahrenheit at night the cooling coil may ice up. If no leakage at bedtime but water in front of machine in morning, suspect this problem. If this problem suspected turn off machine before bedtime and restart as day warms. Alternately, operate machine at night with selector switch in ‘fan only’ position. This will circulate room air during night but not allow cooling.

Things You Can Inflate With an Air Compressor!

The air compressor is one of the unsung heroes of daily life. There are hundreds of things that use compressors, and there are hundreds of ways you can use a compressor. One of the most often uses for the air compressor is for inflating things. You can certainly imagine a few things that can be inflated with the use of the appropriate sized air compressor. Each inflation job requires a different sized air compressor to get the job done right without any blowouts or catastrophic failure.

Another important tip you should keep in mind while using (playing with) an air compressor is that you should keep your air compressor in good shape by making sure its air oil separator is working correctly, and by always having a stock of Ingersoll Rand compressor parts on hand.

Just to give you a taste of the fun and practicality of inflating things with an air compressor, here are a few ‘inflatable’ ideas.


Have you ever decided to throw a pool party then realize that you didn’t have a pool or any fun pool floaties (hopefully you wouldn’t decide to throw a pool party without a pool-its commonsense)? Once you’ve purchased all the fun pool party supplies; inflatable pool, pool floaties, and water wings for the kiddos you decide that blowing up all of these inflatable items using only your mouth and pair of lungs would be tiring. So, you pull out the compressor you have stashed away in your woodshop. With the right nozzle, the compressor can inflate the pool and the floaties, but to prevent popping, you should probably inflate the water wings on your own.

On the Road Again…

Air compressors that have been well maintained (a working air oil separator and brand spanking new set of Ingersoll rand compressor parts), can inflate an entire fleet of tires. A compressor can inflate the tires of: cars, ATVs, motorcycles, mopeds, bicycles, golf carts, go carts, airlines use huge compressors to inflate the huge tires on their airplanes.

For Saving Lives

Speaking of airplanes, the emergency slide that inflates from the side of the airplane is inflated using a blast of compressed air. Also, you can use compressed air to inflate emergency rafts, or just to inflate a raft for recreational use. No one wants to inflate a raft with their mouth-they taste like latex rubber and take a lot of breath to fill.

For the Home and Backyard

You can use air compressors to inflate temporary mattresses for sleepovers, inflate bouncy houses for birthday parties, or to inflate those giant sumo suits.

Other Uses for an Air Compressor

Yes, compressors are very good at inflating things, but they also have other uses; blowing air to clean off workbenches (sawdust, dust, and other debris can get in everything), to clean filters, to dry vehicles after a good washing, and to spray dust and crumbs from under the keys on your keyboard (a much smaller compressor is recommended for this job).

The Five Pillars of Kindness – Frank Kern’s Secret to Success

Have you ever heard of Frank Kern? He is probably the top earning internet marketer on the planet as well as one of the coolest, smoothest guys you’ll ever encounter. Upon waking up this morning, I checked my email box to find an email from Frank Kern himself with an awesome video he put together that knocked my socks off.

When Frank talks about marketing, I shut up, stop whatever I am doing and listen. I mean come on, the guy has made as much as $27 million in a year online and just last year he pulled in about $9 million in revenue on 1 product. Yep, just one!

Do you think you and I could learn something from the guy? I am going to give you what Frank Kern shared with me so sit back, relax and take it all in.

Pillar #1 – Know your list or audiences desired outcome

A lot of Internet Marketers have huge lists but make no money from that list. A true marketer will know it’s niche market and what they want. To be successful in this game, you have to know exactly what people desire and help them get it.

Pillar #2 – Overcome Their Skepticism With Shock and Awe Kindness

Ok, you are probably saying, “Josh, what the hell are you talking about”? Well, here it goes. When someone joins your list and opts in, they do so because they want to get one step closer to their desired outcome. It’s your job to put your best foot forward and give them your best stuff for free. Don’t hold back. It’s all about developing trust with people and if you can deliver the goods, you’re going to have that trust. Give them your “secret weapon” that you have used to produce the biggest results for yourself.

Pillar #3 – Demonstrate That They Can Achieve Their Desired Outcome

You want your list to know that they can do it. Doubt ruins ambition and when people are doubtful, they won’t take another step further with you. You want to show them that other people are having the success that they desire. Show them testimonials and proof of what has happened for people in your program that have followed the system and have succeeded. Social proof is everything and the proof is in the pudding, per say.

Pillar #4 – Give People The Tools UPFRONT that they need to get started

Offer people 5 FREE bonuses that will get them started in getting closer to their desired outcome. Depending on what your selling or trying to sell, this will be different in every instance. Give them something that they can walk away with and become successful even if they don’t partner with you or buy anything from you. Once again, this goes a long way in earning peoples trust and giving them pure value. You want to be a value adder to peoples lives.

Pillar #5 – Motivate People To Go Further

You want to make an offer to your list with their best interest in mind, not yours. If you follow the above steps and have created trust with your list, they will be motivated to go further because they see that you are someone of value and you have positioned yourself as an authority. When they see you have their best interest in mind, you will be able to do business with people for years to come, over and over again.

