When Was the Fireplace Invented?

Fire was one of the most frequently used discoveries in the entire world and this lead to the invention of the fireplace. Taking into account the five Chinese elements: Fire, Wood, Land, Metal and Water, it may be easy to recognize that a fireplace includes all of these. The fireplace has existed ever since fire could be lit up inside a room, with a hole in the roof, but the first fireplaces seemed to have been built in the Roman Empire and only the rich citizens could afford one. At the beginning, they were built from stone but because of very high temperature, it had to be changed very often.

Later on, when people started manufacturing the iron extract, they changed the way the fireplaces were built. Some iron slabs were placed on the walls of the fireplace in order to protect it. Until 1624, no other significant changes had been made, until the architect Louis Savot, who was working at the Louvre, invented and developed a type of fireplace in which the air was drawn through some passages under the hearth and behind the fire grate, being discharged into the room through a grill in the mantel.

In the following centuries, the fireplace became a necessity. Its development seemed to flourish during the Victorian period. In addition, the necessity mentioned before blended with the esthetic side and the simple fireplace turned into real pieces of art that could inspire the stonemasons nowadays. In fact, famous people like Benjamin Franklin got involved in the development of the fireplace system. He designed a cast-iron stove which could heat the room in a more efficient way, but the problem was that the smoke spread in the room. This system of the fireplace in the center of the room was improved by Franklin himself and he got the patent for this invention.

Still, the one who perfected the invention was David Rittenhouse who added a pipe bent at 90 degrees to the back of the stove which was meant to direct the smoke out of a chimney. Another person interested in the “smoking chimneys in London” was Count Rumford, also known as Benjamin Thompson. His fireplace was much taller than the other designs and it helped a lot at the removal of the smoke.

At present, there are so many types of fireplaces and they use different fuels. From the classical wood, the fireplaces also managed to swallow the natural gas. The latter has a great advantage as there is no more ash and the burden of buying wood is long forgotten. It is said that nothing compares to the flicker of dancing flames provided by a fireplace. But nowadays there are gas logs that look so much like the real ones and everybody can enjoy the atmosphere created by it.

People Skills: Eight Essential People Skills

Being able to communicate effectively with others requires people skills, and here’s eight essential ones:

1. Understanding people

People not only come in all shapes and sizes, but they come with different personality types as well. You may want to brush up on how to communicate with the four main personality types by reading this article. Indeed, dedicated students of communication could do little better than purchase Bem Allen’s excellent introduction to personality types, ‘Personality Theories’.

People are individuals, with as many similarities from one person to the next as differences. To communicate most effectively, each will require you to communicate with them in their own individual preference style, using their language, their body gestures, and their pace and intonation.

So how do you find out how best to communicate with someone? Spend time with them! Don’t expect to meet someone off the street and talk intimately with them within a minute. Understanding a subject takes time — whether that subject is an academic one or another human being.

2. Expressing your thoughts and feelings clearly

Our brains can only take so much information in at any one time. We are bombarded with messages every second of the day, so to compete with the barrage of ‘noise’ a person faces, your message needs to be clear, succinct and to the point.

It is very worthwhile taking time to plan your communication — no matter by what method it is delivered — to ensure that you are taking the least amount of time to express the right level of thought in the most receptively simple manner.

3. Speaking up when your needs are not being met

Just as important in business relationships as in domestic ones, speaking up to ensure that your needs are met is a fundamental part of any relationship.

You may wish to read this article on assertive, not aggressive, communication, but in a nutshell there are six different ways you can be assertive and not aggressive in your communication: by rehearsing your behaviour prior to the communication; by repeating your communication (the ‘broken record’ technique); fogging; asking for negative feedback; tentative agreement with negative feedback; and creating a workable compromise.

Assertiveness is a useful communication tool. It’s application is contextual and it’s not appropriate to be assertive in all situations. Remember, your sudden use of assertiveness may be perceived as an act of aggression by others.

4. Asking for feedback from others and giving quality feedback in return

Alongside assertiveness techniques, the giving and receiving of feedback is a key communication skill that must be learnt if you want to have any hope of developing long-term business relationships..

Toastmasters International teach a useful feedback and critical review technique — first give a sincere compliment, follow this with any practical suggestions for improvement, then wrap up with further sincere praise. It is known as ‘CRC’, or ‘Commend, Recommend, Commend’, a three-step model for excellence in giving quality feedback.

Remember, too, that truthfulness is a subjective view. What you may find distasteful in someone may be equally desirable from another’s point of view. As I learnt, by living through a series of IRA atrocities in England and watching the US political and media reactions, one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.

5. Influencing how others think and act

We all have the opportunity to influence how others think and act. All the way from Cialdini’s Persuasion principles down to simple violence (of a verbal or physical nature), we are daily able to shape the thoughts and actions of those around us.

