Concrete Coatings – Avoid Getting Pin-Holed

The presence of pinholes in concrete flooring is often an indication of an industrial floor coatings failure. When the concrete surface is applied with a film of coatings, air is trapped between the surface and the coating. A chemical reaction to warm temperature causes trapped air to rise to the surface and force its way out, creating crater-like surface indentations or pinholes.

Furthermore, when liquid industrial floor coatings settle into the concrete's minute nooks and vents, air is displaced from these nooks and travel to nearby areas. When the displaced air has gathered enough force, it will eventually cause a mini-eruption to form pinholes.

The causes of pinhole formation should be identified, with the corresponding solution promptly undertaken, to address the problems caused by this unsightly blister-like signs of industrial floor coatings failure.

Working with Heat or Warm Temperature

One major cause of pinhole occurrence is warm temperature. When the concrete surface is warmed, whatever moisture trapped within the nooks and crevasses of the surface vaporizes. With no outlet to release the trapped air, a forcible ejection of the air will occur at any weak part of the industrial floor coatings, forming pinholes.

The solution to air entrapment is to simply avoid applying industrial floor coatings in warm conditions. Painting contractors usually work at lowered temperatures whenever possible, when the concrete surface to be coated is cooler. To do the opposite – install industrial floor coatings when the temperature is rising – will catalyze the occurrence of pinholes.

Even out the surface profile

Another cause of pinhole formation in concrete floorings is the natural characteristics of concrete, which is uneven and irregular. The degree of uneven surface profile in concrete can even vary with the quality of the concrete mixture. Since aggregates are often thrown into the concrete mixture, such as sand, gravel or slag and ash, concrete is not one whole block of solid material. It is actually filled with near-invisible holes and minuscule irregularities that make for a rougher profile.

This rough profile traps more air during industrial floor coatings application. More trapped air will eventually seek an outlet when displaced by a film of coatings, and if the combined air has generated enough force to break free from the surface, this is when blisters or pinholes appear.

The solution to the uneven surface profile is to perform abrasive blasting as part of surface preparation, to smoothen the irregular surface as much as possible, and lessen the existence of air pockets in the surface. Another action that can be taken is to soak the surface with water before actual coating, to displace air ahead of time. There are also concrete-fortifying epoxies that can be applied prior to coating, which can also displace air by forming a crystal-like tight seal on the concrete surface.

Tame that displaced air

There are also several solutions that involve working with the behavior of trapped air. One is to reinforce the concrete floorings with epoxy sealers that penetrate the uneven surface and allow trapped air to be vented out. When the air bubbles erupt outward, the thin epoxy coatings will act to reseal the surface.

Another solution is a layered approach wherein a quick coating is first applied to random areas in the surface. The trapped air will seek outlet into the uncoated areas. The next layer of industrial floor coatings will now have a lesser amount of trapped air, lessening the chances of pinholes.

Another solution to avoid pinholes is to simply prevent trapped air from ever being expelled into the surface. This is achieved by applying industrial floor coatings that are very thick and extremely strong, tightly sealing whatever air is trapped during coating application.

When care is taken to prevent the occurrence of pinholes, the end-result of a blister-free, high-performing industrial floor coatings system is not that hard to attain.

Sunset or Sunrise Is the Right Time to Reflect Upon What’s Going Right in Your Life Before Day’s End

***Sunset it the perfect time to reflect, like seeing yourself through the sunrays of light at dawn or by daybreak. Reflect by gazing with introspection at your life-style. Can you see your reflection that stares back at you through the waters of the ocean? Do you see what’s going right in your life? Judge introspectively. The time has arrived to purse further effort by setting your sights to new heights upon the next sunrise! The sun has always been such a barometer of time and accomplishment. It’s hard to think of time without thinking of a sunset or sunrise!

Yesterday is gone! With the expectation of a new day comes thoughts of the sun rising upon a new dawn. The death of the day before is now a forlorn conclusion, it’s an indisputable fact. There is an eager expectation that arrives with the promise for a new start, like the new promise experienced by every new sunrise! Dawn indicates that mourning/morning has come and yesterday’s troubles are gone. There is no need to mourn or extend yesterday’s morning any longer than is necessary. Yesterday is gone- POOF- CHAZAM- GONE! YESTERDAY IS GONE, IT IS NOW IN THE PAST!

A new day and a new space is made available to make more time for new thoughts and efforts. Old solutions have expired like yesterday, time cannot revise or reverse yesterday’s troubles or worries. May the new sunrise make you more apprised of the wise ways that new thoughts contribute to devising successful outcomes to your most challenging life conundrums or puzzles.

The sun shines upon everyone equally everyday. It invites a chance for a new beginning and an end to yesterday. Let sun rays come to you with glares of enlightenment in the form of great thoughts, ideas, intentions or plans. Have the knowledge that there is sunny, viable, vital, healing energy that is granted to you, like a new sunrise, with a promise for a fresh start!