In Closing

Just to recap the 5 pillars, you want to know peoples desired outcomes, help them overcome skepticism with coolness that blows them away, demonstrate that they can have success by using testimonials, give people the tools they need to get started and finally motivate people to take the next steps by keeping their interests in mind.

This is the Iron-Clad process that Frank has used to create his empire and has now unselfishly shared it with me so that I in turn could in turn share it with you.

Warm Regards,

Joshua K. Boxer

How To Calculate The Most Improved Sales Area With An Array Formula In Excel

This article will show you how to find the most improved sales in four areas, really quickly by using an array formula in Excel.

Array formulas are a really powerful tool to have in your Excel toolbox. An array formula works with a series of data values, or an array of values rather than single values as with a normal formula. Let’s see how this makes life easier with an example.

I have a set of sales data, for four regions and their respective sales people, North, South, East and West as two months of sales data November 2014 and December 2014. The data should be set up as below-

Column B- Sales Person

James Great

Susan Breen

Max Jones

Stephen Parkin

Column C- Sales Area





Column D- November 2014 Sales

€ 13,415.00

€ 14,914.00

€ 10,338.00

€ 10,224.00

Column E – December 2014 Sales

€ 14,915.00

€ 14,414.00

€ 12,838.00

€ 13,624.00

Column F is Sales Difference where we store our first formula

Let’s take a look at which region had the most improved sales from November to December 2014.

You data set up would to be.

If we choose to use normal formula to find the most improved sales area we would need to follow the following steps-

1. Calculate the improvement (if any) of each of the sales area in a helper column to the right of the December 2014 sales figures in column F. We then subtract December 2014 sales from the November 2014 sales figures.

2.We then need to use the MAX function to find the maximum value and therefore the most improved sales. The formula syntax is


We can see that Stephen Parkin has the most improved sales for the West area. But that took us two formulas, there is a quicker way by using an array formula.

If we were to use an array formula, we can use Excel to perform the multiple calculations in just one cell for us. We do not need to store the range of values in Column E as Excel can store this in it’s memory. This is called an array constant.

So let’s repeat the process by

1. Starting with the MAX function


We then want to replace the E3 with E3:E6 and then replace D3 with D3:D6 with a result of the formula looking like this


2. To indicate to Excel this is an array formula we need to surround it with curly braces or brackets { }.

We do this by instead of hitting return after the formula is typed hold down CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

I usually ensure my cursor is in the formula, then hold down CTRL+SHIRT then hit ENTER until you get the hang of it!.

So the MAX function is using the array constant as an argument and results is still € 3,400.00.

Extra Bonus Excel Tip.

When you are working with array formulas, you can take a look at the array constants yourself. Using the same example.

1. Select the cell referencing that relate to your array in your formula.

2. Hit F9, you now see what Excel sees. I.e all of the values that make up the array

3. Elements in a vertical array constant are separated by semi colons and horizontal ones are separated by commas, in our example it is of course a vertical array constant so are separated by semi colons.

Step-By-Step Instructions on Making Your Own Golf Driving Mat!

Golf driving mats can be useful when it comes to improving your golf skills but not everyone who is on a tight budget can afford them. This is where the knowledge of building your own golf driving mat comes in handy.

Making your own mat is not as difficult as you think! By following these step-by-step instructions, you can make your own driving mat in no time.

A notable benefit of creating your own golf mat is that you can customize it according to your requirements. For example, you can opt to have more or less padding according to your comfort zone.

Apart from that, if you are an artistic person who likes to add something extra to each of your possessions, then you can do the same as well with your driving mat and personalize it according to your taste.

1- First of all, assemble the items which are needed for making a driving mat. This includes plywood, artificial turf, hand saw, knife, bonding spray/glue and carpet padding.

2- Next step is to cut the plywood piece using a handsaw into a 3 by 5 foot rectangular shape. This is the ideal size and shape though it can vary depending on your comfort level.

If you have enough space to stand on the piece of plywood and you are able to hit the golf ball with comfort, then the size is apt for a golf driving mat.

3- After that, you need to cut a piece of carpet padding and artificial turf. They need to be the exact same size of the plywood.

This is done to make sure that the padding and turf cover the plywood piece completely and perfectly.

4- Using the bonding glue or spray, stick the piece of carpet padding to the plywood piece. If you need a softer mat, then you can add another layer of carpet padding.

5- After the carpet padding has been put in place, you will have to again spray the glue onto the top of the padding.

6- Place the piece of cut artificial turf on the padding. Care should be taken to avoid creases.

7- Let the mat rest for a day or two before using it to practice your golf skills!

It is recommended to use a bonding spray or glue in a well ventilated area.

By following these steps, you will be able to make your own fuss-free golf driving mats that are easy to maintain and great to practice on!

