How to Build a Timber Retaining Wall

To build a timber retaining wall, begin by digging a trench along the line of where your wall will be. The trench should be approximately the depth and width of the timbers you will be using to build the wall. If you need space to work on the back side of the wall, dig that space out before you begin building the wall. Use a line level to level the ground where the timbers will lay.

Place the first row of timbers flat in the trench. After your first row of timbers is laid along the trench begin stacking your second row of timbers. Stagger the ends of the timbers to ensure a strong wall. Attach each layer of timbers to the layer below it with spikes (8 inch long 60D nails). Timber retaining walls are built straight up – not slanted like stone walls – so keep a level or plumb handy as you stack them.

Timber Tie-Backs

If your wall will be higher than about 18 inches use tie-back timbers every eight or ten feet on various levels to hold your wall upright and make sure it will not fall forward due to the constant pressure exerted upon it from behind (top failure). To add a tie-back timber, simply lay one timber perpendicular to the other timbers but with its length extending into the area that will be back filled. When the area is back filled this timber will act as an anchor to hold the wall in place and ensure your timber retaining wall will last.

Timbers United into One Structure

One aspect of my retaining wall design which is a little different from others you may see is that I prefer to unite the entire timber retaining wall structure with re-bar driven vertically through all the timbers and into the ground via a hole that is drilled through all the retaining wall timbers after they are completely stacked. The re-bar should fit tightly into the drilled hole.

This step might be an overkill but I like strong stuff that lasts a long time. An alternative but similar method is to drive re-bar through the bottom two or three layers when the wall is about half-built and then connect the bottom timbers to the top layers once the top layers are added (see pictures).

Use Properly Treated Quality Timbers

Some books and sites will recommend that you use “garden timbers” (those cheap ones with two round sides and two flat edges) to build a retaining wall but I strongly advise against that practice because “garden timbers” are typically made from the cheapest pieces of wood leftover from the production of other lumber or plywood and contain mostly heartwood which does not accept pressure treatments. They will probably be heavily rotted within a few years and will quickly fail.

Building a timber retaining wall is hard work so use timbers that will last. You might even consider using timbers with a vinyl or polymer coating. American Pole and Timber is a reputable company that ships quality timbers nationwide and offers a few types of vinyl coatings that can make wood last virtually forever.

A Chainsaw Mill And You Can Make Your Own Lumber

Building a house? Shed? Workshop? There are times when you need to buy lumber. The trouble is the price of quality boards can be extremely high. But a chainsaw mill will let you make your own lumber.

Mills that make plywood are shut down and the timber companies have less old grown to mill and most of the lumber that's now affordable is new growth pine. Spruce is also very common.

However woods like cherry, poplar, or oak are incredibly expensive and out of many people's budgets. But there is a workable solution. You do not need to settle for pine or spruce. If you mill your own boards you choose the trees and you can have oak if that's what you want.

There is a variety of way to make boards from trees. Most require expensive equipment. You can contract out the work or you can buy a portable mill for your back yard. Trouble is a portable mill will set you back thousands of dollars.

But wait, there is another choice. Did you know you can use your chainsaw to make your own boards? All you need is a large saw and a special device that fits onto the chainsaw bar and you can make any kind of board you want. The good news is it costs you just pennies per board.

This device is called a chainsaw lumber maker and it can mill through any tree. It does not matter how larger, how tough, how big, how thick, or how tall.

All it requires is a little bit of steel and some bolts. To make the mill you'll need a rectangular frame that's just a bit shorter than the chainsaw length. And of course you'll need to weld it together. Plans for building your mill can be found online with no trouble.

You'll want to practice good safety measures at all times. You'll want to wear ear protection, safety glasses, and proper footwear when you are milling.

Once you own a chainsaw mill you will never again buy a board. Instead you'll mill each board you need all by yourself. And each board will be exactly what you want.

And no longer will your budget hold you to pine or spruce. Finally you can have some of the more exotic woods again. Now you'll be able to mill boards from your back yard. It's a great way to recycle dead trees, or to selectively log your property. Now instead of leaving trees to rot you can mill them.

You can purchase a pre-fab chainsaw mill or you can build one from scratch. Pre-fabs are available online or at stores like Home Depot. They are designed to work with all major chainsaws like STIHL or Husqvarna.

No longer will you walk up to the counter and get stick shock as the caller rings your purchase into the cash register. No longer will you settle for cheap woods. Instead you'll be killing gorgeous lumber in your backyard.

