Buying a Flat From an Investor – What You Should Know

It is a popular concept in Mumbai to purchase Investor flats. Mostly, you find them through the builder himself, after the builder has exhausted the stock in his hands.

What is an investor flat?

An investor flat is one in which an investor draws an agreement with the builder to purchase a given flat at a certain future point of time. In return for this promise, he pays a small token money towards the price of the flat. This agreement happens even before the construction begins. So, the price agreed upon for the flat is also quite less.

Benefits of investor flats to all parties


The benefit of this agreement to the investor is the fact that he is able to procure it at a very low rate and needs to make payment only much later.


The main benefit for the builder is the cash flow that accrues to him even before commencement of the project. This will ensure smooth execution of the project. Also, he is making sales even before the goods are produced.


It is not any problem to a consumer to buy a flat from an investor. As the agreement will be made with the builder itself (in case purchase is before possession) the agreement will be one of first-sale and not of resale. Depending upon the investors needs, prices become negotiable. Recently, I heard of an investor flat being quoted at nearly Rs 1000 per square feet lesser than that of the builder. Isn’t that great?

Therefore, when you search for new flats, don’t rule out investor flats. They are as good as buying from the builder itself.

Cleaning of a Snowboarding Helmet

Your snowboarding helmet is probably the most important piece of safety equipment you own. If you look after it, it will take care of you. Generally, shelf life of a snowboard helmet is of three years, but if you use the helmet frequently then it is better to change it once in every three years. To ensure long life for your helmet, you should keep it in the best condition possible and clean it on a regular basis. While helmets are usually made using similar materials and can be cleaned in the same way, it is recommended to use manufacturer’s cleaning instructions for the specific helmet you have purchased.

Daily cleaning: It is not required to clean your snowboard helmet every day. However, during the winter season when you regularly go for snowboarding, it is advised to clean your helmets every day – especially the visor. This is the main window in the helmet that guides your vision and should be clean and free of dirt, debris and any form of scratches. Cleaning your visor after snowboarding should be a part of your post-ride ritual. Of course, it is easier to clean the dirt before it dries and settles down on the visor. You can clean the fresh dirt without scrubbing the visor thereby minimizing the risk of scratches.

Weekly cleaning: Even if you are not a regular snowboarder, it is still important to clean your helmet once a week. Modern helmets include multiple vents and intakes, which will work only when you keep them clean and open. Use an old toothbrush or cotton bud to clean the vents to ensure that they are clean and free from any sort of obstructions.

Monthly cleaning: Other important parts in helmets such as removable linings and cheek pads should be cleaned once a month. Remove these and follow the manufacturer’s guidelines on cleaning and washing them. Some of these items can be washed in machines and some had to be hand-washed and dried.

Cleaning Every Six Months: Even if you follow the regular cleaning ritual, it is important that you give your helmet a thorough cleaning once in every six months. Over the years, the helmet can cause a build-up of sweat, skin, hair-gel and even dandruff. This should be removed to avoid any kind of bad smell coming from your snowboard helmet. Its interior, including its padding should be cleaned using a damp cloth. Allow it to dry naturally before using it again.

"Why Don’t You Come?" A Discussion of the Poem by Mihai Eminescu

Mihai Eminescu, 1850-1889, was a writer, journalist, and romantic poet, often celebrated as Romania’s greatest and most famous poet. For many years he was considered Romania’s national poet and was called “the most important figure in Romanian culture.”

Even now, his fame pervades modern day Romania. For example, his face has been engraved on a couple of Romania’s paper currencies. Also, numerous statues and busts of Eminescu can be found throughout the country. There are several schools and libraries and other buildings named after Eminescu. And the anniversaries of his birth and death are observed with national celebrations.

The Poet

Eminescu was born and raised in Moldova, the northeast region of Romania. He attended school until age 16 and began publishing some of his poems at that age in a Budapest, Hungary, literary journal. For several years Eminescu worked as a clerk for a theater troupe in the newly named capital city of Bucharest. Throughout this period he continued to write and publish his poetry.

Eminescu left the troupe after three years and traveled to Vienna where he studied philosophy for three years. During this period he contributed political articles and poems to a local literary journal. He also became a contributing journalist to a newspaper in Budapest.

Eminescu then went to Berlin for two years where he continued his studies. After Berlin, he moved to Iasi, the cultural and economic center of Moldova, Romania, where he worked as the director of the Central Library. The impressive library is now named after him in his honor. Eminescu also became the editor of one of the local newspapers in Iasi.

After three years in Iasi, he moved back to Bucharest where he spent most of the rest of his life. He became chief editor of an important Bucharest newspaper for which he wrote his most famous political articles, including those supporting the drive toward international recognition of Romanian independence. Also during this period he wrote and published his most famous poems, including “The Evening Star.”

In 1883 Eminescu was hospitalized due to his deteriorating health. He was diagnosed with syphilis and manic-depression. A few years later his health deteriorated further and he was treated with mercury injections, the standard treatment for syphilis. During the final six years of his life he wrote nothing of importance and was in and out of hospitals and sanatoriums. He died at age 39 in 1889.

The Poem

In 1883, while Eminescu was away at a sanatorium in Vienna, Titu Maiorescu published a collected volume of his poems entitled, “Poesii.” Maiorescu commented in his foreword to the volume that Eminescu was always “too unconcerned and unambitious about the future fate of his work” to create a collected publication himself.

Eminescu’s poems feature a wide range of themes, including nature, love, history, politics, and social issues. His study of philosophy, especially of Schopenhauer, also influenced his poetical works. His poems’ influence on Romanian culture is so strong that in Romanian schools the study of his poems is a requirement. Often, an analysis of his “The Evening Star” is part of the graduation exam.

“Why Don’t You Come?” is a touching and romantic love poem about the longing of a man for his beloved. The poem is easily read and recited due to its simple and easily recognized form.

The poem’s form includes 6 quatrains, stanzas of four lines each. This is the most common of all the stanza forms in European poetry. The quatrains have a rhyme scheme of aabb, which creates two short couplets per stanza, one of the simplest rhyme schemes in poetry. The rhythm of the poem is the easily recognizable iambic tetrameter. All of the lines, except the first, are regular, consisting of four two-syllable iambic feet, the second syllable of each foot being accented.