Be welcoming and engaging when experiencing the flames of changing sunlight and sun rays. Charges are exposing and obtaining options of illumination. Readily grant the support that the Universe offers you with each new sunrise. A new day is granted for all of humanity, it’s up to us to partake of what we want to change or keep receiving. Don’t fall into the insanity of doing the same things over and over again expecting different results!

You gain much more clarity through your decision to concentrate and attune more to what you desire to surpass, understand or engage than by seeking to alter yesterday. Rehashing and rehearsing your troubles over and over again helps nobody.

Choose change daily. Participate and expend more energy by taking action towards your own desires, life events and focus on calculated outcomes that you desire to authorize for yourself. Allow and honor different ways of thinking. Invite more introspection, correction, renewal and planning in your way to advancing your thoughts. Whatever time of day resonates the most or the best with your biological clock, take a break, relax and sit still for a few moments a day. In times of stillness,plan to understand what you intend to accomplish before the end of the day unfolds. As you look within yourself, attain closure by what was completed yesterday. Contemplate and spend time thinking. Know what you want to accomplish before the dawn of a new day, week, month or year happens. Hear what your conscience is telling you. Be content to receive illumination daily, in the greatest or smallest form, welcome knowledge like you welcome a warm sunrise.

The illumination of a warm sunrise is exciting and invites CHANGE and PROGRESS. Change is like having wings that fly and soar into the horizon attaining more of what you are hoping for! Find the vantage point of your plans, ideas and aims. When thinking of the illuminating Son/sun, it is our enlightened way of viewing new opportunities. We are all capable of finding ways or devising how we want to reach our aspirations after many sunrises have passed us by. Be assured in the knowledge that there is vital,viable healing energy granted to you everyday. Be a positive recipient of change, engage the flames of change! Always seek sun rays of hope or change. I encourage you to openly obtain illumination in the form of knowledge. Aid your ability to digest greater and bigger things arranged through change and enlightenment, enjoy your new thought process!~

Let’s enjoy the sunset today and devise a way to meet- that would be really cool and pretty neat too! Enjoy the rest of your day and in all ways remember that actions are to be taken at the best time of the day, whatever time works best for you. The best sunrises and the most awesome sunsets are the most amazing times to draw inspiration from your internal talk in the form of your thoughts. Thinking is based on what you realize has been settled at the end of your day, or for you to decide how you plan to engage or change after the next sunrise comes upon you again!

***I enjoy learning from you and from others offering me knowledge continuously!~

Kitchen Lighting

A variety of lighting fixtures can be used in a kitchen to optimize space utilization while being aesthetically appealing. One can choose from ceiling light fixtures, pendant light fixtures, recessed lighting fixtures and the like to light up different areas in the kitchen.

Under cabinet lighting fixtures are very popular in kitchens. The use of such lighting fixtures ensures that a work area is lighted up directly by a light source being focused upon it. Under cabinet lighting fixtures are also known as under valence lighting and are used to light up counter tops and eating areas.

Pendant lighting fixtures are also frequently used to light kitchens. A large variety of pendant lighting fixtures in varying price ranges are available. Inexpensive ones with simple plug-in options can be used in certain areas in the kitchen. Located ingeniously, such inexpensive fixtures can do wonders for your kitchen.

On the other end of the scale, several specialty kitchen lighting fixtures are also aplenty in the market. Varying eye-catching designs using several elements from new technological developments give a wide variety of options to consumers. More than one specialty lighting fixture can be installed in a kitchen and can then be operated form one single switch.

Ceiling light fixtures are generally used in all kitchens to provide general lighting for the room. A bulb with high wattage used in a ceiling light fixture will do away with the need for any other lighting fixture in the kitchen.

Those wanting to explore other lighting options can try small adjustable halogen lighting fixtures that can make any room take on a dramatic appeal.

Kitchens are areas where families spend a lot of time. The lighting here should be warm and at the same time sufficient enough to allow for work. Switches should be placed in easy to access areas like entrances so that one can light up a dark kitchen before entering it, for both safety and convenience.

Motivation Advice – 3 Barriers to Staying Motivated

If you are motivated you can complete some monumental tasks. If you are not motivated it is hard to get up off the couch and walk to the mailbox. You can remain motivated on a consistent basis if you avoid certain pitfalls. Here are three barriers which can keep you from staying motivated:

1-Weak Reasons. If your reasons for doing a task are not substantial enough to warrant you taking action then you will not. When this is the case you will always find reasons not to do the work. In your mind you do not see the use wasting energy on a task which is not going to benefit you sufficiently.

Solution: Find reasons for taking action. If they do not appear on the surface to be sufficient then dig until you find solid reasons to act. Outside pressure is not always enough. But when we find our own reasons for doing the work then we get motivated enough to act. Always try to find your own reasons for doing what needs to be done. If those reasons are important enough to you then you will want to act.

2-Procrastination. Putting off what needs to be done lets us avoid responsibility. The problem lies in the fact that we are only able to temporarily avoid doing what needs to be done. And when it comes time to finally take action our motivation is usually still at a low level.

