How Long Before Fish Oil Works on Depression to Lift Your Mood?

If you know anything at all about the benefits of omega 3 fatty acids then you’re probably aware a supplement can be used to lift your mood. But many people want to know how long before fish oil works on depression. Well, it starts working immediately. However, it may be a little while before you feel an improvement. Let me explain.

Why does depression improve with omega 3s?

Well, its all about the fatty acids contained in the oil. There are two, especially powerful, fatty acids called DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). These two substances play a key role in providing the health benefits of fish oil.

When it comes to improving the symptoms of depression, DHA and EPA work to stabilize nerve cell walls. Additionally, these two fatty acids help to increase seratonin, a neurotransmitter which regulates mood.

How long before fish oil works on depression?

Some studies show that symptoms of depression can be improved as soon as three weeks. Of course, this is a “best-case” scenario. Everyone who suffers from depression has different levels of severity. However, taking a high-quality supplement on a daily basis will work to eventually ease symptoms and lift your mood.

If you believe you have depression, its advisable to, first, talk to your doctor to discuss the best ways of treating your symptoms. Be sure to tell the doctor you’re considering a fish oil supplement. Based on your health history and current medications, your doctor can advise you if a supplement is recommended.

If you get the go-ahead, just be sure to do your research when it comes to finding a quality supplement. Your selection should be based on freshness, purity and content. You don’t want to get a product that uses fish from contaminated waters, with rancid oil covered up with an artificial fragrance. Also, be sure to check the fish oil contains both DHA and EPA…preferably with a higher DHA content.

Now that I’ve answered the question, “how long before fish oil works on depression,” I hope you’ll take the time to talk to your doctor and do a little more research too learn how omega 3’s can work to ease your symptoms and lift your mood.

Residential Elevators – Designed to Enhance Your Lifestyle

Residential elevators are a great addition to any multi-storied building and bring a touch of luxury to your home. Residential elevators can help you avoid spending thousands of dollars for treating injuries caused by accidents while climbing stairs. Residential elevators are designed to enhance your lifestyle and the value of your home while providing an easy way to transport yourself along with groceries, laundry or anything else floor-to-floor. In any home of multiple floors, you can add style, class and ease of travel with a custom home elevator. There are a lot of mobility advantages for residential elevators, especially for the disabled and the aged.

You can make your choice from a number of designs with options that best meet your personality, individual needs, specific home design and budgetary requirements. Modern manufacturing standards make a residential elevator an attractive safety feature of any home, and a home elevator can substantially increase your home's value due to the mobility and convenience factors. Most residential elevators are of the cable type and are quiet, safe, easy to operate, and relatively quick.

While choosing an elevator you should consider how often you will really use the device, the people it should accommodate, its speed, functions and price. When you consider these elements, you will be able to pick out the best residential elevator for your home. You should also be quite sure of the appropriate place to install the elevator. Special attention should be given to the safety of elevators, and a fully designed operating panel is a necessity.

Residential elevators also make building up a much more cost-effective solution in many cases than building out during a home remodel. If your home was not built with an elevator to begin with you will need to make some design changes to add it. Installing residential elevators during the construction of a new home or keeping provision for one is always advisable. Because of these reasons residential elevators are quickly becoming the next must-have amenity in a new home. So if you want to make better use of the available space in your home, installing residential elevators is a good idea.

Zojirushi Rice Cookers

If you cook rice more than a couple times each month you want a countertop electric rice cooker. The electric rice cooker is a clever device that is as simple to use as a toaster but always produces magical results. It’s a tribute to human ingenuity how this simple kitchen small appliance does its magic and cooks rice, every kind of rice, perfectly every time. How is it that a rice cooker knows when to switch from the cooking” mode to the keep warm mode automatically?

If you take out the inner cooking pan of a Zojirushi rice cooker and look inside the rice cooker, you will see a small round disk, about 1-1/2″ in diameter, in the center of the heating plate. This is a thermal sensing device, known as a magnetic thermostat, and it sits on a small spring.