The person that Eminescu’s poem addresses is probably Veronica Micle, the love of his life and the woman he had hoped to marry, though circumstances kept them apart. They met while Eminescu was studying in Vienna. Despite the fact that Micle was married to a university professor thirty years her senior, she developed a close relationship with the attractive and romantic Eminescu.

Micle became a short story writer and a romantic poet, her style, not surprisingly influenced by Eminescu’s. She published numerous poems, several of which were devoted to her relationship with Eminescu.

After her husband died, Micle and Eminescu were nearly married, but numerous stresses, including his developing illnesses, kept them from doing so. When he became more seriously ill, Micle moved to Bucharest and cared for Eminescu during the last two years of his life. Stricken with grief following his death, Micle died of self induced arsenic poisoning two months later.

It was in 1887, just prior to Micle’s arrival in Bucharest, that Eminescu wrote “Why Don’t You Come?”

Why Don’t You Come?

By Mihai Eminescu

Translated by Corneliu M. Popescu

See the swallows quit the eaves

And fall the yellow walnut leaves,

The vines with autumn frost are numb,

Why don’t you come, why don’t you come?

Oh, come into my arms’ embrace

That I may gaze upon your face,

And lay my head in grateful rest

Against your breast, against your breast!

Do you remember when we strayed

The meadows and the secret glade,

I kissed you midst flowering thyme

How many a time, how many a time?

Some women on the earth there are

Whose eyes shine as the evening star,

But be their charm no matter what,

Like you they’re not, like you they’re not!

For you shine in my soul always

More softly than the starlight blaze,

More splendid than the risen sun,

Beloved one, beloved one!

But it is late in autumn now,

The leaves have fallen from the bough,

The fields are bare, the birds are dumb.

Why don’t you come, why don’t you come?

How an Antenna Diplexer Allows for Multiple Broadcasts on One Transmitter

A diplexer, which is a form of duplexer, is a three-port frequency-dependent device used either for transmitting or receiving purposes.

It can take different frequency bands and multiplex and de-multiplex two ports and put them onto one port on a single coaxial cable. Or a diplexer can route signals based on frequency that have a sufficient wideband and able to and transfer them to the air efficiently. A diplexer essentially combines signals onto one download or perhaps link those being passed through it onto radio transmitters.

This passive device can also split two signals apart from being on the same receive path like audio and data in Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) telephone systems or combine two signals into one single output on the same transmit path. It’s also capable of forcing constant impedance to occupy a single broadcast frequency or enable one transmitter used by a broadcast station to operate and transmit multiple frequencies at the same time off one RF antenna.

In addition, an antenna diplexer is an electronic component that can also be used to transmit and receive simultaneously using the same antenna – or it can enable a single antenna to be used while preventing the output of the other or else. They allow signals such as from an antenna and a satellite TV dish to share the same feed. Even more, it can separate signals according to the frequency they use.

On the downside, diplexers are not for signals that have overlapping frequency ranges. And if transmitters have frequencies too close together they cannot be combined successfully by a diplexer.

Typically, diplexers are used for high frequency satellite signals and low frequency CATV (cable television) / OTA (over-the-air) antenna signals. They can be also be found as part of a front end module for a mobile telecommunication system.

Diplexers are essential when trying to overcome the problem of the ban on building new transmitting towers in some areas. It is very hard nowadays to get permits to build new transmitting towers in many places as there are laws that say one can no longer build towers. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules related to tower erection restrictions and local zoning regulations drive many of these restrictions.

Although there are exceptions for businesses categorized as “public utilities” to build even in zones where it is explicitly prohibited, in reality constructing new towers is nowadays almost impossible.

Overcoming the problem is possible only by utilizing an existing tower as much as possible. Agreement must be found with owners of established transmitting sites. This is where diplexers come in to play – by allowing two frequency bands to be transmitted together without interferences.

Diplexing is a suitable solution for medium wave broadcasting stations and to allow more than one transmitter such as UHF-/VHF from a single pre-built tower to be used for broadcast television reception.

It is said that diplexing AM (Amplitude Modulation) transmitters is easier than diplexing FM (Frequency Modulation) transmitters due to the fact that not all radiators will work for that type of transmissions. Antennas, in fact, must be broadbanded to allow the broad range of FM frequencies to be transmitted.

Distance is also a factor as it affects FM transmission more than AM ones.

Due to the special attention FM duplexing requires, costs might be a concern if the antenna was not already built for this type of transmission. Other factors that need to be evaluated include:

  • Are tower antennas are non-directional or directional?
  • What’s the antenna efficiency?
  • Does the tow have the needed orientation?

Examples of tower mounted diplexers (TMDs) are abundant.

An example of a TMD is the Sutro Tower of San Francisco, a 977-foot steel tower used by 11 television stations, four FM radio stations, as well as satellite companies, cable providers and for wireless communication services. Even more iconic is the Empire State Building in New York that hosts a very busy diplexer that appeared way back in March of 1952 where ABC and CBS FM stations operated from a common antenna.

The signals were diplexed into a single set of dipoles on the latter stations’ antenna near the bottom of the tower.

It is clear how diplexers are essential in allowing new transmissions even though there are building prohibitions against new towers. Thanks to these devices, stations are able to prevent intermodulation and keep the voltage component of a standing wave (VSWR) to the lowest amount for each input transmitter and frequency even in presence of tower building blocks.

Consequently, new transmissions can still be allowed.

Despite this, diplexers appear to meet both the wishes of residents who don’t want any more towers built and able to serve the interests of businesses needing to have transmit/receive antennas for telecommunications. With this device and purpose, towers can be used to provide the locals with communication systems capabilities and companies the ability to have a transmission medium to conduct business.

Promotion "Above the Line" and "Below the Line"

Promotion can be loosely classified as “above the line” and “below the line” promotion. The promotional activities carried out through mass media like television, radio, newspaper etc. is above the line promotion.

The terms ‘below-the-line’ promotion or communications, refers to forms of non-media communication, even non-media advertising. Below-the-line promotions are becoming increasingly important within the communications mix of many companies, not only those involved in fmcg products, but also for industrial goods.

Some of the ways by which companies do BTL (below the line) promotions are by exhibitions, sponsorship activities, public relations and sales promotions like giving freebies with goods, trade discounts given to dealers and customers, reduced price offers on products, giving coupons which can be redeemed later etc.


