Bow Hunting Supplies – To Buy Or to Rent

Anyone who is new to the sport of archery will testify how thrilling it is to select and buy the first set of bow hunting supplies. But when you are new to the field and have yet to learn the ropes form the experts, buying your own set of archery hunting supplies can be a big mistake. There are so many things you need to learn and discover about this sport that you would find it difficult to choose the right one from the myriads of brands and models out there.

So what do you do when you are just starting out and wish to get hold of a good bow hunting equipment supplies? Well, there is one good option you can use. You can choose to rent those bow hunting supplies of investing your money into buying one. Many new hunters commit the deadly mistake of buying an expensive pair o hunting equipments that don’t fit them well, and later they would end in some troubles getting to sell them off for a much lower price then they paid for. Sometimes, these new hunters lose interest in the sport and those expensive equipments are left to collect dust in the closet.

The Benefits of Renting Your Bow Hunting Equipment

The best option for any newbie is to hunt those equipments. This way you can experience using those bows and arrow with very little investment. Surely if you are not planning to use this only once or twice a month, you can rent it instead of buying a set of bow hunting equipments that would cost a bomb.

Most hunting rental shops have different models you can choose from. You would need to consider your own body type, the size of the draw length and the torque of the bow when you are looking for one to rent. The expert at these hunting shops may even recommended you to get a gun instead, which is much more challenging to be able to see well to deliver the accurate hits. However nothing beats the excitement of old fashioned bow and arrow hunting just like Robin Hood did! You need to get closer to the target which poses a considerable challenge and a safety hazard which only adds to the adrenalin rush

The Benefits of Buying Your Own Bow Hunting Equipment

It may be easier to buy your own set of bow hunting equipments once you have gained enough experience and decide on the set you want to buy. The best time to buy your own supply would be during the off-peak seasons, and at the time when the shop isn’t to busy with too many never let the assistants rush you along with a purchase. You need to get all the information and feel the bow in your hands before you decide on the one that is right for you. Even when you have a particular model in your mind, it pays to get to know the rest that are available for purchase just in case you need to change your mind.

Remember, it is your responsibility to but the right bow and arrow for your use. The wrong one can cause you to miss a shot or plenty of discomfort using those expensive new bows you have just bought off the stores.

Catchpits, Concrete and Construction – What You Should Know

Catchpits refer to a pit inside a drainage system. This piece in the drainage system collects matter that could potentially cause blockage. On draining systems that do not make use of any sort of geo-membrane, a catchpit system is appropriate. This will minimize the collection of soil particles and other pieces of sediment like grits and silts. This pit must be considered before setting up outfall.

When you look at a catchpits piece, you will see an empty chamber. It will also have an inlet pipe and outlet pipe. These pipes are set up at a level above the floor. Any materials caught by the filtering system will be eliminated inside the pit through manual removal or pumping.

The question is, what is the advantage of using catchpits in construction projects? Consider, for example, the advantages of a DN 1050 Precast Catchpit. (It can fit pipe sizes DN150 to DN300) This model is able to provide a sealed sump manhole and connect with all sorts of materials like uPVC, clay, concrete, ductile iron and twinwall. It is fitted with connector seals for the best compatibility.

If you use a concrete catchpit, you will have a watertight operation right away. It is cheaper to use concrete and will also save on construction time and in your overall resources. You will have connection with all sorts of pipes that you might encounter in manhole and drainage system management. There are safety and labor benefits, since the pre-formed sump and connector seals save you some time.

Many construction professionals find it convenient that they can oversee concrete catchpits systems within the environment. This option also eliminates material wastage. There is greater industry confidence in using concrete. What about the effect on the environment? Concrete is much more environmentally friendly than steel is. When you use concrete, you are actually helping to minimize the depletion of earth’s natural resource. Concrete is made out of materials that are easily available: water, cement and aggregate. (This might include sand and gravel) Cement is made up of three quarters of limestone; this is the most common mineral on the planet! Hardly a waste.

The environmental benefit of using a concrete catchpit is one of the most important factors to consider, though it’s far from the only advantage. If you are starting a construction project soon and are building catchpits then switch from second rate material to cost-efficient concrete!

Gadgets Used To Unblock A Storm Water Drain

Blocked drains can lead to property damage and can affect our daily lives. A factor that needs to be considered is condensation or moisture buildup around the exterior of your sewer line and storm water pipes. When less water is available, it can draw in sapling roots. Another factor to consider is the pipe’s poor physical condition. Overtime, pipes with poor physical conditions can cave in and cause the blockage. Improper disposal of diapers or plastic bags can affect the blockage of your drains. Incorrect usage of do-it-yourself supplies also cause pipe blockage. Although the substance has lubricating qualities, if disposed of improperly, cooking oil, fats and other house hold product can congest the pipe line.