Carpet Stretching – All You Need to Know (To Not Do It Yourself)

Why Carpet Stretching is necessary:

Carpet stretching is, generally, done in two different situations: During the initial installation and for a carpet repair. The initial stretch, during installation, ensures that the carpet is taught, secure, and even across the entire floor covering. Taught carpet will stay in place and stay smooth and flat to the floor where it belongs.

What causes carpets to ripple or buckle:

  • Poor installation: The carpet may have been improperly installed. In most cases of a bad installation the installer didn’t use a power stretcher properly or at all.
  • Excessive wear due to traffic: Sometimes a carpet will need to be re-stretched because of wheelchairs, walkers, tricycles, etc. Even when installed to perfection it can become loose from excessive wear.
  • Sliding heavy furniture: Carpet is made of layers of fabric. When heavy furniture slides across the carpet it’s likely that it will cause rippling.
  • Latex: if the latex holding the backing together deteriorates it’s called delamination, the carpet essentially loses its grip on itself, resulting in buckling and loss of fiber.
  • Improper padding for carpet type. Certain pile types require specific padding types; if these are paired improperly, the right amount of grip and support may not be present, resulting in carpet buckles. Make sure you consult a trained professional or manufacturer’s guide when purchasing carpet so you get the right padding to accompany it.

If your Carpet is Rippling:

(to stretch or not to stretch)

If you have carpet that looks more like the ocean than a flat carpet, you may have a problem. As soon as it begins to loosen up and become rippled, it wears faster. The bigger the ripples, the faster the ripples grow. This is because carpet is designed to lay flat and not move at all. When you walk on carpet ripples it causes the carpet to move up and down, further loosening it.

If your carpet is loose it’s time to take action. In most cases, carpet stretching can fix the ripples and buckles, and there’s no need to waste money replacing the carpet because of how it lays.

Carpet stretching is a common type of carpet repair that essentially involves pulling the carpet up from around one or more edges of the room, re-stretching it to proper tightness, cutting the carpet to the proper length, tacking back down into place and finally tucking it in along the edge.

Like any type of carpet repair, stretching carpet is more involved than it seems to be. Stretching carpet isn’t just a matter of smoothing out ripples and re-securing, or pulling at the edges by hand as you would a bed sheet. Carpet stretching comes with its own tools and techniques that help you do the job right.

Essential Carpet Stretching Tools

A professional who repairs carpet for a living will have all of these tools on hand. If you decide to try and stretch carpet yourself, most or all of these tools should be available for rental or purchase at a relatively reasonable price. Even contracting out your carpet stretching is far more cost-effective than replacing the carpet, so either way, these tools, in your hands or someone else’s, save you quite a bit of money.

Partial list

  • Knee stretcher. A knee stretcher, also known as a kicker, is a special tool that has a grip on one end, to attach to the carpet, and a pad on the other end, for you to ‘kick’ with your quadriceps, (do not kick with your knee!
  • Power carpet stretcher. In the trade we usually call this too our stretcher. The stretcher is the most important tool for stretching carpet. It’s specially designed to adjust to any size room and help stretch carpet much more effectively than anyone could do by hand (or by knee). A power carpet stretcher features a very long pole with a carpet grip on one end, a wall brace on the other, and a handle lever in the middle. Don’t even try to stretch a carpet without one. This is the most expensive tool most of us carpet people have.
  • Carpet or slotted blade knife. Involved in almost every carpet repair task you can imagine, a good carpet knife will never let you down. In the case of carpet stretching, the knife is used to trim excess carpet from the edge after it’s been pulled tight.
  • Staple gun. An industrial carpet staple gun isn’t a regular staple gun. The staples are far narrower so that they fit between the nap. Carpet staple guns aren’t always necessary for carpet stretching, but it’s good to have on hand just to make sure. Because a properly stretched carpet is pretty tight, the tack strip alone may not hold it down satisfactorily, in which case the staple gun eliminates any doubt.
  • Stair tool. A chisel like tool used for tucking carpet in after cutting it to the right size.
  • Awl. Looks like an ice pick, used to dis-attach carpet from the tack strip
  • Hammer.

Carpet Stretching: Do Your Homework First

It’s important to keep a few other things in mind when your carpet repair task is to stretch carpet.

Just as carpet manufacturers specify the appropriate padding type for individual carpet types, so they also specify appropriate carpet stretching methods and amounts. What’s right for some types may not be appropriate for others. For example, tufted carpet with a jute fiber backing needs to be a bit tighter than tufted fiber with a synthetic fiber backing. And some woven carpets will stretch in one direction but not the other. Consult manufacturer instructions or a carpet repair specialist so you have all the facts before you get started. After all, knowing what you’re working with is just as important as knowing what you’re doing.

The following is an over-simplified tutorial. If you don’t already know what you’re doing then you will be better off just hiring a pro. If you decide that you want to tackle stretching your own carpet I suggest that you take your time, use your head, keep your blades sharp, don’t try to just kick it tight with a knee kicker and most of all be careful.

Carpet Stretching Technique

The first step is to empty the room of furniture. If you really know what you’re doing then you can probably work around some furniture but if you’re a novice I suggest that you do yourself a favor and empty the room.

