Electrical Installations – Understanding The Importance Of Proper Set Ups

Electricity has made our lives fast, easy and comfortable. Almost everything around us needs some or the other type of electrical installation. According to researches, electrical fires are accountable for almost 300 deaths every year. Most of these fatal incidents are the result of defective electrical fittings. Improper wiring set up, circuit beakers and abnormal use of extension wires are the biggest contributors to these deadly events. So, it’s very important to hire the right professional who has experience in electrical jobs.

Residential fittings

Every residence requires electrical set ups. Whether you’re building a new house or reconstructing the old one, you need a professional electrician for wiring the entire building and connecting the cords to the power lines for receiving electricity. Common items that need electrical mechanisms are wall outlets, circuit breakers and regular appliances like lights, dishwashers, washing machines and dryers.

Car installations

Vehicles are full of multiple electrical elements that need proper fittings. Some common items in a car that need thorough electrical wiring are satellite navigational mechanism, fire alarms and sound systems. What’s more, you’ll find various types of cords below the dashboards, which are crucial for the functioning of the automobile.

Power line fittings

Power lines generally need a trained electrician to make sure that a specific area gets constant electrical supply from generating points. The voltage level in these power lines are quite high and supply electricity to loads of people. Nevertheless, some power lines have low voltage level and make sure that street and traffic lights function properly.

Commercial set ups

There’s a lot of similarity between residential and commercial installations. Nevertheless, there are a few differences between the two. Commercial set ups generally focus on bigger projects like educational institutions, corporations, businesses, factories and manufacturing plants. Commercial and business set ups need electricity that circulate throughout the building. At the time of installation, a professional electrician ensures that a particular building receives sufficient amount of electricity, without placing too much load on the circuit breaker.

So, no matter what the purpose is, choosing the right electrician is very important. A lot of people tend to do the electrical work on their own but that’s very risky. Even the slightest mistake on your part can put your life at stake. So, it’s better to hire a trained person who can execute the task to perfection. However, make sure that you’re hiring the right person. Remember, a wrong professional can spoil the entire set up of a building.

Kate Spade Black Tote – Where to Shop for the Best Bargain

If are looking for a Kate Spade black tote it’s always a good idea to shop around to find the lowest price and get the best bargain. Many times you can find older lines of the handbags for cheap prices and since these handbags are timeless, you don’t have to worry about them being out of style.

Shopping Tips for Buying Kate Spade Handbags

If you are thinking about buying a Kate Spade black tote or any type of handbag, you should realize that you have several different styles to choose from. When most people think of a tote, they think of a large square bag, but truthfully that is only one of the styles to choose from.

There are the classic totes that are large and have a square shape and then there are smaller ones that have the square shape but may be the size of a normal-size purse or slightly larger. There are also styles that are more rectangular in shape as well as some that are truly unique in size and shape.

If you are planning on shopping for a Kate Spade black tote you should do your research on what different styles are available and what the average price is for them. This way you can decide which one you like the best as well as which one fits into your budget the best.

Where to Find the Lowest Prices on Kate Spade Totes

If you know what bag you want to buy the next step is to find the best deal on the purse. It may take some more time to look for the handbag but if you can save money, it is definitely worth the extra minutes it will take to do comparison shopping.

You can always buy the handbags through the designer’s website, but you may not get the lowest price available. Often times the designer’s website will not list clearance or sale items and instead will only have the current lines at full price. If you are willing to pay full price for a bag then the designer’s website may be a good starting point for your shopping.

One option to save money on Kate Spade black totes is find an outlet store near you. There are not outlet stores in every city but you may be able to find one near you to purchase your bag from. Usually outlet stores will have decent prices and be comparable to discount websites.

Shovels, Back-Hoes and EarthMovers – Which Are You Using in Your MLM?

There are three analogies I'd like to use in reference to how folks built, are building and will build their network marketing businesses. The shovel, the backhoe and the earthmover are what I will use as an example to illustrate my point.

I first started in the industry with Amway, a company that goes way back to the 1960's. Tremendous company with great values ​​and I learned a whole lot about this industry as an Amway distributer. Back then, people used the equivalent of a shovel to build their business. They met in living rooms and dens in homes across America to build their Internet Marketing businesses.

