Searching for Authorized Contractors of Nortec Humidifiers for Your Home

If you are going to get a humidifier in your home, you will want to go with whole house system instead of the console types, you will want to learn about the Nortec humidifiers and what they can do for you. Before you go out and purchase a humidifier or get into contact with installers you will want to make sure that you deal with authorized contractors of Nortec humidifiers.

It is very important that you find people who know what they are doing, you will also want to know that installing a whole house system is not something that you will want to do on your own. Installing a full humidifier system is not an out of the box experience. It is as much work as installing a full air conditioning system. In fact, the air conditioning system is where your whole house humidifier and dehumidifier will be installed.

This way you will not have the steam coming from one part of the house and the air from another, if you have your system installed separately form your sir con you will want to make sure that you get it moved, because it is really not being as effective as it could.

You need to make sure that the steam comes from the same place as your hot air or your cold air, depending on if you have a heating system running or a cooling one and on if your are running a dehumidifier or a humidifier.

One thing that you will have to understand is that Nortec humidifiers are run alongside a heating system and cooling system, sometimes. This is to ensure that the air that you breathe is not too dry. This means that is sprays a water vapor into the air, which moistens the air making it suitable to breathe. A dehumidifier will be used when your air is too wet.

You will know that you air is too wet when you have a tight chest, and one that pains when you cough or swallow. If this sounds like you or a family member then you will want to make sure that you get medical advice at once, because your symptoms could lead to more serious problems if they are not attended to.

Now, if you are looking for the authorized contractors you will want to know that there are quite a few around the country. What you will want to do is start your search online. There are a number of directories that offer your telephone numbers, email address and physical addresses so that you can get into contact with the proper people to get the air in your home as safe as it can be.

You will find that nortec humidifiers are not the easiest systems to install into your home, but you will also find that they rank in the top of the humidifier class, and will always give your perfect balanced air at all times, whether you are heating or cooling down your home.

How to Organize Your Music Collection

Since people had the ability to buy music to which they could listen at their leisure, music collections have been huge. People purchased small 45 "records and large vinyl albums. They bought bulky plastic eight tracks and smaller plastic tapes in the 1980's and early 1990's. When the compact disc was born, people loaded up on those, often filling entire wall shelves with the plastic jewel cases.

Finally, there were MP3 devices that were able to store large amounts of music in the palm of a hand. Most people are reluctant to get rid of their original collection though, concerned that if the handheld device is damaged, they will be able to access their collection. Having these devices repaired is sometimes simple. Finding a business that does iPod screen repair or iPhone screen repair does not have to be expensive. However, if more damage has been done besides just the case of the device, you may find yourself looking for a new way to store your music. When you purchase an MP3 player, do not abandon the old methods of listening to music. Find an organized way to store it and you will always have access to it, no matter what happens.

At the moment, your music library may be in chaos. Chances are, you purchased an MP3 player, and began the arduous task of sorting through the collection to transfer songs onto the player. In your haste, you may have tossed the CDs and other music into a big pile, leaving it a mess. You are not alone. It was so exciting to have a clearinghouse for all of our songs and albums; we rushed to get it all loaded in and able to be listened to. But now we are left with a giant mess. If you are ready to clean it up, you have a few options. The first thing you should is get an inventory of exactly what you have. Assess your collection so you can best determine what will work for storage.

Finding shelving for CDs is easy. If you would like to store your CDs lined up on a shelf, you will have little problem finding a variety of options. You can mix the CDs on the shelves with pieces of art, books, or other trinkets to make it more decorative and interesting. If you are trying to put albums or other music forms on shelves, you may have to be more creative. Look for shelving that you like instead of something designed for a specific media. As long as you arrange the items neatly, it will look great.

If you plan to store your music collection away, choose containers that are waterproof and sturdy. Plastic containers may be the best way to go. They offer the fragile items collection and will keep them dry if there is a leak or a flood in your home. Also be sure to store the boxes in a place that is not exposed to extreme heat or cold. The attic or garage should be carefully checked before you decide to use them for storage. The most important thing is keeping the items protected in case your MP3 player is damaged. Choose your storage options carefully.

The Textured Walls Are Your Interior Design Boon

Textured walls can do wonders for the interior design of your home, work and commercial space. Textured walls are used almost for all themes of interior designing they complement as well as help you contrast the central theme.

They can be used as the highlight to the central theme as well. There are many materials one can use to texture the wall; it is up to you and the central theme projection you are looking for.