Determine which direction the carpet needs to be pulled. In most cases the carpet only needs to be pulled one direction.

Remove any metal strips that will be in the way. Some flat metal strips need to have nails removed. Another type of metal strip is called a clamp down metal. To free the carpet from the clamp down metal, pry it open (just a little bit) with a flat chisel or a stair tool. There are too many different types of metal strips to describe here so you’ll just have to figure it out.

Use an awl to lift the edge of the carpet. Go to a corner of the room and poke the awl right through the carpet about 6″ from the wall. From here you will be able to pull the carpet up. If you don’t have an awl you can probably use a pair of pliers.

Now it’s time to unpack the carpet stretcher. Set it up so that the foot end is up against the baseboard and the head is a few inches from the wall that you are stretching towards. The power stretcher is more than strong enough to rip carpet so be careful to only stretch the carpet just enough to remove the wrinkles (and maybe just a little bit more). Over stretching carpet isn’t a good idea because you will create ripples going the other direction. So again, only stretch the carpet as much as you need to in order to remover the ripples.

Use the kicker to make small adjustments.

Start at the center of the room and stretch the carpet at a slight angle towards the corners. Each time you push on the handle of the power stretcher you will pull the carpet.

Cut the carpet from the back using the slotted blade knife. You should cut it so that it is still going to belong enough to tuck into the groove between the tack strip and the wall. If you cut the carpet a little bit too short, you can probably stretch it a little bit more. If you cut it too long to tuck it in properly, then just cut some more.

Before moving on to the next area, push the carpet into the nails that stick out of the tack strip. If the carpet is hard to get it to stick to the tack strip then use the carpet staple gun.

If you use the staple gun, be sure to get the point of the gun down between the nap so that you are only stapling the backing to the tack strip and not stapling the nap down. Continue across the room stretching, cutting, tacking and tucking. Replace any metal transitions and viola!

How to Prevent Your Rug From Getting Spoiled

1) Vacuum the rug regularly:

It is very important to vacuum the rug regularly but in the direction of the pile of the carpet and not against it. Vacuuming the carpets against the pile of the carpet would only ruin and damage the carpet and will decrease the longevity of your beautiful carpet. Also, experts recommend that daily vacuuming is not mandatory. Ideally one should only vacuum two or three times a week.

2) Prevent from Moths, Beetles:

One of the major enemy’s of handmade oriental rugs is moths and beetles. The same moth’s that destroy clothes and food can hamper your favorite carpets. Moths prefer dark places and if the rug is not used and is kept in dark storage, the carpets are most likely to be infested by moths. When you are examining your carpet for moth damage, make sure to inspect the back of the rug since moths are more prone to damage the back of the carpet as opposed to the front of it.

Therefore, a carpets that is walked on and used frequently is less likely prone to rug damage. However, in case moths or beetle damages your rug, it is best to give it to a rug repair expert and get it professionally rectified.

3) Avoid direct sunlight:

Direct sunlight is also one of the nemeses for a damaged carpet. Sunlight streaming through a direct window is sure to damage your rug in some way or the other. Usually, the colors fade unevenly and wool/ cotton dry out and become brittle. With this being said, it is essential to prudent your expensive item and be careful to expose it to direct sunlight. You can eliminate this problem by keeping your curtains closed or coating your windows with Mylar that has the secondary effect off taking a couple of degrees off heat.

4) Use Rug Pads:

Although no one has ever methodically demonstrated that the use of rug pad can increase the longevity of your masterpiece, it is still recommended by a lot of carpets professionals. Rug pads primarily prevent the carpet from slipping and provide an extra cushion to the rug even though most likely your handmade rug will outlast the rug pad.

To conclude, it would be right to say that although there are a plethora of tips available other than the aforementioned pointers in order to protect your rug, it is advisable to follow these steps to avoid burning a hole in your pocket for rug repairing especially after investing a good amount of money in buying one for your beautiful home.

Carpet Cleaning 101: So You Spilled Lasagna on Your Carpet

Lasagna is a very delicious dish which I personally love. It is a big favorite of mine and surely countless people have it on their list of foods they enjoy. Lasagna is really tasty and creamy which is why I wouldn’t mind eating it often.

If you are having lasagna at home, one thing that you need to be wary of is to avoid spilling or dropping it on your carpet. Sadly, this is one problem that a lot of homeowners face. Spilling lasagna can be really problematic since it will cause a very nasty stain that is very challenging to remove.

Dealing with this kind of mess and not knowing what to do can be very frustrating for any homeowner. To help you with this situation, check out the useful guide below that you can follow in cleaning the spilled lasagna on your carpet effectively.

1. Use a dull knife to slowly scoop up and extract the spilled lasagna on your carpet. Immediately doing this is going to help you isolate the problem to a smaller area of the carpet as well as prevent the sauce from getting deeper into the carpet fibers.

2. Dilute the lasagna stain on your carpet with a few drops of water. This is going to help make the stain become lighter as well as stop it from setting on the carpet right away.

