Learning To Let Go – Detachment – Dealing With The Lower Mind – Transference

Physical need includes; security, safety, warmth, future happiness, financial, career, and even a spiritual sense of place in the world. You can see that physical attachment to someone is very complex because it captures so much of our unconscious communication with ourselves and with others.

Our Physical attractions encapsulate our need for mothering, fathering, care, kindness, acceptance, and feeling wanted in the world. So, we tie many subconscious agendas to the people we are attracted to. Now the fact that these ties are subconscious is the real trauma because it means we don’t know they exist. We can only presume they exist. For example: a child who is “diminished and put down” might grow into an adult who seeks sexual activity with many partners. They transfer their inbuilt and well hidden need for love (from their childhood journey) into the acceptance they get from an intimate engagement with a lover.

The Buddha said something like “the best way to clean mud from water is to leave it alone. The mud eventually settles to the bottom of the bucket” He even grew lotus flowers out of that mud. So, trying to purify ourselves by eliminating these subconscious attachments might be akin to stirring up the mud all the time. Goodness knows, there’s billions of these tiny threads of association lodged in our brain.

Osho claimed that the best way to eliminate those physical attachments is to take anything we seem to be attached to, and overdo it. His teachings were that if we are getting subconscious needs met through sex, then this is really distracting because we get highly attached to anyone we are sexually attracted to. So, his remedy for this corruption to our real capacity to love was to over do it.

He taught his students who had sexual issues of attachment to their lover, to go have as much sex with as many people in as many circumstances (always safe sex) as possible. The idea was that eventually the benefit of the sex would wear off. The same thing is taught in chocolate factories where employees “eat the profit” – in some factories they actually encourage employees to gluttonize themselves on chocolate, knowing that once you overdo the eating to the point of sickness, you’d never eat chocolate again.

I’ve met both the Buddha following students who prefer to say “it is what it is – leave it alone” and the other groups who either “do it till they drop” or analyse themselves in order to process their “baggage” – in my observation, none work authentically.

All those paths are subject to delusions. The indulgent one seem happy but always fearful that their “source” of pleasure might get taken away by someone else, so they tend to be insecure around love. The “out of mind out of sight” group, are so vulnerable to the uncertainty of the future, they become controlling and obsessive. The processing group who are always following a philosophy, trying to fit their real nature down the barrel of some prescribed “goodness’ are always nice people sitting on a powder keg of defensiveness and anger.

Now remembering that 90% of all war, addictions, pain, anger, expectations and human suffering belong to this lower mind, it is any wonder that there has been huge religious, spiritual, psychological and experiential energy poured into it. If we could solve this one mighty glitch in the human matrix of life, we’d make a massive transformation in global and personal dynamics.

If we could master this lower mind and all the complexity of its attachments, it’s psychological profile, its subconscious links between what we want and what we are holding onto, we’d solve 90% of the “world’s problems” – especially in domestic relationships.

Addictions come from this lower mind. In relationship, people become “addicted” to their lover, rather than in love. Remembering that love has no attachment, so, we can’t say “my pain in letting you go is because I love you so much” That’s a lie.

Here’s a few thoughts that might help provoke insight if you are one person who finds it hard to let go:

1. Love and attachment are two different things. If you love someone or something, you know you don’t own it. The greatest love in fact, is letting go. To be detached is to love. Many people are socially conditioned to “take responsibility” for other people, including their children as a form of what they call their “love” – but this is just lower minded ego attachments playing thought the subconscious. In other words “bull sh..”

2. You only want what you haven’t got. So, attachment means that this person you are attached to has something you need or want. But you have everything, you are everything, so it’s just that you think their “bundle” is better than your “bundle” – that’s a lie, a self corruption.

3. They are “the one” – this is a really romantic notion, sold a lot of movies too. But they are not “the one” You might think they are “the one” but that’s because you have such a low opinion of yourself, and such a high opinion of them. Eventually, after a few years in relationship with them you’ll see that this idea is wrong. They are human. Dual. Two sided. The only real way to resolve this dilemma is to list all the things you like about them, and become it.

4. Resistance; to change. We love change, as long as nothing changes. We change our undies or sox, we change our hairdresser. But changing our beliefs – now that’s another story. We change our country, our job, our house, even change our hair colour as long as our beliefs don’t change, we seem to be ok. So, sometimes what holds us stuck in attachment is not love, more, it is not wanting to change. We’re stuck with something we don’t like, and given the chance we’d change them too, as long as we don’t have to change our beliefs. Now that’s not right is it?

5. Projection; There’s always a deeper meaning. We hang on to the current reality primarily because we are getting something that is hidden from view. Something that we haven’t been able to identify with. So we might be attached but can’t explain it because it’s deeper than logic. Sometimes we use words like “there’s just a special something, or, we are just so perfect together” this is really masking. Underneath the attachment to another person lies a shark with big teeth lurking in the shadows of the deep. So, really, we are not happy with them but we are not happy without them. Revealing that there’s something else going on. That’s where I help people.

6. Association; For Self importance; sometimes being with someone who is beautiful, clever, famous, attractive, smart, wealthy rubs off and makes us feel important too. Especially when we feel a bit small in the world during uncertain times. When our tail isn’t up, and we’re feeling frail or not as important as we’d like to be, we associate. That means suck the life blood out of someone else in order to sustain ourselves. This association, in my experience, accounts for over half of all the “addictions” to past relationships.

7. Circumstances; The real issue with addiction is the cost of it which I believe to be more to do with your circumstances than anything else. Lets say a woman meets a man and she becomes infatuated (addicted) to him. They break up and we monitor her journey through the drama. If she has money in the bank, confidence in the future, a good solid home, a health program for her fitness and some sort of personal spiritual practice she will still experience the pain, no escaping that, but for how long and what would her reaction be to the break-up? This is what changes with circumstance.

8. Now, take the same woman and empty her bank account, reduce her confidence in the future, an unstable home, no fitness program and a materialized form of spiritual practice like alcohol or food, in other words no solidarity for her spirit, we would see her experience the break up totally differently. She’d certainly be “more attached” to her lover. She’d say “but he’s the perfect one”

9. Power; In every consultation regarding a relationship break up, there’s the dumpee and the dumper. The dumpee is always in the most pain because they lost their power. Of course, according to the Laws of Nature, the dumpee, (the one who got dumped) is usually the cause of the dumping. (nobody does to us more than we do to ourselves) – so actually the dumpee usually sabotaged the relationship because they wanted out. However, no matter who caused the dumping, the one with the least power in the matter of separation seems to feel that they have been made a victim. In that one experience of becoming the victim is more pain than most people can handle, so, people cling on to avoid that pain. They don’t really want the relationship, they just don’t want the pain.