Below the line sales promotions are short-term incentives, largely aimed at consumers. With the increasing pressure on the marketing team to achieve communication objectives more efficiently in a limited budget, there has been a need to find out more effective and cost efficient ways to communicate with the target markets. This has led to a shift from the regular media based advertising.

A definition of below-the-line sales promotion given by Hugh Davidson:

‘An immediate or delayed incentive to purchase, expressed in cash or in kind, and having only a short term or temporary duration’.

Methods of below the line sales promotion

1. Price promotions

Price promotions are also commonly known as” price discounting”. These can be done in two ways:

(1) A discount to the normal selling price of a product, or

(2) More of the product at the normal price.

Price promotions however can also have a negative effect by spoiling the brand reputation or just a temporary sales boost (during the discounts) followed by a lull when the discount would be called off.

2. Coupons

Coupons are another, very versatile, way of offering a discount. Consider the following examples of the use of coupons:

– On a pack to encourage repeat purchase

– In coupon books sent out in newspapers allowing customers to redeem the coupon at a retailer

– A cut-out coupon as part of an advert

– On the back of till receipts

The key objective with a coupon promotion is to maximize the redemption rate – this is the proportion of customers actually using the coupon.

It must be ensured when a company uses coupons that the retailers must hold sufficient stock to avoid customer disappointment.

Use of coupon promotions is often best for new products or perhaps to encourage sales of existing products that are slowing down.

3. Gift with purchase

The “gift with purchase” is a very common promotional technique. In this scheme, the customer gets something extra along with the normal good purchased. It works best for

– Subscription-based products (e.g. magazines)

– Consumer luxuries (e.g. perfumes)

4. Competitions and prizes

This is an important tool to increase brand awareness amongst the target consumer. It can be used to boost up sales for temporary period and ensure usage amongst first time users.

5. Money refunds

Here, a customer receives a money refund after submitting a proof of purchase to the manufacturer.

Customers often view these schemes with some suspicion – particularly if the method of obtaining a refund looks unusual or onerous.

6. Frequent user / loyalty incentives

Repeat purchases may be stimulated by frequent user incentives. Perhaps the best examples of this are the many frequent flyer or user schemes used by airlines, train companies, car hire companies etc.

7. Point-of-sale displays

Shopping habits are changing for the people living in metropolitan cities. People prefer big retail outlets like Big Bazaar to local kirana stores. Most of the decisions of buying are taken by the virtue of point-of-sale displays in these retail outlets.


Most of the big brands are following the suit of BTL promotion because of rising prices of media based promotion, advertising clutter and increased impulse purchasing.

Some of the interesting examples are:

Most of the educational institutes like career launcher, Time and PT are holding informative workshops and free tests for students which give a direct interaction of these institutes with the target customer and hence a suitable platform to sell themselves.

Ring tones and music videos on cell phones are helping the entertainment industry to promote for a music video or a movie for dirt-cheap rate as compared to media promotion.

Various companies sponsor sport events to promote their brand, but nowadays media companies like Hindustan Times are holding weekly events through out the country in which companies can put up their stalls, display banners and posters and arrange for some fun activities. These events give the companies a platform at very low price to promote their brand and increase visibility among target consumer. These companies also give discount coupons to winners in the games, which in turn boost the sales of the products and ensure that first time users try these products as well.

Pepsi organized an inter school cricket event for 425 schools across 14 cities which did wonders for the company by promoting the brand amongst the right target customer for almost no cost.

Most of the pharmacy companies do BTL promotion by getting shelf space through doctors to display their products or by giving away free calcium tablets again through doctors, knowing that for a patient a personal advise from a doctor would hold more value as compared to a commercial advertisement.

Another interesting BTL promotion was by NIKE, an athlete dressed up in Nike sportswear could be seen jogging on an elevated treadmill for the whole day on National Highway 8, Delhi.

BTL promotions are gaining popularity among all big companies nowadays considering their effectiveness because of the “individual customer promotion” at a price, which is much lesser than the normal media promotions.

What Is Cable Ducting and Why Is Concrete the Best Solution?

What is cable ducting and why is it necessary in construction? Cable ducting is usually for electrical conduit purposes, that is, an electrical piping system. Electronics industries depend on the construction industry to provide a safe route underground route for electric wiring.

Cable ducting is generally done by electricians after the route has been constructed. Traditionally, materials like metal, plastic, fired clay and fiber have been used for electrical conduit tasks. However, concrete is quickly becoming a popular alternative. Why so? We know that concrete has some advantages when it comes to durability, but what else are we missing? How does the system work?

Underground cable ducting and troughs benefit railway companies, roads, and other power industries. These conduits are large in diameter and may be installed underground between buildings. A collection of these conduits is called a duct bank, which may actually be inside of the ground or inside a concrete base. What is the advantage of using a concrete duct bank?

This allows for easy replacement of damaged cables between buildings without having to excavate the entire trench. Unfortunately, PVC and plastics are commonly used for conduit and cable purposes, despite the fact that they are cheap and unreliable. What are some other advantages of using concrete cable ducting solutions?

Besides their easy accessibility, these projects are also affordable and are completely non-conductive to electricity. Furthermore, concrete is resistant to chemicals. When you use concrete ducting, the cables of the operation are buried at such a great depth that they are completely safe from weather changes. Extremely cold or extremely hot temperatures are no longer a concern here. Under ground, everything is protected from the surface of the earth.

It should go without saying that concrete is highly durable, more so than plastic or even steel. This method of ducting also provides splicing and allows for easy updates to the system. Cable ducting can help companies to encase power, as well as all sorts of cable, like fiber optic or pneumatic cable.

How do you go about choosing a company to work with? Be sure to choose a provider that can produce specialist units (tailor made to your cable wiring needs) and get the troughs molded to your specific requirements. Remember, one of concrete’s best qualities is its adaptability. You can form anything from concrete. It is also environmentally friendly. It is indeed an ideal solution to underground electrical work and cable ducting.

Mortgage Comprehension Test

If you’re on the lookout for a mortgage, there’s a bewildering choice and the main element you’re going to need is advice. Luckily, there’s plenty of that too, but before you ask for it, you may like to familiarize yourself with some of the jargon.

With LTV’s and HLC’s to think about, never mind the ERC’s it’s a whole new world and far removed from the days when a one-size fits all mortgage was what you got. Good old repayment mortgages have been replaced by interest-only, flexible, BTL’s and with new ones coming out all the time, there’s no wonder the whole thing remains a mystery to most people.