Country Style

This country style textured walls has a very warm look. Here cedar planks are used for the casing of the wall, as well as the ceiling. The running theme is country through and through, even to the light fittings. The windows and large French window allows for unhindered visual and natural sunlight to flow in. The solid wood furniture matches the wooden walls to make it barn like and with the country goodness of solid comfort. There is a hit of hardiness in the decor, solid wooden furniture as well as large Lawson sectioned sofa, which speak of total comfort. Country, we think simple comfort, wooded, and strength. These elements are incorporated in the choice of the wall texture as well as the furniture, with the central theme running through entirely. The flooring sections the floor allowing visual partitioning of the space, which is a clever thing to do, because country barns do not usually sport carpets. Carpets take away the bucolic impressions. The curtain rods and pelmets are in keeping with the central theme with very few highlights, and more contrast from the flooring as well as the sofas. The picture frames too are in keeping with the theme. The break from the woodiness comes from the soft flow of the curtains as well as the lacy sheers. There is minimal layering of cushions keeping the textured wall as the highlight.

Eclectic Concept

This is a 3-dimension wall panel. It is eclectic to suit the individual on the bizarre beauty of its design. While such designs may appear a little over the top, a lot of people opt to put their signature on the choice. Wall with abstract or running 3-dimension wall panels do away with the requirement for wall hangings and other embellishments. The walls themselves are the object ‘art. The sectioned white sofa set off the 3-dimension wall panel beautifully. The contrasting darker hue of the wall panel also sectioned carries the squares as opposed to the 3- dimension wall panel. Here there is contrast in the lines. The cabinets too follow the contrast and are sectioned precisely with neat square patterning. The colours are rich and luxurious the playing them with lines do not take away the warmth from the central tone.

Trellised Walls

Trellised walls help achieve earthy ornamentation. It gives a beautiful latticed look, delicate and yet symmetry is achieved. The terracotta floor tiles enhance the naturalism in the tones of the trellised walls. Positioning of lights and brackets for ornamentation is easily achieved with this kind of walls. The furniture can be moved as it is a running pattern. The floral painted clothes cabinet adds to the trellis, because it is often that vines are allowed to climb a garden trellis. The trending concept of inside-out can be achieved here with the trellis giving the room the appearance of a garden, and the pedestal marble planter completing the look. The accentuation is floral patterning with the cane furniture too set on coir matting. This trellised wall brings in a breath of fresh air and serene bewilderment.

Minimalist Concept

For the minimalist look and yet giving it character, is the plaster of Paris embossment vertical curving patterned lines on the wall. It augments the sleek minimalist look. It adds curves to the neat lines of the walls, the angular furniture and the plain leatherette single seater couches. This textured wall is used to enhance the monotone starkness of white, which runs as the central theme and minimalist concept. The layering is minimal with cushions, the artifacts are few, the contrast are the black couches and the highlights are the subtle natural wood stub placed as a stool and the matching onyx square lamp pedestal to match. So here it is clearly white tone, with black contrast and defined lines for the wall as well as furniture. The opening of this room is wide to the outside also adopting the seamless concept too which is trending. People do use two or more concepts in their interior designs.

Plan The Perfect Tiki Bar Party

When the last days of Spring trickle into the beginning of Summer, that's the time to begin planning for a party. Before we go into how to prepare for your party, I would like to make a couple of suggestions. First, an outdoor bar party is always more fun around a swimming pool. Luckily, most Tiki Bar owners also own swimming pools. Secondly, because these parties take so much preparation, they are often reserved for special summer events. Events such as your child's graduation, or a family reunion are often appropriate for parties.

These parties are always a tropical theme, usually a Caribbean atmosphere. Because of this, your invitations should have a "Caribbean flair" to them. If you are unable to find invitations to your liking, software programs are available that enable you to custom design your own invitations. In the invitations, suggest that your guests wear tropical apparel and swim wear. Men should wear tropical shirts if possible and ladies should have lots of shell jewelry, tropical hairbands, etc … Also, ask your guests to bring any "Caribbean Music" and cd's.

The Tiki Bar itself is a central focus for your food and beverages. The bar should be brightly adorned with tropical flowers. Hibiscus works very well. The beverages you serve
should be made with fresh tropical fruits. Planters punch or Mai Tai's work very well because they have non-alcoholic versions as well. They should be served in an elegant punch bowl, preferably plastic, and a nice touch is to put a floating tropical flower on the surface of the punch bowl. For non-fruit lovers, have plenty of ice cold beer and soft drinks.

Planning the entertainment for your party is always a lot of fun. If you have access to hool-a-hoops, create a competition to see who can swing the hoop the longest! Play tropical music during the competition and be certain to have something fun and whimsical for the 1st prize winner! A cannonball competition for the biggest splash is always a
big hit! Have this competition prior to alcohol being served! If your guests look to be adventuresome, a limbo contest is always fun.

Following these fun and simple guidelines will ensure that your Tiki Bar party is the hit of the Summer for everyone!

Get Organized for Google SEO

Getting good SEO ranking hinges on several major areas of work. This article is written as concisely as possible to sum up those areas for success.

WEBSITE DESIGN – The design of your website affects the way search engine bots read your website. Search engine bots prioritize your code and content according to it’s position on the page. If your keyword content is high on the page it receives more importance. So write as much of the content as possible near the top of the webpage code.

OPTIMIZING CONTENT – Optimizing content is essentially the use of wording and the format of the page. This can be broken into three areas: keyword density, formatting, and relevancy of the whole site.