From something as simple as smiling and saying, “Hello!” as a way of influencing someone’s mood, to leading by example during an intense period of change, there are many ways of either leading to or drawing out of others required behaviours and attitudes.

Remember that an attitude leads to an emotion, which in turn leads to an action. Shape the attitudes and you have a more reliable way of predicting actions.

6. Bringing conflicts to the surface and getting them resolved

I confess: I’m not a ‘natural’ at handling conflict. It’s taken marrying into an existing family of three children to help this only child come to terms with conflict.

It’s taken me three years of living in my family to realise it’s possible to co-exist in conflict and not get personally involved. But it wasn’t an easy lesson to learn, I can tell you!

But being a step-father to teenage children has helped me learn the importance of bringing conflicts and resentments to the surface where they can be more easily managed.

Your employees might be harbouring secret resentments of you, and unless you find out what they are, bring these ‘dark secrets’ out into the light of day, you are never going to be able to successfully deal with them.

It’s embarrassing, potentially humiliating and requires a strong level of patience not to launch straight into a defensive mode, but giving people the opportunity to express their concerns, disappointments and anger, face-to-face, gives you tremendous opportunity to put things right, or help them see where their thoughts and feelings are misplaced.

7. Collaborating with others instead of doing things by yourself

I’m a shocker at this, but learning to delegate and share has been instrumental in growing my own business.

The quickest way of burying yourself in excess detail and workload is to try and do everything yourself. Yet sharing the workload can be the smartest thing you will ever do. Here’s why:


Leverage is taking your skills and abilities and allowing others to magnify your work capacity. You train them to do what you do and you do something else.

One bricklayer can only lay a certain number of bricks in an hour, but that same bricklayer can train 15 mates to lay bricks and suddenly those 15 bricklayers are building monuments while the first bricklayer is out securing more work for them.

While the 15 are laying bricks, the original bricklayer can be learning how to perform advanced bricklaying, or learn sales strategies, or learn supervision skills.

The lesson is simple: try and do it all yourself and the ‘all’ will bury you; teach others to do what you do and you build a monument.

Jesus taught 11 men how to do what he did. Then he left them to carry on while he moved on to other things. From the simple act of one man teaching 11 others, a church and the largest, most influential religious movement the world has ever known was born.

8. Shifting gears when relationships are unproductive

Sometimes you need to walk away. Sometimes you need to jettison unhealthy cargo. And sometimes you need to take drastic steps to regain balance and momentum.

‘Shifting gears’ can be as simple as changing the venue of your supervision meeting from a dark office to a nearby cafe. Sometimes it can be moving the meeting from straight after lunch to first thing next morning, when clearer heads might prevail.

Sometimes it can mean increasing the level of assertiveness in order to ensure the point you are making is being received. Sometimes it might mean bringing others into the meeting so that the other person understands the implications of their attitudes or actions.

And sometimes it can mean helping them find a more meaningful and satisfying role outside of your sphere of influence.

As a management psychologist I clearly remember one organisation I consulted to: the only way out of a staff impasse was to remove the impediments to progress. Which meant helping key protagonists find new work outside of the organisation. Sometimes culture change can only be effected in a quick way by bringing in an entire new team and throwing away the dead wood. But only as a last resort.


The whole idea of being people skilled is knowing or finding how to bring out the best in others in any situation, rather than their worst. By mastering these eight essential people skills you dramatically increase your chances of achieving the best outcomes out of your interactions and business challenges.

Decorating The Living Room Interior With Blue

Decorating with Blue is not as daunting as some might see it. Blue is fresh and brings the interior to life. Tones of Blue in interior make it appealing and creates interest. Curtains, accessories and soft furnishings with blue pattern prints and designs can make up an appealing contemporary living space.

Blue is a cool color by nature. Browsing through interior catalogues, it is one of the most widely used colour for show homes and interior shoots. but in reality, a lot of people find it difficult to lay out an interior scheme with blue. It takes a little effort to work out the scheme and combined with other cool tones as it works many other cool tones like gray, purple, even black. To give your room a sense of stability and calm, use combinations with Gray, Purple, Black with Blue. If you want to go bold with your interior, go for combination with metallic, whites, deep reds.

Hanging patterned blinds in floral blue fabric adds a layer of interest to a living room scheme. Blue tones used both on the window and accessories create a link between the two. An area rug in Grey may offer softness, with a comfortably and generously cushioned sofa.

A floral curtain fabric sets off the colour scheme in a living room. Mix blue and floral curtain fabric for a soft, gentle living room style. Floral patterned Curtains / Blinds with brighter floral pattern on cream goes extremely well with pastel sofas. Try this beautiful yet elegant Blossom floral curtain fabric in blue to create a statement around your interior. Fabric in a bold floral pattern will make a strong statement when teamed with other soft furnishings and curtains in the same colour. Another idea, is to start with creamy neutrals on the walls, carpet and upholstery, then choose blossom-print curtains with Blue and purple or Lilac accessories.