One particular mortgage came to light recently, which seemed to include all the initials and more. Reading through the benefits of HBOS’s 125% LTV product, which is marketed through its BM Solutions brand, we find that the mortgage is made up of both a mortgage amount and an unsecured loan. Fair enough, they’re not the first lender to offer this type of deal and there’s obviously a market for them BUT the criteria which BM lays down is that in every case a minimum deposit of 5% from the buyer is to be paid, which has to be from their own funds and not part of the loan. In that there are many limitations in this deal, one of them being that to get the full benefit of the 125% mortgage, due to a cap on the unsecured loan amount, effectively it applies only to property with a value of less than £100,000, then it’s probably unlikely that any adviser would recommend this mortgage to them if they can afford the 5% deposit. Strange. The reasoning behind this ruling is understandable. BM feel that further borrowing is possible and even likely in the first few months in a new home, for furnishings and updating and points to evidence that many new borrowers do in fact take this action. They need some proof that the buyer can handle the borrowing. To enforce this rule they are very firm with their instructions to the mortgage conveyancer and state “Please note that it is a condition of the product that where the customer/s is using the mortgage to fund the purchase of a property, the balance of the purchase monies must be paid from the customer’s own funds. The customer cannot use the loan funds for this purpose and you must not release the loan funds to the customer until after the completion of the purchase.”

As far as the initials are concerned, LTV simply means loan to value – the maximum amount which can be loaned on a property value. Basically, as an example, if a property is valued at £100,000 and there’s an LTV of 125%, then £125,000 could be borrowed on the property.

HLC stands for higher lending charge. This may be applied when someone is applying for a high percentage of mortgage. It’s designed to protect the lender against some, or all, of the losses should the property need to be taken into possession because of serious arrears. Usually lenders pass this charge on to the borrower. In these cases, deals that may have initially appeared to be cheap mortgages are in fact far from cheap. This charge crops up sometimes, along with ERC’s – early repayment charges. Self explanatory really, it’s a charge imposed if you wish to pay any part of a loan before the end of the term. Watch out for this one.

BTL has nothing to do with sandwiches – that’s BLT! BTL is simply buy to let. There are specific BTL mortgages designed for the buyer entering the rental market.

We use these illustrations simply to point out the intricacies of the mortgage market. By getting on to a mortgage broker, you’ll be saved from this financial alphabet. They’ll know what’s available and give you all the help and advice you need. An on-line broker is the way to do it and who knows, you might even understand some of the lingo.

Interior Design and Human Behavior

A science or an art

Do you think of interior design as a science or an art? Well, it might be a quiet difficult question; but in fact a combination of both. Interior design can be defined as an applied art where creativity skills and technical knowledge provide solutions. These solutions are applied to achieve a more convenient habitat.

Interior design provides answers that are both functional and attractive and enhance the quality of life. Interior design reflects and interacts with the cultural background and traditional heritage of the occupants.

The design process itself runs through a systematic and interactive methodology to create an innovative and functional design solution whereby the needs and resources of the occupants are satisfied.

To achieve a well designed environment many elements contribute together thus innovating the overall theme e.g. color, light, texture…etc. interior design provides solutions for residential, commercial, educational, healthcare, office and hospitality projects consequently affecting our daily way of living or in other words; our behavior.

However interior design leans on our cultural heritage, yet it still can directly or indirectly shape our behavior and definitely it influences our reactions. For instance a room painted in red feels warm than another painted in blue! However it’s the same environment but the color which is an important design element has altered our behavior and way of thinking. The same color itself can trigger different emotions depending on its reference to either symbolic or psychological functions considering the linkages that vary with time, place and cultural background. While white color is worn at weddings and may represent purity, sterility, virginity and peace for some nations, it was the color worn at funerals for others during certain periods in history.

Another noteworthy proof of how interior design can affect our behavior is light! It has to be customized according to the function performed by the occupants. That major element can ensure and highlight a certain frame of mind! For example in a work environment an inadequate light amount would cause annoyance and discomfort. On the contrary you would enjoy a nice dinner or a romantic movie on a dimmed light.

I do believe that the relation between mass and space creates the greatest impact on human behavior. Minimalism where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and the subject is reduced to its necessary elements was an approach for better living environments. A cluttered habitat is definitely irritating while fine organized minimal but yet function environments promote serenity and comfort. A good design coordinating mass and space can elevate the sense of creativity and innovation.

Again cultural variations transform occupant’s vision to surrounding space. For instance a minimal designed interior seems less and for some nations less reflects poverty.

The influence of interior design on human behavior is apparent while working for instance on educational projects like nurseries where children experience a phase of mind shaping. Color, light and texture integrate together to encourage creativity. Safety is another dimension that could be enhanced.

From my point of view a global standard design code for interior environments is not applicable since occupants respond in a different way in accordance with several factors such as cultural background, social heritage or climate conditions. Interior design could effectively develop the quality of life in accordance with formerly mentioned factors; focusing on the basics of creating an ideal habitat for living.

A Man’s Thought Process When Having An Affair: Here’s A Look Inside His Mind

One of the biggest mysteries to wives after a husband’s affair is what was his thought process right before (or right as) he made the horrible, life changing decision to cheat.

Many wives will attempt to solve this mystery by asking their husbands directly about his thought process. This often isn’t very satisfying though. Because a husband is rarely completely honest. And this isn’t always because he’s trying to cover himself or save both of you some pain. It’s often because he has no idea why he would do this. He can’t always isolate exactly what he was thinking or why he acted.

So, without getting the answers that she needs, the wife is left only to speculate. And I find that many times, we wives fall back on old cliches combined with our worst fears. Here is what many wives assume is their husband’s thought process.

Some Variation On ‘I Wasn’t Getting What I Needed At Home So I Am Going To Get It Somewhere Else’: Many wives feel that they have no choice but to make the assumption that the affair is a direct reflection on her or on her marriage. She will assume that her husband was no longer attracted to her. Or that, if he was, he was more attracted to the other woman.

Or, she’ll assume that the other woman has become so special or unique to her husband, that his desire for her overcame his commitment to his family or his good sense. They assume thought processes like: ‘wow, this other woman is younger and prettier than my wife. She offers me something that I can’t and do not get at home.’