For nearly three decades folks grew their business through warm lists and just talking with people. There was no three way calling, no cell phones. no personal computers. That was networking in it's most primitive form, aside from the spreading of the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Towards the early 199o's people still used a shovel, but others moved to a backhoe. The internet had reached homes across America and a very small group of marketers were able to network online through email's and such. Networkers got together in hotel's rather than living rooms and dens. Hotels offered more space for more people and gave prospects a more professional image of the company that was represented. This worked for some, but for others it offered little credibility.

Do not get me wrong. Fortunes were made over the years in network marketing, however there was a very high failure rate. If you took the total number of people in Network marketing and the number of people making a full time living at it, the numbers were less than 1 / 100th of 1%. Not very good odds.

Fast Forward to the year 2009 and we use the equivalent of an Earth Mover. Serious Network Marketers today build their business online using state of the art tools like Auto-Responders, Funded Proposal Sales Funnel's, Affilate Joint Venture Partners, Social Media, SEO (Search Engine Optimization), Videos, Podcasts, Email Marketing, Pay-Per Click Advertising, etc.

We no longer have to sell people on our products or services as our systems do the sifting, sorting and selling for us. We develop relationships with people online by providing them value. We give them the best of what we know for free to earn their trust. We use the auto-responders to keep in touch with our prospects over the course of time and give them the information they are looking for.

When I look back at the days I used to sit in Starbucks for hours upon hours showing the business plan to prospects that I had cold contacted, I almost have to laugh. I dragged people to hotel meetings who didnt want to be there, tried convincing people that if they did not get started in business with me, they were going to be broke for the rest of their lives. Those silly, outdated methods did not work so well

The bottom line folks is no matter what business your building, the rules are the same. Use systems to build your fortune. The days of doing list builders, cold contacting, hotel meetings, etc. are over. Sure there are companies that will continue to do business this way, however a VERY small percentage of people will have any kind of success in their Network Marketing business.

Respectfully Yours,

What is the Difference Between a Body Lift and Suspension Lift?

When you want to lift your four wheel drive up you have two options. The first option is the more common, and is known as a suspension lift. This involves replacing the springs and shock absorbers currently in your vehicle with larger springs and shock absorbers. Most people will get a heavier duty set as well, to cope with driving on uneven terrain for hours at a time. The only issue with this type of lift is that if you go much more than 4 inches, you get a lot of sideways movement, especially when you go around a corner on the road. Your car no longer steers or brakes as well as it used to, and you get considerably more wind resistance.

The alternative then is a body lift. Many people prefer to lift the body and a the suspension, as lifting the body is done with solid blocks (meaning the car will not move sideways because of it). A body lift involves fitting little blocks (usually 2 inch) in between the body and the chassis. The bolts that hold the two together are replaced with longer ones and your car now sits 2 inches higher. The only issue is that everything attached to the chassis stays where it was originally; the radiator, bull bar, rear bar, sidesteps and anything else that was attached. You can move this up too, but it can be a lot of work.

Some vehicles do not require anything to be done after a the lifting of the car's body, but others may. A good combination to go with is a body lift and a suspension lift as you will limit the sway when going around corners. A body lift is much cheaper, but it means you still have the original suspension, which may need replacing anyway.

Home Elevators – Saving Money and Effort

When one of the Architects at my firm suggests to a client that an elevator might be the answer to some of the issues in their new home design, the reaction is often predictable: “An elevator? That doesn’t make any sense, does it? Aren’t they really expensive? Who puts an elevator in their house anymore?”

Residential elevators are found in more homes than you might think – and not always as an extravagance, but often as a practical and cost-saving design feature.

We’d Live Here Forever, But…

As American homeowners age, they’re becoming concerned about their ability to remain in their homes. They’d like to stay well into the golden years, but most family homes have all of the bedrooms on the second floor, including the owner’s suite. With sixteen or more steps between the first and second floors, the stair can quickly become a difficult (and often dangerous) obstacle for older homeowners. It’s a major reason why empty-nesters move to one-level homes.

But while a one-level home design is more easily adapted to a changing family structure, a one-level home is more expensive to build. It can have nearly twice the foundation and roof area of a comparable two-story home without any additional space, adding greatly to the cost of the house. And so most families build a two-story when they’re young, and move to a one-level home later in life.

It’s cheaper to build a two-story house, but is the difference between a two-story and a one-level enough to offset the cost of an elevator? The answer is often a resounding yes, and with money to spare. If the cost of a one-level home is a 25% premium over a two-story, then an elevator can be a money-saving consideration in even a relatively inexpensive home.