Solution: Do not wait. When you have to do something do it. Do it whether you want to or not. Treat it like a band aide that you need to pull off. It is best to just do it and get it over with. Trying to wait until you are motivated is a waste time. Motivate yourself to get it done immediately so that you can rest in the comfort of knowing that your responsibility has been taken care of.

3-Low Confidence. When you do not believe you can do something you stop yourself before you get started. Your motivation to take action is virtually nonexistent because you are fearful of taking action. When you allow your low confidence to keep you from taking action you are actually cheating yourself out of an opportunity to experience growth. Your confidence will continue to suffer and if you always avoid doing tasks because you feel like you can not do them.

Solution: Even though you feel the fear it is important that you do what needs to be done anyway. Each time you act in spite of fear you increase your confidence. You also lessen fear's hold on you. You gain skills and abilities with each task that you take on. When you take action over and over again you tend to pay little attention to your fears. And because your confidence rises in the process you are easily motivated to take on more tasks.

Gun Safes For Sale – What Safes Are the Best on the Market?

When looking for gun safes for sale, which you get is entirely dependent on what your needs are. Different safes are built for different reasons, and some are stronger in some areas and less strong in others.

A gun safe is designed to first and foremost, keep your gun out of the hands of others, whether they be your kids or burglars. Some safes are designed primarily for keeping kids away, and these will not be as strongly built as one that is designed to keep a robber out of them.

Often times, a robber will attempt to hack their way through the safe to get to the gun, so much more resistance is needed.

Even if you do not live in an area that has a high crime rate or that you feel threatened in, it's your responsibility to keep your gun out of the hands of someone potentially dangerous.

It might not end up affecting you, but if a criminal gets their hands on your gun, that puts everyone in your surrounding area in danger. Therefore, it's your responsibility to the community to keep your gun protected.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over thirty percent of guns utilized in illicit actions were first procured via a robbery, because the guns were not kept securely enough. You have a responsibility as a gun holder to society to keep your gun secure, so do not overlook this.

If you do not do this, and sometime body breaks in and steals the gun and uses it for a crime, it could be said that you are partially responsible because you did not keep it protected. It's not being harsh, it's just a fact of life.

With all that said, how do you find the best gun safe for sale? Some of the better known companies that make safes are Cannon, Browning, and Liberty.

While there are a few others, you definitely could not go wrong with one of these gun safes for sale. Do not go with a company you've never heard of, or that is not well know in the industry. If you do this, you are potentially sacrificing quality, and therefore putting your gun at risk.

How To Download MP3 To PSP – User Guide

You have finally purchased you dream gadget PSP! First thing that you probably want is to know how to feed your PSP with games, music, movies and wall papers. So, today I am going to guide you through the process to download MP3 to PSP

First of all make sure that you have a USB cable which can be purchased basically in any electronic store. This cable will allow us to connect your PC with PSP and transfer MP3 files.

So go ahead connect your PSP to PC (make sure that your PSP is turned off). Now turn on your PSP. Verify that that your USB connection is enabled on PSP.

You should see that new removable drive was detected on your PC. Double click on this icon and locate folder that called "MUSIC". If you do not have it you will need to create one. Make sure that you are using capital letters only.

Now open folder on your computer with music files that you want to transfer. You pretty much ready to download MP3 to PSP.

To download MP3 to PSP, just drag and drop files from you PC. That should be very easy process, that will take few minutes.

Now when you finished transferring MP3 file you are ready to enjoy music on your PSP. I hope this material helped you to learn this simple process.

If you would like to learn more about trustful web sites that provide unlimited PSP downloads, visit my site at [http://www.pspdownloadsreview.net]

New York Car Insurance Quote Basics

Moving brings lots of new challenges, particularly if you're moving to a new state. If you're new to the state of New York, you need to know all the ins and outs on important laws and regulations, including finding out all about a New York car insurance quote. You might get a little sticker shock moving to New York as their rates are a bit higher than the national average. But, there are always ways to save money on your New York car insurance.

New York has a "no fault" law, which means that, in general, each party's insurance pays for their injury claims in the event of an accident, regardless of who caused the accident. For this reason, all drivers in New York must carry Personal Injury Insurance (PIP) in the amount of at least $ 50,000. Your PIP insurance will cover medical expenses, loss of wages, loss of services, and offers a death benefit.

In addition, New York drivers must also carry liability insurance to pay for property damage and bodily injury to the other party in the event that you are at fault in an accident. The minimum on liability property damage insurance is $ 10,000. The minimum on bodily injury is $ 25,000 per person or $ 50,000 per accident. In addition, New York car insurance laws require that you carry a minimum $ 25,000 / $ 50,000 in uninsured motorist coverage, too.

Overall, New York car insurance typically costs the average driver about $ 400 per year more than the national average. This is due to the combination of higher limits being required by law and the fact that drivers are required to carry liability insurance to pay for the other party along with PIP insurance to pay for their own medical expenses.