Or ‘my wife is cold and my marriage is sub par. And now that I’ve found something better, who can blame me for taking advantage of it?’

And finally, ‘I feel strongly for this other woman. And eventually, I’m going to leave my spouse for her.’

With all of these potential assumptions, it’s no wonder that many wives see the affair or the cheating as a rejection. And it will hurt because it will change the way that she sees herself and her marriage.

What If He Wasn’t “Thinking” At All?: In reality though, the thoughts described above are so rarely what I hear and sense from husbands. Frankly, I don’t think that many husbands have concrete, identifiable thoughts that cause them to act right before an affair. Instead, I believe that for the most part, the first act of an affair is mostly done on impulse. And truthfully, many husbands will tell you that they tried to quiet their thoughts instead of bringing them forth. They quiet them to help alleviate the guilt.

Although I believe that conscious thoughts are somewhat rare, here is what I believe the thought process would most often be if there were indeed concrete thoughts.

“No One Will Find Out. It Will A One-Time Thing. And It Will Be A Band Aid.” Many husbands do not cheat intending for it to change their marriage, despite what they tell the other woman. They are often at a point in their lives where they are feeling unsure about themselves. This is often a point where they feel as if they have lost something. They may feel off of their game. Older. Tired. Losing a step. And they often do not share this with their wives because is embarrassing.

So when an opportunity presents itself that might make them feel better, they often act on impulse. And when there’s that moment between walking away or acting, they may tell themselves that it is a one-time thing that will lead to nothing. Or, they assure themselves that they won’t allow it to change anything significant.

Of course, I am speaking in generalities based on the trends that I see. Every person is unique and every situation is different. I’m trying to offer reassurance that every affair does not involve a husband who was rejecting his wife. Many of these same husbands fight very hard to save their marriage and get their wife back after the affair is discovered. Even husbands who believe that they have fallen in love with the other woman sometimes make this realization eventually.

My point is, I think it’s a mistake to assume that a cheating husband doesn’t love or isn’t attracted to his wife. This is often not the case. It’s just that he doesn’t think that he will lose or hurt her because of this. And he’s acting on impulse, not common sense or good judgment.

So my answer to the question to “what are men thinking when having an affair” is that often, men aren’t thinking at all. And this is the problem. Their thoughts only kick in after they have already made the mistake and done the damage.

Advantages of a Hand Held Multi-tool

A portable hand held multi-tool allows the use of certain working devices compacted in a single device. It includes tools such as wrenches, pliers, screwdrivers and other cutting blades. A hand held multi-tool includes a handle that has a blade and can be rotated between close and open position. The tool implements are compacted in a locked engagement along with a handle by a cantilevered tool lock that is located on the handle. The blade has two locking recesses which are adapted to receive a locking member mounted on a cantilevered blade lock. These can extend along the handle in order for the blade to be secured in both closed and open position. This invention is directed towards the functionality of a knife and other various tools and blades.

A hand held multi-tool has its own great benefits as compared to an individual tool. Multiple individual tools could be very heavy to carry and they need to be secured in large tool kits. They can also be much unorganized which makes it a lot more difficult to find the right tool to accomplish a job. The multi-tool on the other hand is lighter in weight as compared to numerous individual tools. This single apparatus can equate to the functions of certain tools. It is also easy to carry and it can even fit in your pocket. Hand held multi-tools are very useful especially when you are out to travel in a remote location.

Multi-tools are now being offered by so many companies like Leatherman which is the founder of the very first multi-tool. This device comes in various models and with different tools. They also have unique styles and design that suits every preference. Some models have more tools as compared to the others. Most models looks like a knife where all the tools are folded inside, the other models are pliers and some in the form or credit cards. Hunting for a multi-tool can be quite a challenging job. However, there are a lot of stores that offers the best brands. Online shopping is one way of ensuring that you get the best quality of multi-tools.

Multi-tools are great for outdoors adventures. You can have all the tools that you need in a single hand held apparatus that is very handy and practical. It is difficult traveling away from home without anything to help you with simple chores. You can use a multi-tool to prepare food when you are out in woods. You do not need to bring large knives and all other chopping materials. When you brought can goods with you, you can use the multi-tool since it has a can and bottle opener incorporated with it. This can also be used as a self-defense when you are being attacked by wild animals in the woods. In general, a multi-tool is like a survival kit compacted in a single hand held apparatus.

Why Do Engineers Procrastinate?

Procrastination is another dragon the engineer must slay on the way to realizing professional and personal growth. For engineers procrastination often results when tasks seem daunting to the point that it overwhelms them and then self doubt creeps in. Self doubt is a common malady considering the complexity and rate of implementation of many engineering projects and usually results from fear of failing. The complexity of electronic systems, their design, construction, and use require many skills and often times an engineer is asked to take on new tasks beyond his or her current skill level. This can exacerbate fear and self doubt and procrastination is seen to be a quick solution to the short term problem.

If they are left to fester, short term problems inevitably develop into long term nightmares. So how does an engineer avoid procrastination? Fear will always rear its head and self doubt is unavoidable given the circumstances. If left unchecked they could lead to the more serious chronic problem of lack of confidence-a career destroyer.

To avoid procrastinating the engineer needs to make a big commitment to a few changes and each one in itself is simple and just requires accomplishing one small step at a time.

Become more organized: This doesn’t necessarily mean the engineer should clear off his desk. All engineers seem to have messy desks but know how to retrieve what they need. This is more about organizing time, both at work and at home. Create a doable schedule that includes both your home life and workplace. Flag the items that are causing your procrastination in red and in “bold” come up with a one sentence simple first step action. For example, you are procrastinating about implementing a new radio station because you don’t know how to download all the parameters. Your answer: Send a simple e-mail to co-workers asking if they have had problems downloading parameters.

Prioritize your “to do” list: Engineers all have “to do” lists and they are a good thing. But often lists are not prioritized and are simply numbered from one to whatever. At the end of the day unfinished business will be put on tomorrow’s “to do” list. Procrastinated issues always seem to find their way to the bottom of the list. Prioritize your list and place the issues you are procrastinating on at the top in bold. Once again come up with a simple first step answer to the issue.

Ask for help if you don’t know all the answers: It is amazing what people will do for you if you just ask. All engineers like to think that they know all the answers but there comes a time when it’s worthwhile to swallow your pride and ask. People (even engineers) like to witness other people just being human.