Blues and soft creams, is a wonderfully calming scheme that is perfect for living rooms. Choose furniture in pale colours that look as if they’ve been bleached by the sun. Have fun with prints and accessories around the furniture in muted colour. Floral Curtain fabric can set off the colour scheme in your living room. Play around with coordinating and complementing colours. Mixing other prints with floral pattern will create interest in the living space. For a tip, start with creamy neutrals on the walls, carpet and upholstery, then choose blossom-print curtains.

Helicopter Engineering and Vibration Control

Helicopter engineering

Application of new technology to the ANGLO-ITALIAN EH101

Our confidence in the future and the new opportunities and challenges that we may look forward to are very much based on the benefits that the application of new technology has brought to today's products.

The EH 101, designed by the partnership of Agusta and GKN Westland employs new technology extensively. The principal new product technologies employed are:

Advanced aerodynamic composite blades; A composite elastomeric hub; An active vibration control system (ACSR); Composite structural components and aluminum lithium structural components; Health and Usage Monitoring systems; An all digital AFCS automatic flight control systems; Electronic Instrument Systems; and helicopter Integrated Avionic Systems employing Dual Data Buses.

To highlight the benefits of just one of these items, as an example, let us consider the main rotor. If we had retained the aerodynamic technology of the previous generation of helicopters, the aircraft would have needed to employ two extra blades to match the performance of the new rotor. These extra blades would have had a significant consequential impact on increased installed power requirements, and increased empty weight and overall weight for the missions to be performed. This improvement is a direct consequence of the 37% improvement in cruise blade loading available from the advanced aerodynamics employed.

Helicopter vibration control

Helicopter vibration control method is based on the following three issues

o rotor dynamics

o fuselage dynamics

o choice of appropriate antivibration device.

Helicopter rotor dynamics

Helicopter vibration from the main rotor is the primary source of problems. Minimization starts with appropriate tuning of main rotor characteristics. The dynamic response of a rotor blade to the aerodynamic excitation depends on blade natural frequencies, generalized masses and modal damping which gives the amplification or reduction of blade roots, vibratory loads to the aerodynamic excitation.

The aerodynamic parameters are selected mainly to improve helicopter performance in hover and in forward flight. The main parameters are

o induced velocities

o planform shape: rectangular or tapered

o tip shape: swept, anhedral

o twist.

Induced velocities due to the fuselage or the blade vortex interactions are a significant parameter. Fuselage optimization to reduce aerodynamic drag leads to designing compact rotor heads. In these conditions, the blades are close to the body, which amplifies the interactions in terms of fuselage induced velocities exciting the blade and gives high rotor head vibratory loads.

The number of blades is thus a highly significant factor as far as vibrations are concerned. A general argument in the helicopter community is the higher the number of blades the lower the dynamic loads at the rotor head. The choice of the number of blades is strongly influenced by other criteria like performance, price and autorotation capability.

The latest aerodynamic studies are producing new blades which are no longer rectangular but tapered with evolving tips. Their twist can be modified and an anterior added to improve their performance in hover or at high speed. The planform effects the spanwise distribution of the aerodynamic loads as well as the dynamic properties of the blades. Tapering leads, for example, to low generalized masses for those modal shapes where dynamic response and vibration level are increased.

High twist is favorable for hover and low speed performance. The linear aerodynamic theory shows that higher harmonics blade flatwise loads are proportional to twist. The current blade design methodology is an optimization of aerodynamic performances as well as a change in internal structure to improve dynamic behavior. The simplest method involves retaining a margin between blade model frequencies and hub excitation frequencies. It is possible to increase the generalized mass or shift the frequency of the modes most critical for vibrations with tuning masses. Optimization techniques involve local stiffness and mass adjustments to globally reduce aerodynamic excitations and blade response to obtain low N-per-rev hub loads (moment, vertical and lateral shears).

Helicopter fuselage dynamics

The fuselage response to rotor excitations must carefully be considered to enable high comfort aircraft to be obtained. The fuselage response varies extensively with the excitation frequency.

The structure design must be supported by finite element airframe analysis. In the design phase, every main architecture choice like implementation of frames, installation of heavy parts (engines, gearbox, …) and interface between mechanical parts and fuselage must be validated by dynamics considerations. As far as new structures are concerned the effects of composites make the prediction of natural frequencies and mode shapes more difficult.

The difficulty comes from different new elastic coupling terms and the structural design concept of the helicopter composite fuselages is different from that of metals. Another problem is the structure identification methodology to ensure proper fuselage mode placement: finite element analysis as well as correlation ground shake tests are needed. The global optimization of the structural models is impractical. This is why every company is looking for simplified models which are much easier to use for parametric studies and optimization techniques.

Antivibration devices.