Design And Lifestyle Considerations

What do you do when a family is still young, wants to live in the house forever, but can’t justify the cost of installing an elevator they may not need for many years? A solution we like is to install the elevator shaft – without the elevator – and use the space for temporary closets.

As it happens, the area required on each floor for the elevator shaft is about the size of a walk-in closet…so that’s what we do – put a temporary floor at each level and use the spaces as closets until they’re needed for the elevator. Installing the elevator years later is a simple matter of removing the floors and installing the cab, doors, controls, and related equipment.

A second stair is frequently added to a design when a house becomes so large that a single stair is too remote to effectively serve the entire second floor. That second stair takes up a lot of space, however, and can be difficult to work into the plan.

But an elevator takes up much less space than a stair and can be much more easily worked into just the right spot in a house design. It can also be “hidden” in the plan – visitors are unaware that there’s an elevator in the house.


Elevators are operated either by a hydraulic piston or a cable-and-pulley and electric motor. Most residential elevators are the cable type and are quiet, safe, easy to operate, and relatively quick. There’s no “machine room” as with commercial elevators – all the equipment is contained within the elevator shaft.

The interior of the elevator cab can be finished to match the rest of the house including the flooring and trim, and the door is indistinguishable from the others in the house. With the door closed, the only clue that there’s an elevator in the house is the call button next to the door.

A typical residential elevator cab is about 4′ by 5′, large enough for two adults and two children, or an adult in a wheelchair and a caregiver. It will also hold boxes of holiday decorations, furniture, groceries…

A Luxury That Saves Money

A typical residential elevator adds $20,000 to $25,000 to the cost of a house. But since an elevator can allow you to build more efficiently, it can actually save money.

You’ll save the cost of moving, and of building a new home at future prices. You may recover the cost of the elevator – and then some – at resale. And if the elevator becomes a medical necessity, you may be able to take advantage of tax benefits.

It’s a small part of a house, only about two percent of the area of a 3,000 square foot house and just one percent of a 6,000 square foot luxury home. At current custom home costs that’s less than four percent of construction costs.

But most important is the benefit of staying in the home where you raised your family; the home you’ve grown to love; the home with the memories. Is an elevator a luxury? Perhaps, but maybe one you can’t afford to pass up.

Quinoa Recipes – Cooking Quinoa in a Crockpot

Quinoa is a versatile and delicious ingredient and, if you like to cook meals in a slow cooker, it might interest you to know that it can be cooked via this cooking method. Quinoa can be substituted for any grain in recipes although, technically, it is not a grain itself. It is the seed from a leafy plant. This ingredient is rich in iron, fiber, potassium, protein and other vitamins and minerals, hence its recent popularity. It is easy to digest too.

This ancient crop will grow in the mountains, in dry climates or in poor soil, making it an important staple in some regions. It is grown in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and in South America, although it originated in the Andes. You can get it in big grocery stores and health food stores.

Recipe for Crockpot Quinoa Stew

This hearty stew, which serves six people, is high in protein and low in carbohydrates. This is a healthy yet delicious slow cooker recipe, which is idea for vegetarians and anyone who loves this delicious ingredient. You can serve it with sesame seeds or grated parmesan on top.

What you will need:

  • 2 diced potatoes
  • 2 cups brown lentils
  • 2 tablespoons tomato paste
  • 2 finely chopped cloves garlic
  • 7 1/2 cups water
  • 1/2 diced sweet potato
  • 1 teaspoon soy sauce
  • 1/2 cup quinoa
  • 2 tablespoons miso
  • 1 teaspoon dried mixed herbs

How to make it:

Rinse and drain the grains, picking out any stones. Put them in the crockpot. Add the tomato paste, herbs, potato, sweet potato, and six cups of the water. Cook for three and a half to four hours on high.

Add another cup of water halfway through the cooking time, when the stew is becoming thicker. When everything is tender, turn off the crockpot, add the soy sauce and let it sit for thirty minutes. Combine the remaining half a cup of water with the miso and stir this in the stew.

Recipe for Crockpot Chicken and Quinoa Soup with White Wine

You can use any kind of quinoa for this soup but the red variety seems to have more texture than the others do, which can go mushy. You might like to add mushrooms or celery to this recipe too.

The recipe itself is quite versatile so add anything you fancy or any vegetables that need to be used up. All the flavor comes from the chicken, vegetables, broth, and wine so use good quality ingredients.