Keyword density is the number of times a keyword is used on your page per one hundred words. A keyword density of 4% is usually optimal, so use keywords four times in each 100 words.

Formatting your content is important because titles, header tags and content that are capitalized, bold or italic with anchor text and other options increases the weight of the text or keyword. Don’t bold every keyword every time it’s used, 25% of the time is optimal.

WHOLE SITE RELEVANCY – whole site relevancy has major effect on your ranking. If your website is focused on carpeting it should do better in carpeting related searches than if it had many areas of content. And the relevancy of the entire site will affect the rankings of each page.

LINKS – Getting inbound links is very important. These links can be gotten from many different sources, and they should come from a diversity of sources for optimal ranking.

Submit your website to directories. This gives links and traffic to your website. These are often free of charge, but the more relevant they are to your content and the better their page rank the better the effect.

Write articles for ezines with your links in the article or at the end of the article. You will get relevant linkage plus relevant traffic. Leave comments with your links on various relevant blogs to get inbound links and relevant traffic.

Write your own blog with links to your content pages. Swap blogroll links with like-minded bloggers. Also use internal links on your website from one page to another to increase your websites weight.

SOCIAL MEDIA – using social media for SEO is a recent development. You get the links from the social networking sites themselves, which have value, plus access to many possible candidates for reciprocal linking. All of the relevant sites that are in your community or social network contribute to your relevancy.

If you take care of these ways to optimize for Google you will also be optimized for the other search engines. Now just submit your URL to Google and get your newly optimized website some rank and traffic.

Methods on Testing the Voltage and Effectiveness of Your Stun Gun

The stun gun is a device designed for personal protection. Its size is small, but its power is great. Because of its size, you can place it inside your bag or pocket. Because of its great power, you can take down anyone who tries to attack you. Its volts of electricity will cause temporary incapacitation. This is what most adults have today to ensure their safety.

However, you might be hesitant to use one especially if you are unsure of its voltage capacity and effectiveness. If this is your first time to use the safety device and you want to test its voltage and effectiveness, you must learn about the following methods. These are simple ways on how to safely test the device. You will be able to see whether it emits the exact voltage of electricity and also conclude that it will be effective in taking down the attacker.

Before you decide to purchase the device, you can gauge its effectiveness by asking the sales representative to test it for you. You can look at how it is done. Make sure that as they measure the voltage, it matches with what they placed on the label of the device. You can also learn from them on how it is used so that you will know whether it is the most effective weapon that you can get for your safety.

You can also test the stun gun voltage and effectiveness by yourself. However, you must remember to exercise caution. You would not want to get hit by one because you will surely experience mild shock. You must not come in contact with the probes. It is safe for you to touch the following parts. The first one is the switch that allows you to turn on the device. The second one is the safety zone plate that is about one and a half inches.

If you have a voltmeter, you can use it to do the measurement. You must still exercise caution since you will be handling electricity. You just need to attach the measuring equipment to the leads of the device so that you will be able to find out about the volts of electricity that the device emits. It can reach to about a million. With such powerful device, you can protect yourself from harm.

You can also try to test fire the device by preparing a sheet of metal. First, you must press the switch on. If you will see an arc formed in between the two electrodes, this means that the device is functional. Instantly discharge it by pressing it on the sheet of metal. You will know that your device is now safe to use when a spark is emitted.

These are the methods that you can do to test the effectiveness of the stun gun and its voltage as well. They are very easy to perform. However, you must take extra caution when doing such because you would not want to become a victim of your own carelessness.

How to Build Parapet Walls on a Concrete Flat Roof

Parapet walls are built on concrete flat roofs. The height of the walls is three to four feet high. They are built on the edge to secure the flat roof. This is done to protect people from falling off the concrete slab. The construction uses similar walling materials as in the building. This include bricks, concrete, glass, aluminum, masonry or steel. Steel balustrades may also be used as a parapet. The walls has a coping stone for weathering.

The parapet wall is erected using strong mortar. Since the walls are in the open roof, they must withstand wind or weather pressures. Depending on the type of concrete slab, solid wall materials should be used. The floor finish of the flat roof is protected by the parapet wall. Also the drainage channels within the roof are protected by this walls. After the erection of this short walls, water proofing of the flat roof is done.

The parapet wall position is marked around the whole flat roof. The thickness of the wall without finishes is minimum eight inches. A damp proof course of bitumen is first laid out. This is to prevent moisture penetrating into the ceiling below. The wall masonry is built normally as in other floors. During the concrete slab casting, stub columns are left to hold the parapet wall. The wall hoop iron reinforcement is joined with the columns.

After the parapet wall is ready, finishes on it can start. The coping stone is laid above it. This should be wider than the wall the including finishes. This should be at least ten inches wide. this will leave an overhang of one inch on each side. The external part or facade should be finished similar to the building decoration. The internal part is rendered. It is steel floated to weather of dust. After it is dry, external paint is used to finish off.