Upgrading of performance, mission duration and versatility looking into increased level of comfort, imperfect control of forced vibration dynamic and aerodynamic problems at design level, require the necessity for developing antivibration devices. The problem proves difficult since the vibration technology has to meet the following requirements

o system with an unlimited service life

o reliability

o reduced maintenance

o minimum weight

o minimum dimensions.

The antivibration devices are broken down into 3 classes

o at the rotor hub

o at the rotor-to-fuselage interface – upper deck

o in the fuselage.

In these three classes, there are three categories of antivibration devices: passive, semi-active and active systems.

The Power of Detachment

This principle is also known as the Law of Surrender or Letting Go. The Law of Detachment says that in order for you to acquire anything in the physical plane, you must first give up your attachment to it. This does not mean that you give up your intention or vision, only your attachment to the result.

The Law of Detachment is based on the undeniable belief in the power of Self. People are constantly seeking security. Attachment is based on fear and insecurity, yet so many people equate attachment with security. Attachment is based on scarcity consciousness because attachment relates to the external world, possessions and material things. Here people are searching outside of the Self (external) for security.

In comparison, detachment is based on abundance, wealth consciousness and the freedom to create. The experience of an abundant mind set, allows you to be grounded in the wisdom of uncertainty. Uncertainty is based on belief and faith; it is here that you will find the power and freedom to create whatever you choose, based on your intentions.

People are constantly searching for security, not realizing that you do not search for security, security is in you, it is the Self. The Self is where all security and belief exist and no where else.
Based on the principles of the Law of Detachment, you will find within yourself two powerful realizations; the power for unlimited potential and the power for unlimited potential. You, are an unlimited spiritual being.

At its core, security is about attachment to what is known, to the past. Detachment lives in the world and wisdom of uncertainty. Many people refer uncertainty to insecurity but this is not true. Uncertainty is the foundation of freedom and pure creativity. Uncertainty is the unknown and the unknown is where unlimited potential and possibilities exist. It is where intention and manifestation live in harmony and unison. It is a powerful state of Being.

Uncertainty is not about the past, which is the known, it is about the power of tomorrow, your future. Do not fear the unknown, rather embrace it, for it is where your visions and dreams will manifest; it is where greatness happens. To live in the world of detachment, you must first embrace the Law of Faith and Intention, as they are one. Together the world of uncertainty that you choose, will be blessed with joy, love, abundance and wealth.

Intend% Attract% Manifest% Detach

The Benefits of Foam Roof Insulation

The benefits of foam roof insulation are many and this article will list some of these positive properties of foam roof insulation. Foam roof insulation is a polyurethane foam product that is applied directly to the roof of a building. Of all the foam products, polyurethane is among the most rigid and durable. It has a very high R value that equates to roughly twice the R value that you would receive from standard fiberglass insulation.

Stopping heat or cold at the point of entry on your roof is of the utmost importance, because your attic functions a huge heat collector and stores heat long after the sun has gone down. With foam roof insulation you are going to end up with a much cooler residence overall. If you do not have an attic, because your residence has a simple joisted flat roof then foam roof insulation is a fantastic choice.

On trailers and mobile homes foam roof insulation can work wonders and can easily double the total R value on your roof. For barns and commercial buildings foam roof insulation works wonders and will work to fend off the heat in these types of structures that are so expensive or impossible to keep air conditioned.

For any type of livestock operation, foam roof insulation will keep your livestock comfortable and stress free, which in turn will come back directly to your profit margin by way of greater production and healthier livestock. Foam roof insulation looks great too, is fully paintable and also can be roofed over with a wide variety of roofing materials including shingles and asphalt layer roofing. Foam roof insulation is also surprisingly affordable and if you are running your air conditioner to keep cool then you are throwing money out the window without you have your roof properly insulated.

How to Choose Anti-Aging Creams and Lotions

There are thousands of anti-aging products on the market and it can be a confusing experience if you are searching for a product to help reduce the visible signs of aging. There are many people who believe that anti-aging creams and lotions work, and have found that they have gained results. However, with the thousands of positive customer testimonials it is difficult to sort what will work you and your skin type.

This is when professional help can bear fruit. If you visit your local cosmetic store or department there will plenty of eager assistants willing to explain to you the pros and cons of various products. To get the best benefit from this experience you should research the various products on the market and their ingredients so that you can ask the correct questions and avoid being sold something that is not right for you.

Anti-aging products are typically either creams or lotions. Many products have ingredients in them which companies claim will renew the skin cells, re-hydrate the skin and reduce roughness. When browsing these types of products it is best to keep in mind what your skin type is because not all products will be suitable for your skin. If in doubt, ask the sales assistant.

The most common ingredients of these products include alpha and beta hydroxy acids, Vitamin A, primrose oil, Shea butter and argierline. These various ingredients are thought to reduce the visible signs of aging in various ways. Best of all, with the correct product they can feel fantastic on your skin.