Learn to Surf 101

Surfing can be one of the most rewarding and exhilarating sports to learn. However it can also be the most challenging. Once you have your board and wetsuit, it's best to learn the pop up before you start paddling out to catch your first wave. Learning the pop-up now, before you head out to sea, can save you hours of disappointed failures. To learn the pop-up, first place your board on the sand and lie down on your stomach. It will be the same position you would be in when you are paddling out at sea. Be sure that you feet are touching the end of the board. Next take a good notice of how the nose of the board is angled. It needs to level, this helps to show you your weight distribution for the type of board you are on. If your nose is pointed up you need to move further up on the surfboard. If you nose is pointed down into the sand, you need move further back. Once the nose is level make a quick mental not about where you are on the surfboard. This is absolutely vital and will save you hours of trail and error out on the water. The majority of newbies find it very difficult to stand up on the water because they are already laying on their board in a unstable position. Once you have figured out the best position to be on the board, place your arms palms down near the sides of the board directly under your shoulders. It should fall as if you are about to do a actual push up.

Next, be sure your feet are pointed down and are touching the surfboard. With one motion, push yourself up all the while swinging you feet forward on in front of the other. Your front foot should land near the center of the board, or the foot you are most comfortable with being in front. Your back foot should fall in line naturally behind it, as if in a regular standing position. Crouching down will also help to keep your center of gravity low, and help keep you from tipping over. Practice, practice, and practice this move until it becomes natural, smooth, and easy. Doing this now, not on the water, will save you hours of disappointment. Once you have mastered this move it's time to take it to the water. Once you are in the water, again note the nose of the board. This can help make your pop-up much easier. The nose should be roughly an inch or two above water once you begin to paddle. Remember, as you paddle out to the waves, you want to paddle directly into oncoming waves to keep you from falling off. The faster you paddle the easier it is to get through oncoming waves.

As you look to catch your first wave, it is important to note that most waves come in sets. This can help give you time to turn your board around and face land and prepare yourself. When the wave begins to approach you, it's time to get into paddle position and begin paddling. Once the wave is directly underneath you, try to match your speed with the wave. Once you feel the wave to start to propel the surfboard it's time to pop-up. Hopefully, you will stand on your first attempt. If not, get back out there and try, try again.

A few things that may help you is to start with the small waves as difficult to get a feel for what it's like to balance on water. If you have mastered the pop-up on land the only thing you will have to learn is getting your balance on water. It should not take you too long. Once you master you first pop up on a wave you will have a good idea about what it takes and can move on to bigger and better waves. Enjoy Surfing and remember the more mistakes you make the faster you will succeed.

Front Porch Design, Planning & Building In The UK

So, you're thinking about adding a new Porch to your home and looking for the best advice and designs? Congratulations! Keep reading, all will be disclosed.

There are many great reasons to add a new Porch to your home. You may have not considered them all. Here are the main ones:

You want to improve the visual entry to your home, internally and externally.

Increase the value of your home

Create more space and more light

Provide your home with the added security of a second door

Cut energy bills – keep warmth in

Some people have found additional uses too as Porches can make great storage areas for shoes, coats and in some cases even tropical plants!

Do I Need Porch Planning Permission?

It's the most frequently asked question so here's the answer:

The majority of Porches built in the UK do not require planning permission as they fall into the category of "Permitted Development" – Providing that:

The ground area of ​​the new Porch does not exceed 3 Square Meters

The height does not exceed 3 Metres above ground level

No part of a Front Porch is closer than 2 Metres to any highway

The building of your new Porch does not encroach on or over your neighbors property.

Your home is not a listed building or within a conservation area

These are the general guidelines although I would recommend that you seek clarification with your local planning department.

If you are looking to have a new Porch built within the Midlands or Milton Keynes, feel free to get in touch with us at with any questions. Our qualified designers are always on hand to help with any questions on planning and design.

Designing The Ideal Porch For Your Home

Designing the perfect porch for your home is easy when you know how. Many get this cruel bit wrong though. Even the most conscientious of home- owners with the best intentions can get this wrong.

I recently spoke to one of our best designers about this very issue and he provided me with these excellent tips:

Firstly, the new front Porch should compliment the existing home.
Of course, everyone knows this but getting this part right is the most important part of the designers job. Do this right and you could easily gain more value to a home than the cost of the Porch itself.

The size of the Porch should not be too big as to dominate the front of the house or project forward of the bay.

When considering the Porch roof, take a look at your home's style, roof and age. If you have large gabled two story bay windows, a pitched roof will look far better than a flat roof. (A pitched roof is a term for roofs which look like upside down V's)

Flat Porch roofs are better placed on flat fronted homes where the roofs run flat and straight across the front of your home. It may seem straight forward but start looking around and you'll see homes with pitched roofs and bay windows with flat roof Porches extending completely along to the bay – Most feel that this detracts from the house's potential.