Common examples that can cause blockage inside the pipeline are tree plant roots. Feedback to the penetrable exterior of a pipe can cause loss of customers and can affect business products due to it’s durability and efficiency. It is best to hire a professional plumber to unblock a storm water drain and pipes. Depending on the extent of the pipe or sewer damage, a professional plumber has different tools and gadgets that he can use. To unblock a storm water drain, a plumber uses a plumbing electric eel and or a high pressure water jetter (blaster).

A plumbing electric eel is a device where it has a spinning cutter that can chew through the blockage. The eel cable is fed into the line until the blade reaches the cause of the blockage. On the other hand, a high pressure water jetter blasts away the blockage to unblock storm water drains and pipes. With its nozzle inserted to a blocked sewer or pipes, it then blasts water and flushes away the elements that causes the blockage and allowing free flowing water to pass through.

It could be tiresome to check the drain and pipe system regularly, thus we often catch ourselves with the need to unblock a storm water drain when heavy downpour occurs. It might be tedious but, it is less costly if we apply preventive measures to avoid blockage. Pipe blockage gradually starts if we do not take care of our pipes. Exercising proper disposal of products can help maintain the integrity of our pipes. But when the time comes and you need help to unblock storm water drains and pipes, calling a reliable plumbing service is the best solution to your problem.

Here’s How to Charge a Makita Cordless Drill

It’s too easy!

If you have a Makita cordless drill, your life gets much easier. Especially due to the lithium-ion batteries they come with. Makita drills are becoming popular with each passing day.

That said, a Makita battery charger is an important aspect of maintaining a cordless drill.

The first thing you must remember while operating a cordless tool is to never use it when the battery level is low. Always keep the battery charged and fresh.

Always use the charger supplied with your Makita cordless drill. Using any other charger will only damage your drill battery.

Another question, which must be bugging you would be, ‘how long do I charge the battery for?’ Well, remember that you simply have to follow the indicators on your makita battery charger.

If it is red, lt’s charged and if it’s green, it’s time to unplug it-Your ready to go!

Some of them have continuous light and flashing light indicators.

That said; remember the following tips while charging your cordless drill:

* Be sure that the Makita battery charger is plugged in and switched on.

* Fix the Makita battery into the charging station.

* Switch on the power supply and completely charge the battery.

* When it is first switched on check the battery charger indicator lights to ensure there are no errors. It should show either charging or already fully charged.

If you are charging the battery for the first time, charge it at least for 7-8 hours. If it has been previously charged, simply follow the charging indicators. A completely empty battery should be charged for around four to six hours. -Always go off the indicator lights though. Once charged, unplug the charging cord from the Makita cordless drill.

The device is now ready to be used.

Now, here are a few tips about maximizing the performance of your Makita battery.

A. You can prolong the battery life by completely charging and then fully discharging it, at least once a month. Exceptions to this rule are the Li-Ion batteries, which do not experience the memory effect.

B. Ensure that the contacts of your Makita cordless Drill Battery are as clean as possible as this would ensure a good charge.

C. Do not let the battery stay in a discharged state for long. Use the battery at least once a month.

D. If you don’t plan on using your tool for a month or so, take out the battery and store it in a cool and dry place. Also when not in use click the rotation direction switch by the trigger to neutral. This aids in battery storage.

So, do you still feel hassled about charging your cordless Makita cordless drill? We think not.

Man-Made Boards – Part One

There are various alternatives to natural timber nowadays. This article will tell you a little about a variety of boards, their advantages and disadvantages and also some suggested uses.

Firstly we shall have some general discussion about these man-made boards. Some people refer to them as ‘wood’ or ‘timber’ but that is incorrect as they are actually composite materials, just like concrete and glass-reinforced plastic (commonly called “fibreglass”) are.

What are their general advantages?

Man-made boards are sold in standard sheets of 2440 x 1220 mm – that is about eight feet by four to our American friends. Natural timber does not come in such wide sheets as it has to be the same maximum size as a piece of sawn tree-trunk. The larger size of man-made boards means that they are useful to make large panels such as doors and the sides of cupboards without joining.

Composite boards have no real grain pattern. That means that they are equally strong in all directions. Natural timber can be weak along the grain – this is what makes bookshelves sag in the middle.

Boards are made in factories using scraps of wood and sawdust that may otherwise be thrown away. Certain types can sometimes cost less than many natural timbers.

What about disadvantages?

They are usually not as attractive as natural timber as they have no grain. This means that they have less character and look altogether less natural.

Certain types of resins that bind some particles together are thought to be carcinogenic if inhaled.

Most boards are relatively heavy.

The stock size of these boards is quite large and you may have to pay a premium to have them cut down for easier transportation.