When considering using an anti-aging cream or lotion it is also important to realize that there are other things you can do to help your skin look younger. By drinking plenty of water, getting lots of rest and a little bit of exercise you will begin to look and feel great. These things also have a positive impact on your skin and combined with the correct lotion or cream you will soon start to see positive affects.

How to Eliminate a Fatty Liver Problem

A thorough physical at your family doctor’s office will include an investigation into your liver enzymes. If a report reveals that your liver enzymes are elevated, it could mean a lot of things. One possibility is that you may end up being diagnosed with a Fatty Liver. Physical signs of a fatty liver can also include a distended abdomen, increased fatigue and difficulty in losing weight. A specialist can also palpate a fatty liver and can also see the fat deposits on the liver during a diagnostic ultrasound.

Factors that could have contributed to your fatty liver can include a combination of things. Genetically, you may be pre-disposed to having a fatty liver, so no matter how healthy your daily habits are, you can still get this condition. However, other factors include frequent alcohol intake, a diet full of foods with fat. For example, typical bar foods such as chicken wings, nachos and french fries can be very bad for a fatty liver. Similarly, any fast food is usually full of fat. Eating a lot of sugar also would not help your condition. Lastly, having no aerobic activity in your life will not help to eliminate any fat in your body.

For someone who is over weight, the ways that you can significantly reduce a fatty liver include two very important changes in daily routine. One factor is the introduction of aerobic exercise into your routine, at least 5 days a week. You need to engage in an activity between 20 and 45 minutes that will make you sweat and get your heart rate increased. If you have not exercised for a long time, start with a light jog for a minute or two, followed by a fast paced walk for a minute, then alternating between a jog and a walk. It is helpful to get a heart rate monitor so that you can increase your heart rate to about 60 or 70 percent of your maximum heart rate. Talk to your doctor or another health care professional to figure out your own target heart rate.

The other very important factor is changing your diet. Eat five small meals per day rather than three big meals. Eat until you are only 70 percent full rather than being 100 percent or 120 percent full. Eat fruit in between meals, but not more that 4 fruit per day. Stay away from any fried foods or foods with moderate or high fat. Get used to eating more salads if possible.

If you follow the instructions already mentioned, you will notice your weight being reduced considerably over a three month period and you will also eliminate your fatty liver and become much healthier overall. This is highly recommended as having a fatty liver can lead to diabetes and other complications later on.

There are three other things that can greatly help you eliminate your fatty liver. These include:

1. Taking milk thistle daily. Go to your local health food store and get yourself some milk thistle tablets. Take some daily as directed on the label.

2. Drinking Chinese Black Tea for a fatty liver. Go to a Chinese Herbal store and pick yourself up some Black tea with specific ingredients to reduce a fatty liver. Drink two teas per day.

3. Eat Chia seed on a daily basis. Chia is full of Omega-3’s and anti-oxidants, along with many other nutrients. Chia is amazing for helping to reduce cholesterol, blood sugar and fat. The most effective proprietary blend of chia on the market today is Mila. Mila has several advantages over other chia brands, which include the following:

– It is the only blend of seeds grown in different regions for maximizing a variety of specific nutrients.

– It is the only tested seed.

– It is the only sliced seed. Grinding the seed can lead to a loss of nutrients and eating the seed whole will not deliver the same amount of nutrients.

– It is the only seed grown within the most nutritious growing region.

– It is the only seed that is associated with a company who’s main goal is to change the health of starving people around the world. The company helps others who cannot help themselves and is the only company that offers a product that is tested and ensures its quality is excellent.

If you alter your lifestyle as described above, your chances of eliminating your fatty liver problem are very good. Yes, it may be a challenge the first few weeks to introduce all of these habits, but in only a couple of weeks, you will feel more energetic and you will be on your way to a new, healthier you.

Everything You Should Know About The Treatment With Fillers

The aging process begins on the day when we are born. As we age the facial signs become more evident. The aging process is different in each individual so that loss of firmness and elasticity of the skin may occur in proportions and at different time intervals from one person to another. With age skin loses its elasticity and becomes drier because the fat underneath disappears. This last aspect lowers wrinkles and skin suppleness.

Current techniques used for improving skin appearance by removing the aging signs and shaping facial contours have noticeable results and offer a sense of self confidence for every patient. One of the methods commonly used to fight against aging is through cosmetic substances injected in the skin, known as fillers.

Collagen is a natural protein that forms a network in the skin, increasing its suppleness and elasticity. With age this network is "weakening", forming wrinkles that become permanent. Collagen injection is a simple procedure, as well as a fast and reliable method to get rid of wrinkles or to increase the volume of lips. Before using it patients are advised to undergo allergy testing because the product is of animal origin.