If you have protruding bay windows, never look to extend it to form an enclosed Porch. There are other more appealing designs to go for regardless of the shape of your bay. You'll be looking to bring appeal to your home and that of the neighborhood.

The materials used to build the Porch should depend on the existing house and Porches can come fully glazed using timber or UPVC or half glazed using brickwork, timber or UPVC. Porches often have more glazing than masonry.

All new brickwork should match the existing house using the same bond and mortar. Existing house style, windows, doors and brickwork are all considered by our designers to create the perfect match and balance.

The finishing touch is the right door to complete your Porch. At we have a vast range of fully sculptured doors and together, we find the right match, visual appeal and security for your home.

Building A Porch – Terms


Where the roof overhangs the house wall

Bond And Mortar

Method or pattern of laying bricks together with the particular bedding material used between the bricks.

Soldier Course

This is a continuous straight line of upright brickwork.

Door Canopies

Is a roof over a front door, sometimes supported by posts.

Stepped Houses

Where a part of the house is built further forward than another.

Recessed Doorways

Where the front door sets further back than the rest of the houses front wall, normally with a roof or a protruding first floor room above.

Pitched Roof

Where a roof forms the shape of an upside down V.

Halls Adjoining Houses

Is a pair of attached houses where the front doors are next to each other.

Soil Savvy For Organic Gardens

There are three essential layers of soil in the ground. Parent rock is the very underlay layer. This layer partially determines the type of soil you have. Sandstone yields sandy soil; impervious parent rock can lead to a soil that drains poorly. Porous or fractured parent rock can contribute to good drainage. Sub surface soil or, subsoil, is the second layer. This layer is mineral rich and mostly undisturbed by cultivation. This layer contains little or no organic matter and few microorganisms. Finally the first layer or top layer (topsoil) lies above the subsoil where plows, gardeners, and weather can alter it. Along with small mineral pieces, topsoils contain organic matter, air and water. This is the layer that is critical to the growth of your garden plants and the proper balance of these components is vital to the output of your garden.

Knowing the type of soil you have can help you decide the right ways to enhance your soils good qualities. A good balance for soil is 5% organic matter, 25% water, 25% air, and 45% mineral (gravel, sand, silt, clay). The spaces between the soil particles are the pores of your soil – water moves through these pores along with the air that the roots and microorganisms depend on. Too little pore space and the water and air can not move freely. If there is too much pore space, (ie) sandy soil, these elements pass through too quickly and few nutrients are left behind. You can do a "Clump" test to see what type of soil you are contemplating planting in. In a slightly damp soil take a small amount into you hand and make a fist, if the soil does not hold together it is too sandy of a soil for planting most of your plants. This type of soil would be good for cacti or other desert succulents. If the soil stays in a clump and does not crumble at all it is too dense and will need to be mixed with a medium to open up the pores. A good soil will clump in your hand and crumble slightly when you wiggle your fingers.

Now we move on to the fertilizing of the soil. This is a crucial process to organic gardeners. If you feed the soil it will take care of your plants. With organic gardening this is a delicate process. Plants need smaller amounts of so called micronutrients and there are eight nutrients considered essential for plant growth. These nutrients are iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, chlorine and nickel. All of which occurs in very small quantities in most soils. Sometimes referred to as trace elements.

Organic fertilizers contain an abundance of trace elements. Organic matter is plant and animal matter that is in the process of decay. Most importantly grass clippings, leaves, hay, straw, pine needles, wood chips, sawdust, and manure. For some easy ways to add organic matter to your garden try the following: Till compost into vegetable gardens, leave grass clippings on the lawn, and try adding wood-chip mulch to perennial beds.

Good healthy soil is not a one time deal, it is an ongoing process of providing the organizations your plants depend on.

The best organic matter is compost, which is organic matter that has decomposed until they resemble loamy soil. If you are buying your compost you should look for the words "certified organic", or "OMRI Listed" seal, or anything that states it is approved for organic growing. You do not want to buy something that comes from a contaminated source like, sewage sludge. Compost should look dark in color and have a crumbly texture with no large pieces of undecomposed matter. If water oozes our when squeeze a handful of the material it's too wet; if it blows away easily it is too dry. Last but not least it should have an earthy smell without a strong ammonia or sour smell.

Of course making your own compost will be the best way to ensure high-quality compost and save some money. For the last two growing seasons we have been using colloidal humus with excellent results.