Solutions to the Lower Mind Attachments in Relationship

Willpower. You’ll hear about all sorts of psycho therapeutic and spiritual mumbo jumbo that might or might not help you in love. But the one guaranteed way is discipline. It might not be the easy way. It might not be the most pleasant way. It might at times not be the most romantic and sexy way: but it is always the fastest and most accurate. Lower minded attachments in relationships are a problem, whether we are breaking up or getting into a relationship. Have the willpower to communicate with kindness – always. Have the willpower to know the difference between love and intimacy. Have the willpower to hold love but not get attached. Don’t blame others and respect their right to privacy. Have the willpower to know that all our fears, worries, reactions and uncertainties, come from us, our partner is just the mirror.

Authenticity: You have to become what you love in them. Take what you are attracted to in their personality and become it. Learn the art of integration. If they are creative, express your creative. If they are strong, experience your strength. Nothing is missing, it just changes in form.

Power: Empower yourself. Be the cause of the break up, no matter how it looks. Know that no body does anything to you that you are not doing to yourself. So, if they left, you left first, emotionally at least. Or if they left you – then you abandoned them first (emotionally at least)

Discern: Learn the difference between love and attachment. Learn that love is detached. Love releases people. Imagine that each person you know has a garden surrounding them as they walk, it moves with them. You can’t see it, but they can. You step on a weed but it could be a flower. So, to discern between love and attachment stay outside this fence don’t think you have the right to stomp in people’s garden. That’s not love.

Transference: One lady was very attached to her ex partner. I first taught her how to love a man she didn’t like. That was an important skill. Then I taught her to become whatever she admired in him. She did this and felt great. Then I asked her to determine the real cause of the breakup and why she manifested it. Last I asked her to witness how she had already, or was in the process of transferring all her affections and relationship needs to others. She invented some new ones like playing the piano and going for a jog but eventually she found nothing was missing, as long as her love for her ex was separated from her needs from him.

Higher mind – Conclusion

Living with higher consciousness means moving all of life’s experiences from emotional attachment or detachment, to love. Unconditional love is unique because there is no need, no holding, only love. In this space, you don’t need to have opinions about your partner, ex partner, just love.


Insulating a Slipform Stone House

There can be no question that insulation should be of primary importance when considering new house construction. Slipform stone houses are no exception to this rule. Helen and Scott Nearing, early proponents of this stone building technique, claimed that their New England homes were comfortable year-round without much thought given to insulation – indeed, their first slipform home was built right into a Vermont cliff-face, and made use of bare ledge as one wall. While the thermal mass of the earth itself surely served to maintain house temperatures above freezing, by modern standards, there can be no doubt that this uninsulated stone house would make for a chilly winter. Insulation is key to efficiency, and there are a number of ways to insulate a slipform stone structure.

Stud Wall and fiberglass batting

One common approach to the question of insulation in stone and concrete structures is the construction of a standard framed stud wall against the interior wall. This framed wall is then insulated in the traditional manner, using fiberglass batting insulation between the studs. While this approach works fine, and brings the comfort of familiarity to many builders, the construction of the stud wall is wasteful, and the studs themselves present the opportunity for thermal bridging, significantly reducing the overall insulation of the house.

Rigid Insulation

Rigid insulation offers a number of opportunities when it comes to insulating slipform stone homes. Rigid insulation, correctly installed, allows for no thermal bridging and creates a tight envelope inside the house. There are a number of techniques for building this type of insulation right into the walls themselves, either by laying the insulation inside the forms as you build, or replacing the interior forms entirely with nailbase – rigid insulation mated with OSB, plywood, or even sheetrock on one side.

Adding rigid insulation after the walls are standing can present a challenge to the typical owner/builder. The biggest hurdle here is figuring out how to secure the insulation to the stone/concrete wall. One of the best ways to do this is using furring strips – narrow boards attached to the wall, into which screws can be driven. A powder-actuated nail gun, or ramset can be used to attach the furring strips to the wall. Another approach is to embed the furring strips into the concrete itself as you build the walls. The downside to this approach is that the furring strips will degrade and rot away over the decades, leaving gaps in the wall and weakening the overall structure. Fully removing the furring strips and replacing them could be a challenge.

Spray-on Insulation

This nifty product could be used to spray a seamless layer of insulating foam directly onto the interior of the slipform wall. The insulation would then be cut, sanded, or squashed flat before a finish layer of sheetrock is applied. Both of the above approaches present difficulties when it comes to hanging anything on the walls, as there are no interior studs for screwing or nailing into. Strategically placed furring strips could be used for this purpose.

There are any number of other conventional and unconventional approaches that you might pursue in insulating your slipform stone masonry structure, but these three options are both simple to implement and proven in many homes over a number of years. Whatever you decide, it’s very important to ensure that your slipform stone house is snug and well insulated.

Weight Loss Tips

We live in a nation of growing obesity. Statistics indicate that obesity has doubled since 1980. A 2008 report showed that 1.5 billion adults were clinically obese and over 45 million children were obese. There are complications connected to being obese. Approximately 3 million people die yearly from disease brought on or made worse from obesity. These diseases include diabetes, heart disease and cancer.

Practice Prevention: There are many things you can do to control your weight and prevent obesity. It is fundamentally a shift in how you think. You must realize that you have a great deal of power over your own health. Consider the fact that you in part, can control how you age and how you can maintain good health throughout your lifetime. Of course disease can occur to any of us. However you can greatly reduce your risks with a healthy lifestyle.

Physical Activity: Exercise is a very important part of any healthy lifestyle. Exercise will strengthen your body and you will begin to build muscle. Your metabolism will increase because muscle has a higher metabolic rate than fat. So add some strength training routines to your exercise program. You can incorporate 2-3 strength training routines weekly. Only 15-20 sessions can have a huge impact on your physical strength and health. You will begin burning fat and therefore lose weight.

Good Fats versus Bad Fats: There are healthy fats to add to your diet. These include omega fatty acids such as those found in fresh fish. Salmon is has one of the highest levels of good omega fatty acids. 2-3 servings weekly could be very healthy and helpful to your weight loss. Research has shown that monounsatured fats are very effective for weight loss. A good food to add to your diet is avocados. Although not the lowest in calories, avocadoes are extremely nutritious and high in monosaturated fats. Try adding some avocado to a salad or make a guacamole dip to eat with veggie sticks such as celery and carrots. Other healthy food choices for good fats include grass fed beef and extra virgin olive oil. Olive oil has numerous health benefits. It has been shown to increase the fat burning response in the body as well as lower inflammation levels.