Magnets4Energy Review – Is Magnets 4 Energy the Real Deal?

One of the latest home renewable energy information product launched on the internet in the Magnets 4 Energy e-book. The Magnets4Energy manual talks about how to reduce a home power consumption by generating electricity by using a magnetic generator.

What is a magnetic generator? A magnet generator uses the “attracting” and “repelling” forces of magnets to produce the kinetic energy needed to spin the shaft of an electric generator. The power created by the generator can then be used to charge a battery bank. When fully charged, the batteries can be used to power electrical appliances at home.

The key idea behind the Magnets 4 Energy e-book is to help the readers with strategies to reduce their home monthly utility bills. There are many simple and easy ways to reduce a home power consumption. The author of the manual actually suggested multiple ways to make a home more energy efficient such as performing an energy audit, fixing air leaks, using proper insulator, using double pane windows etc.

After you have tried all the steps recommended, you can now supplement your home power supply by building your own DIY magnetic generator.

To make your own magnetic dynamo, you will need a plan. The Magnets4 Energy e-book starts off by giving you a complete parts list for the project. The list includes the description of the components, the costs and also the cheapest suppliers you can get from.

Here’s the catch, constructing a home magnetic generator is not for everyone. Firstly, you must be able to understand electric wiring diagram. Secondly, you must be able to read a device blueprint. Thirdly, you must have the skill to solder wires and electrical components such as diode, resistors, transistor, switches etc together.

If you do not have these skills, you can still own a home magnet generator. All you have to do is outsource the whole project. It will involve some capital investment, but you will be saving a lot of time and unnecessary head ache.

Welding Fabrics Using Battery Powered Heat Guns

The heat gun is an extremely versatile tool and can even be used for fabric welding. The restricted hot air blasting from the heat gun helps fuse sheets of plastic tarpaulins together creating an impermeable seam that is capable of withstanding stress while in use. The seam therefore becomes as strong as the original material because the heat gun melts the fabric together.

Plastic sheets can be welded together to make tarpaulins and customize them for a large number of uses. With the heat gun this can be done faster than usual and the process becomes extremely easy. This helps you to make customized pieces of durable plastic sheets in practically no time at all. The added benefit is that you can use such customized pieces for a variety of tasks as the tasks may require different sized plastic sheets. Many people use such plastic sheets to make covers for their boats or trucks and other such vehicles. With your heat gun you can therefore create a cover to shield your goods while in transit.

To weld two pieces of plastic fabric into one you need to cut both pieces according to the required size with an inch and a half of extra material to be used while making the seam. The next step is to lay the sheets out making sure that the extra material overlaps by an inch. A slit nozzle is then attached to the heat gun and the hot air produced from it should be directed over the overlapping material so that it melts and is welded into one piece. You will then need a feed roller to press the area of ​​the seam.

With a heat gun you will realize the potential to create customized pieces of sheeting that can be put to a variety of uses. They can range from vehicle covers to coverings for your patio. With the many diverse uses of a heat gun one of which is to weld together two pieces of fabric, you will be able to use this instrument in a vast way.

Fuel Pump Replacement – Easy Instructions on Changing Fuel Pump

If your vehicle doesn’t have a fuel pump, your engine is expected to starve quickly. A malfunctioning or impaired fuel pump will surely kill your vehicle’s life fast. The good news is that you can effortlessly perform fuel pump replacement and install a new electric pump with the help of this step by step guide.

The things that you will need in this task are fire extinguisher, new pump, open end wrench set, new fuel line, flat head screwdriver, socket set, large fuel catch container, and Phillips head screwdriver.

Once you’re set to do the pump replacement, put safety in mind first. Work in a well ventilated, open area and position the fire extinguisher near you. If your car has a fuel pump that is installed inside the fuel tank, you should get it from the inside of your car. The chief access point to an in-tank pump is either under the carpet and access panel in the trunk or underneath your back seat.

Once you see the pump, detach everything prior to removing it from the tank. Make sure that you have a tool to catch the gas leaks that may come from the lines so that it will not spill on the floor and create a fire prone area.

The last step in taking the pump away is removing the wires that bring power to the pump. You should be able to identify which of the two wires is positive and negative. What appears to be easy when you’re removing everything away can be puzzling when it’s time to put them all back together. Thus, it’s imperative that you familiarize yourself with the screws, plugs, particularly the really small bolts.

In fuel pump replacement, every small accessory, material, and tool that you disconnect brings you closer in removing the old pump. The reverse of these steps is the installation procedure.

Opening a Swiss Bank Account – Is it Possible?

Many of us dream of opening a Swiss bank account or having an anonymous credit card where we can spend our money without being constantly monitored and tracked by the authorities. There are many people who are just looking for privacy in this day of the CCTV, biometric control and intrusive attention to our business.

I believe that where and how I bank is my business and regret not opening an offshore numbered bank account in the past. These anonymous non status bank accounts are increasingly difficult to obtain and advice is hard to come by.