An Overview of Ceramic Floor Tiles

Porcelain tiles are thin, flat, slabs commonly used to protect and decorate floors and walls. Ceramic tiles have developed over many centuries, and the earliest forms of tiles originated from the Middle East about 7,000 to 8,000 years ago. During that age, only the wealthiest in the society could afford them, until handier manufacturing materials became available then it was no longer a reserve for the rich. They came in rough shapes and were not as strong as the ones available today, but even then, the artisans took time to add a splash of color in different pigments, and curved out fascinating patterns before laying them out to dry.

At the same time, Chinese was also using white clay commonly known as kaolin to produce the earliest form of porcelain ceramics and tiles. They inspired the Persians to import their porcelain to decorate walls and floors across North Africa, Asia, Mediterranean Europe, and finally the whole of Europe. Today on walking into a tile store, one will find a wide range of tiles with styles and designs inspired by different regions.

Advantages of ceramic tiles

Like all floor surfaces, ceramic tiles come with a number of advantages.

  • They are flexible, and easily installed on virtually any level surface.
  • Since polished porcelain tiles come in a wide range of colors, shapes, and sizes, you can use them to create different, fascinating patterns and art. For instance, use them to create abstract concoctions, or create a quilt style design.
  • The tiles are easy to clean and unlike wooden floors, they do not require polishing.
  • Use ceramic tiles to bridge different rooms, and even connect various room themes. Achieve a cohesiveness that is hard to get with other materials you can use them in non-carpeted areas, which will blend the different rooms together easily.

Disadvantages of ceramic tiles

Ceramic tiles are exceptionally stylish and durable, but have disadvantages depending on what you require in your flooring and the function of the room you're laying the tiles in.

  • Unlike other resilient flooring materials, porcelain tiles can break easily.
  • A ceramic floor can be cold underfoot; even underfloor heating is a consideration.
  • Slipperiness is an immense disadvantage in polished porcelain tiles flooring. There are non-slip varieties that are suitable for use in wet areas, while others are smooth and a small amount of water can lead to a slip and fall accident.
  • When a ceramic tile breaks, it takes a lot of work to fix as you will need to cut out and remove the tile along the grout line without damaging the surrounding material in the process.
  • Additionally if you use white or light colored grout, this will require cleaning and periodically re-grouting.
  • Some ceramic tiles require sealing to stop the absorption of water, in high traffic areas, re-sealing at some point may be required.

As with all flooring there are pro's and con's to consider. It's important that you consider all aspects such as the use of the room, will water be present, is it a highly trafficked area etc and of course your budget, before your commit to laying tiles on your floor.

How to Find Antique Wood Burning Stoves

As the summer gives way to fall and winter even some people who have little interest in antique collecting are anxious to discover how to find antique wood burning stoves. You see with cooler weather approaching a great number of individuals want to add these items to their home.

While antique enthusiasts and collectors appreciate these stoves for their decorative and historical value there are a growing number of individuals who desire them for their functional use. Most of these wood burning appliances can provide an amazing amount of heat at very low cost; and saving money is high on everyone's current priority list.

You can find antique wood burning stoves that date back more than 150 years if you are willing to devote a little effort to the chase. A good place to start is by browsing through some reputable online vendors who specialize in quality antiques and furnishings.

You can scroll through the lists of each merchant to see which models they are offering for sale. This method will give you access to dealers across the US as well as those who live in other countries.

Do not forget to check out the classified ads in your hometown newspaper to see if there just might be an individual who is offering one of these wood stoves for sale. Who knows, a mint condition wood stove from the Victorian era might be only a few blocks from where you live. Garage sales are another avenue that may lead you to a great deal on a wood burning stove that is in good to excellent condition.

If there are any local antique stores in your community you may want to visit them in person and look through their inventory. This will provide you with an opportunity to inspect the merchandise closely. You can even try to "haggle" for a better deal than the price that is scrawled on the sales tag.

There are magazines and monthly papers that you can subscribe to that will also be valuable resources to use when you are trying to find desirable items especially if you are searching for a particularly rare rare wood burning stove. You can look through these publications for dates and locations of upcoming specialty auctions and estate sales. Many times there will be even a list, or pictures, of the items that will be available for sale.

You could even discover a number of antique heating and cooking stoves that are going to be going under the auctioneer's hammer. Then it is easy for you to read the ad and find out when and where the event will be held. You should have ample time to contact the dealer or company conducting the sale and get some more detailed information before the sale date arrives.

If you feel that you have discovered some promising items that you want to bid on then you can make arrangements to attend the auction, or estate sale in person. In most instances you will also have the option of placing a telephone bid on the antique stove that your fancy.