Other substance that is often used with fillers is hyaluronic acid. It is present in the body providing skin volume. In time it disappears from the skin completely due to intrinsic factors, such as the age and sex of the patient, but also because of temperature, wind, sun and medicines. Treatment with hyaluronic acid is recommended for adults of all ages. It is particularly useful for fine wrinkles and for restoring facial contours.

Next, calcium hydroxyapatite is a compound of calcium and phosphate ions that are naturally found in some human tissues (teeth and bones). Injecting this substance provides outstanding cosmetic effects whose duration lasts between 18 and 24 months. However, this depends on many factors so that results can vary with age, texture of skin, genetics, lifestyle and even the muscle activity of the treated area. It is used more for deep wrinkles.

Finally, fat injection is a procedure used for removing wrinkles by injecting fatty tissues obtained from patients, so as to exclude any risk of allergic reactions. The effect persists for several months after the first injection, but may become permanent after its repetition. The tissue is harvested using either a syringe or liposuction from some areas of the body such as the abdomen or hips.

Challenges of Renting Your Own Houses For Rent – Classified Rental Ads For Your House

While most real estate agents and property managers discourage the idea, making it out to be a mammoth and hectic ordeal, renting your home yourself can be a gratifying experience, both personally and monetarily. It is commonly assumed that finding renters is the biggest challenge when renting your home without a property management professional to represent you. Because of the numerous property management and advertising resources available on the Internet, advertising your house for rent to renters has never been easier. Online classified ad web sites like Craigslist are excellent for homeowners and real estate investors wanting to find renters.

In addition, there are tons of web sites dedicated to helping you advertise your home for rent by owner. All of these sites allow you to submit a detailed description of your home, photos, and floor plans. Another key challenge is setting and establishing the rent for your house. The quickest and easiest way to determine what other homes in your area are renting for is to search on Craigslist. Compare your house for rent to others in the area in terms of the number of bedrooms, bathrooms, and price. Remember, those home owners and investors that are working with a property manager are actually being paid less for their home when it rents, because a significant percentage goes to pay the property manager.

The best way to get the rent you want is to prepare your home and advertise it properly. You should give your home a detailed manicure, inside and out. This may include de-cluttering the house, cleaning up the yard, applying touch-up paint, and finalizing any cosmetic repairs.

Wooden Dowels, Holding Our Wooden World Together

What on earth is a dowel? No, it's not a misspelling for "towel" – it's actually something much more important, and far smaller. Wood dowels are one of the little things that keep our worlds together – and that's not really exaggerating. Many of the things we interact with every day are dependent on wood dowels to keep them together.

From the desk you're sitting at the bookshelf at home, wood dowels are a minuscule tool we've been taking advantage of for centuries to build and secure more than you would think. One might wonder, "Why do I care about wood dowels?" Sure, they might not seem painfully important, but they're one of the many things that we come into contact with every day without ever realizing it – and do not you want to know how things work?

So How are Wood Dowels Made?
Typically, wood dowels are manufactured on specially made dowel machines – although in centuries past they were probably made by hand. Modern wood dowel machines use interchangeable cutting heads of different dimensions to produce wooden dowels of highly varying shapes, sizes, and diameters.

The basic industrial wood dowel machine combines a hollow "chuck" (or clamp) with cutting knives that angle into the machine. The wood passes through the machine, and the inward facing knives cut it into shape to quickly make a versatile and important tool out of what was once simple and unassuming wood.

Typically, the dowel making machine has an open end with long material guides at the entry and the exit of the machine. This allows the creation of a long continuous wooden dowel rod, which can then be cut at varying lengths.However, that's not the only way wooden dowel manufacturers do it. Other, higher volume methods exist where the manufacturing is done on a wood shaper. The wood shaper forms a large number of dowels from a single piece of wood by using two rotating cutting heads that simultaneously create side by side dowels. These parallel dowel rods are then cut into individual pieces.

There you have it – wood dowels
If you were to dissemble a large portion of your furniture, wooden appliances, your desk, your bookshelf, and more – you'd likely find a number of wooden dowels. As you can see, they are a vast and versatile fact of life that you never even knew existed – invisibly holding things together that we count on every day. Now, you might still think dowels are insignificant, but at least you know more now than you did 5 minutes ago. Right?

Creating Excel Spreadsheet Formula Tutorial

Formula Basics

Formulas in Microsoft Excel begin with an equal sign. The equal sign tells Excel that the succeeding characters constitute a formula. If you don’t enter the equal sign, Excel will treat your entry as text and the calculation will fail.

To show how formulas work, we’ll begin with a simple exercise by selecting blank cell A1. Then type =5+5, and press Enter. Excel performs the calculation and produces a result of 10 in cell A1.

Notice the formula bar shows the formula you just typed. What appears in the cell is the result; what appears in the formula bar is the underlying value, which is a formula in this case.

Excel Order of Calculations

When performing calculations in a formula, Excel follows certain rules of precedence:

Excel calculates expressions within parentheses first.