In part two, we will look at various specific man-made boards available for furniture making.

Horseshoes – Building Your Own Pits

So you have played a few games of horseshoes and want a more authentic feeling? Tired of horseshoes bouncing all over the grass? Time to make some horseshoes pits!

You can always construct a professional horseshoe pit, but for the purpose of this article I am going to explain how to create a “backyard” pit. First thing you should do is drive the stakes into the ground. Each stake should be 40 feet apart from eachother. You also want to pick out relatively level playing ground for both sides. When you drive the stakes in the ground they should go in at an angle. You do not want to have stakes standing straight up in the air because ringers can bounce off of them easily. Also, from constant contact with the horseshoes, the stakes will begin to slant backwards which makes it extremely difficult to get a ringer. The angle of the stakes should be roughly 12 degrees (about three inches) pointing towards eachother. From a pitcher’s view, the stake should be slanted towards you when throwing.

The stakes are about 36 inches, and you want to drive them into the ground until about 14 inches remains above the earth. One thing that cannot be avoided during play is the slanting of the stakes. After enough horseshoes hit them then will begin to move around. The dirt surrounding the stakes will loosen up a bit and make the stake a little unstable. While other pit material (explained later) helps, the stakes will still become loose after enough play.

To combat the stakes moving around you can dig a hole where the pit is. Dig down about 8 inches. The hole does not have to be huge, but should be large enough to put a piece of 4×4 lumber in there. The piece of lumber should be about 8 to 10 inches long. Once you have the lumber placed in the hole, take a drill and drill a hole in the lumber at a 12 degree angle. The idea is to place the stake through this hole in the wood. Once the stake is through the hole, fill it up with dirt again until it is level with the ground. Now continue to drive the stake in the ground until 14 inches remain. When horseshoes hit the stake, the lumber in the ground will help the stability and prevent some movement.

Another great idea (if you are skilled enough to do so) is to weld a metal plate to the horseshoe at the 14 inch mark. Make sure to weld the plate to the stake at an angle as well. With the metal plate and the lumber in the ground, the stake will be able to take most backyard beatings. Just remember to keep the stakes aligned and pointed towards eachother when doing this. There is nothing worse than making these horseshoe pits and then realizing that the stakes are not aligned correctly.

Now that the stakes are firmly in the ground it is time to create the border that defines the horseshoe pits. Take 3 pieces of 4×4 lumber as this will be the border for one side. The backside of the pit should measure about 36 inches. Then cut the other two pieces of lumber to be about 48 to 60 inches. Drill holes in these pieces of lumber large enough to fit a piece of rebar through it (or some other tough metal spike). Drill 2 holes in the 36 inch piece and at least 3 holes in the 48 to 60 inch pieces. The stake should be roughly 1 foot away from the back of the pit and in the center of the sides. Now lay the lumber down in the correct positions (the open end should face the opposite stake) and drive the rebar through the lumber into the ground. The rebar should be at least 1 to 2 feet long. Now repeat these steps for the other stake.

You are doing great! You now have the stakes placed properly and securely in the ground with sturdy borders surrounding it on three sides. The next step is to dig up the first 2 to 4 inches of dirt. You now have to make a decision as to what type of pit materials you want to use. Popular choices are dirt, sand, and clay. If using dirt, make sure the soil is loose in the entire pit. If you are going to use sand or clay, then pour it in the pit. If you dig up 4 inches of dirt, pour about 2 to 3 inches of sand or clay in the pit.

Time for the finishing touches! Place two markers in front of each of the stakes. One marker should be 3 feet in front of the stake, the second should be 13 feet in front of the stake. Be sure to have the marker be about 3 feet wider than the pits on each side. If you have followed the measurements so far your pit should be 36 inches wide. The markers should be about 9 feet long. Or, you can just have 2 markers each three feet long and place then next to the horseshoe pits on both sides. These are the foul lines. Any child under the age of 18, women, and senior citizens can use the second foul line (13 feet in front of the stake). All other men must use the foul line that is 2 feet in front of the horseshoes stakes.

Now take a step back and look at your brand new horseshoe pits. Grab a few of your friends, your horseshoes, a few cold ones, and game on!

Importance of Notice Boards for Schools

If you run your own school you need to make sure that you provide the best education to your students and for that you will need to think about some out of the box ideas that make learning interesting for your students. Children always prefer to have some entertainment while they are studying and therefore you need to provide them with some education that looks like entertainment. In recent times schools have started using notice boards as the ultimate way to provide education.

The best thing about notice or information boards is that you can use it the way you want it and therefore you can use it as a learning tool for kids. You can paste information about different seasons so that kids can know more about seasons. Normally, kids never find seasons interesting because we teach them in theory, but you can make teaching interesting when you can put up some interesting pictures of summer, monsoon and winter season on the board. Kids can take a look at the pictures and understand seasons in a better way than they did through theory class.