There are certainly scammer 'banking consultants' out there but where do you find the real information?

Where and what is offshore?

Starting with the basics.

Be sure to keep things legal (tax avoidance) rather than going illegal (tax evasion)

Why Go Offshore? Do you really need to?

Do you need a Trust, Corporation or Foundation? How much does it really cost to set one up?

How to Choose the Right Offshore Bank depending on your needs and circumstances

How to do effective Due Diligence on Offshore Banks

You need to find topical, up- to-date information such as:

When and how US citizens can access offshore banking expertise and opportunities

The impact of the UK's 2007 Money Laundering Regulations

What you really need to know about the EU Savings Tax directive and information exchange

You need to look for a wealth of nuts and bolts information, for example:

Do anonymous numbered accounts really exist?

What is a Sparbuch?

What is the difference between Multi-Currency Accounts and Multiple Currency Accounts?

How to hold gold and other precious metals via offshore banks

How to open online brokerage accounts to access world markets from offshore

How, why and where to acquire an Anonymous Prepaid Cash card not linked to your main account, for ATM withdrawals worldwide.

What documents are required by Offshore Banks for account opening?

Who Discovered Mars – Facts About the Red Planet Mars

A burning question posed from some of our readers recently has been 'who discovered Mars', the red planet. The ancient Egyptians labeled the planet, 'Har Deucher' (translated as 'The Red One') and the Babylonians in around 400 BC recalled the planet as 'Nergal' (translated as 'The Star of Death'). Following this period, the Greeks named it 'Ares' (which actually means in today's terms, 'wandering star'), and it was not until the Romans rein that the modern reference to the planet, 'Mars' was introduced (after the God of War).

Mars the Red planet is the 4th planet from the sun, only after earth and before Uranus. Mars is the Earth's outer neighbor and Mars has proven to be a good context for many films in recent years, with many representing Mars as a source of exotic and occasionally lethal life forms. Mars is also recognized as the red planet on account of the iron based dust giving the planet it's red colour. The Mars Pathfinder rover touched down on the planet on July 4th, 1997, bearing a mobile robot that examined the immediate locality.

More recently in 2001, Mars Odyssey which is an orbital craft bearing science experiments intended to make comprehensive observations of Mars to better our knowledge of the planet's atmosphere and geological past, obtained significant data to assist scientists in their objectives to learn more about this strange planet . Recently it has been disclosed that experts believe there is in fact water beneath the surface of Mars contained in underground reserves but given the surface temperatures of between -133 C to 27 C any water deposits which may find themselves escaping to the surface would not be identifiable for any length of time.

Mars turns on its axis once every 24 hours and 37 minutes, meaning its daytime is approximately the equivalent to Earth's. The atmosphere is very thin and composed principally of carbon dioxide, however dust storms can shroud the entire planet for months at a time. Also visible from recent photographs, the planet Mars also has huge canyons, sand banks, polar ice summits and additional characteristics akin to those located on Earth.

The Red Planet is not a quick trip away however, being some 228 million kilometres at a distance from the sun which is just as well, given it is believed that the severe surface conditions and intense solar radiation which saturates the surface is not capable of maintaining any form of human existence. In summary therefore in response to your 'who discovered mars' question, as far as we currently know, (in the absence of other 'we's' in the universe) 'we' discovered it ….

How A Vast, Mysterious Cloud Got Its Glow

The Universe beckons us with its tantalizing abundance of haunting, captivating mysteries that beg to be solved–and a newly discovered weird mammoth of a beautiful glowing cloud, termed an Enormous Lyman-alpha Nebula (ELAN) provides the scientific detectives among us with just such an irresistible mystery. ELAN’s are enormous concentrations of gas that are some of the largest known individual objects inhabiting the Cosmos. In February 2017, an international team of astronomers announced they had found that just such a giant, glowing, and mysterious cloud of gas, is apparently part of the great Cosmic Web composed of ghostly and invisible dark matter filaments connecting galaxies to one another–but the mystery here is the unknown identity of the fireworks causing the vast blob of hydrogen gas to light up. This distant cloud has no obvious source of power to illuminate it, and it stands out as the brightest known member of its kind, as well as one of the largest known examples of these rare celestial objects–only a handful of which have ever been observed.

ELANs both surround galaxies, and extend between them, in the strange wonderland of intergalactic space. These vast gas clouds are believed to be components of the network of extremely massive dark matter filaments that connect galaxies in the immense Cosmic Web. Previously discovered ELANs are thought to be lit up by the intense radiation emitted by quasars, but it is still not well understood what is causing the hydrogen gas in the newly discovered nebula to emit Lyman-alpha radiation, which is a characteristic wavelength of light absorbed and emitted by hydrogen atoms. In physics, the lyman-alpha line is a spectral line of hydrogen, or more generally of one-electron ions. Quasars are exceptionally bright Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)–the glaring, brilliant accretion disks that surround supermassive black holes. Supermassive black holes weigh millions to billions of times more than our Sun, and they haunt the secretive hearts of probably every large galaxy in the Universe. Quasars are usually observed within the dazzling cores of ancient galaxies that inhabited the early Universe.