Sugar: Sugar is something you definitely want to eliminate from your diet, particularly if you are trying to lose weight. When you consume too much sugar, this signals your body to use insulin to begin burning it off. As a result, your insulin will spike. Whatever isn’t used will be converted by your body into fat. Try to limit your sugar intake to no more than 10 percent of your daily calorie intake. So for example if you consume 1500 calories daily, sugar should comprise only 150 of those calories. Always be on the lookout for hidden sources of sugar such as those found in soda and juices.

A Healthy Breakfast: When you are sleeping your metabolism goes into more of a resting state. This is referred to as “catabolism”. In order to turn it on as efficiently as possible, you need to eat a good breakfast. Having a protein with breakfast is helpful along with whole grains. A good breakfast choice might be a veggie omelet with whole wheat bread. Or some oatmeal topped with fresh fruit and a protein bar. And remember to start the day with drinking some fresh pure water to hydrate your body.

Eating Styles: Eating smaller “mini meals” is a very effective way to help you lose weight. Eating your meals at consistent times is helpful. Eating every three hours during the day is a good way to keep your body consistently fueled with energy. This will also keep you from overeating. Many people overeat because they starve themselves all day and then they binge on a huge dinner. The whole key to keeping weight off is to keep your metabolic rate as high as you can. Skipping meals actually lowers your metabolism.

Reward System: Everyone once in a while you really need to just reward yourself. If you are too regimented in your eating habits and never allow yourself a little indulgence now and then, one of two things will happen. Either you will end up binging or you will quit and begin to go back to your old habits. It is well known that when you are too restrictive in your diet you will usually binge within a month and potentially gain even more weight.

Supportive Relationships: Being with like minded people who take care of themselves will really help you. If you are with peers who are overweight and have no motivation to get in shape you will probably do the same. We tend to mirror those we associate with. So if this is your situation, why not look to broaden your horizons and meet new and interesting people. You could join a gym, or a local meet up group that does walking, hiking, swimming, dance, etc. This will change your outlook on yourself. Before you know it, you will incorporate new and healthy habits into your own life and be on your way to successful weight loss.

Eliminate Junk Foods: Go through your kitchen and eliminate all of the unhealthy junk foods and processed foods you have around. You will benefit yourself and your family by doing so. If you have easy access to junk foods, the odds are you will eat it. Anytime you feel rushed or upset about something you will reach out to these types of foods. Focus instead on filling your pantry with healthy, wholesome foods. Keep snacks such as fresh fruit and no sugar yogurts in your home.

Water: Water is very important to your good health. You need to stay hydrated. If it is hard for you to drink water, add fresh lemon or lime. Try drinking 4 to 6 glasses per day of water. Drinking water is helpful to weight loss because it keeps you feeling full. An easy way to get your water intake is to bring a few bottles with you to work to have readily available to you. This will lessen the temptation to consume soda or fruit juices that are high in calories and filled with sugar. Remember, whenever beginning any dietary or lifestyle changes, always consult with a medical professional, particularly if you are taking prescription drugs or suffer from any disease or ailment.

How To Take Care of a Baby Squirrel

You found a baby squirrel, and now need information on how to care for it. You’re about to experience one of the most rewarding activities on earth!

The ideal situation would be to return the baby to it’s mother. If you place it in a small box with a warm rice bag, and tack it to the tree where you found it, it’s possible that mom will come and take it back to an alternate nest. If the mother doesn’t come within an hour, the baby becomes your charge.

Relax, caring for baby squirrels is easy! If you don’t have the time or will to do it, every State has licensed wild animal rehabilitators who can do the job. If you do have the time and can remember the acronym, “WHAM,” you can easily and confidently care for a baby squirrel!

The letter W, stands for warm. Baby squirrels need to be kept warm. You never should attempt to feed a baby until it is completely warmed. A baby squirrel should always feel warm the the touch when you pick it up. When the baby is less than 5 weeks old, (before it’s eyes open,) it can easily be kept in a cardboard box. I like to use rice bags to keep my baby squirrels warm. I heat the bag in the microwave until it is warm to the touch, place it in the box, punch it down in the center to make a nest, place pieces of blanket or fleece material over the bag, put the baby squirrel in and cover it with more soft cloth. This method keeps the baby warm between feedings.

Some people like to use a heating pad on the low setting under the box. If it’s placed under half of the box, the baby squirrel will climb on and off the heated side until it finds a comfortable sleeping temperature. Either way, this accomplishes the task of keeping the baby squirrel warm.

The letter H, stands for hydrate. Many rehabbers advocate starting off with plain Pedalyte, (an electrolyte fluid replacement solution.) I have never advocated this practice because it is just plain silly. A mother squirrel doesn’t run off to the store to buy Pedalyte when her baby has been laying out in the elements for a couple of hours. She warms her baby squirrel, then lets it nurse. I’ve always started with formula, and have never lost a baby squirrel due to a dietary problem. If you go to my website, you can see pictures of squirrels that were within hours of death from malnutrition and dehydration, yet they did just fine on formula only.

The letter A, stands for accommodate. Baby squirrels do three things. They eat, they potty, and they sleep. Accommodation means that you facilitate these three activities until they mature to the point where their eyes are open, and they start exploring their habitat. A baby squirrel must be stimulated to urinate and move it’s bowels. This can be accomplished by using a cotton ball dipped in warm water, which is used to stimulate the genitals of the baby squirrel until it passes urine and moves it’s bowels. This simulates what a mother squirrel does after her babies nurse. She will lick them to accomplish the same results.

Feeding involves formula. This is where many people get really confused and scared, because there are a whole lot of people in the rehab’ community that militantly advocate feeding only a certain type of puppy formula to baby squirrels, with the dire warning that your baby squirrel will die if cows milk ever crosses it’s lips. As I said before, I’ve never lost a squirrel to a dietary problem and have tons of visual proof and testimonial letters to prove that these warnings are not true. I teach people all the time how to make a superior formula from whole milk, heavy whipping cream, Vitamin E and raw Coconut Oil. It is true that milk right out of the bottle will give a baby squirrel diarrhea, which can lead to an electrolyte imbalance, heart arrhythmia and ultimately death from heart failure. But, one simple step in the preparation eliminates this danger, and makes this formula one of the best foods in the world for baby squirrels!

And finally the letter M, stands for Maintain. To maintain simply means to keep doing the things that are right for your baby squirrel to grow and mature. After 5 week, when the baby squirrel opens it’s eyes, it will need a new habitat, meaning a cage, and gradual changes in it’s diet. At six weeks you will start to feel teeth emerging, and by eight weeks it will be ready to start chewing on things. This is the time to provide Oak or Maple twigs for your baby squirrel to start teething on. It’s also the time to start introducing some solid foods. Baby squirrels have to learn to swallow solids. I like to introduce small pieces of raw sweet potato. Baby squirrels will chew an spit out solid foods at first, the orange colored sweet potato makes it easy to see the chewed up pieces in the bottom of the cage. When I no longer see shredded sweet potato, I know that they have learned to swallow, and am able to advance their diet. I let them continue to take formula for as long as they want to nurse, because squirrels need lots of calcium!