These boards are equally good for science projects because you can put up different pictures and projects on the boards. You can ask the students to make some interesting projects that will be put up on these boards and that could make them work harder because they would be glad to see their projects on the notice board. You can post scientific diagrams and information that they find hard to remember so that they can see it on daily basis and learn about something that they ought to know.

Notice boards can also bring out the creativity in students if they are good at artwork. Every kid enjoys when his or her creativity is appreciated and you can do that by using notice boards. School students are very excited to see their artwork being put up on the notice boards. This provides them some encouragement and happiness that they have the potential that is not visible to other school students. Hence, you can always put up some interesting artwork for the students so that they can inspire from it and perform better. You can even come up with some interesting facts and put them on the board so that they can learn more from it. Hence, notice boards are very important to schools in different ways.

Home Buyer's First and Last Impressions

Before you place your property on the market, repair, neutralize and de-clutter. You want your home to shine. Below is a list of all areas that you should focus on in order to get buyers ready to buy your home. You want the buyers to feel like it's their home from beginning to end.


  • Rule of thumb … if something needs repairing, fix it!
  • Check all walls for peeling paint, nail holes, loose wallpaper and scuff marks
  • Get a pre-inspection
  • Cleaning Every area of ​​the home needs to sparkle and shine
  • Remove clutter.
  • Pack away collectibles such as figurines, model cars etc.
  • Clean all windows
  • Clean gutters. Power wash roof if necessary
  • Clean attics and basements
  • Clean all flooring including throw rugs. If old, replace them
  • Clean and polish all woodwork. Pay special attention to cabinets. Replace hardware if old
  • Clean and polish all light fixtures. Replace light bulbs


  • Be careful about selecting colors when painting and replacing carpet. Think beige
  • If your home has many different colors, think about painting all rooms the same color
  • Remove outdated wallpaper and replace with neutral paint
  • Replace old light fixtures with more modern style (great return on the dollar!)

Space Management

  • Place furniture to make each room appear larger.
  • Remove personal items such as trophies, family photos.
  • Keep the house picked up. Throw away the morning paper, empty the trash
  • Organize closets. Good time for donating items you no longer use or need
  • Place extra lamps in dark spaces to increase lighting
  • Take down draperies to let more natural light in
  • Clean the blinds


  • Eliminate all offensive odors (cigarettes, pets, diaper, cooking)
  • Air freshener placed in every room
  • Cat litter boxes stored out of sight
  • Give pets a bath on regular basis to eliminate pet odors

Exterior Checklist

  • Add Seasonal plants on either side of front door in attractive pots
  • Freshly paint the front door
  • Porch / Stoop / Front door area is clean and inviting
  • All cracked window panes are replaced and repainted
  • All locks are in good working order. Replace old window hardware
  • Screens are clean and free from tears
  • Throw away old doormat. Replace with 'Welcome' mat

The Yard / Driveway

  • Yard is mowed. Sticks and debris is picked up
  • Trees and shrubs are pruned or replaced if dead
  • Flowerbeds have fresh pine straw or mulch
  • Weeds are removed
  • Animal feces are pick-up
  • Driveway is clean
  • Cover oil spots with cat litter to absorb the oil
  • Toys are picked-up from yard and driveway

Taking the time to prepare your property for sale will absolutely get your home sold faster than a home that is not ready for market.

The secret to selling your home is to remember: Buyers will buy homes in the best condition at the best price.

Recycled Art – The Creativity & the Junk!

Junk has been an integral part of human life since pre-historic times. Back then, there was not a great deal available, as it is at present times. All thanks to the technological growth in all the spheres! The technological blessing did not come without a huge string of junk. While most of it has to be actually destroyed, there is still left a considerable quantity that we can use to create art, called Recycled Art. This involves looking at trash in new and inventive ways. Aptly enough, the recycling of trash and transforming it into art is like finding treasure out of nowhere.

Recycled Art, also referred to as Junk Art, can be defined as an art form that uses old or used items or day to day trash to create something which is brand-new, attractive, and useful in most cases. By doing this, we end up effectively, lessening trash in the first place, while also creating an aesthetic piece. Therefore, Recycled Art can also be referred to as an environment friendly art form, as the waste products are re-used, which helps in keeping our environment clean.

In Recycled Art, you can create beautiful pieces out of your old torn jeans, worn out sweaters, plastic bubble wrap, grocery bags, empty bottles, computer hardware, or any other piece of electronic goods, and the list is endless. Most of the items used in creating this form of art are symbolic of our times and in due period, will be replaced by other materials. The advantage of reusing and recycling materials in this way helps preserve natural resources, and landfill space, while saving money. Recycled Art can carry any tone, whimsical, poignant, inspiring, useful, beautiful, wearable, humorous, or even hideous.