You can also browse through online classified ads such as the ones featured on Craigslist. This is another effective resource tool that can be used to help you locate a selection of antique wood burning stoves. There are some sites where you can even post your own ad describing exactly what kind of stove you are searching for and then you can wait for sellers to contact you.

When you are trying to find a specialty item quickly there are some valuable tips that can save you time. Speed ​​is essential when you are searching for a particular product that many others are also interested in buying. This is why knowing the roads in advance will let you be the Early Bird that gets that prize winning Wood Burning Stove.

Welcome to the World of Cobb Cookery

When the Cobb was launched in 2001, it was hailed by Time magazine as one of the best inventions of the year. It has continued to evolve ever since. Starting life originally as a ceramic hot pot it is now a lightweight stainless steel miracle. Six to eight charcoal briquettes will give more than 2 hours cooking time at temperatures up to 500 degrees Fahrenheit or almost 260 degrees centigrade. The design is such that only the lid gets hot, not the body of the cooker.

The Cobb is extremely compact and weighs in at only eight and a half pounds, less than 4 kilos. As well as using the Cobb regularly at home the compact design makes it an ideal cooker on my boat or when we go camping.

I first became aware of the Cobb on a camping trip, where another camper was using one. When I saw what he was producing on it, I was hooked and bought one shortly after the holiday. The unit gets used regularly at home as well on camping trips. I also find that the Cobb is ideal when boating. The galley on my boat is only one metre wide, so space is at a real premium. The Cobb fits happily on the cooker space and effectively gives me an on-board barbeque and oven. I can produce a full roast dinner with all the trimmings if I want to. I do not use it for everything of course, though I did at first!

The design of the Cobb is such that the unit has a fairly small central grate area, where the briquettes go. This is surrounded by what is effectively, a moat. I always use wine, cider or beer in here. It keeps the food moist and collects meat juices etc which forms the basis of an excellent gravy or sauce at the end of cooking.

In the home environment the Cobb makes an excellent BBQ, and is a real talking point. It is easy enough to provide enough food to keep half a dozen people happy, while saving money on fuel at the same time. With the fire grate full you are only going to use eight briquettes.

Top Five Benefits of LED Display System

Light Emitting Diode or LED is a common term today. The invention history dates back in the mid 1930s by a Russian scientist. The lighting system started appreciation from the early of 1970s. The system has been used in a lot of purposes. People use the lighting system in different occasions like New Year’s celebration, in auto signals, to decorate the house or the gathering place, and much more. But importantly the use of LED has been increased in advertisement arena. People frequently use the lighting system to display their products. Particularly in night times the lighting system looks attractive more than any other objects. Thus they easily grab the attention of the potential customers or clients to notify about their products or services. Besides, there are a number of benefits of LED system. The article remaining will coach you through the key benefits of LEDs.


Usually the LEDs are brighter than the other forms of lighting systems. The other sources like incandescent and fluorescent lights may fade and flicker with age. But LEDs never offer such types of performance. You can easily utilise the lighting system to get a brighter lighting environment.

Energy Efficiency

The most prominent feature of the LEDs is that they consume less energy than the common lighting sources. Even the system can run perfectly in a low volt environment, and produces less heat. But in contrary neon signs and incandescent signs require three or four times more energy than the LEDs.

Highly Durable

Light Emitting Diode (LED) is made of solid plastic elements. Thus it owns a greater durability than the common lighting sources. On the other hand neon signs and incandescent lights are made of thin layered glasses, and are easily breakable. Moreover, the LEDs can last around 100, 000 hours, whereas neon and incandescent lights last up to 4000- 35,000 hours.

Versatile Use

LEDs can be used for a diversified use. Usually the messages on the LED panel are subject to be customisation which is not available in the other forms of lighting systems. One can customise the messages of the lighting panel. Event there is option to display multiple messages simultaneously. You can change the messages after your needs at any time. Moreover, the messages on LED panel are programmable. But the common sources do not offer such flexibility to display your messages.

Effective Advertisement

In an LED panel the messages become live and attractive. Multiple animated messages on displays arrest public attention easily than the other sources of advertisement. Besides, the cost of installing an LED panel is cheaper than the traditional advertisement methods. Thus people can advertise effectively through the LED display signage.

Better Than Pilates, It's Pirates – The Four Step Plan to Lose the Bilge and Reshape Your Booty

Well shiver me timbers, if it arn't another September. That can only mean on thing. Time to dust off me Pirate dictionary in time for "International Talk Like a Pirate Day" on September 18th!