In addition to carrying the New York car insurance required by law, you may also want to consider adding other coverage, such as collision insurance. Though your PIP insurance covers your injuries in an accident, without collision, you'll have no insurance coverage for your vehicle in the event of an accident that you cause. Collision will cover your vehicle's repair or replacement. In addition many drivers consider adding comprehensive insurance. Comprehensive insurance covers your vehicle for damage caused by fire, natural elements, vandalism and theft. You may also want to add items such as rental car coverage and roadside assistance to your policy.

Rates on a Because New York car insurance quote are On fairly high, it's very important 's to shop around so you can Ensure That the best Ask Question. Take the time to gather several quotes before you choose an insurance policy. Asking each company to quote the exact same coverage will help you compare your quotes more easily.

Once you've gathered your quotes, be certain to ask around about the company's customer service before you make your final decision. Great rates are always enticing, but it's just as important to have a car insurance company that will be responsive when you have to file a claim.

How to Enhance Your Home Interior With a Fireplace

With the enormous and ever increasing variety of fireplaces available today, homeowners are spoiled for choice when selecting fires for interior living spaces, whether restoring period features or creating a classic style in a modern house. Maintaining its position as the centerpiece in many homes, fireplaces have continued their popularity throughout the ages and both modern and traditional designs, in a range of finishes, play an ever important part in combining cozy warmth with style and eye appeal.

Assembly of a traditional wooden fireplace

Most wooden fire surrounds are made up of three components – Two legs and a mantel shelf. Before starting assembly, it is good practice to observe the following precautions:

  • Read through the manufacturers instructions.
  • Fit the surround on a soft surface to avoid damaging the surround or your floor.
  • When drilling into the wall, check for hidden pipes or cables in order to avoid them.

Finishing your Surround

Deciding the colour of a fireplace surround to match your home is a choice of two finishing techniques:

  • Paint finish
  • Stain/Varnish finish

Whichever technique you employ be sure to paint the back and front of the fire surround to increase stability.

Back Panels and Hearths to complete the Fireplace

To make your fireplace complete you can use reversible Laminate back panel and hearth tray insert suitable for use with most gas and electric installation and widely available through a range of DIY stores.

Most laminate back panels are formed from a core of craft paper mixed with heat resistant resins to which a decorative finish laminate is applied during the manufacturing process. Suitable hearth trays should contain non-combustible board and be of a construction which raises the edge of the hearth to 50mm from floor level and projects a minimum of 300mm from the flame source.

The back panel will require an opening to be cut to accommodate the appliance used. Once marked up the laminate can be easily cut with a fine toothed saw.

There are a number of ways to secure the back panel in place, but one of the most effective is to drill a series of slightly oversized holes where the panel meets the inside of the leg of the surround. These can then be used to screw through to the surround with a short wood screw, the oversized hole allowing for a small degree of movement which may occur over time in the installation and prevent the possibility of laminate surface from cracking.

Generally the hearths come as a single unit which needs to be laid on a sand and cement mortar bed to enable the hearth to be levelled in both directions this is essential to ensure your fireplace is also level and upright.

Alternative Back Panels and Hearths

Other options of back panels and hearth sets are available on the market such as, cast iron, lightweight marble, granite or solid marble in one or three pieces. Again the back panel is fitted in a similar way to the laminate back panel but does not require to be fixed to the surround but is freestanding.

Ceiling Water Damage

Repairing water damage is never a pleasant prospect, but drywall damage repair is less onerous than repairs to some other materials. Ceiling water damage repair for drywall is rather more complicated than repairs to walls, and presents some extra issues.

First of all is the possibility that enough water may have accumulated behind the ceiling drywall that it presents a danger of collapse. While most modern houses have 5/8 "fire-stop drywall on the ceilings, this can be a blessing or a curse. It is a blessing in that the extra dimension of the material will withstand greater water weight before collapsing catastrophically. On the other hand, if one is not able to safely drain out that water before collapse, not only will there be a greater weight and volume of water accumulated, but the extra heavy drywall material itself can present an increased risk of injury to people and things beneath .

Once the source of the ceiling water damage is accounted for, if there is a downward bulge in the ceiling drywall, you will know that there is some amount of accumulated water suspended there. After removing all furnishings and other moveables from the affected area, lay down plastic sheeting to catch the inevitable falling of water and soaked drywall. Obtain a supply of buckets and ideally, a wet / dry vacuum and prepare to catch as much of the water as possible. Pierce the drywall at its lowest point and catch the outflow with the vacuum or in buckets. Once you start, the water will flow until it's gone, so do not skimp on the buckets.

Once the immediate danger of collapse is removed, you can proceed with drywall repairs as in repairing wall water damage. However, note that working overhead presents problems not associated with repairing walls.

Drywall is heavy, and the thicker, fire-stop types are the heaviest of all. If you have to replace any area of ​​substantial size, plan to have one or more helpers to hold the patch in place while it's secured with screws or nails.

Also, take account of the fact that you'll be working overhead, and some means of reaching the work area will be required. Doing this sort of work can be accomplished on a ladder. However, be aware that working on a ladder on a patch that you can not reach all of will require trip after trip up and down the ladder. Drywall repairs demand a number of steps, all of which must be done in their own time. A good idea is to buy or rent scaffolding to maximize the amount of area you can work on each trip up and down. It's safer in the long run, and your knees will thank you when it's over.