Take action immediately on the issue: As soon as an issue becomes a problem, take action. Make a phone call, send an e-mail, grab a co-worker, but take action. This will help “nip the problem in the bud.” Then take another small step and then another and procrastination will be a thing of the past.

Reduce time consuming tasks to a manageable level: Sometimes procrastination doesn’t occur because of one or two issues but because of a kind of system overload. The engineer takes on more and more responsibilities and his or her overall work suffers. The engineer needs to learn to say “no” and to learn to “cut the fat” from projects. Too many meetings can waste valuable time. Perhaps it’s better to get a summary of project from a co-worker who has had the experience than studying the entire project manual yourself.

Once the engineer has accomplished small steps for these tasks he or she will be amazed how much more comfortable their job has become without the threats of fear and self doubt that has led to procrastination. Now the engineer can reach the next step-becoming an expert in the workplace.

My Wife Is Emotionally Detached! How to Address This Now

Your marriage is a shell of what it used to be. This is the same issue that many men have to work their way through as they begin to realize that their wife isn’t the same partner she used to be. She’s not as bright and cheery, she’s less apt to make plans for the future and your wife is emotionally detached. You often feel as though you are living with a complete stranger and it’s painful, to say the least. You feel as though there’s a divide between the two of you that you just can’t cross on your own. I know it’s disheartening and confusing. You worry over what the future will bring and whether the emotional distance you feel now is only going to get worse and worse.

If your wife is emotionally detached, it’s not productive to accuse her of not caring about you. Many men do this only because their emotions are so close to the surface and they feel overwrought. They lash out at their wives because they sense that she’s just given up. That’s not what has happened at all. Actually, many women who seemed to be emotionally distant are actually struggling with issues of their own and they feel so weighed down by those issues that they can’t effectively communicate or even interact with their husbands.

Before you can help your wife you really need to take some time to try and identify what has happened that may have caused her to withdraw into herself. There are, of course, some highly emotional issues that can make a woman retreat including if her partner has an affair or if she is confronted with the death of someone close to her, such as a sibling or a parent. In these cases, depression may be a contributing factor to her increasingly solemn moods and if that’s the case, it’s important that you encourage her to discuss her mood with a medical professional. Suggesting that she confides in her personal physician about her feelings of sadness will help you both in the long run.

If your wife hasn’t had to deal with any type of life changing situation recently, it’s going to be harder to pinpoint why she’s become emotionally detached. If you two have been married for some time she may have reached a point where she’s questioning the direction her life has taken. This happens to many women after they’ve become mothers and have shifted their focus from their own lives to tending to the needs of their children and husband. They feel they’ve become an extension of their family and have lost their own identity. You can typically sense if this is what your wife is struggling with if she has made comments about not being sure of her purpose in life or if she wonders what her life could have been like if her choices were different.

Dealing with all of this can feel a bit like scaling a mountain if you’re a man who has never been that in touch with his own feelings, let alone his wives. I realize that you may feel ill equipped to help her, especially if she’s not sharing what she’s feeling openly with you. The point that you need to always remember though is that there are numerous ways you can recreate the closeness you two once shared.

Talk to your wife more. I’m a woman and I can tell you, without reservation that we love to talk. Your wife may withdraw at times, but if you start a conversation on a very general topic, such as the children or the weather, you’ll find that she’ll become more engaged as it progresses. Sometimes a woman just wants to know that her husband still finds her interesting and worth talking to. This is especially important if your wife and you live such busy lives that you don’t connect on a regular basis.

Tell your wife how much she means to you. Women love hearing how much the man they’re with adores them. We soak it up and we absorb it all. Even if your wife has become so emotionally distant that she never tells you that she loves you anymore, don’t allow that to stop you from sharing with her how you feel. She wants and needs to hear it. If you say it enough and in enough, subtle ways, she’ll begin to feel closer to you all over again.

Do more for your wife. It’s not uncommon for women to start resenting their husbands when they’ve been married for a time if the bulk of the daily family responsibilities fall unto the wife’s shoulders. If your wife has to tend to her own career and then also chase after all of the children’s needs, that can become a burden. If you don’t ever offer any assistance or you shy away when your wife does ask you to help, that’s bound to cause some friction within the marriage. The resentment your wife feels may channel itself as emotional distance. That’s why it’s essential that you do more to help her any chance you get.

Staying committed to making the marriage work has to be your main goal. You must, as a loving and caring husband, take the time to nurture the connection you have with your wife to bring it back to life again. Sometimes, concentrated attention within a marriage can make all the difference in the world. Treasure your wife, as you did in the earliest days of your marriage, and you’ll start to notice a shift in her attitude and how attentive she is to you.

Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Vs Styrofoam

Over time, styrofoam has come to denote anything made from the rigid, foamy, typically white material that reveals tightly conjoined beads when snapped. Most people are not aware that the foam cups they use at the office drinking station and those little marshmallow-like chunks used for packaging are made from an entirely different material called Expanded Polystyrene (EPS).

While it is also a form of foamed polystyrene, EPS is manufactured by expanding polystyrene beads with steam and pressure then bonded together to form blocks and other shapes. The material is most commonly processed into coolers, wine shippers, molded end caps and corners and, yes, disposable cups and box packaging marshmallows.

Styrofoam, on the other hand, is a registered trademark of the Dow Chemical Company and its affiliates. It is made from extruded polystyrene and is largely moisture-resistant because of its closed cell structure. Because of this feature, the trademark material is primarily molded into panels called blue boards and used in construction for the insulation of walls and floors, and roof insulation systems. It is also often used in the floral, craft and special events industries.

Several companies offer a full range of polystyrene foam products, molding the sturdy material into balls, sheets, blocks, spheres, and cones that can be used for craftwork, special events, and other industries. If the project requires the material to have specific R-values and where compression strength is critical, it is better to make use of Styrofoam rather than EPS. Large-scale construction applications are a good example.