Excel calculates multiplication and division before addition and subtraction.

Excel calculates consecutive operators with the same level of precedence from left to right.

For example, the formula = 10+10*2 gives a result of 30 as Excel multiplies 10 by 2 and then adds 10. However, the formula =(10+10)*2 produces a result of 40. This is because Excel calculates the expression (10+10) within the parentheses first. It then multiplies by 2.

If you are unsure of the order in which Excel calculates, use parentheses – even if the parentheses aren’t necessary. Parentheses also make your formulas easier to read.

Referencing Cells in Formulas

You can include or reference other cells in a formula. When you do so, the result of the formula depends on the values in the referenced cells and changes automatically when the values in the referenced cells change. This is extremely powerful in what-if scenarios.

To see how this works, enter 10 in cell A1. Now select cell A2 and type =A1*2. The value in cell A2 is 20. If you change the value in cell A1 from 10 to any value, the value in cell A2 will also change. Cell references are especially helpful when you create complex formulas, or conduct what-if analysis.

To reference cells in your formula you can select them with your pointer rather than having to type. For example, to enter a formula in cell A1 that references cells A2 and A3, do the following:

  • Select cell A1, and type an equal sign.
  • Click cell A2, and type a plus sign.
  • Click cell A3, and press Enter.

The active cell does not have to be visible in the current window for you to enter a value in that cell. You can reference cells any where; in existing worksheet, another worksheet or even cells in other workbooks. You simply scroll through the worksheet without changing the active cell and click cells in remote areas of your worksheet, in other worksheets, or in other workbooks, as you build a formula. The formula bar displays the contents of the active cell, no matter which area of the worksheet is currently visible.

Relative, Absolute, and Mixed References

Relative references refer to cells by their position in relation to the cell that contains the formula. A relative reference to cell A1, for example, looks like this: =A1.

Absolute references refer to cells by their fixed position in the worksheet. An absolute reference to cell A1 looks like this: =$A$1.

A mixed reference contains a relative reference and an absolute reference. A mixed reference to cell A1, for example, looks like this: =$A1 or =A$1.

If the dollar sign precedes only the letter such as $A1, the column A is absolute, and the row 1 is relative. If the dollar sign precedes only the number such as A$1, the column A is relative, and the row 1 is absolute.

Absolute and mixed references are important when you begin copying formulas from one location to another. When you copy and paste, relative references adjust automatically, while absolute references do not. This means if you copy this formula =B$1+$B2 from cell A1 to B2. In cell B2, the formula would adjust to =B$1+$B3.

You can change reference types by pressing F4. The following steps show how:

1. Select cell A1, and type =B1+B2 (but do not press Enter).

2. Move the cursor near B1 and press F4 once. The formula becomes =$B$1+B2. Move the cursor near B2 and press F4 once. The formula becomes =B1+$B$2.

3. Press F4 again on either B1 or B2 to change the reference to mixed; relative column and absolute row.

4. Press F4 again to reverse the mixed reference; absolute column and relative row.

5. Press F4 again to return to the original relative reference.

Relative reference is the default. If you want to make a reference mixed or absolute, use F4 to do so.

References to Other Worksheets

You can refer to cells in other worksheets within the same workbook just as easily as you refer to cells in the same worksheet. For example, to enter a reference to cell A2 in Sheet2 into cell A1 in Sheet1, do this:

1. Select cell A1 in Sheet1, and type an equal sign.

2. Click the Sheet2 tab.

3. Click cell A2, and then press Enter.

After you press Enter, Sheet1 is now active. Select cell A2, and you will see that it contains the formula =Sheet2!A2.

The exclamation point separates the worksheet portion of the reference from the cell portion.

References to Worksheets in Other Workbooks

You can refer to cells in worksheets in other workbooks in the same way you refer to cells in other worksheets within the same workbook. These references are called external references. For example, to enter a reference to Book2 in Book1, follow these steps:

1. Create 2 workbooks; Book1 and Book2

2. Select cell A1 in Sheet1 of Book1, and type an equal sign.

3. Switch to Book2. Click to select A2.

4. Press Enter

After you press enter, your formula should be =[Book2]Sheet1!$A$2. This reference has 3 parts: The Workbook Book2 in square brackets, the worksheet and the cell. So referencing cells in external workbooks by selecting the workbook, then worksheet, and then the cell you want to reference.

Learn more about Excel spreadsheet at [http://www.tayop.net.au/ExcelTraining/tabid/59/Default.aspx]

Chimney Saver: The Most Effective Waterproofing Agent for Chimneys

A chimney is a tube like hollow structure that serves to safely draw the smoke and gases out of your home. Whether venting wood smoke, coal smoke or even venting nothing at all, it will gradually deteriorate if it is not protected. The flue on the roof is constantly exposed to rain, snow and the freeze – thaw cycles of winter. The most common problem with a chimney is water penetration. It is important to address this problem otherwise it may cause serious damage to your appliance.