What you will need:

  • 2 cups water
  • 1 minced onion
  • 3/4 cup white wine
  • 2 cups chicken broth
  • 1 cup rinsed and drained red quinoa
  • 2 teaspoons dried thyme
  • 2 chicken thighs or breasts
  • 3 tablespoons butter
  • 6 peeled, chopped carrots
  • 1 teaspoon salt

How to make it:

Add everything to the slow cooker and cook on high for four hours. Alternatively, you can cook it on low for eight hours. Shred the chicken and stir it into the stew before serving.

Enclosure Plastic – Its Various Types and Applications

Plastic enclosures have different uses. It is a popular industrial product in the field of electronics. A lot of companies selling a piece categorize the product according to its uses. The most popular ones are connector shells and desktop enclosures. Variations of the enclosure plastic are aluminum enclosures.

In order to understand the product very well, it pays to check on the different areas where it is applied. Below are some facts explaining what the product is about and how it is used. Concrete examples are also given.

Electronic and instrument enclosures

With this type of enclosure, plastic is used in order to house various electronic parts as well as instruments. Most of the time, they are designed for desktops and other handheld gadgets. The shape of this enclosure may either be rectangular or slanted. In some instances, they may also be shaped like a "t". Concrete applications are calculators, remote controls, cash registers and other instruments used for data acquisition.

Console enclosures

These are structures which are freestanding in nature. It is distinguishable because it usually has a sloped front or sometimes a sloped top. With this enclosure, plastic serves as a protector for the equipment specifically that of computer monitors. Aside from polycarbonate materials used in order to make the enclosure, steel or stainless steel are also considered.

There are desk and control panel consoles too. Desk consoles are highly favorable for applications where operators of the equipment or electrical component sit most of the time. Control panel consoles are for electrical components where operators stand for longer periods.

Rack enclosures

This type of plastic enclosure is important in laboratories. Usually, it houses rack-mounted components whose sizes are about 19 inches. In most industries where the rack enclosure is used, a person is guaranteed to be protected from accidents or injuries.

There are different mounting styles for this enclosure. With the several styles come different sizes as well as sealing configurations. Before one ever picks rack enclosures, the length, height and width of the object are considered.

Other plastic enclosures

Aside from the ones mentioned above, there are other types of enclosure – plastic or aluminum alike. Personal computers usually opt for this type of industrial product to complete its look. Terminal boxes that contain wiring systems may also be encased inside a piece of this plastic. Generally, it is termed as industrial enclosures therefore they are indeed helpful in a lot of industries.

Does the Wood in My Roof Deck Need to Be Replaced?

When you are doing a roof tear off, it is important to determine if some (or all) of your roof deck needs to be replaced. Most residential roofs are made of wood roof decks. There are exceptions to these like metal “B” Deck or concrete, but these are very infrequent.

This article will assume your roof to be made of wood decking. (The roof deck is what your waterproofing material attaches or adheres to.) To fully understand the process in determing the wood replacement needs, lets look at what can happen in the following situations.

There are three types of wood roof decks.

1. Tongue and Grove

2. Plywood or OSB sheething

3. Plank sheething

Tongue and Grove

This is usually 2×6 with a “tongue” formed on one edge of the board that fits snugly into the “grove” in the board adjacent to it. It is a challenge to replace this type as it is not readily available at most lumber yards. You will likely need more than basic Home Improvement skills to do this type of wood replacement. It may be best to hire a contractor to help with this task.

This type of roof deck is very stout and durable. The only time it needs to be repaired is generally when it has had extensive exposure to moisture.

Plywood or OSB Sheething

If your house was built since the late to mid 70’s, you probably have Plywood or Oriented Strand Board (OSB) also falsely called Wafer Board. Builders started using plywood when it was invented because of its longevity and strength against splitting. OSB became popular in the late 80’s to early 90’s and is now used almost exclusively by builders. It is strong and durable, but costs less than plywood.

Plywood or OSB needs to be replaced when it is:

1. Broken from either a defect in the plywood (sometimes it can break where one of the ply’s have a knot) or just too much pin point pressure.

2. Water damaged and wrotted or delaminated.

3. Too thin. If the plywood thickness is less than ½” or the OSB less than 7/16″, it is going to be weak with the roof rafters spaced the standard 2′ on center.