The need for calcium, especially in captivity, is one of the most critical aspects of raising a squirrel. In fact, it is the most important factor in success or failure when it comes to raising a baby squirrel! If a baby squirrel does not have an adequate source of calcium after it stops nursing, it will develop a condition called Metabolic Bone Disease, or Rickets. I don’t know how many times I’ve gotten e-mails from panicked people telling me their 5 or 6 month old squirrel was fine one day and the next day lost the use of it’s rear legs. It happens that fast, and is completely preventable!

There are many more details about how to take care of a baby squirrel, that are beyond the scope of this article. My desire is to help you take the right first steps in this rewarding endeavor, and to let you know that I am always available to help and answer any and all questions about the care of a baby squirrel! On my website I offer free recipes, advice and e-books at no charge to help you successfully raise a healthy and happy squirrel!

What Is Alkalete?

The buzz in the health and wellness industry for the past several decades has been the use of antioxidants to dispel free radicals in the body. The education process has been so thorough, that today, about 70% of Americans claim to ingest daily antioxidants. So what’s the new buzz in the health and wellness arena? Body Alkalization. Although not a new science, Dr. Otto Warburg won a Nobel Prize for his work on alkalinity in the 1930’s, it has been a relatively unsung hero until now.

So what is Alkalete, and what benefits could it have on your health? In this article, we will explore what Alkalete is, what possible benefits it can have on the body, and whether or not you should consume the mineral blend.

What Is Alkalete?

Alkalete is a new proprietary mineral blend that has been registered as a New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) with the FDA. It is a patented formulation of 3 simple minerals – Magnesium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide, and Calcium. Although is seems like a simple formula, it is the way that the ingredients are put together that makes Alkalete unique. Through the special patented process, the hydroxides are tamed so that the body can effectively utilize the powerful alkalizing products.

This process used to happen organically through healthful vegetation. However, the depletion of these alkalizing salts has occurred related to the destruction of top soil. Alkalete allows the alkalizing minerals to be safely absorbed by the body.

Alkalete’s Possible Benefits

  • Aids in the Removal of Acidic Waste
  • Decrease body symptoms caused by inflammation
  • Aids in overall optimal Body pH Levels
  • Increases Endurance and decreases Muscle Soreness related to an active lifestyle
  • Scientifically Proven to help with Acid Indigestion
  • Increases Immune System support

Should You Consume Alkalete?

So the big question is, should you consume Alkalete yourself? Well, the truth is that 99% of Americans are acidic. We consume diets containing red meats, dairy, sugar, coffee, wine, cheese, pizza. All of the good stuff, but not necessarily good for our bodies. We also don’t get enough sleep and are over-stressed. These are a recipe for a highly acidic, disease ridden body.

Although Alkalete is not a drug and was not formulated to treat or cure disease, the truth is that people are suffering from illnesses related to acidity in their bodies. Just like the antioxidant craze, I predict that alkalinity will sweep the nation and that in the next decade most people will be consuming a product like Alkalete.

Natural Cure For Yeast Infections – Three Homemade Remedies That Are Effective

Due to the awful nature of a yeast infection many people want quick and fast relief from the painful symptoms. This is why people will even use poisonous substances like boric acid. Use of such substances are not only dangerous but they only mask the symptoms for some time and do not provide cure for the infection.

However, there are some very effective homemade remedies that act really fast in relieving the symptoms of a yeast infection. In addition if the infection is diagnosed early enough these home made remedies are usually enough to cure the infection.

High on the list is yogurt. A healthy body contains large amounts of acidophilus, the good bacteria in the gut which keeps the yeast Candida albicans under control. However, due to some reasons like the use of antibiotics or stress this natural balance can disturbed and Candida overgrows causing a yeast infection. A Sugar free, plain, organic yogurt that contain live acidophilus cultures (read the container carefully) can provide the good bacteria that will then help in eliminating the excess candida in the gut. The yogurt can be eaten or drank to boost the bacterial levels in the gut. It can also be applied directly on the affected areas.

The second safe remedy is Garlic. Yeast is a fungus and garlic is a very strong natural anti fungal substance. It can be eaten raw, crushing and applying on the affected areas or wrapped in a cheese clothe and inserted into the vagina. Another way is to blend it together with a small amount of lime juice and some sea salt. The lime juice and the sea salt help to balance the body PH, reducing candida growth rate.

Another natural cure for yeast infection is the grape fruit extract. This is a very strong tasting substance but very effective. It is usually in a very concentrated form and need to be diluted before use. Once dilute you can drink it with plenty of water three times a day. Water also helps to flush out the yeast. you can also use the solution to clean the affected area. In addition you can add drops of the grape seed extract in the wash water to kill the yeast on the clothes when washing.

There are many cures for the yeast infection but the above three are usually the most effective if used immediately a yeast infection is suspected. They are also among the remedies that will not feed the yeast and make it multiply.

A recurring yeast infection is usually a sign of a serious imbalance in the body that needs immediate attention. It is important to get to the root cause of the infection for any natural yeast infection cure to be effective.

How to Install Cabinet Light Rail Molding

So you want to know how to install your own kitchen under cabinet light rail molding. Do not attempt the installation unless you possess some basic carpentry skills. You will also need a few power and hand tools. Do not attempt this phase of your kitchen cabinet installation without having sufficient time. NO hand miter box cutting allowed! You must achieve the highest quality install possible.

Tools and Materials Needed:

  • Chop Saw
  • Electric Drill
  • Three Clamps (I prefer Jorgensen Clamps)
  • Correct Length Screws
  • Countersink Bit
  • 1/16″ Pilot Hole Drill Bit
  • 3/16″ Drill Bit
  • Hand Screw-driver
  • Yellow Carpenters Glue
  • Matching Wood Putty Stick

One of the most popular questions people ask is; “should the molding be installed flush or recessed with the face of the cupboard?” I always recess the light rail no less than one eight (1/8″) of an inch. This just looks better than trying to get it perfectly flush with the face-frame. Keep in mind that the light rail should be flush with the end of the cabinet next to where a space-saver microwave gets installed.

Roughly measure the length of each piece of molding you will need and add four inches to each piece. Hopefully you thought to order plenty of extra in case you make a mistake. Cut all of the pieces you need over size first.

Now cut a few “small” practice miter pieces at forty five degrees. These should be used to double check that your corners on the cupboards are at true ninety degree angles.