You know, pirate life was not all fun and games. Looting and pillaging took a surprising amount of energy, stamina, and agility. After extensive research, and a few rum cocktails, I've uncovered a top-secret pirate manuscript. It details how the oled scalliwags used to shake off the barnacles to get themselves ready for plunder season.

I call this 4-step workout Pilates er, I mean Pirates.

To get rid of that unsightly bilge, simply do the following four exercises each day before swabbing down the poop-deck.

1. Walk the Plank. On yer mat, git in plank position (face down, body stiff as a board with arrhms straight and hands directly under yer shoulders). While keeping your core tight with no break at the waist, take 4 baby steps forward with yer feet and hands, then 4 steps back. Repeat 4 times.

2. The Downward Salty Dog. From plank position, walk yer boots forward, raising yer tailbone skyward. Try to keep yer arrhms in line with yer torso and press yer shoulders t'ward the floor. Hold fer one minute.

3. Crazy Pieces of Eight (or Treasure Curls). With a large bottle of rum in each hand (or hook), bringing them up until yer elbows be at 90 degree angles. Keeping the port arrhm there, lower and raise the starboard arrhm eight times. Repeat for the other side.

4. Hull Squats (pronounced skw-arrgh-ts). These are critical for any seafarer desiring a fine pirate booty! With yer back against the side o 'yer ship, drop down until y legs arrgh at a 90 degree angle. Hold that position until ye can no longer stand or ye passes out, whichever comes first.

Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and do yer Pirates routine every day to prevent scurvy, and keep yer buckles swarshing and yer scallys wagging fer many, many adventures to come.

Christian Living Book Review – 4th Dimensional Living In A 3 Dimensional World

By: Dr. David Yong-Gi Cho (2006)

Published by Bridge Logos Foundation, 17750 NW 115th Ave., Building 200, Suite 220 Alachua, FL 32615

ISBN 978-0-88270-312-1

Book Price: $11.99

Pastor of the largest church in the world

Dr. David Yong-Gi Cho is pastor of the largest church in the world, Yoido Full Gospel Central Church in Soul, Korea. His congregation numbers well over 730,000 people, with over 25,000 cell groups. He is a bestselling author of a number of prominent books. Dr. Cho has a unique revelation of the spirit realm accessible through Christ.

Spiritual keys to experiencing God’s best

Dr. Cho presents a simply laid out formula to open the door to spiritual fulfillment. He shares 6 chapters, covering, an invitation to a Fourth-Dimensional world (Ch.1); Change our thinking (Ch. 2); Faith & trust (Ch.3); Live with dreams and visions in our hearts (Ch. 4); Speak change (Ch. 5); & Meet God in your spiritual training (Ch. 6).

Investing $1 a day adds up over time to $1,000,000

Dr. David Yong-Gi Cho speaks with passion, authority and personal reflection as he inspires readers to access the highest level of living known to humanity. His style is engaging as he arrests readers’ thoughts, stating, “The fourth-dimensional world is spiritual… made in the image of God we are capable of knowing eternity and infinity.”

The scope of Cho’s writing transcends natural bounds. He draws readers into a bigger world via illustrations and descriptive analogies. He shares on Roger Bannister breaking the 4 minute mile, saying, “Once they started believing that they were able to run faster, their actions followed their thoughts and everything began to change.”

Through Dr. David Cho’s insights, the realm of impossibility is brought into reach. His passion for the miraculous exudes confidence which inspires readers to follow him to experience it also. He expresses, “… the Word of God opens the door to the fourth dimension for us. This enables God’s creative miracles to occur in our lives.”

Dr. Cho speaks pointedly at times to address areas of needed change, as, “Unless you get rid of negativity, such as anger, hopelessness, and insecurity, these elements will turn back on each other and cause problems in your life.”

Dr. David Cho is systematic in his approach, reflecting, “So far, we have examined fourth-dimensional spirituality and its elements-thinking, faith, dreams, and words… components that rule our third dimensional lives.”

Powerful spiritual principles that work

Dr. David Yong-Gi Cho shares the capacity to change our lives via powerful spiritual principles that work.

Success Step: List 2 dreams you have. Find a scripture that backs them up as God’s will, & say them daily!

Phineas Gage Evidence for Materialism

Upon understanding the extent of Phineas Gage’s accident, one begins to see its implications on studying the human brain and mind. In the classic debate of mind/brain (whether or not our identity is constructed of two components, the mind and brain; or, if mind is just a construct, or byproduct, of our brain and doesn’t actually exist) there are typically three ways of addressing this issue. The first is dualism, which is the belief both mind and brain exist (the mind in the metaphysical realm and the brain in the physical) and they communicate with each other.