Plank Sheething

Plank sheething (usually 1×6 or 1×8) was used as a roof deck before plywood. In the first half of the 20th Century, roofs in Utah were built with wood shingles over planks spaced about 1 ½” apart. Wood Shingle are expensive so when these roofs need to be torn off and replaced, it is cheaper to resheath the entire roof and go over it with asphalt shingles than to go over with new wood shingles.

It is ver important to examine this type of deck carefully. Splits can form in the planks, and they WILL get longer from the heat in the attic. Knots in the planks can cause it to break after the roof is done so if it looks iffy, it is best to replace it. Sometimes it is just best to resheet it to give you the best deck for your new roof. If the planks are more than ¼” apart, it may be best to resheet the roof.

Keep in mind that besides supporting the foot traffic, and snow load that is inherent with almost any roof, the purpose of the roof deck is to hold the fasteners that secure the roof. If the wood is compromised, it may not be able to give the nails or screws enough holding power to allow the roof to last it’s full potential life span.

Health Insurance – Decoding the Different Plan Types

With such a variety of Texas health insurance available on the market, it’s important to learn the “code” and be informed about the difference between each type of plan. Rules and rates are constantly changing, and upcoming government legislation could change the game even further. For now however, there is a set terminology to describe very simple differences between plan types. Every Texan should become informed about their choices, because the peace of mind of good health is priceless.


There are three main types of managed health care plans, which is the most popular form of Texas health insurance. The first type is through “preferred provider organizations,” or PPO’s. The PPO forms a network of preferred health care providers that a member of this plan can choose from to visit. A member pays a co-pay of some small dollar amount to visit any member of the network, but by contrast if someone wants to visit a doctor outside of the network he or she would have to pay some sort of deductible or submit lengthy paperwork. If one is happy with the doctors that are in-network, this can be a cost effective and user-friendly health care program.


The second type of Texas health insurance falling under the managed health care umbrella are “point of service” plans, or POS’s. There is not that great of a difference between the PPO and the POS. For the most part, the only real difference is that in a POS the member has to choose a primary care physician, who will then be the person that offers referrals to other specialists, be they in or out of network. If they are out of network, this will most likely also mean that the consumer will have to spend more money out of pocket.


Finally, there are “health maintenance organizations,” or HMO’s. These are the most bare-boned, but usually the most cost-effective type of managed health care plan. There is no choice really between in or out of network doctors. You are allowed to see any doctor that is part of the HMO network for free or a small co-pay, but if you stray to any other doctor outside of this network you will have to pay for all of it, as it is not included in any part in this type of Texas health insurance. As a benefit to the simplicity of this plan, however, there is little paperwork, and greater access to preventative health services. To learn more about managed health care options in Texas and how they could improve your life, contact your local independent insurance agent.

How to Make your Own PVC Railings

If you are bored with the painting efforts that your wooden railings take for looking good, and if it stops you from a fishing trip, or a golf trip with your friend on a Sunday morning, you should seriously think about fitting a new PVC railing system .

Making a PVC railing system is a quick DIY work and your family members can be involved in making a PVC railing system. It can be a good Sunday work for the whole family and you will remember fitting PVC railing for a long time to come.

Advantage PVC Railings

Having the PVC railing is advantageous in many ways. First and foremost, you do not have to spend your golf timing or fishing expedition timing on mundane things like painting the wooden railings and cleaning the spots left by the paintbrushes. You have better things to do apart from cleaning the painting spots.

PVC railings will also last much longer than wooden railings and this means that you have more time with family members. A good-looking system that stays good-looking for a long time is the PVC railing systems.

Material of PVC Railing

PVC railings are made from Polyvinyl Chloride, (a synthetic material made from petroleum product) is the material used in all PVC railing systems. This material can be extruded in form of circular pipes, square boxes. It can also be made into base posts by hot stamping or die extrusion. A versatile material, it has replaced wood in every sphere of construction activity because of its looks and durability.

The wooden material is slowly becoming costly as its availability is reduced, as forests get denuded. On the other hand, the PVC and CPVC material is getting cheaper as new methods of making PVC products are being invented and this reduces the cost of production of PVC material.

The PVC has disadvantage of getting affected by exposure to sun. The Sun's UV rays damage the PVC material and it starts flaking and cracking. To prevent this, Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride is to be used for places where the suns rays fall directly on the railings.