Now, when you start cutting the actual molding pieces of light rail, only cut the angles on one piece at a time. The key to installing the molding correctly is in working out the accurate details one piece at a time and one miter joint at a time.

Prior to making your cuts, drill holes from the inside of the cupboard downward using the three sixteenths inch (3/16″) drill bit. Then, counter sink the holes from inside the cupboards. These are the holes that will secure the molding to the cabinetry.

The finished end pieces of molding will be attached to the cabinets with ¾” x 1″ X 8-1/2″ blocks. The blocks get fastened to the short return pieces of molding and then screwed to the cupboard from underneath. The reason for doing it this way is because you cannot fasten them from the inside of the cabinet.

Installing Kitchen Cabinet Light Rail:

  1. Decide which piece is best to install first (consider working largest to smallest)
  2. Make your cuts
  3. Apply yellow glue sparingly to the miter joints
  4. Clamp the piece in place using the Jorgensen clamps
  5. Drill the light rail through the counter sunk holes using the 1/16″ drill bit
  6. Secure the molding in place with screws
  7. Wipe off the access glue immediately with a damp cloth
  8. Repeat these steps on each light rail piece

The three sixteenths inch hole you drilled should be bigger than the screws you are installing the molding with. If you need to adjust the molding a little, loosen the screws with a hand screw-driver. Align the light rail accordingly and then secure it tightly into perfect position.

If you begin to get frustrated, take a break. This is tedious work. The joints on the kitchen cabinet light rail should be as tight as possible.

The final step of the installation process is filling the miter joints with the matching wood putty. Wipe off any excess putty with a dry rag.

Bull Riding Chaps 101 – Your Guide to Buying Bull Riding Chaps

Buying Bull riding chaps? Doubtful about which chaps you need to get?

Here are a few tips for purchasing, finding and using effective chaps that will keep you protected, comfortable and achieving your best.

Unsure on which chaps you have to get? Here are a few ideas for purchasing, finding and using effective chaps that will keep you protected, comfortable and achieving your best.

Tip No 1: Select a Style

First of all, decide which kind of leather you want and can pay for. The choices can be from what is called “split” or just rough/suede to the “top grain” leather that is sleek, soft and flexible. The leather quality establishes the comfort for the rider and the ruggedness of the item.

Leather quality is determined in either millimeters or ounces, an average to good quality leather would measure between 0.9 mm to 1.2 mm, whereas a tough, superior leather, commonly used for bull riding chaps has to be 1.7 — 2.0 mm.

Tip No 2: Pick out Accents

If you are purchasing chaps for everyday use you will realize that the need for the extras like handmade rivets, fancy leg straps, fringe and multi-colors is not required and will increase the expense of the chaps.

If you will probably be in the ring competing it becomes more essential to distinguish yourself through your gear. Not only do the chaps need to be flexible and protect the rider’s leg, but they are supposed to accentuate the rider’s movement as an indicator of the degree of difficulty during the ride.

In this case you would like to be more specific regarding your colors, fringe, and whether you add Concho (metal button) features to your chaps.

Tip No 3: Decide on Comfort

Chaps are used to cover the leg from injury, to improve sticking power in the saddle, or as part of product for competition riders. Whatever your reason to get a pair, you should remember that fit, convenience and durability, are your main considerations, regardless of how much you should spend.

Chaps join by a buckle behind the hip and will sit just below your hips with enough place for a belt buckle to rest. They can go to the top of your boot or maybe with the heel. It is essential they fit tight but have enough room to let your leg to move freely, providing a safe and comfortable ride.

How to buy bull riding chaps is fairly simple. Local tack shops sell chaps in various leather qualities and price range and often take custom orders, or you can order on-line using “bull riding chaps” as your search for retailers who will do the same, but be prepared to return them should they not fit properly.

It’s necessary to make your equine style statement with your choice in bull riding equipment. Best of luck with your shopping.

Why A Deer Fence May Be The Perfect Outdoor Family Dog Fencing Solution

Winter finally loosens its grip. You and your dogs are shaking off “cabin fever”. However, you’re not home alone. Beasties from the forest, or even wandering pets from your neighborhood would love to tramp and camp-out on your property. Solution? Low impact, environmentally safe, visually discrete perimeter deer fencing.

6 Great Reasons To Install A Deer Fence This Year

* Economical. At just over $1.00 per linear foot, plastic fence materials offer you a practical and low cost fencing solution for keeping your critters safe… on the inside… and the other critters outside where they belong.

* Virtually Invisible. Plastic fencing, colored black, and manufactured in long continuous rolls… individual 1″ – 2″ squares… is meant to be virtually invisible! A deer fence “blends in” with your environment. You’ll keep all your natural views… and your neighbors won’t complain.

* Long Life No Rust. Environmentally safe, Earth friendly, low impact fencing can give you up to 20 years or more of reliable fencing protection. High density, impact resistant plastic fence won’t show rust stains like metal fencing.

* Simple Installation. Flexible, easy-to-use, light weight rolls of meshed plastic fencing are a cinch for you and your partner to install on a weekend. Even heavy gauge 200 feet plastic deer fence roll only weighs just over 50 pounds… un-rolls easily. A comparable roll of chain-link fence could weigh-in over 150 pounds… and think of the ‘kinks” and unwieldy metal fasteners!

* One Height Solution – How To Install Your Deer Fence. How high, or low, should your fence be? Here’s the simple solution! While you have height choices from 5-foot on up, select the 7-foot high plastic fence. Why? Unless your property is pancake-flat, you’ll have natural elevation rises and drops… rocks… bushes… trees or other irregular features. The 7-foot plastic fence gives you enough height “above the ground” plus a reserve of around 12-inches or more “lying flat on the ground” which you’ll use for staking or securing the fence from digging animals.

Adds Fun New Use Living On Your Property. Surprise! Your fence creates new living space. Add a water bottle-dish for your doggies… consider building a 1-step-up platform 8-feet X 8-feet… locate your family dome tent with bug screens and you’ve just made a great new outdoor room for the entire family.

The “Downside” Argument Against Deer Fencing – 4 Considerations

* Annual Maintenance. Your fence requires annual maintenance… mostly to check that your stakes remain secured into the ground… or that a tree branch has not come down and tore a gaping hole in your fence… or that a burrowing “beastie” like ground hogs or rabbits or dogs have not excavated an “access” hole under your fence line.

* Corner Bracing And Anchor-Securing May “Loosen”. While easy to install initially, plastic fencing requires just the right amount of “tensioning” during installation. Yes, you’ll be simply nailing the plastic fence material to posts or trees… but, unless you’ve properly anchored your corner posts, you could wake-up in the spring with a seriously sagging fence.