3. Make a cleaning agent that you will be using on the carpet to help remove the ugly stain. Try to combine one part of dish washing liquid with five parts of warm water to make a very inexpensive yet effective cleaning solution. Get an empty spray bottle and then put the cleaning solution inside before moving on to the next step.

4. Spray the stained area of your carpet a couple of times using the cleaning solution. Allow three minutes to pass before using a clean white cloth to blot the area continuously. Do this step until the entire stain is gone. This may take some time but after a while your carpet will be clean and spotless once again.

5. Rinse the carpet with a cup of water to help eliminate any residue that could stay behind on the carpet fibers. Afterwards, use a clean towel to dry everything before using your carpet again.

Lasagna spills can be very problematic but hopefully the guide above will help you in getting your carpet clean and tidy once more.

How to Remove Skin Moles Naturally Using Proven Mole Removal Techniques

If having a radiant skin is your dream then you may have it soon by understanding how to remove skin moles naturally. The cluster of cells that get aggregated to give a dark spot on your face can spoil the facial appearance at times. Even if you don’t have deep pockets it is possible to get rid of these black and brown spots using proven mole removal techniques at home.

Not only are surgical methods expensive but they may produce scars that are difficult to get rid of. Many people end up spending more on scar removal than mole removal. This is why it is best to try these harmless home remedies to remove skin moles naturally.

So if you are wondering what these home remedies are, here are a few of them:

1) A paste made by grinding garlic and onion in equal quantities is quite effective to get rid of the back and brown spots on your skin. Try out the paste in small quantity to find if the paste suits your skin. Use the paste twice a day for at least 4 to 6 weeks to see some good results.

2) Another home remedy that is used frequently to remove skin moles naturally is baking powder and castor oil mix. Combine these two items to create a paste. Apply the paste to the affected areas on a regular basis twice every day. After a few weeks you may see the dark spots disappearing naturally without you realizing.

3) Using proven mole removal technique is not just enough. For a radiant skin you will need to clear all the blemishes and make the skin smooth. A mix made by combining sandalwood with turmeric is an excellent conditioner for your skin. It also helps to keep bacterial infections away and speedy healing of skin moles.

Best Glues and Adhesives For Handmade Cards

The best glues for handmade cards are the types of glue that work to adhere the materials that you choose to use with your handmade cards. Some glues are made for specific material, such as paper, and do not work well with other material, such as fabric. The best glues for making handmade cards are the ones that will stick indefinitely and will not disrupt the final design of the card with unsightly lumps or excess dried glue.

When making handmade cards, you may also come to find out that there are other ways to adhere materials that do not involve glue. For instance, many seasoned handmade card crafters sew items and embellishments onto their cards rather than using glue. Others find that double sided tape or spray on adhesives work best with the types of handmade cards that they create.

Here is a breakdown of common material types used when making handmade cards and the best glues or adhesives for those types of material:

Adhering Paper to Paper

Gluing paper to paper is the most common combination that is used for making handmade cards. The best types of glue used for handmade cards when working with paper are those types of glues and adhesives that do not create lumps. Double sided permanent tape is a great adhesive to use when attaching paper to other pieces of paper. The double sided tape allows the crafter more control over where the adhesive is placed and it is a very flat type of adhesive that will not result in lumps on the cards. Many scrapbookers choose double sided tape as their primary adhesive when working with adhering photos and other paper mementos into a scrapbook.

Adhering Embellishments to Paper

Embellishments, such as buttons, silk flowers, and other small items, are often used when making homemade cards. There are a few types of glue that will work when using these types of embellishments. Clear drying glues work best, most times glues, such as Elmer’s or Aleene’s Tacky Glue, are perfect for adhering embellishments onto handmade cards. For a more sturdy adhesive, you can use a hot glue gun with clear drying glue sticks. When using clear drying glues or hot glue sticks remember to allow the glue to dry completely before handling the card again.

Adhering Fabric to Paper

Different types of fabrics are a great way to add dimension and texture to a homemade card. If you are using light fabrics, such as lace or cotton, then you may consider using spray on adhesive. Spray on adhesives give the back of the fabric a nice light layer of stickiness. The light stickiness allows you to adhere the fabric to the card without any lumps. If you are using heavier fabric, such as denim, then you might consider sewing the edges of the fabric to your card or you might consider a fabric glue. When using fabric glue you should spread the glue as thinly and as evenly as you can. Once the fabric is in place, you might choose to take a bone folder or the edge of a ruler to smooth it out before it dries. This will help to ensure that there are no lumps or air bubbles underneath the fabric.

Where Does Glue Come From?

You may have noticed that some plants occasionally secrete a sticky substance. This resin is produced for various reasons, depending on the variety of plant. For instance, it may be used as a way to coat itself in order to seal in moisture; the resin may inhibit the growth of parasitical plants or it may trap harmful insects, preventing them from eating the plant. Well, if we noticed this sticky substance, then so must have our ancestors. Archaeologists have discovered 6,000 year old ceramic pots that had been glued together using resin secreted from plants. Although this gives us proof of the use of glue at around 4,000BC, the chances are that glue was being used by man several thousand years before this time.