The second is a straight mechanical view point. Only the brain exists and each part of the brain handles a single specific function. This is a one to one ratio. Finally the third way of looking at this is a dialect materialistic point of view. Dialectical thinkers believe only the brain exists, but not in a one to one ratio. In fact, the brain adapts and changes functions as it grows. Each part is important in how it relates to the whole, or other parts. However, due to length and time restrictions, we will look at the accident from a merely mechanical point of view.

Let’s look at Phineas’s situation. He was injured when a tapping iron shot through his frontal lobe, leaving a hole in this part of his brain. Later, his mood changed drastically from this experience. He was quick to anger, more hostile, and quick to act rather than thinking out a plan first. All his friends commented about him being a totally different person, emotionally.

At first glance this looks like a clear cut piece of evidence for the mechanical materialist. Phineas acted one way before the accident: clear-focused, thought out tactics for obtaining his goal, and was a gentle “soul.” But then he damaged a specific part of his brain-a chunk of his frontal lobe was made unusable. Afterward, Gage was more aggressive and didn’t take the time to think things through. This would seem to suggest the part of his frontal lobe which was removed was a center of calming. This part of the brain made sure the person thought about the consequences of his actions, before he acted. And, from the evidence this seems like a very understandable and accurate assumption; and, is one of the stronger points of view among most scientists today.

However, even from a materialistic viewpoint, one could determine a different reasoning from this experience. If the brain functions dialectically, then by removing a sole part of the brain we still have created a difference in relationship of the parts to each other and to the whole. For example, if we view the brain as a spider web. Think of each one of the silk threads as pathways along which the brain communicates. By removing a section of the web, the speed of communication which takes place is significantly reduced, since the spider must navigate around the missing section, and an entire section might have been cut off to the rest of the web. In this way, we can look at the accident as not removing the area which determines Phineas’s response, but instead perhaps dampened the communication of the brain, altering which response Gage would give. Perhaps, he still thinks he is even giving the same response. Maybe he thinks he is behaving gentle, when in fact he tells someone off. The message he is trying to convey simply becomes jumbled along its new, longer path.

But what does it matter if it is mechanical or dialectical? Well, if it is a dialectical relationship, then we might be able to find ways of reversing, or helping individuals who have suffered similar injuries. We could possibly train the brain to rely on new relationships which will perform similar tasks. Since it is how the parts relate to each other, rather than a specific part performing a specific function.

And what if it is mechanical? Does that mean there is no help for individuals who have suffered brain injuries and are now missing a part of their brain? Not necessarily. Science has a new understanding of stem cells, and has found brain cells which are already clean slates, waiting to adapt to whatever cell is needed at a specific time. If we can learn to manipulate these to the point of re-growing damaged sections of the brain, then we might be able to replace the section entirely, recreating the function.

Water Fountains – An Artistic Way to Highlight Your Business

A commercial water fountain is an excellent way to present your business. In these times of business competition it is essential to find a way to promote your brand that is stunning and has a lasting impression on your visitors and clients.

What could be more unique than a commercial water fountain with your corporate logo engraved on it? Indoors or outside, a water fountain used as the sign for your business will keep customers remembering you.

If your business has a large frontage, you may want to consider a large tiered fountain to welcome visitors to your concessions. Large fountains become landmarks and invariably referenced with the business name. This is certainly a unique and natural way to make your business name a local by-word.

Entryways and walls outside the building are also excellent locations to have a wall fountain cascading water down a marble panel. Inside the building, a wall fountain hanging prominently in the reception area with your company name engraved onto it will create a great impact. What a great way to greet your customers.

Commercial water fountains come in all shapes and sizes and you will always be able to find one to fit your décor. Large grandiose, tiered water fountains in the courtyard will definately create an effect as the client approaches but to my mind, it is inside the building where a fountain will have the greatest impact.

It is usual for customers and clients to arrive early for an appointment and have to wait several minutes. What better place to wait than next to a gently cascading waterfall. The soft sounds and beautiful visual effect will relax the client before an appointment.

A water fountain inside the business promises has so many benefits. Confidential information can be discussed and the conversation muted by the sounds of the water or it can drown out the sounds of neighboring conversations.

The negative ions that discharge from the tumbling waters help to create a healthy environment. Negative ions remove allergens from the air and reduce the positive ions that create stress. If you business has lots of computer terminals and fluorescent lights, then unduly you have a stressful office. Waterfalls will combat the stress buildup.