* Repairing Tears, Holes Breaks. Unlike metal fences, which might last decades, your plastic fence is vulnerable to heavy tree limbs, or even vandalism. Result? You may have the messy task of cutting out sections of your fence… digging new replacement brace posts… and then zip fastening ties to re-tension your fence.

* Passive Non Fence Solution For Real Deer. Are you the type who doesn’t want any heavy lifting, and you actually have wild deer grazing your property? Alternative to a plastic fence? You can always select from the range of liquid fence repellant products, which you spray over your property… creating an aromatic noxious fence.

Bottom Line. Weigh it all up. Fencing gives you a mix of cost savings, low impact, environmentally safety and protection for your pets… but you’ll have to do some work in order to gain the benefits.

Options and Benefits of Metal Fencing

If you wish to boost your home security, you may consider metal fencing as a cost-efficient and long lasting option. You will have better peace of mind when you sleep at night or go away on vacation. To some degree, metal fencing is a good way to secure your possessions and protect your loved ones from harm.

Metal fences are also commonly installed to secure fish ponds, gardens, and pets. Metal offers a degree of flexibility that more home builders are seeing the value of this material. The home owner may choose from various kinds of metals, designs, sizes, and patterns available. You may even have your fences painted to complement your home’s exterior.

There are plenty of choices when it comes to a metal style fence design, from the simplest to more complex and intricate designs. Of course, we cannot forget the durability and the sturdiness of metal type fencing, which makes it ideal for any kind of property. A coat of paint is enough for the metal to last for many years. When the metal eventually degenerates, metal style fences are easy and cheaper to repair or replace.

Wood will remain a popular choice for fencing but metal comes with a lot of advantages for the home builder. Unlike wooden fences, metal type fencing is not prone to pest and termite infestation. It is inexpensive and does not take much to maintain. When it comes to aesthetic appeal, metal fencing easily rivals the classic appeal of wooden fences. Even better, ornamental metal fences are made available in a variety of shapes and styles.

Metal Fencing Options

Aluminum and wrought iron are two commonly used materials in this type of fencing. Aluminum is the cheaper alternative between the two and can withstand rusting better. It would make a good choice if it always rains in your location. Aluminum metal is also ideal for pool areas. It is also ideal if you would like to have your fences painted on.

On the other hand, wrought iron fences cost a little more because they are custom-built and bring about a more classic look and feel. Rust can be a major problem but if you live in a mostly sunny city, proper maintenance is all it takes to keep them in top condition. Wrought iron fences can be galvanized to keep away rust and prevent discoloration.

With regard to design, you have the option to choose between chain-link metal fencing or interlocking post and rail fencing. You may choose either one depending on your needs and preference. Chain link fences are commonly found around football fields, public pools, and baseball pitches. If you are installing a fence mostly for practical purposes, chain-link fences are affordable and easy to set up.

If you would like your fence to serve a decorative as well as a functional purpose, you may pay a little extra and have post and rail metal fencing installed. Costs vary in range depending on the thickness, spacing, and the overall appearance of the rails. Line posts and corner posts should be chosen with care. They vary according to joint shapes such as u-joint, y-joint, t-joint, or square-shaped. Each type supports various types of metal fencing and you may ask the help of a contractor to ensure the quality of your metal fencing.

The Development of the Cruise Industry Around the World

Before the advancement of air travel, passenger liners were the method of traveling overseas. With the industrial revolution, came the rise of very wealthy people with a lot of disposable income. They turned their attention to creating large passenger ships for the economic and social elite to vacation and travel to exotic countries.

In 1818, New York’s shipping company, Black Ball Line, was the first shipping company to provide a scheduled passenger service from the United States to England. By the 1830s, steamships were introduced and took over the passenger and mail transport market. In the 1920s, cruise tourism became popular for the wealthy. Bigger and faster ships were custom-built and luxury living space designs became the industry model. Between 1920 and 1940, transatlantic travel became increasingly more popular among the very wealthy. Over the years, famous ships included the Queen Elizabeth, Lusitania, Ocean Monarch, and the Queen Mary.

World War I and II saw the use of passenger ships to carry soldiers and transport displaced people to new lands. After World War II, The US government began sponsoring companies to build more ships in the event another World War broke out.

In the 1960’s, there was a surge in the manufacturing of cruise ships because more people were looking for holiday cruises. Vacation cruises became popular with people in their middle ages. People enjoyed the luxurious accommodations and lifestyle. It also became popular for people wanting to get a break from cold winters. However, there was a period in the 1960’s where there was a decline in the cruise industry as the airplane industry took off, but public desire for reliving traditional means of traveling the seas helped the cruise industry rebound.

During the 1980’s, cruise ship companies broke new ground promoting the idea of traveling for pleasure. Since 1980, the cruise industry has been growing at a steady rate. People of all ages and walks of life began to take cruises. The cruise industry has developed programs to target both the young and old. Some features they have developed include: increased passenger room, a variety of cruise destinations and durations, affordable prices, luxuries such as pools, rock climbing, ice skating, and even wave simulators. As well, there are also saunas, fine dining, entertainment, sight seeing at various ports, dancing, musical performances, luxurious rooms, and much more.

The cruise industry has grown by leaps and bounds over the years. Cruise ship owners now focus on developing new and innovative ways to attract customers. Today’s cruise ships have accommodations that often surpass hotel rooms and contain such features as chic cabins, luxury private bathrooms, and gorgeous and comfortable living quarters. The recreational activities are numerous, and the entertainment is endless with such features as casinos, singers, dancers, and much more. As well, advancements in the design of propulsion systems, decreases in the weight of the ships, and cleaner fuel, has resulted in ships that are more environmentally-friendly.

The future trends in the cruise industry include more lifestyle cruises, larger cruise ships, more services, attracting more of a diverse demographic, providing more affordable vacation prices, offering more destinations, and providing more recreational activities. The future appears bright for the cruise industry and everyday it is fast becoming a vacation choice for more people seeking a relaxing, luxurious, and fun holiday.

Bed and Breakfast Accommodation For Progressive Travelers

For as long as bed & breakfast hotels have been around they have offered their guests lodging at reasonable rates. It used to be that all you expected from a B&B was the basics, a firm bed, a shower and a cooked breakfast in the morning for a good price. Generally coming second to hotel accommodation, B&B’s rarely competed with a hotel for luxury and services offered.

However a new trend for travelers in the 21st century, particularly in North America, is to look at the B&B sector for their accommodation needs. There are various reasons for this turn-around, but the main one is that with the downturn in the economy people still wish to travel but now need to tighten their belts. Looking at bed & breakfast options makes economical sense.

The increase seen in the bed and breakfast occupancy comes from all sectors, the domestic market, international travelers seeking unique holiday accommodation and corporate travelers. As a result, more B&B’s, country inns and bed and breakfast hotels are updating their properties to offer luxury furnishings and provide additional services.