How To Detoxify in 5 Easy Steps

This Program will help you:

  • Lose Weight
  • Have More Energy
  • Have Better Bowel Movements
  • Lower Cholesterol
  • Lower Blood Pressure
  • Improve Hair, Skin and Nails

Step 1

Take DE (1 tablespoon daily)

Step 2

Drink Ionized Water (Rejuvenator)

Step 3

Eliminate almost 300 sextillion free radicals daily (Protandim)

Step 4

Rub Magnesium Oil on your body every night

Step 5

Use an FIR sauna 30 minutes daily

Step 1 -Detoxification with Diatomaceous Earth

One of the major obstacles with treating any illness, particularly weight gain, is the dilemma of a toxic body and all the complications it presents. When a person possesses a coated colon and a body full of toxins, any medicine or natural substance used to treat a problem will be often be ineffective.

According to, there are 3 major ways in which a product that I have used with many clients, called Diatomaceous Earth (Food Grade), works to detoxify the body and rid it of the harmful elements that often sideline or even cause a weight loss program to fail.

Diatomaceous Earth – when magnified 7000 times – looks like a cylinder full of holes–kind of like Rice Chex Cereal. This cylinder has a very strong negative charge. As these millions of cylinders move through the stomach and digestive tract, they attract and absorb fungi, protozoa, viruses, endotoxins, pesticides and drug residues, E-Coli, and heavy metals. These are trapped inside the cylinder and passed out of the body. In addition, any larger parasites that happen to be in the stomach or digestive tract are “cut up” and killed by the sharp edges of the Diatomaceous Earth. All of these activities result in a much healthier body with less sickness. People often say “I just feel better” with Diatomaceous Earth. This better feeling comes from all the “junk” being removed from the body and by giving the immune system the “jump start” it needs.


Diatomaceous Earth is very hard. On the hardness scale where diamonds are a 9, Diatomaceous Earth is a 7. This is very important, because as those millions of tiny hard and sharp Diatomaceous Earth cylinders pass through the small and large intestines, they “scrub” the walls. After only a few months of taking Diatomaceous Earth, the intestine wall is no longer coated with mucus and molds but CLEAN!! The advantages of this are several:

  1. Regular bowel movements (This is the #1 comment everyone makes about DE)
  2. Healthier Colon. This is especially important as we get older. A clean healthy colon keeps away polyps, cancers, and ulcers. Today, many are spending thousands of dollars to get colonics to do the same thing as Diatomaceous Earth does.
  3. Many users report increased energy and needing less sleep. This is a result of all the food and nutrients that are taken in being better absorbed into the blood stream. With a coated colon–many nutrients never get absorbed.


A small amount of Diatomaceous Earth gets absorbed into the blood stream as silica. One of the benefits of Silica is that it helps to destroy bad fats. Most people taking Diatomaceous Earth have lowered their cholesterol by 40-50 points. They are also amazed at how their high blood pressure goes down.

  1. Sore joints and ligaments feel better
  2. Skin clears up (acne-age spots-psoriasis)
  3. Hair and nails are stronger and grow faster
  4. Stronger teeth and gums
  5. Healthier respiratory tract–less coughing
  6. Menopause has less symptoms
  7. Healthier urinary tract

The benefits of silica are many. In today’s grains, there is actually a shortage of silica. Years ago, the silica found in our foodstuffs was adequate, but with today’s hybrids and depleted soils, only about 1/3 of the silica needed is supplied in our food. Diatomaceous Earth is a simple and inexpensive way to get the silica your body needs.

I have tried many detoxification programs over the years, but I have never tried anything as easy and effective as Diatomaceous Earth. It really works!

Step 2 – Drink Ionized Alkaline Water

Obesity is actually protecting our bodies and acts as insulation to the highly acidic lifestyle we lead. Ionic water can literally save our lives and end (for many of us) a lifelong obesity problem. I recommend Rejuvenator Ionizer ( Rejuvenator is the world’s smallest water ionizer and costs only $40 (compared to many water machines over $4000). If you let Rejuvenator sit in the water for at least 5 minutes, your water should be close to 9.0 pH. If you eat healthy, alkaline foods, your total body pH should be near 7.4 (the same as your blood). Otto Warburg, MD won the Nobel Prize in 1931 because he proved that when our bodies become alkaline (over 7.0 pH), no disease can survive in an alkaline environment.

The term alkaline water is just a label used to describe ideal drinking water as provided by nature; one of many labels that arise as we explore the hidden properties of water. Alkaline water has more excess oxygen and alkaline minerals than neutral or acid tap water. It is highly oxygenated water with the oxygen form that is needed by our cells. Alkaline water has 100’s of times more excess oxygen then neutral tap water and no acid elements or toxic substances in it. The discovery of ionized water closely replicates the living qualities of high altitude mountain spring water: Fresh, Invigorating, Life Enhancing, Free Radical Scavenging and Delicious.

Alkaline water is drinking water as it should be, and as it is in nature’s best waters like glacier waters. If you measure the properties of glacier water, considered the very best drinking water, it has similar properties to ionized water – alkaline pH, high colloidal mineral content, active hydrogen and micro clusters. In nature you see a separation of water into acid and alkaline: high altitude spring waters tend to be alkaline (for drinking), whereas hot spring waters are acidic (but have a reputation for skin cleansing)..

Ionized alkaline and acid waters are used in hospitals and clinics throughout Japan and South Korea, where the water ionizer is classified as a medical device.

Ionized water is considered to be one of the most effective and easy ways for your body to: hydrate, alkalize and detoxify. Alkaline water can slowly reverse the aging process, which is a gradual process of acid waste accumulation. It is every effective because the water penetrates deeply to dissolve and remove toxins from the body. Acid wastes like lactic acid that are insoluble in neutral water become soluble in alkaline water and so can be removed from the body by drinking alkaline water. Alkaline water has many reported benefits. It can help with weight loss, help the body detoxify, reduce the aging process, help in cases of diabetics and other health conditions, provide valuable anti-oxidants, and help prevent cancer.

Slightly alkaline blood pH ensures that micro-organisms remain in harmony with the body. When the pH becomes acidic there is a lack of oxygen which causes a proliferation of antagonistic, anaerobic microforms to appear. The acidic body becomes a breeding ground for germs, fungus and viruses. They consume the food we eat and leave us more acid waste excrements! Acidity coagulates blood and clogs up the capillaries. Over-acidity interferes with life itself, leading to virtually all sickness and disease including heart attacks and cancer, premature aging and obesity.