There is another benefit. By adding a commercial water fountain to your promises, you will be eligible for a tax deduction.

Make your new commercial water fountain a New Year resolution and reapp the benefits through the year. There are many reputable water fountain businesses, such as, who will advise you on style, design and all of the aspects associated with having a commercial fountain installed in your contracts or offices.

How to Solder Copper Pipes in 5 Easy Steps

Almost all projects or goals of any size or importance require several steps during a period of time to complete. High-value projects and goals almost invariably require careful planning, several steps during a period of some time and perseverance to keep it going to see the project through to the end. Setting out to sold copper pipes is no exception. To solder copper pipes there just is not a single step project either. But here's the best way to achieve that in 5 easy steps.

Step 1. Make sure to give your work a dry run by fitting the pipes and fitting together first. This will be important because it lessens the chance of a headache when soldering time actually coming around. In the event you skip or ignore this, you may have a leak in your connection leading to other problems depending on the intent of the pipes usage.

Step 2. Use emery or sand cloth to clean the ends of the pipes. This can be a very critical step. It demands concentration along with your full attention. It could be best for those who could do it this way: It is a very good idea to clean out the fitting your going to use also. Why this will be significant is to ensure a clean fit and a leak free hold

Step 3. Use soldering flux on the ends you just cleaned including inside the fitting. The principal reason why, is simply because we want to make sure we have a solid connection Another significant reason is to remove any chance of leaks in the future.

Step 4. Connect pipes and fitting together and apply heat. To go into detail and elaborate on that a little, fit the pipes that you just put flux on snuggly together making sure everything fits well. Heat the pipe and fittings equally for 8 to 10 seconds.

Step 5. Apply the solder to one pipe to fitting connection at a time. One other suggestion, when the solder begins to drip, move on to the next joint to sold together. A general rule of thumb is to use a half inch of lead free solder per half inch in size of pipe.

Finally, if you have followed the above mentioned tips closely, you will succeed and will then enjoy the fruits of this success! Pat yourself on the back, be a little pleased with yourself. You achieved what you set out to try and do! Savor the sweet taste of success! Now enjoy!

If you did not keep to the tips set forth above, well … good luck anyway. You will likely need it … 😉

From Brass to Tin – How to Care For Your Antique Metals

Caring for your antique metal items requires know-how. Each metal has its own particular characteristics and requires its own brand of tender loving care.


Brass is commonly found on decorative items, hardware and fixtures. Avoid cleaning with acids such as vinegar or lemon. The acid is too harsh. Likewise, avoid ammonia- based products such glass cleaners. A coat of clear lacquer is often applied to brass to prevent tarnish. A coat of paste wax will slow tarnish. But antique brass should not be polished because the patina that develops over time is desirable.


Sculptures, lamp bases, fixtures are sometimes made of bronze. There is good news with this metal. The less you do the better. The patina that comes with aging on bronze is desirable. So, don’t do anything beyond a light dusting to maintain any of your bronze items.


Cast-iron is a metal of choice for fireplace accessories, cookware and garden accessories. Cast-iron that has become wet should be thoroughly dried as it will rust. A coating of oil, wax or paint can prevent rust. You can use a small knife to remove small rust spots. Avoid submerging in water any cast-iron cookware as it is often seasoned. Don’t scrub this off. It is desirable.


Copper is a popular metal used for home and garden decorative ware and cookware. For your outdoor copperware: left untended it develops an appealing green patina, yet people do tend to polish their copper cookware. A timeless homemade remedy continues to be a popular cleaning method. Sprinkle the item with coarse salt and use a half of a lemon to scour until clean.


Gilt is often applied as a decorative element to furniture and is found in antique jewelry. Gilt and plating found on furniture are very delicate, so gently dust with a very soft brush. Pure gold doesn’t tarnish. But impurities in hard water might discolor gold, so make sure that any gold that gets wet is thoroughly dried.


Pewter is found in serving and decorative items. Vintage pewter was made of a soft mixture of tin and lead and is more delicate than modern pewter. Using a light hand is your best course of action with any pewter. A light dusting and good washing with soap and water is all pewter needs. It does not buff up to a bright shine.


Sterling and silver plate is commonly used in flatware, serving items and vintage jewelry. Buff with a silver polish as needed. The more you use your silver flatware, the less polishing it needs. In a pinch, toothpaste makes a good cleaner. Store silver in silversmith cloth bags.


Tin is found in decorative items and kitchenware. Vintage tin might be gray. Don’t try to buff it away. The tarnish protects the tin. Dry thoroughly because any moisture remaining could cause rusting.