Art knows no bounds. Artists are free to create any art form out of any object or material that is available to them. Using Recyclable materials to create art is always a win-win situation. The trash is freely available everywhere and doesn’t cost a thing, while the art form helps lower the quantity of waste around and turning it into something useful.

Recycled Art has close ties with Assemblage Movement or Found Object Artwork Movement. It is not considered novelty anymore and is closely related to Save the Earth movement or Green Movement. Here the artists are inspired by the historical account of the old objects and then they try to create the new meanings out of it for future generations by arranging the objects in completely new ways. It is all about dreaming art and making it up. Most artists live by its motto, which states: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

Build Rock Hard Abs in As Little As 5 Minutes a Day

We've all been there: sitting around the pool, looking at all the attractive people and feeling like you do not fit in or have let yourself go. Well I'm here to tell you that there is no need to feel this way anymore. With a simple workout each morning or evening you will begin to feel and look your best. There are two essentials for sculpting and maintaining that perfect core section that you're all seeking:

Number 1. Do the workout, no matter how hard it gets. It's only five minutes a day, I'm sure you can find the strength to get through it. This workout consists of crunches, leg lifts and planks. Lay on your back and do crunches, as fast as you can (make sure to keep your back straight and let your shoulder blades completely touch the ground before you go back up) and as many as you can for two minutes straight, no breaks. Then, when the two minutes is up take a thirty second break to reset the timer and catch your breath, then, lay back down on your back, extend your legs and do leg lifts. Be sure to squeeze your lower abs and make sure you're targeting the correct muscles. This is the same as the crunches, two minutes as many as you can do, no breaks. Finally, no break between workouts this time, flip over and do a plank for one minute. This workout will sculpt your abs into what you want in about three weeks, depending on your body type it may be longer or shorter.

Number 2. Eat properly. Working out does not justify eating fast food three times a day, every day. Lay off the burgers and eat some fruit, nuts, veggies, anything that expires basically. If it does not have an expiration date on it, do not eat it. Stay away from soda and high sugar contents. Limit your daily intake of sugar to about 50 grams per day and you'll look and feel better in about a month.

All About Affordable Health Insurance Plans

While consumers search for affordable health insurance, they have price in their mind as the top priority. A general conception among the consumers is that cheap health plans should not be costly-the cheapest health plan available in the market is their target. However, this approach is not good. Sometimes, paying for a cheap health insurance plan but still not getting the required level of coverage results only in wastage of money.

With the implementation of the affordable care act, the reach of affordable health plans is set to increase. Or at least, this is what is believed to be the objective of healthcare reforms. However, lots of consumers are still in confusion about how things would work. In this article, we will discuss some detailed options that consumers can try while looking to buy affordable health plans.

To get a hand on affordable health insurance plans, consumers need to take of certain things. First among them is about knowing the options in the particular state of the residence. There are lots of state and federal government-run programs that could be suitable for consumers. Knowing the options is pretty important. Next would be to understand the terms and conditions of all the programs and check the eligibility criteria for each one of them. Further, consumers should know their rights after the implementation of healthcare reforms, and something within a few days, they may qualify for a particular program or could be allowed to avail a particular health insurance plan. If consumers take care of these steps, there is no reason why consumers can not land on an affordable health plan that could cater to the medical care needs.

Let's discuss some options related to affordable health insurance plans state-wise:

State-run affordable health insurance programs in California

While considering California, there are three affordable health insurance plans that are run by the state government. Consumers can surely get benefitted by these if they are eligible for the benefits.

• Major Risk Medical Insurance Program (MRMIP)

This program is a very handy one offering limited health benefits to California residents. If consumers are unable to purchase health plans due to a preexisting medical condition, they can see if they qualify for this program and get benefits.

• Healthy Families Program

Healthy Families Program offers Californians with low cost health, dental, and vision coverage. This is mainly geared to children whose parents earn too much to qualify for public assistance. This program is administered by MRMIP.

• Access for Infants and Mothers Program (AIM)

Access for Infants and Mothers Program provides prenatal and preventive care for pregnant women having low income in California. It is administered by a five-person board that has established a comprehensive benefits package that includes both inpatient and outpatient care for program enrollees.

Some facts about affordable health insurance in Florida

While talking about affordable health insurance options in Florida, consumers can think about below mentioned options:

• Floridians who lost employer's group health insurance may qualify for COBRA continuation coverage in Florida. At the same time, Floridians, who lost group health insurance due to involuntary termination of employment occurring between September 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 may qualify for a federal tax credit. This credit helps in paying COBRA or state continuation coverage premiums for up to nine months.