Just as with modern glue, the resin would only stay in its viscous liquid form for a limited period of time. Because of this, it is likely that these ancient people either took the pieces of their pot to the plant or took part of the plant to the pot. This limited time period before the glue hardens and sets is called open time. The open time of plant resin glue would vary according to the chemical make up of the resin and the environmental conditions at the time but it would probably have been considerably longer than the open time with Super Glue (aka Krazy Glue), which can be a few seconds. In fact, putting a smashed pot back together would probably have been done in stages. Perhaps one piece was glued into position and held (or, if possible, clamped) for over an hour before it was left to completely set. The next piece may have been glued the following day, and so on.

Animals have also provided us with glue. This discovery would have probably come quite easily once we had started cooking meat. After all the nutrient parts of an animal were eaten, the remaining bones and tendons could be cooked at high temperature until a melted substance was created. In its liquid hot state this would form powerful glue. It is likely that early glue users were more interested in using it to decorate caves, skulls and bones. Eventually man would have discovered that this glue was particularly suited to sticking wood together and would have been very useful for boat building and general repairing. There is evidence, from stone carvings found in Egypt going back to the time of the Pharaohs, of furniture repairs using glue made from animals. Animal hide glue has an open time of just a few seconds, so users would have needed to heat it to a high temperature and apply it very quickly. The good thing about this kind of glue is that it can be stored. All you need to do is let it cool. When you need to use it just heat it up again.

Through the ages we have learned to mix glues with fat and other substances in order to refine its properties. Different glue mixes were made for different applications. The first glue patent in 1750 heralded the start of full scale production of glues. In the 20th century synthetic glues began to appear. The most notable breakthrough was when Dr. Harry Coover and Dr Fred Joyner discovered cyanoacrylate, which is now known as

super glue (or Krazy Glue). This glue was so strong that when it bonded two parts, and a subsequent effort was made to separate the parts, the break or tear would typically not happen at the glued joint but another weak point would yield first. A derivation of cyanoacrylate was (and still is) used for sealing wounds as an alternative to stitching. This was put to good effect in the Vietnam conflict where service personnel’s wounds were quickly sealed using the substance while they were in the localized battle theater. This was a quick fix prior to their hospitalization and saved many lives, according to Dr Coover.

Glues are used in a multitude of applications. Recently, synthetic glue has been made so strong that it can replace nails, allowing a seamless finish. Other uses are in pest control where glue is used to trap rodents and flying insects. The heavy duty glue used by Insectocutor Glue Boards virtually guarantees that a fly will be trapped on the board as soon as it lands there. This takes us back to where we started. Just as some plants have used glue to trap insects, so we are doing so today – and with great effect.

Is Your Chromagen Solar Hot Water Service Working Correctly?

Do you live in Australia and own a Chromagen split system solar hot water service? Do you know if that system is working properly? Do you know how to check if the system is working properly?

Firstly, what is a solar split system?

A solar hot water service split system is where you will have a tank at ground level and a set of collectors on your roof. A circulating pump takes cold water to the collectors and hot water from the collectors to the tank or cylinder.

Please, don’t void your warranty!!

Doing the steps below will allow you to see what’s wrong with your solar hot water service split system. Please don’t go any further. Altering and removing any of the attached wires or pipework can void your warranty. Most items on your solar hot water service need to be replaced or serviced by a qualified service technician, or at least your local plumber or electrician. If in doubt call the Chromagen service phone number – 1300 367 565 – toll free.

How to find out if your Chromagen hot water service is working properly

Firstly, right in the middle of the cylinder side there will be a large domed cream cover. Remove the four screws and remove the cover. You will find a small white box with four screws holding the front cover on, remove the screws. Remember that there is dangerous live power in this box, so please don’t touch any wires. In the top right hand corner there will be two led indicators, these indicators will show you if all is working properly or if there is a problem. On the rear of the white cover that you removed will be descriptions of what the indicators do to tell you what’s going on.

What the indicators will tell you:

  • If the system is dormant (not doing anything but working properly)
  • If the circulation pump is working (system is circulating hot water)
  • If there is a fault in either of the wires from the panels or the tank
  • If the system is in its frost protection phase
  • If the system is in its boil protect phase

What the indicators won’t tell you:

  • If the controller box is faulty – the only way to confirm this is to connect a working controller box and see if the system works then.
  • If the system has an air block – if there is an air block everything else will work fine but the circulating pump won’t circulate the hot water from the panels. There is only one way to decide this is the fault; on a sunny day when you know the circulating pump is trying to circulate, place you hand on the return line from the panels – DANGER: if the system is working properly there is a real danger of you getting serious burns from the piping as the hot water from the panels can reach up to 160 degrees Celsius. My suggestion is to just tap the return line to see if it’s hot. If it is then all is well, if it’s not then there may be a problem and you will need to call the above mentioned toll-free number.