Installing Hardwood Flooring Over Concrete and Wood Sub Floors

Expansion & Contraction of Hardwood Flooring

"The flooring shop said to leave 10mm for solid wood floor expansion at the walls … now the boards are lifting off the floor." Ill informed advice like this often leads to floor problems. Many flooring sales people unfamiliar with solid wood flooring assume expansion is the same as laminate flooring. In reality that 10mm is not enough for solid wood flooring.

What Is An Expansion Area? Why Do We Need It?

Expansion areas are spaces left around the perimeter of rooms, against fixed objects such as columns, thresholds, hearths, skirting boards, and other stationary items built or secured into the framing structure of the home. Even though Hardwood flooring used is no longer living and breathing it still reacts to moisture changes in the environment. The cells in the solid wood will take on or absorb moisture when the relative humidity is high, or when exposed to water. Expansion takes place, and the hardwood grows, for lack of a clearer term, across the grain (width) of the plank (see below, not all will react this way). Conversely when air moisture levels decrease, moisture content evaporates, shrinking of the solid wood will occur.

When we say spaces, they are defined as installing the hardwood flooring up to and away from the fixed objects. For example; "We recommend at least 15mm small to medium area-18mm expansion on larger areas at the skirting board or wall if new skirting to be fitted."

Hardwood flooring can react to the presence of moisture. In the dry winter heating months, moisture can leave the wood flooring causing the floor to contract slightly in size, which can leave slight gaps between each floor board. In the summer months when the humidity is higher, the hardwood flooring will expand and the gaps will disappear. If there is too much moisture in the subfloor it will cause the wood planks to cup, or buckle. Nearly all problems related to hardwood flooring are due to improper installation and sub floor preparation. This is why it is important when installing hardwood flooring that you follow the correct recommended installation methods by the manufacturer.

Direct Glue Installations

A direct glue installation requires the use of a flooring adhesive applied directly onto the subfloor (never directly apply to the boards). This method can be used on concrete and wooden subfloors. When done correctly this is the most stable method for fitting solid wood flooring as the elastic flooring adhesive allows the floor to expand and contract with no problems.

If you are laying over a concrete subfloor you will first need checked the concrete moisture, if the floor has a moisture content of over 4% then either wait until the sub floor dries to meet this level or use an appropriate moisture barrier, we recommend Sika Mb Primer to ensure no damp rises up into your new floor.

Also note that new concrete slabs require a minimum of 60 days drying time before covering them with a wood floor.

All Concrete sub-floors must be dry, smooth, level and free of structural defects. If the concrete sub floor is uneven we recommend using sika latex self leveling compound to level the subfloor. The concrete must also be free of contaminants ie paint, oil, wax grease, dirt and curing compounds (the reason for this is that you need the self leveling compound to bond to the sub floor) .These may be removed chemically or mechanically as your local hardware store and they will sell you the correct floor cleaner, but do not use solvent-based strippers under any circumstances. The use of residual solvents can create problems with the bonding of flooring adhesives. It is important to ensure a proper bond between the adhesives and concrete and wood panels.

If you have a wooden subfloor you will need to lay a plywood base over the existing floor boards (we recommend using 4mm -6mm exterior grade plywood and screw down every 15cm along the edges and at 20cm intervals throughout the rest of the board using the 1 inch deck screws) before installation, this will then give you a smooth and level surface for you to install you hardwood flooring onto.

You will need to leave a 15mm expansion gap around the perimeter of the room for large areas over 6 meters in length we recommend 18mm expansion gap. To maintain this gap during installation spacers are provided in the kits. After you have installed the hardwood floor you can cover this expansion gap with scotia or new skirting boards The 15mm expansion gap also needs to be left in doorways where the hardwood floor follows through from one room to another we sell on this website a full range of door profiles available to match your floor.

Nailed Down Installations

Nailed down installation is the traditional way to install hardwood floors and can be done either directly onto wooden subfloor or on a concrete subfloor with the use of battens. When fixing battens onto concrete you will need a power-actuated nailer to drive through the battens and fix directly into the concrete, firstly lay out polyethylene moisture sheet then plywood over the battens to create a new sub floor. We recommend 12mm exterior grade plywood and 2inch x 4inch battens. Lay battens around perimeter at ½ inch from the wall, leave ¼ inch gap at each end. Position the first batten so its centre is 16 inches from the outside edge of the perimeter batten. Lay out the remaining battens across the area 16 inch intervals. Always check you battens are level using a level gauge you may need to use cedar shims to level out dips in the concrete, slide the shims under the battens until level. (If in doubt we recommend consulting a professional fitter for this method).

Wooden Subfloor

Hardwood floors can be nailed into existing wooden subfloors such as floorboards or plywood but not into chipboard floors as these are not strong enough to hold the nails. The floorboards must be in good condition and level if not it is advisable to lay 6mm exterior grade plywood down first.