Chimneys require special attention and maintenance to prevent costly damages caused by water penetration. You should use chimney savers to prevent water penetration and absorption. Unlike typical water sealers, chimney saver penetrates deep enough to protect masonry from destructive water penetration and maintain the vapor permeability of the structure. It can protect your flue from getting damaged by deterioration, corrosion and mildew. It is 100% vapors permeable.

Chimney saver is the first waterproofing agent developed for chimneys. It has been successfully used by leading professionals. This saver is the most widely used waterproofing agent to save your smokestack. It allows your chimney to breathe out, not in. Thus, water that penetrates your flue or moisture that originates from its sides is allowed to escape.

The use of chimney saver can save you hundreds of dollars in repair over the use of standard water sealers. It traps the water vapors from the surface and protects the masonry surface from water damage. Water protection is especially needed when a new chimney liner has been installed. If repair and preventive measures are not taken, the old flue may continue to deteriorate around the new liner.

This is available in both solvent based (mineral spirits) and water based formulas. The most popular is the water based chimney saver. It is available in 3 to 5 gallon containers with a warranty of 10 years. It can also be applied on a damp surface so you do not need to wait for a dry day. It can prevent all types of water damage such as freeze-thaw damage, deterioration and corrosion.

The water based saver has become an integral part of the substrate and provides long-term water repellent protection. Waterproofing saver will save you the major expense of repairing the brick chimney or replacing it altogether. It is a long term investment for the protection of your chimney.Decor your home most stylish chimneys

Arc Rise Fantasia Wii Gameplay Details and Storyline

The Arc Rise Fantasia Wii is a game that has been released in Japan in 2009 and is due to be released in the US in 2010. This episode, the game is a leading and interesting game from the Nintendo stables that is expected to set the whole of the gaming market in the US on fire with its unique characteristics as well as inimitable storyline. Every game worth its salt has a riveting story line as well as characters that are larger than life. There is an element of exaggeration in games so as to appeal to the gamers who are willing to spend their time and money on the game.

When it comes to the strength and the zing in the storyline, the Arc Rise Fantasia Wii game does not disappoint one bit. This is a story that looks at the empire of Meridian. This is a fairly peaceful empire till it starts getting attacked by the Contaminant Dragons. As the name implies these contaminant dragons are not only vicious and blood thirsty but also poisonous and polluting. They try to attack Meridian in flocks and whenever they get killed, they lead to explosions that contaminate the atmosphere and create huge problems for the natives of Meridian.

The Arc Rise Fantasia Wii progresses as the empire of Meridian realizes that its capital of Diamant is going to be attacked by the dragons and sends a team including L'arc a novice mercenary to kill and eliminate the threat posed by these dragons. L'Arc is also befriended by Alf, who is the crown price of Meridian. The story also sees L'Arc being wounded and being helped by a girl whose name is Ryfia, and who has some mystical powers that can help in the case of luminous rain that occurs sometimes.

The element of twist in the tale in Arc Rise Fantasia Wii comes with L'Arc and Alf fall it from each other. Alf starts his own band of counter dragon force, but it also means that L'Arc and Alf's teams start to confront and oppose each other. This means that there are 3 opposing teams and it is the play and the battles between these two that measure the game. It is another matter that the turns in the game play mode are determined by the kind of actions taken by the players which is indeed quite interesting and something that lends to the unexpected nature of the game.

Never Miss A Mark With Hoyt Bows

If you look at the market scenario and the number of companies vying for customer attention today, you will realize that very few of them actually deliver what they brag about so loudly in their advertisements. The rest are all mushy hypes managing to deliver far less than what they have actually promised. The same thing applies to manufacturers of bows for hunting, where only a handful of companies like Hoyt manage to deliver bows that are actually the best in their class. Hoyt's high precision and consistent accuracy over a longer distance makes these bows ideal for use in competitions as well for hunting purposes.

One of the key innovations behind the accuracy of these Hoyt bows can be primarily attributed to their Split-limb feature. This feature is highly useful in reducing the overall vibrations in the frame of bow, making it more stable and steady while taking aims during hunting in the woods. Another plus with these bows happens to be their dry firing capacity of near a thousand shots which gives user the obvious advantage of longevity with these hunting bows, while in stark contrast, the solid-limb bows tend to crack only by the 25th shot. Choosing Hoyt Bows also means that you can have more than a dozen variety of compound bows to choose from, which is definitely not the case with other bow manufacturers.

A trustworthy and strong bow is indeed very essential when you go out in the wilderness to hunt down a prey. after all, you would definitely not want a cracked bow when the prey is within your striking range and your bow malfunctions at that very moment. By choosing the superior quality Hoyt bows, you will indeed make that difference of not missing out on your prized catch in the woods.