DIY PVC Railings

You can easily make PVC railings without outside help all you need is some planning and minor tools available from your DIY workshop. A hacksaw, a set of screwdrivers and some skill in application of glue is all that is required in making a good-looking railing system of railings.

Procedure For PVC Railings

The bottom posts are screwed to the wooden or concrete floors carefully. Any mistake in doing this will change the final look of railings and repeat work may become necessary if this work is not done properly.

The top rail and the middle rails are cut as per the spacing of the bottom posts. The railing may now be assembled on a level ground. The vertical posts, the top rail, and the middle rail can be completely assembled on the ground before any attempt is made to put the assembly on the bottom posts. A final trial may be made on the bottom posts before the bottom posts and the verticals are glued together.

Thus, you can easily make the PVC railing yourself. You can also get help from market in form of pre cut railing systems.

How to Care, Clean and Maintain Your Stainless Steel Balustrade

A balustrade can simply be defined as a decorative railing that is supported by individual baluster posts, evenly spaced and connected to each other. There are several materials that make balusters, ranging from wood, metal, glass, and stainless steel. While each has its advantages and disadvantages, many home owners and designers today prefer this to other materials. For one, this type of steel comes fully protected from corrosion thanks to a thin chromium oxide layer. Atmospheric oxygen combines the stainless steel with chromium to form an unreceptive chromium oxide layer than protects the material from further corrosion.

The other reason why most people today prefer stainless steel balustrade is because it is very easy to clean and maintain. Actually, stainless steel flourishes on frequent care and cleaning, and compared to other materials commonly used today, it is not possible to ‘wear out’ any product made from this material by ‘over-cleaning’. Needless to mention therefore, cleanliness is vital for utmost resistance of stainless steel railings to corrosion. Its ability to be a clean surface that resists rust and corrosion is a great advantage; but, grime, dust, and dirt are the main things that would put your beautiful railings into risk for rust, contamination, and corrosion.

Here is some cleaning and maintenance tips to ensure your balustrade remain as sparkling as new.

  1. Regular routine cleaning can be achieved by using warm clean water and a piece of cloth. In fact, this is the least dangerous way of cleaning balusters. After cleaning, you should dry with a clean piece of cloth or towel to prevent water spots, while wiping along the polish lines.
  2. If your stainless steel balusters show marks of contamination or corrosion, you can use a mild dish washing detergent mixed in warm water and a piece of cloth. This can do a wonderful cleaning job without affecting the surface. You should however ensure you rinse the surface well and dry off with a clean towel or piece of cloth to prevent spotting and staining.
  3. A major complaint of all stainless steel parts, railings, and especially handrails is fingerprints – these can be cleaned perfectly using a glass cleaner. As usual, you should rinse carefully and then towel dry.
  4. In case your stainless steel balustrade have scratches and stains, or require some bit of polishing, your best bet could lie on a stainless steel cleaner. Some of these cleaners available in the market can help remove stubborn stains and mask scratches. Further, they are known to polish balustrade very well. You should read the directions of use and test the cleaner on a tiny spot before cleaning the entire surface. Ensure you rinse meticulously and towel dry.

Stainless steel balustrade is uprights, made of iron and whose main work is to support railings e.g. rails found on banisters. As mentioned, balusters can be made of different materials such as concrete or wood, but steel is often a guaranteed way of adding that decorative touch while being able to retain the strength and give the support necessary to hold the railing.

Different Varieties Of Iron Railings

Iron railing had been an all time favorite for the last many centuries and has never lost its popularity due to its long life. Here is some useful information about iron railings.

Traditional but still Contemporary – Iron Railings

Existence of Iron railings could be traced back at the time when industrial revolution was taking place at the end of the 16th century and beginning of 17th century. During these times, the knowledge of mining of metals was in its primitive stage, unlike today when it is considered as a science. It used to be an expensive affair, since it was the work of artisans. Only the affluent and rich people could buy the wrought iron and its railings made from iron. The welding techniques were unheard of and joining of metals was done either by heating and or by fastening or hammering together.

The railings were made from cast iron, steel or wrought iron. There was no existence of stainless steel railings in the 17th century.

Wrought Iron railings not at all have been affected by fashion. Fashions have come and gone, but the iron railings have in no way lost its popularity and will never loose its popularity in the times to come. Probably the existence of the iron railings can be considered to be more than the life of fashion.

The railings were made mostly from iron, though the affluent and the kings sometimes got railings made from metals like gold for inner railings of their mansions.