To avoid creaking, check over the subfloor and securely fasten any loose floorboards. For added soundproofing it is also advisable to use a standard foam underlay.

When you nail down a solid wood floor you use a Porta Nailer to drive a nail at a 30 degree angle through the tongue and into the subfloor. Porta Nailers can be hired from any good hire shop but are expensive to buy.

Again you will need to leave a 15mm expansion gap around the perimeter of the room. To maintain this gap during installation spacers are provided in the installation kits.

After you have installed the floor you can cover this expansion gap with scotia or new skirting boards.The 15mm expansion gap also needs to be left in doorways where the floor follows through from one room to another; we sell full range of door profiles available to match your floor on this website.

WASTAGE

When ordering your new floor we recommend you allow for some wastage due to cuts a professional fitter would add on an extra 2% -5% of flooring needed to finish a job. We recommend non professional fitter should add on 5% -10%.
Further information visit for our website where you can buy Also the wood flooring online at Http://www.ukflooring4less.co.uk/

Espresso Coffee Machine Essential Buying Tips

Most avid coffee drinkers will concur that an espresso coffee machine is the one and only piece of kit you can purchase that will deliver the perfect cup of coffee. You will be surprised, then, that many of these coffee fans don’t actually own an espresso coffee machine. There are a number of different types of machine. Knowing where to start can be confusing so here is an overview of the main types available on the market.

Espresso Coffee Machine Buying Tips.

In total there are three different types of espresso coffee machine. These are manual, semi automatic and fully automatic. In order to decide which one is best for you, one needs to consider what balance of how easy it is to use versus the degree of control over the coffee making process. Knowing the difference between espresso machines is vitally important in this respect.

Manual Espresso Coffee Machines

This is made up of a pump driven machine for frothing. Some of these are also semi automatic for speeding up the process.

Semi Automatic Espresso Machines

These are much easier to use than their manual counterparts. Use of these involves starting the pump and then waiting for the extraction process, which literally takes twenty to thirty seconds. This version of the espresso coffee machine is highly popular and a breeze to use compared with the old style machines.

One Touch Systems

This involves pressing a pad to initiate extraction. Once the required volume of espresso has been delivered using this machine, it automatically switches itself back off without the need for manual intervention. This type of machine is often used in commercial outlets such as cafeterias or restaurants.

Super Automatic Espresso Machines.

These machines are very quick and integrate both water and coffee grinders into the process that are activated with the press of a button. Everything is programmed including the amount of coffee required/delivered. This type of machine is very popular and has many obvious advantages over the others outlined above.

Difficulties With Changing to a Lean Culture – Part II

Believing Lean Culture {align metrics from the onset} Where will the "human-side" of Lean hit you? Lets talk about experiences with talking LEAN vs. walking LEAN in Part II.

As is the case with any Lean implementation in a Traditional environment, culture (or more specifically culture change) will be the most difficult obstacle to success. While a company can hire consultants, develop work teams, and even begin Lean initiatives, if the company only "talks the talk", the initiative soon becomes just that, talk.

The transformation to a Lean Enterprise is not easy. Senior management while being driven by the labor force must lead the process. Goals must be established up front, so all are working toward the same future state. The difficulty is, Lean is not your parents' algebra. More accurately, it's the geometry you always tried to avoid.

Consider this

Our favorite algebra equation is: X + Y = Z The area of ​​a triangle is: .5B * H

Think of algebra as traditional corporate metrics. Appearing to be simple and straightforward, industry-accepted, black-and-white. Terms such as absorption, capacity and cycle-time should come to mind. In this environment, goals are set which require machines to be run constantly in order to absorb minutes, regardless of the fact that needed product can not be run on those machines. This translates into running product that is not needed, consuming valuable material and increasing finished goods inventory to reduce variances on metrics.

At month-end (or quarter-end, year-end) the focus suddenly shifts to inventory levels and instantaneous inventory reduction is mandated. In this mentality, 2-1 = 1, no questions asked. People, materials, tools … all have the same weight.

Now consider our triangle. Here, 2-1 1, the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Lets say "B" represents the "tools" of lean – Kaizen, Jidoka, Heijunka, Kanban, 5S, etc and "H" represents our people. Half the knowledge of tools combined with total commitment of the people will get you the area of ​​our triangle, or true Lean Culture Change. If your focus is only on the Lean tools, you will not achieve success. The people part of Lean is more critical.

With Lean metrics, details are truly simple and straightforward. Measurements such as Delivery based on TAKT (true customer demand), Overall Equipment Effectiveness, Inventory Turns, and Level-Loading are consistently monitored to achieve continuous improvement in all areas. Inventory is not built up without (or by artificial) demand. There is no "mad rush" to deliver product at the end of the financial cycle.

Accounting, the dreaded A-word

So, here you are. You've sent managers off-site for hands-on Lean training. You believe they return as experts in Lean after only 40 hours of training. You might have even conducted some overview training with your direct labor.

Now, "lets get LEAN". Using the 7 wastes and 5S guidelines, you immediately see room for improvement. Everyone jumps on board when you project cost savings. Your first project organizing work areas and connecting disjointed processes is in full stream.