Keeping the controller box turned on – why it’s vital

With a Chromagen solar split system the only element that keeps the system running well is the controller box and the circulating pump. Without these two elements working to their designed capacity your Chromagen hot water service won’t work properly and you possibly will void your warranty on your solar panels.

The circulating system is your primary frost protection. Please also make sure you have an anti frost valve (a small brass valve mostly at the bottom right of your hot water solar panels) as this is your secondary anti frost protection. Please, always remember that the power point that the controller box is plugged into remains on and the power cord is securely pushed in.

Your anti frost valve

Every solar split system should have an anti frost valve installed on the solar panels if it’s an ‘open loop’ system. If you are unsure of you type of solar split system please call Chromagen on the above mentioned toll free number.

Anti frost valves are designed to open up when the temperature reaches about 4 degrees Celsius. The valve will release a small amount of water until it detects that the temperature has risen or the valve has been warmed above approximately 6 degrees. It will then cut off and no water should be leaking out. When the valve drops below 4 degrees it will repeat the cycle. Anti frost valves should always cut off the water flow at a maximum of 8 degrees Celsius, so if your anti frost valve is still leaking and the temperature at the valve is more than 8 degrees then your anti frost valve is likely faulty. You should contact the above mentioned toll free number for a visit by an approved service agent.

How Can Finger Splints Help Common Injuries?

What are the common types of finger injuries? There are several ways you can injure them, and all of these injuries can be very painful. One of them is a fracture. When you get a fracture, it can be hard to do everyday tasks.

It can be hard to eat, brush your teeth, get dressed, or even tie your shoes. You may have pain and swelling in your finger. It may also be difficult to move your finger and it may be deformed.

Ligament and tendon injuries are reported quite frequently. The most common type of tendon injury is known as a mallet finger. It is also known as dropped finger. When the tendon is either torn or cut from the bone, this injury occurs.

It is common in sporting activities that involve catching a ball. And it can occur if the ball misses the palm of your hand and accidentally hits the tip of a finger. This can lead to the tendon becoming overstretched or torn.

This make the end of the finger droop, and it cannot be straightened. This type of injury will also cause your finger to be very painful and swollen.

How can a finger splint help? Using a splint could help decrease the pain and help your finger heal from an injury. Splints do this by helping to keep your finger stable and in the correct position.

They can help the finger heal quicker by supporting or keeping it still and protect your finger from further injury. Splints can help you get on with the everyday activities in less pain. Finger splints are easy to use and can be comfortable to wear as the materials they are made from are suited for this purpose.

When you have swelling in your knuckle, fractured bones, or torn tendons it will be very important to keep your finger from moving. By keeping it still, it can heal the right way, in the right position and faster.

What types of finger splints are available? The most common type of finger splint is a padded aluminum brace. This brace has wings that will bend to fit your finger and hold the brace in place.

Metal or plastic splints may also be used with some injuries. Foam wraps and elastic bands are other types of splints that may be used as well. There are many splints to choose from with many being affordable and good value for money.

Creative Thinking Techniques in Action – Forty Uses For a Brick

Creative thinking techniques help us learn to proliferate ideas. When we learn to proliferate ideas we become better at divergent thinking – one of the most powerful tools in a problem solver’s toolbelt.

When someone asks you to come up with ideas to solve a problem, how many do you typically produce? One? Two? Five?

The following example illustrates how we can use a few simple creative thinking techniques to generate tons of useful ideas.

The problem: How many different ways can we use a brick?

Our goal is forty ideas.

Step One – Empty Your Mind

Rapidly list all the ways you can think of, off the top of your head, to use a brick.

  1. Build a wall
  2. Build a mailbox
  3. Side a house
  4. Use it for a desk paperweight
  5. Use it as a melee weapon (whack someone on the head)
  6. Use it as a projectile weapon (throw it at someone)
  7. Use it to pave a sidewalk or patio
  8. Build a deck

Eight, total. Not many.

Step Two – Group the items into common themes

Several of my ideas fell into the category of ‘building material.’ So focusing on that, what other things can be built out of bricks?

  1. Flowerpots
  2. Landscaping
  3. Mailboxes
  4. Barbecues
  5. Smokehouses
  6. Outhouses
  7. Shelving
  8. Outdoor bar

Eight more right there. My running total: 16.

Also, a few of the ideas fell into the category of ‘small, hard, relatively heavy objects.’ What other uses are there for that?

  1. Doorstop
  2. Bug whacker
  3. Ballast
  4. Hold down sheets of cloth, plastic etc.

There’s four more. My running total: 20

Step Three – Consider the common attributes

What are the attributes of bricks?

  • Hard
  • Durable
  • Rectangular
  • Smallish
  • Holds heat well/insulates
  • Compact
  • Come in several earth-tone colors
  • Cheap

“Holds heat well” inspires a new focus for ideas.

  1. Kiln
  2. Lining for a metal grill
  3. Something to protect a vulnerable surface from a hot pot or pan
  4. Mount a metal grill/smoker on a wood deck
  5. Mount a hot water heater on a wood/tile/linoleum floor

Also bricks are “hard.” Do some uses require extra strength or durability?