The newly discovered nebula was discovered at a distance of 10 billion light years, and it is located in the middle of a region with an unusually large number of galaxies. The astronomers found this massive over-density of early galaxies, called a protocluster, as an outcome of a survey project led by Dr. Zheng Cai, who is a Hubble Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California at Santa Cruz. The discovery of the huge, glowing cloud proved to be a surprise–a case of scientific serendipity. This means that while the astronomers were searching for one thing, they found something else instead.

“Our survey was not trying to find nebulae. We’re looking for the most over-dense environments in the early Universe, the big cities where there are lots of galaxies. We found this enormous nebula in the middle of the protocluster, near the peak density,” Dr. Cai explained in a February 23, 2017 University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) Press Release.

Protoclusters are the precursors to galaxy clusters, which are composed of hundreds to thousands of galactic constituents, all bound together by gravitational attraction. Because protoclusters are spread out over a considerably larger area of the sky, they are considerably more difficult for astronomers to detect than modern galaxy clusters.

Dr. Cai is the first author of a research study describing the discovery of this mysteriously glowing cloud of hydrogen gas. The paper has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.

The Best Of Dark And Bright

The Standard Cosmological Model of structure formation in the Universe predicts that galaxies are embedded in a mysterious, massive Cosmic Web composed primarily of the dark matter. The gas that collapsed to create galaxies and their multitude of stellar inhabitants traces the distribution of dark matter and reaches far beyond the starlit galaxies situated along the massive filaments of the Cosmic Web. Dark matter is generally thought to compose most of the material content of the Universe, and it is a mysterious substance, believed to be made up of unidentified and exotic non-atomic particles that do not interact with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation–which is why it is invisible. However, astronomers strongly suspect that the dark matter really exists because it exerts gravitational effects on matter that can be seen–such as stars, starlit galaxies, and clouds of glowing gas.

Billions of blazing bright stars blast with their fierce, shining light the more than 100 billion galaxies that inhabit our observable, or visible, Universe. The observable Universe is that relatively small domain of the Cosmos that we are able to see. Most of our Universe is situated far beyond what we can observe. This is because the light flowing out to us from those extremely distant domains has not had enough time to reach us since the Big Bang beginning of the Universe almost 14 billion years ago. The starry galaxies of the Cosmos trace out the mysterious, vast, and massive filaments that are composed of the weird, transparent dark matter–the identity of which is still unknown. The stars of the Cosmos mingle together in groups and clusters, lighting up this otherwise invisible Cosmic spider’s Web, tracing with their brilliant blasts of light that which would otherwise be impossible to observe.

The galaxies, along with their myriad of sparkling stellar inhabitants, ignited a very long time ago–less than a billion years after the birth of the Cosmos. The most widely accepted theory of galaxy formation among astronomers is called the bottom up hypothesis. According to this viewpoint, large and magnificent galaxies like our Milky Way were rare denizens of the young Universe, and these ancient galaxies only gradually attained their majestic sizes when small protogalactic blobs collided and merged together to go into their construction. The primordial galaxies were about one-tenth the size of our Milky Way–but they were equally bright because they were giving birth to newborn baby stars at a breathtaking rate. These very, very bright ancient galaxies were quite small, but they performed the important role of serving as the “seeds” from which large galaxies ultimately grew.

Vast collections of galaxies are arranged within the enormous Cosmic Web, and this great Web is traced out by galaxy clusters and nodes that are bound together by long strings. This large-scale massive structure is very well organized, and it serves the important function of revealing to astronomers very busy intersections, where a multitude of distant galaxies swarm like starlit fireflies around almost–but not entirely–immense and mostly empty Voids.

On the largest scales, the entire Universe appears the same wherever we look–revealing a bubbly and almost foam-like appearance. The gigantic, massive filaments of dark matter, that weave the of the Cosmic Web throughout Space and Time, twist and braid themselves around one another. The dark and almost empty Voids of the Web interrupt this bizarre, invisible structure, and the filaments are outlined by the glaring fires of dazzling stars. The entire web-like structure resembles a natural sponge–or, perhaps, a familiar honeycomb.

The Universe is a profound mystery. It is impossible for us to observe most of it. The multitude of glittering star-fired galaxies and huge clusters and superclusters of galaxies are all captured within halos of the strange, phantom-like dark matter.

The most recent measurements indicate that the Universe is composed of approximately 27% dark matter and 68% dark energy. Dark energy presents an even greater puzzle to be solved than the dark matter, although it is generally thought to be a property of Space itself. The dark energy is causing our Universe to accelerate in its expansion–but its origin and nature have not yet been determined. A mere 5% of the Universe is made up of the so-called “ordinary” atomic matter. Atomic matter is certainly the runt of the Cosmic litter of three, but it is far from “ordinary”. This extraordinary form of matter–though relatively sparse–accounts for literally all of the atomic elements listed in the familiar Periodic Table, and it is the material that gives birth to stars–and the stars are responsible for bringing life into the Universe.