• Floridians who had been uninsured for 6 months may be eligible to buy a limited health benefit plan through Cover Florida.

• Florida Medicaid program can be tried by Floridians having low or modest household income. Through this program, pregnant women, families with children, medically needy, elderly, and disabled individuals may get help.

• Florida KidCare program can help the Floridian children under the age of 19 years and not eligible for Medicaid and currently uninsured or underinsured.

• A federal tax credit to help pay for new health coverage to Floridians who lost their health coverage but are receiving benefits from the Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) Program. This credit is called the Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC). At the same time, Floridians who are retirees and are aged 55-65 and are receiving pension benefits from Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC), may qualify for the HCTC.

Some facts about affordable health insurance in Virginia

While talking about affordable health insurance options in Virginia, consumers need to consider their rights:

• Virginians who lost their employer's group health insurance may apply for COBRA or state continuation coverage in Virginia.

• Virginians must note that they have the right to buy individual health plans from either Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield or CareFirst Blue Cross Blue Shield.

• Virginia Medicaid program helps Virginians having low or modest household income may qualify for free or subsidized health coverage. Through this program, pregnant women, families with children, and elderly and disabled individuals are helped.

• Family Access to Medical Insurance Security (FAMIS) helps Virginian children under the age of 18 years having no health insurance.

• In Virginia, the Every Woman's Life Program offers free breast and cervical cancer screening. Through this program, if women are diagnosed with cancer, they may be eligible for treatment through the Virginia Medicaid Program.

Some facts about affordable health insurance in Texas

While talking about affordable health insurance options in Texas, consumers need to consider their rights:

• Texans who have group insurance in Texas can not be denied or limited in terms of coverage, nor can be required to pay more, because of the health status. Further, Texans having group health insurance can not have exclusion of pre-existing conditions.

• In Texas, insurers can not drop Texans off coverage when they get sick. At the same time, Texans who lost their group health insurance but are HIPAA eligible may apply for COBRA or state continuation coverage in Texas.

• Texas Medicaid program helps Texans having low or modest household income may qualify for free or subsidized health coverage. Through this program, pregnant women, families with children, elderly and disabled individuals are helped. At the same time, if a woman is diagnosed with breast or cervical cancer, she may be eligible for medical care through Medicaid.

• The Texas Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) offers subsidized health coverage for certain uninsured children. Further children in Texas can stay in their parent's health insurance policy as dependents till the age of 26 years. This clause has been implemented by the healthcare reforms.

• The Texas Breast and Cervical Cancer Control program offers free cancer screening for qualified residents. If a woman is diagnosed with breast or cervical cancer through this program, she may qualify for medical care through Medicaid.

Like this, consumers need to consider state-wise options when they search for affordable health coverage. It goes without saying that shopping around and getting oneself well-equipped with necessary information is pretty much important to make sure consumers have the right kind of health plans.

Track & Field Heroes – Remembering Finland’s Paavo Nurmi, the Greatest Distance Runner of His Era

Finland’s first great distance runner was Paavo Nurmi, who would burst onto the world scene in the 1920 Antwerp Olympics held in Belgium’s northern port city on the Scheldt River.

Nurmi, then 23, took home 3 Gold Medals after winning the 10,000-meter run, the 8,000-meter cross-country event, and as a member of Finland’s 8,000-meter cross-country team. Yes, there were actually cross-country events in the Olympics back then. He also picked up a Silver Medal as runner-up in the 5,000-meter race.

By 1924, in the Paris Olympic Games, he was unstoppable, winning no less than 5 Gold Medals against the world’s best distance runners. Nurmi won the 1,500, 5,000, the 5,000 cross-country event, and was a team member for 2 more Golds as Finland swept both the 3,000 and 5,000 cross-country team events. Olympic competition in the cross-country team events ended with the Paris Olympics.

Extreme heat caused more than half of the runners to quit the cross-country team events, and Finnish officials, fearing for Nurmi’s health, would not allow him to defend his 1920 Olympic title in the 10,000-meter run. Nurmi was furious and took out his frustration by immediately returning to Finland and setting a new world record in the event that would stand for another 12 years.

Many of today’s runners and moviegoers remember the 1924 Olympic Games because the Oscar-winning best film “Chariots of Fire” was based on the same Paris Olympics, when Britain’s Harold Abrahams won the 100-meter dash and Eric Liddell won the 400-meter dash.

A year after his triumphant 5 Golds in the ’24 Paris Olympics, Nurmi toured the United States and ran 55 events in 5 months, winning 53 of the events while breaking 39 world records, many of them unofficial because there were no stringent requirements at every meet in those days.

That said, Paavo Nurmi did set 22 official world records in events from 1,500 to 20,000 meters (12.4 miles). He was a force to be reckoned with.