"Did you know Bob's machine is sitting idle today?" asks your Operations Manager. "Yep, sure is. We're ahead on that machine, so we moved Bob down to help in Assembly." Good response, Lean thought, cross-training staff, better utilization of the operator. "But that machine is costing us money, it needs to run!" …

The A-word strikes again. Corporate executives all agreed that Lean is the savior to the business. They may have even brought in consultants to educate everyone on LEAN MANUFACTURING. The problem? Lean is not a manufacturing tool, it is an ENTERPRISE tool, it is a BUSINESS SYSTEM. The manufacturing workforce is not the only group that needs to change how they do business.

Is there a solution?

Developing an A3 (business case), with all goals clearly defined, is a start. The A3 should follow the PCSAM method (Problem / Cause / Solution / Action / Measure). Remember the 5 keys to Lean Initiatives: Delivery, Quality, Cost, Safety and Morale, when creating a business case (defining the problem). Clearly define the current state, identifying wastes in the system (cause). Draw the future state using Rules In Use: highly defined work, clear and binary connections and simple and direct pathways (solution). Conclude the A3 with actions and measurements, including due dates and responsible parties.

Be upfront with executive management and ask the hard questions, such as "will there be problems if machines are shut down when not needed?" This will determine how many machines you use, how many shifts you schedule and how large your FIFO or Kanban systems need to be to achieve balance. Perhaps most importantly, be prepared to re-write yearly goals to co-exist with Lean Initiatives. This should even require executive management's commitment to re-writing the company's goals as well.

Companies that have unsuccessful Lean programs try to measure Lean Initiatives with Traditional metrics. Lean requires long-term vision, not the standard quarter-by-quarter evaluations and corrections. Executive management must adapt the Traditional long-term of "1-2 years" to the Lean long-term of "10+ years". There will certainly be short-term impacts, some negative (specifically when dealing with stock valuations and implications). But, if you have the long-range plan, those short-term impacts will come and go too quickly to jeopardize corporate performance.

Believing in Lean is critical for success. Traditional metrics can cause conflict, but metrics are not the only cause. A mentor of mine was fond of this analogy: there are rabbits, turtles, and foxes. Rabbits learn Lean, live Lean and love Lean. They jump on the process and run with it. Turtles are slow to change. They are patient, maybe even resistant. But once they see Lean in action, they will move in that direction and be as valuable (if not more valuable) as the rabbits. Foxes are the ones to watch. They pretend to believe in Lean, but never make the conversion. Foxes talk the talk. When times get tough, they will not walk the walk.

There is no magic pill for Lean initiatives. The Lean process requires time, commitment, and determination. Companies that can not envision the long-term commitment to Lean, and only use the tools for short-term gain, will achieve some limited success. However, without the culture supporting those tools, the Lean initiative will fail, becoming the "flavor of the week" that everyone knew would not last.

Albert Einstein once said it best, before Lean ever became a buzzword, "" Without changing our patterns of thought, we will not be able to solve the problems that we created with our current patterns of thought. "

Moroccan Tiles – Tips To Creating Your Own Backyard Oasis

An oasis in the desert can slake your thirst. An oasis in your backyard can

sate your senses. To turn your patio into a bright and colourful place to escape

after a hard day, try some of the following suggestions.

Take some inspiration from the Mediterranean north coast of Morocco. Incorporate

the striking color schemes, and set it against the cool blue water of a swimming

pool. Zellige art, a tradition of geometric mosaic, is a mainstay of Moroccan art. Moroccan tiles could be the answer. Line the outer edge of the pool to create an inviting border, or overlay an ordinary courtyard surface with tiles to make an intoxicating geometric pattern, perhaps one beautifully radiating out from the center.

Another option might be a Moroccan mosaic fountain, which makes for a striking

focal point in any yard. The pleasing sound of trickling water blends nicely

with warmth of the sun’s rays. Typically standing about five feet tall,

including the backdrop rising up from the water tank, these fountains can

feature any number of designs. Often created in shades of gold, blue, or red;

they can range in patterns from sunbursts to arched shapes reminiscent of

Moorish doorways.

Stylishly shaped wrought iron chairs from Morocco also work beautifully outdoors

as patio furniture and are durable in all types of weather. Another possibility

might be as simple as adding a fresh coat of paint in a vibrant hue to existing

faded wooden patio furniture. For more informal seating, sling a hammock in a

corner between two trees and drape translucent linen overhead for a sunshade.

Maybe even attempt something more outlandish, hang an antique window with

different colored panes of glass on chains from a tree branch.

Ferns in bold orange terra cotta pottery work nicely with bright Mediterranean

color schemes. Lush vegetation and palm trees will further add to the feeling of

relaxation and casual fertility. Got a green thumb? Try an arbor of hanging

vines and watch it thrive, or plant some fragrant jasmine flowers. Burn some

incense or, to fight off the chill of dusk, try a chimenea with some aromatic

cedar wood.