The large-scale structure of the Universe, as revealed by the Cosmic Web, may have emerged with no real physical differences between regions of higher density and regions of lower density. According to this viewpoint, if the current large-scale structure of the Universe is the result of random fluctuations on the quantum level, occurring in the newborn Universe, this is precisely what the most straighforward models indicate. According to this proposal, some regions of the primordial Cosmos received a much greater density of matter than others simply as the result of “hap”. The distribution of wealth in the baby Universe was random–some regions were lucky, some were not.

How A Vast, Mysterious Cloud Got Its Glow

Dr. Cai and his team’s survey project is called Mapping the Most Massive Overdensities Through Hydrogen (MAMMOTH), and the recently discovered ELAN is named MAMMOTH-1.

Study coauthor, Dr. J. Xavier Prochaska, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, noted in the February 23, 2017 UCSC Press Release that previously detected ELANs have been discovered in quasar surveys. In those cases, the powerful radiation emitted from a quasar, that was illuminated by hydrogen gas in the nebula, caused it to emit Lyman-alpha radiation. Dr. Prochaska’s team discovered the very first ELAN, named the Slug Nebula, in 2014 using the 10-meter Keck 1 Telescope at the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

The Slug Nebula is a very large, luminous nebula of gas extending approximately 2 million light-years across intergalactic space. This vast nebula of diffuse gas, revealed for the very first time, a portion of the network of filaments thought to connect galaxies in the Cosmic Web. The research study announcing this important finding was published in the January 19, 2014 issue of the journal Nature.

“This is a very exceptional object: it’s huge, at least twice as large as any nebula detected before, and it extends well beyond the galactic environment of the quasar,” explained first author Dr. Sabastiano Cantalupo in a January 19, 2014 UCSC Press Release. Dr. Cantalupo is a postdoctoral fellow at UC Santa Cruz.

Approximately 84% of the Cosmic Web of matter is made up of the transparent and invisible dark matter. The Web reveals itself in the results of supercomputer simulations of the evolution of structure in the Universe. The simulations show the distribution of dark matter on large scales, including the dark matter halos in which galaxies are born, and the Cosmic Web of massive filaments that connect them. The relentless grip of gravity causes “ordinary” atomic matter to follow the distribution of dark matter. As a result, filaments of diffuse, ionized gas are predicted to trace a pattern that is similar to that observed in dark matter supercomputer simulations.

However, until the discovery of the Slug Nebula, the filaments of the Cosmic Web had never before been seen. Intergalactic gas has been spotted due to its absorption of light flowing out from brilliant background sources–but those results do not demonstrate how the gas is actually distributed. In this study, the astronomers spotted the fluorescent glow of hydrogen gas resulting from its illumination by intense radiation from the quasar.

“This quasar is illuminating diffuse gas on scales well beyond any we’ve seen before, giving us the first picture of extended gas between galaxies. It provides a terrific insight into the overall structure of our Universe,” commented study coauthor Dr. Prochaska in the January 19, 2014 UCSC Press Release. The hydrogen gas lit up by the powerful, ferocious light coming from the brilliant quasar emits ultraviolet light–the Lyman-alpha radiation.

However, the vast and mysterious cloud dubbed MAMMOTH-1 is the first of its kind not associated with a visible quasar.

“It is extremely bright, and it’s probably larger than the Slug Nebula, but there’s nothing else visible except the faint smudge of a galaxy. So it’s a terrifically energetic phenomenon without an obvious power source,” Dr. Prochaska explained in the February 23, 2017 UCSC Press Release. MAMMOTH-1’s host protocluster is also huge, Dr. Prochaska continued to note.

MAMMOTH-1’s host protocluster is extremely massive, with an unusually high concentration of galactic constituents inhabiting a region that is approximately 50 million light-years across. However, because the protocluster is so far from Earth, astronomers are actually looking back in Time in order to observe it as it was 10 billion years ago–or, about 3 billion years after the birth of the Universe in the Big Bang. Indeed, this era in the Universe’s ancient history marks the peak epoch of galaxy formation. After evolving for 10 billion years, this primordial protocluster would now be a mature cluster of galaxies, perhaps only one million light-years across. This is because the cluster would have collapsed down to a much smaller area, Dr. Prochaska continued to explain in the February 23, 2017 UCSC Press Release.

The Standard Cosmological Model of structure formation predicts that galaxies are embedded in the huge Cosmic Web–and that they are strung out along the heavy filaments of this enormous transparent structure. The MAMMOTH-1 nebula shows a filamentary structure that aligns with the distribution of galaxies in the large-scale structure of the protocluster. This adds support to the idea that ELANs are illuminated segments of the Cosmic Web, Dr. Cai explained in the February 23, 2017 UCSC Press Release.