Metals for Iron Railings

Railings of Wrought Iron: It was a very tedious process to make wrought iron railings as iron is first heated to burning red and then hammer is used to give the railings the desired dimension and shape. This work was quite laborious and only a few talented craftsmen who were expert, could work on these railings of wrought iron. As there were a very few craftsmen, supply of wrought iron railings was inadequate, and as a result these were very expensive.

Railings made from Cast iron: The process of railings made from cast iron was to first liquefy the iron and then put the liquid iron into different moulds make desired shapes. Sand was made to make the molds and these molds were used for making cast on railings. These kinds of railings were quite delicate and easily broke. It was practically unfeasible to mend the cracked railing at that time. Since these were delicate, these were required to be dealt with utmost care and there were not many buyers for this kind except for the affluent people.

Railings of Mild steel: The existence of mild steel made can be traced to sometime in 18th century, after that it became instantaneously known metal to be used for railing and framework. The pieces did not need to be heated any more, instead these had to be first handled without heating and then had to be fastened with a rivet. It was a big advantage over heating process and mild steel found many uses for almost all the things including its utilization in railings.

Progress in Iron Railings

Advancement in technology in welding brought changes in the ways the iron was used in railings. Iron rods now could be bent in different shapes that were until then inconceivable. Not only it had become feasible now to join iron rods through welding, it also reduced the price and weight without any reduction in its intensity. Apparently repair of iron rods also became much easier.

Now it is viable to make railings from plates and twist them into different shapes as per the requirement. The basic material is same but now the shape can be changed to have a new look with not much maintenance. Large quantities are achievable with stainless steel and the stainless steel has a more elegant look and is maintenance free (other than regular cleaning).

Stair Runs – Fitness

Why Do It?

Another portable solution for a good workout. You can use stairs at home, at work, around town or on escalators to sneak some exercise into your weekly routine.

Will Running Up Stairs Really Make A Difference

Anything that gets your heart and lungs working will make a difference, If you walk up stairs as part of your regular commute or working pattern, running up the same stairs will burn some extra calories, You can also devise a specific stair run workout which you can do at home or on some local steps, providing it is safe to do so.

When you run up stairs, ensure your posture is good. Your body should be upright and your shoulders relaxed. Lift your knees as you go up the stairs and keep on the balls of your feet. Swing your arms to help with the rhythm of your movement, To begin with, jog up a flight of 10 to 20 steps and walk back down to the bottom as recovery. To make the workout more difficult, use the same flight of stairs and run up them two at a time. Running quickly up single steps will give you a really good CV workout. Running the stairs two at a time will still work your heart and lungs and the bigger strides will give you an added toning workout for the lower body muscles – bottom, thighs and calves.

Any Special Advice For This One?

Obviously there are some inherent dangers involved with stairs so take care to plant your feet carefully on every step that you take as you run up, and walk down gently as you recover. If there is a banister, use it if you feel you need to and take a rest if you feel at all wobbly.

Why Do It?

Rowing is an incredibly effective way to work lots of muscles around the body at the same time and improve your fitness quickly. You can work to a high level of intensity for incredible fitness results and fat burning without putting strain on any part of your body. You will be supported either by a rowing machine or a boat, making this a low impact way to work out.

How Do I Do It?

Rowing is the one form of CV exercise where you are advised to ask a professional to check your technique. If you are slightly out of position, you could hamper your fitness gains, create muscle imbalances over time or do yourself an injury. The key points to look out for are:

Sit upright as you row.

At the front of the movement, lean slightly forwards from your hips.

At the back of the movement, lean slightly backwards from the hips.

From the front of the stroke, drive through the legs and follow this quickly with a pull of the arms.

Do not lock your knees.

From the back of the stroke, straighten your arms before you bend your legs.

Breathe with a regular rhythm, ideally breathing in as you move forwards and out as you drive backwards.

Once you feel comfortable with the technique you can mix up your workout with timed sessions of faster and slower rowing with short recovery periods in between. It is a good idea to have your technique checked regularly just to ensure that, as you increase the intensity of your workouts, you do not move out of position.

How To Protect Your Invention When Pitching To A Manufacturer

A Confidentiality Agreement is a contract signed by two parties, acknowledging that a concept or idea is being disclosed to one party by the other, with the understanding that the party being shown the idea or concept will not use the idea or concept, or disclose the information to anyone else, unless given permission in writing by the party disclosing the idea or concept.