Our 75 trillion cells are slightly acidic within and are surrounded by slightly alkaline interstitial fluid around them. This polarity is essential for chemical or energy interchange, and is lost with acidity – one reason why so many people lack energy. Acidic pH interferes with mineral absorption. We will receive no iodine unless the body pH is almost perfect and calcium is very difficult to absorb with an excessively acid body. Excess acidity weakens all our systems and forces the body to take minerals from vital organs and bones to buffer/neutralize the acid and safely remove it from the body. The body creates cholesterol (fatty deposits) to safely store deadly crystallized acid wastes away from vital organs of liver, heart and kidney. ‘Obesity is an acid problem, the fat is saving our lives’ explains Dr Robert Young

Step 3 – Eliminate Free Radicals

What Causes Free Radicals?

Free radicals are cells that are searching for an electron and become out of control and very unpredictable. They can be destructive by accelerating the aging process, land in joints which may cause inflammation and arthritis or lead to serious diseases, such as cancer. The pollution that makes the 21st century so dangerous and complex along with consuming the Standard American Diet (SAD) consisting of junk food with artificial ingredients has led to increased inflammation and free radical activity. We live in dangerous times that require our immediate attention and action if we are to lead long, healthy lives.

Free radicals can come from our own metabolism, pollution, heavy metals, cigarette smoke, impure water, processed foods, drugs, magnesium and silica (minerals) deficiency, excitotoxins (such as Aspartame which is used to flavor diet drinks). Free radicals are simply a major part of our lifestyle and cannot be avoided.

Free Radical Elimination

Scientific studies indicate that we produce about 300 sextillion (that’s 21 zeroes) free radicals every day. It is a major reason why we are becoming sicker and dying younger. Free radicals are closely associated with an affluent culture. The problem with taking antioxidants is that they eliminate free radicals on a 1 to 1 basis. You couldn’t possibly take enough antioxidants to eliminate 300 sextillion free radicals daily. So what’s the solution?

Protandim ( is a formula designed by a PhD who received his degree from Duke University and has been nominated for the Nobel Prize. He discovered SOD, which is a natural antioxidant enzyme in your body. Protandim activates your own antioxidant enzymes and you then eliminates 1 million free radicals per second for 24 hours when you take 1 Protandim pill which incorporates 5 herbs. Protandim is an easy all-natural way to eliminate a major problem so you can have more energy, prevent many diseases and lead a healthy life.

Step 4 – The Miracle of Magnesium

  1. Helps to lower cholesterol
  2. Magnesium can help prevent obesity
  3. Great for insomnia and sleep problems
  4. Lowers risk of heart disease (especially hypertension)
  5. Helps prevent strokes
  6. Helps treat diabetes
  7. Improves mood and memory
  8. Helps prevent depression and anxiety
  9. Effectively prevents and treats headaches and pain
  10. Useful in treatment of Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia

* I recommend rubbing Magnesium Oil on your body every night

Step 5 -The FIR Sauna Benefits

  1. Average weight loss– 1 pound per week (daily 30 minute sessions)
  2. Calories expended– 600 to 2400 calories per 30 minute session
  3. Cleansing/Detoxification– Lymphatic and Immune System
  4. Cardiovascular Benefits– 6 mile run per 30 minute session
  5. Improves relaxation and sleep
  6. Facial Cleansing(reduces toxins)

The FIR Sauna is light, portable, unzips and can be washed and hung to dry, easily transported in the trunk of a small car, arm vents allows freedom to use laptop computer, phone, watch TV or listen to music.

The FIR sauna has been endorsed by NASA (used by the astronauts), American Heart Association, used by many hospitals, health clubs all over the world and is especially effective at burning fat.

Can a Rebreather Be an Asset in Commercial Diving?

What is a rebreather? A rebreather is a type of breathing apparatus used by divers differentiating from others in the market through its ability to recycle the gases you exhale, to be re-used in a continuous flow cycle. If you are a professional diver or a commercial diver then you have no doubt heard of these systems but most likely never used one. Whereas commercial divers usually use a surface supplied diving system in order to work, rebreathers are more often used by technical divers for the freedom of movement and smaller penalties in the way of decompression needed.

The mode of action of a rebreather is based on some basic and simple scientific principles. The rebreather enables you to inhale the air you breathed out instead of releasing it in the form of air bubbles. The rebreather primarily removes the carbon dioxide content of the exhaled air using a small volume of the alkali, sodium hydroxide in the scrubber.

The carbon dioxide is eliminated in the form of solid calcium carbonate. The oxygen you used up is replaced using the stocked small canisters of pure oxygen to inject fresh oxygen in the air when the breathing cycle is started over again. A rebreather also maintains the oxygen content at the optimum through oxygen sensors included in the breathing set. A negative feedback mechanism controls the rate of oxygen-delivery.

A rebreather has multiple benefits over the other breathing apparatus available on the market, making it an asset in some circumstances. A rebreather offers an improved gas efficiency. While conventional breathing sets waste oxygen since your exhaled air has an oxygen content of 16%, a rebreather recycles the oxygen to be used again. The rebreather is lighter than other breathing apparatus available commercially. This is explained by the fact that a rebreather only carries pure oxygen leaving behind the 78% nitrogen content of atmospheric air.

With a rebreather, you can expect a lot less decompression sickness because nitrogen in the breathing system is kept at a minimum threshold. Divers can afford to stay in the water longer than with the conventional scuba gear. Rebreathers produce few or no bubbles at all and therefore cause minimum disturbance to aquatic life. The diver moves stealthily to catch the underwater life unawares.

Over the years, rebreather diving has killed a fair number of people, some of whom were believed to be competent divers, owing to complications arising when the owners do not get acquainted with their diving gear well enough before venturing out. The number of diving fatalities involving rebreathers is on the rise since 1998 increasing from 1 to 5% in the United States. Common diving disorders when using a rebreather includes deep water blackout caused by hypoxia when the oxygen partial pressure of the re-breathed air gets too low to sustain life, oxygen toxicity caused by a partial pressure of oxygen too high, reaching hyperoxic levels. Disorientation, severe headacheand hyperventilation owing to an excessively high content of carbon dioxidein the recycled air. This is usually caused by a failure in the scrubber system. For these reasons, you will find a rebreather diver training course is even more intensely orientated around safety than a standard commercial diving or scuba diving course.

A rebreather is undoubted a fine piece of technology considered as an indispensable asset in many professional diving fields. There are pros and cons but it’s up to you as a rebreather diver to take your responsibilities and dive safe all the time. A professional rebreather diving course would be a good way to start.