“From the distribution of galaxies we can infer where the filaments of the Cosmic Web are, and the nebula is perfectly aligned with that structure,” Dr. Cai added.

Dr. Cai and his coauthors considered several potential mechanisms that could be powering the Lyman-alpha emission from the nebula. The most promising proposal involves radiation or outflows from a hidden AGN that is so shrouded by a thick and obscuring veil of dust that only a dim source can be associated with the nebula. AGNs are powered by a supermassive black hole, residing in the secretive heart of a galaxy, that is feasting on unfortunate blobs of gas and doomed stars.

The powerful and intense radiation emitted from an AGN can ionize the gas surrounding it (called photoionization), and this could possibly be one mechanism at work lighting up MAMMOTH-1. When ionized hydrogen in the nebula recombines it would emit Lyman-alpha radiation. However, an alternative scenario suggests that the mechanism powering the Lyman-alpha emissions is shock heating by a powerful outflow of gas from a brilliant AGN.

The astronomers described several lines of evidence supporting the existence of a hidden AGN energizing the nebula, including the dynamics of the gas and emissions from other atomic elements in addition to hydrogen–notably helium and carbon.

Dr. Prochaska noted in the February 23, 2017 UCSC Press Release that “It has all the hallmarks of an AGN, but we don’t see anything in our optical images. I expect there’s a quasar that is so obscured by dust that most of its light is hidden.”

Cute Romantic Love Quotes – How to Make Your Own

Are you looking for cute romantic love quotes and sayings? Then how about you make your own easily instead of copying it from a random website? Making your own deep, meaningful, romantic quotes is very easy.

The good news is, anyone can make his / her own cute romantic quotes. You do not need to be a writer or poet. You simply need a heart and a pen … and you are already on your way to write your own sweet love quotations.

So why write your own? Simply because quoting your own saying to your boyfriend, girlfriend, or even your friends is much more special and romantic than just copying and pasting someone else's words.

You are you. You are a unique person with your own mind and heart. So you can easily come up with your unique version of a love saying.

So here are 3 steps to make your own inspiring love quote …

1. Choose Which Romantic Love Quotes You Want to Make

We have many types of romantic quotations – from funny, humorous, wise, meaningful and sweet … to sad quotes, break up, inspiring, complicated, and more.

So your first step is to choose which type you want to come up with. Are you looking for a romantic quote for the Valentine's Day … or did you just have a break up and you want to make a quote to heal your heart?

After you have chosen which one, simply go to the next step …

2. Remember a Related Memory

The best way to come up with a very touching love quote, is to really feel it with your heart. If a quote does not come deep from your heart, it will not be nice or effective.

So simply imagine a strong memory you have related to the feeling you want to make this quote. If you want to write a happy, sweet, cute quote, then you obviously want to remember a romantic happy memory. The same goes with the opposite.

3. Brainstorm for Your Love Quotes

When you remember that strong memory, you will see your mind starts becoming creative and coming up with many romantic quote ideas.

So simply write down everything that comes to your mind. Do not wait. Do not judge. It will just stop your creative flow. You just keep writing any love quote that comes to your mind – even if it is weird, complicated, or humorous.

After you are finished and your mind seems to be finally blank with no new ideas, you can review your list of romantic quotes and choose the best ones.

There you have it! Now you have made your own cute, inspiring love sayings and can share them with your loved ones and friends now. Enjoy!

Learn About Hardie Board Siding As Well As the HardieZone

The purpose of siding is to protect your home from the elements that it is exposed to. You want to make sure that the siding you install on your home can withstand the elements of your area. Each area that there is all over the world has a different type of weather. You can purchase the Hardie Board Siding which has been verified in the HardieZone. This is created by the James Hardie Company, who is a leading manufacturer of siding in the industry. They also create the Hardie Cement Siding as well.

If you want to understand what the HardieZone is, you can visit the website of James Hardie. It is based on researching the different weather degrees that are within each area and creating the siding that will best deal with that weather. It would probably not be a good idea to put siding that is capable of withstanding regular weather into a zone where there is a lot of snow or rain. This siding may not last very long. The Hardie Board Siding that you purchase is created specially for the weather zone that it is going to be installed at.

There are ten different weather zones that James Hardie works by when it comes to the Hardie Board Siding. There are also eight variables within these climates that the siding is tested for. These eight variables are what the topographical factors are, if there are hurricanes present, if there is hail present, what the amount of snow is possible, what the amount of rainfall is possible, what the humidity is, what the UV range is, and what the normal temperature usually is. All of these factors will make a difference when it comes to deciding on how durable to make the siding.

The Hardie Board Siding that you purchase will be tested through all of these variables and will be created per the climate that you live in. This siding also employs the use of a non-combustible material in order to help prevent the spread of fire. No house can be fire protected 100 percent but using the material that this siding does, at least helps it from spreading if for chance, there is a fire. No matter what climate zone you live in, this siding is hurricane resistant so that it will be able to withstand that one thunderstorm that only happens every so often.