Nurmi would cap his career at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by winning another Gold Medal in the 10,000 and two more Silver Medals in the 5,000 and 3,000-meter steeplechase. His 9 Gold Medal victories in track and field are only matched by the 9 Golds won by the great Carl Lewis, an American sprinter and long jumper who dominated the events during the 1980’s and early 90’s.

Nurmi, a vegetarian since age 12, was also an innovator of the first order. It was Nurmi who introduced progression runs as a training technique. Progression runs involve steady acceleration, starting at a comfortable speed and gradually getting faster and faster, finishing at a threshold or even interval pace.

Imagine a 30-minute run that gets progressively faster every 5 minutes. Progression runs increase the volume of your fast-paced miles without the added fatigue of a full-length quality workout.

By training with progression runs, Paavo Nurmi gained the strength to go out quickly and then, to the dismay of his competitors, keep increasing the pace throughout the race until he had run his opponents into the ground.

Nurmi also ran with a stopwatch, not trusting his competition to keep the proper pace. He did not care what his competitors did; he wanted to make sure he was running at his planned pace, which also happened to be much faster than normal. When he was satisfied that no one could catch him, he would toss the stopwatch away and continue to punish his competition.

While his world record time in the mile (4:10.4) in 1923 would not turn any heads today, you can bet that if he ran today, he would benefit from the same fast, composition tracks, scientific knowledge in training, and weight training. It would take another 31 years before Roger Bannister would break 4 minutes for the mile run in 1954.

With about the same build and temperament as the great Steve “Pre” Prefontaine, he would have been tough to beat. While Nurmi’s records-like all records-were made to be broken, he arguably had as much heart and determination as the best runners ever.

Nurmi was one of the “Flying Finns” that included Hannes Kolehmainen and Ville Ritola.

Was Paavo Nurmi a great runner? In his day, there was no one better. Some think that Paavo Nurmi was the greatest distance runner ever.

Copyright © 2009 Ed Bagley

How to Write a Railroad Job Resume

The three main divisions of the railroad industry are urban transit (i.e. light rail and subways), passenger, and freight. Within these three divisions there are many different positions available. Some railroad resumes are written in more general terms, especially for entry level positions. However, the higher up on the job ladder the position is, the more important it is to list specific qualifications, trainings, and experience that make you the right candidate for the job.

Writing Railroad Jobs Resumes for Specific Positions

Writing job-specific railroad resumes require that you know the skills required for each particular job. Entry-level positions such as hostler or rail yard engineer, for example, require strength and stamina, so you should include in your resume any past positions that show these traits. Attention to detail and ability are traits that are necessary in a switch operator, the person who switches tracks in the rail yard. The position of yardmaster is often filled from within, but it is possible to be hired from the outside if you capitalize on your management and communication abilities, as you would be in charge of the entire rail yard, including other employees.

A signal operator resume should highlight previous mechanical experience and an attention to detail. Brake operators, the people who couple and uncouple the cars, need to showcase positions they have had that have required stamina, strength and the ability to follow detailed instructions; construction positions are an example of other positions with similar requirements. The most recognizable rail position is conductor. Important traits to include are communication skills, and the ability to handle paperwork.

Other Tips for Writing Job-Specific Railroad Resumes

Something to remember when writing a specific railroad jobs resume is that it is imperative that you research the position you are applying for. Knowing the key traits that are required of a particular position will assure that you set up your resume to best highlight those skills.

Glass For Architecture

In the construction of modern buildings, glass has become an essential component. With modern technology, the permutation of glass types has been both varied and exciting. There have been applications in both small and large amounts – from kitchen wall splash backs, cabinetry and staircase balustrades and threads, to laminated double-glazing for office buildings and skyscrapers.

So which type of glass is suitable for what kind of application?

Here we take a look at the different types of glass, their classifications and specifications, as well as the way glass is used.

Glass Types

1. Float Glass/Annealed Glass

– Distortion free
– Precision-flat
– Clearly transparent

2. Tinted Float Glass

– Solar control and absorption of solar radiation energy
– Cuts down heat transmittance
– Reduce cooling load
– Glare reduction
– Tinted green, blue or grey

3. Low-Iron Glass

– High clarity and transparency
– Low iron oxide content
– No green tint that is inherent in normal float glass

Thermal Treatment
Glass is treated with heat to enhance its properties. The main benefit of the process is to strengthen the glass. Basically, float glass is heated to near softening point and then quenched by blasting cool air rapidly. The surface of the glass is compressed as it is cooled faster than its core, thus compressing it.