By offering attractive packages and pricing structures to travelers, B&B’s are able to compete with local hotels. Frequent traveler programs are popular with guests and aim to produce business and encourage returning customers. These types of programs generally involve free nights or discounts after a certain number of nights.

Americans often work long hours and time off is cherished, getting away for a few days is a welcome break from routine. A weekend getaway is the perfect way to distance yourself and within most people’s time limits. Business travelers are often encouraged to stay at a particular B & B if it offers a frequency traveler program and has the added advantage of free Wi-Fi. Other business friendly facilities, such as a desk in the room, copy and fax machines, relaxed cancellation policies, and allowed late check-in and early breakfast are also enticements to book at particular bed and breakfast hotels rather than a hotel. Companies also prefer the fact that they are able to hire the whole inn as it means they are likely to get the hotel management’s complete attention whereas if they had booked at a large convention hotel they would be competing with lots of other groups.

B&B’s also offer a unique way to experience the customs and daily life of a particular city. Often located right in the city centre they can also provide a higher level of attention to their guests and offer competitively priced rooms. As a guest in a chain hotel you are likely to see the staff when you check in and again when you check out, staying in smaller bed & breakfast hotels enables you to meet the owners and their staff, people who have the time to give you advice and information on the city. There are also possibilities to spend time in communal rooms where you can meet fellow travelers.

Many people prefer the intimate atmosphere of a B&B in comparison to a hotel which can be sterile and noisy, and staff often have less time to interact with their guests. B&B’s offer travelers unique features and stand out by their friendly atmosphere and personal touch. Guests of B&B’s are not just looking for a room to sleep in but the whole experience of staying in a lodging that enables them to meet interesting people and receive all the luxuries they would expect from any accommodation choice.

In general staying in a bed and breakfast offers you more services and options than traditional hotels are able to and is a new and completely different experience to staying in a hotel, it can certainly make your stay in the city a much more pleasurable event. The increase in popularity seen in B&B accommodation is not only experienced in the United States and Canada, but also abroad in European countries and other destinations around the world. For bed and breakfast in the USA look online for instant B&B rates and availability.

Pros And Cons Of Multi-Generational Housing

Can You Be Happy With Multi-Generational Housing?

Multi-generational housing is absolutely nothing new. It simply means that multiple generations of the same family decide to live together. Of course, it is very common for parents to live with minor aged children. This term refers to the less common situation when adult children live with parents and, sometimes, grandparents. Sometimes those adult children have their own minor children. This means that three or four generations of the same family could live together in the same home.

Combining families has become more and more trendy. In fact, it has become so popular that a new term has even been coined for it. Baby boomers, who may live with elderly parents and/or adult children, are called the boomerang generation. Actually, it may be the younger and older generations who are doing more of the moving in though.

Families may decide to combine households for lots of reasons. The most obvious reason is probably financial. Living together can be a great way to economize. It may help some family members save money or get back on their feet. Other times, some family members may need more help caring for themselves. Working parents may get child care help from retired family members. Elderly people may need assistance with some daily living activities. Sometimes, living with a family can provide companionship, and it is simply a remedy for loneliness.

Is the boomerang movement positive?

Actually, there are a lot of good reasons for families to live together. Companionship, economy, and child or elder care are a few of the best. If you look into the history of many other cultures, multi-generational housing was normal. It may be that our society’s tendency to move off and live alone is odder.

Do families ever have problems combining households?

Are there every problems when more than one generation lives in the same home? Actually, that is like asking if families ever have problems. If your kids move back in, you may remember why you were so relieved when they went out into the world in the first place. Your elderly parents may have trouble adapting to living in a household where they are no longer the bosses. Hopefully, you can over come these issues, but you are probably prudent to expect some rough times.

It is very important to make sure everybody understands their rights and responsibilities if you choose to combine households. Grandma has the right to get to sleep without listening to the kid’s music blaring at odd hours. On the other hand, young children do need a pleasant and safe place to play sometimes. Your adult children should become responsible about cleaning up after themselves. When they were you, you may have expected to find dirty laundry or dirty dishes in unexpected places. If they return home as adults, you need to make it clear that the rules have changed.

Is Combining Households A Good Idea For You?

I have known many families who enjoyed taking in adult kids, grand-children, and elderly parents. On the other hand, I have also seen situations where one party took advantage of another and things did not work out so well. I think that having clear expectations and open communication helped the successful families a lot.

How to Reinforce a Stone Foundation Wall With a New Concrete Wall

Many older homes have foundations made of field stone that may over time have sagged or bowed from the elements pushing on the stones. Since no mortar as we know it today was used, the stones can easily shift. If there has been a serious total collapse of the stone wall, total replacement is necessary. If the problem is less severe, a new concrete reinforcing wall may be in order. If you have an earthen basement floor the job is even easier. Starting on the inside of the basement you must first excavate a trench alongside the existing wall to install a new footing for the reinforcing wall. I would make the footing at least two feet wide but three feet wide is much better. Make the footing one foot deep. The top of the new footing should match the bottom of the stone wall and the new floor will sit on top of the footing. Be careful not to disturb the soils under the stones. There will be no footing under a stone wall. Once you are done excavating, form the footing and install the reinforcing bars. Use at least 5/8′ diameter bars. Run them the full length of the footing and in a three foot wide footing there should be three continuous bars. Now take pieces cut four feet long and bend a one foot bend at one end making an ell shape. These bars will be tied to the inner and outer most footing rebar to form two rows of dowels running the full length of the footing, no more the thirty-two inches apart. When the footing is poured you will see only the vertical part of the bars sticking out. Once the footing concrete is dry, strip all the forms leaving no wood behind for termites to latch on to for dinner.

Now using the same size rebar, install horizontal bars starting three inches up from the footing and place one every twelve inches running the full length of the new wall. Do this on both rows of dowels. These when completed are called wall mats. Using some small scraps of rebar, tie them with wire between the two mats to keep them separated when you pour the heavy concrete. The new wall thickness will depend upon how thick your stone wall is and how badly bowed the stone wall is. My last wall was basically twenty four inches thick but twelve inches thick is a minimum you should build. Your rebar wall mats want to be as close to three inches from both faces of the wall as possible. The inside mat may be a bit more depending on the amount of bow in the stone wall. I used Symonns concrete form panels from my rental store for ease of forming the new wall but you can also build the forms out of wood. The advantage of concrete form panels is they come in all sizes of heights and widths, have clips for easy fastening, have pre-made anchors and so on. You must remember that this is a one sided form. The toughest type by far to build. You must brace it to death and then add some more braces to keep it from moving under the weight of wet concrete. Installation of what is called a whaler brace will keep the forms from bowing out but add kickers galore. On concrete pour day you will need some extra help. Pouring through a basement window is no joke as the guys inside cannot see the guy outside in the ready mix truck.