  1. High explosives/hazardous materials storage buildings
  2. High explosives/hazardous materials handling facilities
  3. Backstop for a shooting range
  4. Firing position
  5. Vault

Ten more there. Running total: 30. We are three quarters of our way to the target, and we’ve kept things pretty basic.

The creative thinking techniques I’ve used so far are fairly linear. To come up with really new and different ideas, we need to get more abstract in our thinking.

The next tool takes us into the abstract arena. It falls under the category of ‘forced connections’ – determining the relationship between two things that are seemingly unrelated.

Step Four: Force Connections

‘Random words’ is a basic tool for forcing connections. I pull out a random words list, close my eyes and point a finger at:

  • nut
  • pet
  • Mass
  • hospital
  • trophy

How could these words possibly help me come up with more uses for a brick?

Simply list the things you associate with each word, and ‘force’ a connection with bricks.

Here are the words and phrases that I associate with each:

  • nut – small, tasty, almond, walnut, squirrel, fiber, pecan, pie, cookie, peanut, sold in bags, baseball games, sold alone or mixed
  • pet – dog, cat, hamster, gerbil, snake, lizard, sold in specialty stores, cute, pet food, fish tank
  • Mass – Catholic, church, service, Eucharist, sanctuary, baptism, wafer, wine, Pope, priest, nun, prayer, forgiveness, collection
  • hospital – emergency, rooms, beds, patients, doctors, nurses, operations, x-ray, MRI, expensive, health care, ambulance, surgery, healing
  • trophy – prize, engraving, given to the winner, valuable, prestige, mantle piece, display case, pride

Forcing connections with the words and phrases I get these ideas:

  1. Pet – dog – Build a doghouse
  2. Nut – squirrel – Build a squirrel/bird feeder
  3. Mass – service – Build a memorial
  4. Mass – service – Build an outdoor altar
  5. Hospital – x-ray – Line an X-ray or radiology room
  6. Mass – baptism – Build a baptismal font
  7. Trophy – mantle piece – Build a fireplace
  8. Trophy – display case – Build a trophy case
  9. Pet – fish tank – Build an aquarium stand or case
  10. Trophy – engraving – Create engraved pavers for fund raising

That’s ten more, bringing my total up to 40. Goal achieved!

To be honest, this was too easy. I could have kept generating idea after idea by using other creative thinking tools.

And just think of what a GROUP of thinkers could come up with – in an innovation workshop, for a group of five I would have set the goal at 100-150 ideas.

“Forty uses for a brick” might have sounded daunting at first, based on the ideas at the top of our heads.

But as I have shown it doesn’t take a lot of thinking to proliferate ideas, as long as you do it systematically, using proven tools and techniques.

Idea generation is the foundation of divergent thinking, which drives business creativity. Learn to proliferate ideas in this manner and you’ll become a better innovator for it.

Apartments in Jacksonville FL Which Approve Despite Broken Lease, Bad Credit Or Felony

Jacksonville, located in Duval county, is Florida’s largest city surpassing even Miami in terms of population explosion (around 1.3 million). This seaside city has continued to boom especially after its consolidation with the Duval county and its close proximity to the Gulf and also the ST John’s River. Thousands of people make Jacksonville their home each year and these are in addition to its many residents who live mostly within city limits. As such, apartment complexes in Jacksonville continue to receive a continuous stream of applicants. Normally, it would be easy to rent a good apartment in this city but recently, most apartments have adapted stringent credit and rental history checks which have seen many people being turned away. There are however some apartments within Jacksonville which either do not check credit or when they do are willing to give problem applicants a second chance. This means that even with a broken lease, an applicant may be able to secure approval after passing a few standard requirements. But these apartments are not easily located and tenants with prior problems can waste tremendous time and money going from apartment to apartment and being denied.

Let us examine a few locales in Jacksonville where one can rent an apartment even with bad credit, a broken lease and/or a criminal record:

  • North Jackson
  • Northwest
  • Southeast Jacksonville
  • Mandarin
  • West Jacksonville

This list is not exhaustive. As we mentioned earlier, there are many other areas where these types of apartments may exist. Locating and narrowing down to these apartments is not easy but it is possible if one has the right knowledge of how and where to look.

Some people are of the persuasion that these types of apartments, usually referred to as “second chance apartments”, are located in dilapidated sections of town. This may or may not be true. There are excellent, well-maintained and elegant apartments in safe neighborhoods which will be willing to approve a tenant who has prior rental issues.

One way of looking is to use the Internet. This is by far the most convenient way to search because one need not waste time and fuel driving around town. One challenge with second chance Jacksonville apartments is that they do not usually advertize meaning that sometimes one cannot easily unearth these complexes. The apartments themselves also want to remain anonymous because they do not want to attract the “wrong kind” of tenants which may result in the decline of rental prices. Usually some apartments will approve a felony but only if it is old enough, usually 7 years or more.