Confidentiality Agreements, also called Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDA) can be very complicated or very simple. We use a simple one-page agreement, which can be found in the Market University Product Marketing Kit.


Use an NDA anytime you are showing your idea or disclosing information about your idea to a potential partner, a manufacturer, a potential licensee, or anyone you feel may benefit from your idea. Many inventors use NDA's when having a prototype made, which is not a bad idea.

Some people feel that having an NDA with a company offers more protection than a patent, because the NDA says that the person signing is being shown confidential information with the agreement to not use it unless otherwise specified.

You will find that no large company is going to steal your idea, with or without a confidentiality agreement, because it is just bad business. For this very reason, you will find that a lot of companies will not look at your idea unless you sign their NDA. That is fine. As long as there is an NDA involved, and you receive a copy with the company representative's signature, you are in the safe zone.

Why Do Ceiling Fans Have a Reversing Switch?

What is the reason for having a reverse button on ceiling fans? Well "they" say that you can not stand a draft during winter months, but that you can equalize the air temperature buy using your fan in the reverse direction.

I always wondered why the older ceiling fans did not have a reverse button. Were the people who designed those fans, just too stupid to think about using reverse in winter?

During winter, when you use the central heating system, the warm air coming out of the registers, in each room, will naturally rise and because the registers are up high already, the hot air will build at the ceiling level and gradually work its way down toward floor level. The heating unit runs until the temperature is comfortable at the lower levels of the rooms. But by the time this happens, it will be very hot at the ceiling level. Many BTU's are wasting heating the ceiling areas of the home, where we do not live our lives.

But what if there was a way to get this hot air down off the ceiling, to the lower levels where we live. The heating unit would not need to work as long and the savings on our utility bill could be significant. AHH CEILING FANS! will bring this air down and mix the hot air with the cooler air at floor level. This mixing would basically equalize the temperature at floor and ceiling levels, which means that the heat would not be wasted keeping the ceilings warm. The heating unit would not run as much. The utility bill will be lower while the comfort level will remain the same.

But then someone said that the draft created by the ceiling fans would be too much for winter months. So someone else said "well, let's just reverse the ceiling fans and let the air blow up until it hits the ceiling and then it will go horizontal in all directions until it hits the walls. Then it will come down vertically until it hits the floor . Now it will travel, at floor level, back in toward the center of the room and then back up to the ceiling fan. What a genius! Now everyone can use ceiling fans to equalize the temperature without feeling a draft in winter.

Oh yea! So what happens when this warm air starts down the walls and hits furniture, bookshelves, etc? It will start a horizontal movement toward the center of the room. Now when it comes out past the obstruction, will it turn and fall toward the floor, where it can mix? If warm air falls instead of rising, then I guess it could.

What happens when air from the ceiling fans hits the ceiling in a room with a sloped ceiling? If the ceiling fan is centered in the room, it would be basically half way up the slope. So would not all the air go directly up the slope from where the ceiling fan is mounted? What about the other half of the room?

What happens when the room is large? Will the force, coming down the walls, still be enough to get this warm air to the floor, especially when the ceiling is two stories high?
What happens when ceiling fans are in a room with a two story high ceiling, which is open to the second floor level of the home? Would not the warm air go off into the second level, instead of coming down to the floor and in this situation, would not the ceiling fan steal the warm air from the first level and take it to the second floor, defeating the purpose for which it is being used?

On the other hand, if you blow the air down, the hot air at the ceiling level will be forced down to floor level where it will move in all directions toward the outer walls of the room. The air can now mix and seek its own level. The hotter air will naturally rise to the ceiling level where it will be picked up by the fan to repeat the cycle. So would not this be much more efficient than using reverse, especially in the scenario where the ceiling is two stories high and open to the second floor? But what about the draft? I say just run the ceiling fan at a low speed or the highest speed that you can tolerate and still be comfortable.

Could reverse on ceiling fans be a marketing tool to sell fans in winter? You decide.

But I do not think that the old folks overlooked something as important as this. I think that they used what was most efficient. I agree and my ceiling fans always blow down, winter and summer. And if you happen to have a room with the two story ceiling where the room is open to the second level, and where you notice the upstairs is always hot while the lower level is cold during winter, try using your ceiling fans in the down direction . You will not believe the difference!

Note; the ceiling fan should be within two or three feet of the ceiling to be most efficient in this situation.