1. Tempered glass

– Impact resistance – can withstand the static load resistance 3 to 5 times that of float glass and impact resistance of 5 to 10 times of float glass of same thickness
– Temperature resistance – it can withstand temperatures of 150 degree Celsius compared to float glass which can only withstand temperatures of 40-50 degree Celsius
– Safety – breaks into small pieces instead of float glass which breaks into large knife-like shards that can cause injury

It is applied in shower screens, balustrades, signage, doors and windows and interior and other decorative uses due to its safety properties. It is also known as safety glass.

2. Heat Strengthened glass

– Impact resistance – is 2 times stronger than float glass
– Temperature resistance – it can withstand temperatures up to 295 degree Celsius.
– Safety – breaks into larger pieces but holds within its frame as intermediate glass pieces support each other
– Impurities – there is virtually no impurities of nickel sulphide so there is little risk of spontaneous breakage

It is often used for architectural facade glazing. This is because it combines well with lamination – allowing the interlayer to be laminated better as this surface is smoother and flatter. This is due to its lower levels of surface compression. The smooth surface also allows better clarity and transparency.

With is flatter surface it also allows for laminated layer to adhere well and reduce optical distortion. Therefore it is often used for double glazing and laminated glass.

However heat strengthened glass is not suitable for areas where there is close human contact as it breaks in larger pieces which can be dangerous. Where Fire access panels or breakable panels are required, tempered glass is used.

3. Laminated Glass

Laminated glass basically involves bonding 2 pieces of glass with an interlayer also known as a PVB (Polyvinylbutyral).

– Safety – When the glass is broken, the interlayer holds the glass shards in place, thereby reducing chance of injury. It is therefore a good safety glass.
– Impact resistance – The interlayer is able to absorb force. The interlayer can also resist penetration.
– Sound reduction – The glass has powerful acoustic ability as the interlayer acts as a sound insulator.
– Glare control – By tinting the interlayer, it is able to reduce the heat/glare load by absorbing direct radiation from the sun. This also helps to reduce the cooling load for the building
– UV reduction – These harmful ultra-violet rays of the sun is cut out (99%) thereby protecting internal elements such as furniture. However, it allows the light necessary for the photosynthesis of plants.

Laminated glass is suitable for internal but more popular with external glazing applications. The PVB layer can also be made of various colored tints and textures. This is used in inventive ways for interior works.

4. Low-E glass

– Good thermal property- frequently used for office buildings with its continuous curtain wall glazing. The insulating property cuts out significant radiation and reduces the cooling load.
– High transparency – The glass is highly transparent and clear
– Low-reflectivity – it allows most sunlight to enter in the visible range without altering its natural color. Provides excellent natural illumination and save energy by reducing need for artificial lighting.

3 Things to Consider When Opening a Salon

It wasn’t that long ago that I was living and working in the Bay Area in California in the realm of the fast-paced high tech arena.  At that time I had been doing the same thing for over ten years.  By that time I was ready for a change, perhaps a drastic one at that.  I was offered an opportunity to open my own salon about five years ago in Florida.

With my family being in the salon industry in Florida for over ten years, I considered it for a while and decided maybe it was time for a change.  With the help of my family, I was fortunate to have had their help to succeed.  However, if you don’t have that support system and are looking to open your own salon, here are three things to consider.

Firstly, are you a salon professional? Have you been exposed to the industry? If you’re not, like myself when I got into the business, it may be best if you got your license in the profession that interests you and work for a salon for a little while rather than jumping into it blind. If you know someone that owns a salon perhaps you could shadow that person in their salon to see the inner-workings of the day-to-day. Most of the acquaintances I know have been either working in their profession for a period of time and made the transition from employee to employer. It may be best to get a taste of what goes on daily to see if it’s for you.

Secondly, are you going to be an employee as well as employer? For those that have licenses in their profession, it may be something to consider. If you’re just starting out, working as one of your own salon as opposed to just running the salon may be an excellent opportunity to cut down some payroll costs. However, there are trade-offs. If you’re going to work as an employee, you may need to consider hiring someone for the front desk.  Customer service is paramount, more-so in this industry than most, and if you’re working on a customer and the front desk is empty, your customer service may be deemed lacking. Having customers wait at the front desk can be the difference between keeping that customer or losing them to your competitor down the street.

And finally, if you already have a salon and considering opening your second salon, time is of big consideration. Having helped my family running between their salons, it obviously doesn’t give you much time to spend at any one particular place. There is a lot to be said about building a report with your customers. We are a creature of habit and with this industry, where customers need to come back every few weeks for a haircut of to get their nails filled, seeing a face they recognize and are comfortable with goes a long way to keeping that customer.

While there are plenty of considerations, these three things are a good starting place and top my list to get you thinking about what you may be getting into. Once you have gone through this thought process, it is time to move on to other and bigger considerations.  Stay tuned.