One man has to stay outside and yell orders through the window. Faster, slower, more, too wet and so on. Inside one man has to do nothing but watch the forms. If something moves he has to immediately stop the pour. Being buried under wet concrete and smashed form panels is no joke. Another person has to vibrate the forms with a mechanical vibrator to assure there are no voids in the concrete. Yet another person can tap the forms with a hammer to assure there is concrete in all the spaces and watch down through the top of the form to assure they are filling up as level as possible. This eliminates putting too much pressure in one spot of the forms at once. Excess pressure can cause the forms to fail. Wet concrete exerts what is called hydraulic pressure sideways against the form work and can amount to tons of pressure. I have seen forms fail that were blown a hundred feet away from the work site. Depending upon how thick your new wall is a two day wait for form removal is more than enough. Twenty four hours is better still. Any spilled concrete will get super hard and make form removals that much harder if you let the concrete sit too long. Again strip all remnants of wood from the work. Back fill the footing and level the floor area to prep it for the new basement floor.


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Important Issues For Green Card Holders to Remember and Consider When Traveling

Clients who are Green Card holders (i.e. permanent residents) frequently ask me about issues they need to be aware of when traveling internationally, outside of the United States.

Here are some things to consider to minimize the potential for problems at the border. After a long intercontinental flight, nobody wants to find themselves in a position of being subjected to lengthy questioning by CBP officers at the airport. Particularly in situations where the Green Card holder has spent significant time (more than 6 months, typically) outside the U.S., there are potential pitfalls one needs to be aware of – or risk losing the highly-prized Green Card. CBP, interestingly enough, in its operations manual, has some good guidance on what immigration inspectors are to consider when inspecting Green Card residents seeking re-admission into the U.S.

Admission, generally The CBP officer shall admit a resident alien returning to an unrelinquished domicile, if not otherwise inadmissible, upon presentation of an unexpired Green Card (I-551), a reentry permit, refugee travel document (indicating lawful permanent residence), or temporary evidence of LPR status such as an Travel Statmp (or ADIT stamp).

A returning resident alien is not required to present a valid passport for reentry into the U.S., although most will have one, since a passport is often required for entry into a foreign country. When presented, the passport is normally annotated with “ARC”, and the alien’s “A” number should be written on the page with the admission stamp.

Admission after prolonged absences A Green Card holder, who has been outside the United States for more than one year (two, if presenting a reentry permit), may be seen by CBP to possibly have abandoned residence. Other indicators of possible abandonment of residence are:

(1) employment abroad,

(2) having immediate family members who are not permanent residents,

(3) arrival on a charter flight where most passengers are non-residents with return passage,

(4) lack of a fixed address in the U.S., or

(5) frequent prolonged absences from the United States.

In questionable cases, it is appropriate for CBP to ask for other documentation to substantiate residence, such as driver’s licenses and employer identification cards.

Green Card holder without Green Card? Lawful permanent residents (LPR) lacking evidence of alien registration because it has been left at home or in a safety deposit box, may obtain from CBP a visa waiver, with fee, or defer the inspection to another CBP office local to the Resident’s home in the U.S.

If the LPR claims the card has been lost or stolen, the POE may accept a Form I-90, Application to Replace Permanent Resident Card, with fee. These actions may be considered once the identity of the LPR has been confirmed, preferably by checking against the data contained in the CBP computer systems.

A LPR requesting a visa waiver must complete a Form I-193, Application for Waiver of Visa or Passport, if otherwise admissible. The applicant requesting the waiver is to review the information recorded on the printed form for accuracy and sign where indicated. If the waiver is approved, the LPR is to be given a copy of the Form I-193 and be admitted as a returning resident. If a waiver is denied, the applicant may be placed in removal proceedings before an immigration judge.

CBP officers can also use something called “deferred inspection”. This is usually limited to a Green Card or Visa holder who:

o will be able to produce the requisite document within a few days; or,

o claims to have lost or had the Form I-551 stolen, is unable to pay the Form I-90 fee at the time of initial inspection and has not been previously deferred for presentation of the Form I-551 document.

The LPR will be required to file a Form I-90 with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) within the next 30 days.

Conditional Residents A conditional resident is generally admissible to the U.S. if applying before the second anniversary of admission for conditional residence. The conditional resident may also be admissible if he or she has a boarding letter (or “transport letter”) from a U.S. consulate, has been stationed abroad under government orders, or is the spouse or child of a person stationed abroad under government orders. Otherwise, the applicant for admission as a conditional resident must have filed a joint petition or an application for waiver, Form I-751 (marriage-based cases) or Form I-829 (investment-based cases), in the U.S. within the 90 days before the second anniversary but not more than 6 months prior to the application for entry.

Once I-751 has been filed, the applicant will receive a receipt notice (I-797 Notice of Action) from USCIS, extending the conditional resident status for another year, allowing travel.

If none of those conditions exist, the inspector may defer the applicant to file Form I-751 or I-829 if there is reason to believe the Service will approve a petition or waiver. If the applicant is not admissible, CBP has authority to place him or her in removal proceedings.

Question of “Meaningful Departure” When examining a Green Card holder who has spent significant time abroad (usually more than six months), when there is a question as to whether the LPR may have abandoned his/her U.S. residence, the CBP inspector has to evaluate the situation and make a determination as to the LPR’s intent and the nature and reason for the prolonged absence from the United States. Prior to 1997, if a lawful permanent resident was believed to be inadmissible, immigration inspectors had to first make a determination whether his/her absence was “meaningfully interruptive” of permanent residence. Later revisions to immigration laws have formalized a ‘test’ for immigration inspectors to apply in this situation. Under this test, a lawful permanent resident is NOT considered to be seeking admission, unless the alien:

o has abandoned or relinquished that status;

o has been absent continuously for more than 180 days;

o has engaged in illegal activity after departing the U.S.;

o has departed under legal process seeking removal;

o has committed certain criminal offenses;

o is attempting entry without inspection; or

o has entered the U.S. without authorization by an immigration officer.

If CBP believes an LPR may be inadmissible or no longer entitled to lawful permanent resident status, CBP should refer the alien for removal proceedings if a deferred inspection is not appropriate.

Special Rules for Dependents of U.S. Service Members Spouses and children of U.S. Armed Forces servicemembers, or civilian employees of the U.S. Government, are exempt from many normal requirements for returning residents. If a dependent is a conditional resident, and the period of conditional residence has expired, CBP should admit the person and advise to file Form I-751 within 90 days.