To light up the night, an evening can be further enjoyed with a deck of hanging

lanterns from Morocco. Made from colored glass and cut into unique shapes, these

geometric designs in the lamps echo the undulating patterns of the tiles and

cast glowing shapes of across the ground to complete an enchanted setting.

Have a magical night with an informal picnic in the backyard. Drag out a throw

rug and pillows, sip on some wine, and watch the stars. Sit back and enjoy your

private paradise.

Hopscotch Stencils Make Nice Hopscotch Games on Pavement

The age-old game of hopscotch has somehow survived the rush of modern entertainment systems, with their snazzy graphics and electrifying soundtracks, to remain a staple playground game for many young children in the United States, as well as many other countries throughout the world. The great advantage of hopscotch is that it does not require a power source, high definition television or new-fangled controller to provide hours, if not years, of enjoyment. All it takes is a slab of concrete, some willing participants, and something with which to draw a grid.

Interestingly, it is this last requirement, the grid, which elicits a lot of pre-game groaning, and could possibly kill a hopscotch game before it has begun. Fewer kids today have the patience to take chalk in hand and draw out the playing field, and the resulting boxes are typically uneven and easily scuffed out by feet stomping. Fortunately, ready-made hopscotch grid stencils are now readily available for purchase, made of sturdy plastic that will endure many, many applications of paint before they even begin to deteriorate. This translates into a whole lot of exciting hopscotch matches, and a lot less headache.

Preparing a hopscotch grid with a hopscotch stencil is fairly easy, if you pay attention to where you’ll be painting your play area. Since you’d rather not be painting dirt and stones that will easily get kicked or blown away, make sure the location is free of debris before you lay down the stencil. Bring a broom with you and give the pavement a good sweeping. Once the area is clear, set up the stencil on the ground. You may want to take some masking tape along, too, to make sure that the stencil does not shift while you are painting. A few strips along the sides of the stencil should be sufficient.

With the hopscotch stencil secured, start painting! Spray a single coat of paint evenly, taking care not to linger too long in any particular area. The more paint there is, the longer it will take to dry, so unless you expect the hopscotch grid to be used frequently on a daily basis, remember that you’re not necessarily going for permanence. When you are done, give the paint time to dry, of course – you don’t want kids complaining that their brilliant new Nikes got ruined because they tacked paint on them. If you didn’t plan ahead and have a bunch of anxious kids sitting around, take them for ice cream or something like that first, so that the hopscotch grid will be ready for action when you return.

When you are done with using the hopscotch stencil and you haven’t been coerced into joining a few games, clean off the grid as best you can. Don’t worry if dried paint lingers on the stencil – if you’ve bought a tough plastic construct, the paint won’t do much to harm the integrity of your purchase. Tuck away the hopscotch stencil somewhere dry and cool, so that it won’t warp, and will be ready for use the next time your kids and their playmates want to enjoy a pick-up hopscotch game or three.

6 Reasons Why You Need a Dental Bridge to Fill Gaps on Missing Teeth

Due to the various tooth infections that come because of lack of proper hygiene, you might end up losing some of your teeth. Sometimes fatal injuries and accidents might cause the loss too. After losing their place, it is unbearable to grow a new set of teeth. If you have lost more teeth, it is advisable to fix a bridge. Listed below are some of the reasons why you need a dental bridge on the missing teeth.

Fixed smile

The teeth make the smile to be attractive, especially when they are in perfect state. Missing some of the teeth will ruin your smile. The gaps will cause the smile to be horrible. The purpose of the dental bridges is to fill those gaps with artificial teeth. The dentists will look for artificial set of teeth that resembles your natural ones. This will retain your smile and beauty in the process.

Proper chewing

Despite enabling a person to look beautiful, the teeth are used in making the digestion process to be effectual. The teeth break down the food into smaller particles. This process is necessary to make it easier for the food to be absorbed in the blood stream after digestion in the stomach. Every tooth has a purpose in breaking the food. The dental bridges will help in restoring effectiveness in breaking foods.

Shape of the face

The teeth help in shaping your face too. You will discover that people who lack multiple teeth, lack a proper shaped face. Such people have sunken cheeks and they look sick. In addition, it is impossible for them to smile. Obtaining a dental fixed bridge procedure from a reputable expert will also result in the restoration of the face of your face.This is imperative in maintaining beauty too.

Proper speaking

Many people are not aware of the fact that the teeth help in speaking properly. In order to pronounce certain words and letters properly, the release of the air within the mouth ought to be controlled. The teeth help in controlling the air for proper pronunciation. Loss of teeth culminates in difficulty in talking properly and this is frustrating. The dental bridge restores your speaking ability.

Confidence

You will realize that people with missing teeth lack confidence especially when trying to speak to others. Most of them try to hide their mouth so that people will not notice they are missing some teeth. Lack of confidence will eventually erode the self-esteem of these individuals. The fixing of the dental bridge helps in restoring the confidence of these patients.

Popular option

Currently, dental bridges have become a popular option for the people who do not have certain teeth. Getting the dental bridges is cheaper than the dental implants. Regardless of them being inexpensive, they are effective and reliable.