When rice and water are placed into the inner cooking pan and then put into the main body of the rice cooker, the weight of the rice and water in the inner cooking pan depresses the spring of the magnetic thermostat. This sensor triggers the heating plate to go to full power and bring the liquid in the cooking pan to a boil. At sea level water boils at 212 F (100 C) and no higher. Here’s the ingenious part. As long as there is water in the pan the rice cooker’s heating element will stay on. When the rice absorbs all the water, the temperature in the pan will begin to rise since there isn’t any water left in the pan. When the thermal sensor senses that the temperature has risen above 212 degrees F, the machine turns off the heating element and switches to a “keep warm” mode of about 150 degrees F.

Zojirushi Corporation has been making electric rice cookers and other small kitchen appliances for more than 80 years. Zojirushi offers several types of rice cookers to suit everyone’s needs.

In more advanced Zojirushi models a computer chip automatically makes adjustments in temperature and cooking time depending upon the program entered. These cookers are called micom rice cookers because they are fitted with a microcomputer chip. The top-of-the-line Zojirushi micom rice cooker is the Neuro Fuzzy, a registered trademark name coined by Zojirushi to indicate a rice cooker which utilizes “fuzzy logic” through a micro computer chip to cook rice.

This computer chip is the brains of the unit and instead of simply switching on and off reacting to temperature, the rice cooker now makes small adjustments in temperature and cooking time according to what the thermal sensor senses. So you can program your rice to be hard or soft, dry or watery, as in the case of making rice porridge, the Asian comfort food. You can also program for cooking white, brown or sweet (glutinous) rice.

The standard heating method known as Induction Heating (IH) occurs when a magnetic material is placed in a magnetic field. In Zojirushi rice cookers, coils within the bottom of the rice cooker create the magnetic field. When the special 2 ply inner cooking pan (nonstick coated aluminum with stainless steel outer lining) is placed into the rice cooker, a magnetic field is generated to create instant heat. Through this technology, the whole inner cooking pan itself becomes the heat source utilizing both high heat and finely tuned heat adjustments to control the cooking process. The results? Higher and quicker heat response that’s more evenly distributed for perfectly cooked rice every time!

Zojirushi rice cookers are designed to hold a basket above the rice which can used to cook vegetables in the steam coming off the rice. You can also use your Zojirushi in warm mode as a slow cooker for other dishes like beef stew or soup.

Why Is Plastic Roofing an Eco-Friendly Option?

Plastic roofing is done in most places where there is a need for affordable roofing. While designing this roofing, there are few calculations that need to be made. You must factor in the natural elements such as hail, snow, rain, wind load, etc. You must also incorporate details from the CAD drawings. You can check out various places where you will be able to find an installer to do the installation for you. However, if you are the adventurous kind and if the area is not vast, then you could take help from any of the DIY systems.

Changing Trends in Roofing

As the traditional roofing materials are getting costlier and difficult to obtain, synthesized plastic roofing has made its way to the top. The building codes these days prescribe that the roofing material must resist fire. Using this roofing material brings homeowners more value for their property. This type of roofing is long lasting and attractive and these synthesized products have an advantage as they can also be ecologically sound.

Eco-Friendly Options

Slate has been the traditional roofing material but the biggest drawbacks are the cost as well as the weight which requires extra support for the roof. Some of the advantages of the slate are the sheer beauty as well as the ability to shed ice and snow from the sloped rooftops. However, this type of roofing material is basically made of rubber and recycled plastic. These slates weigh much less when compared to the actual slate and installation is done using the same tools and techniques. These are eco-friendly options, fire resistant, color stable, fade resistant and come with a 50-year guarantee. They almost come close to the real slate in terms of their appearance. The content in these composite slate materials is more than 50% recycled. After their life span of around 50 years, all of these slates can again be recycled.

Plastic and Rubber Roofing Panels

The biggest advantage of this rubber and plastic roofing panels are easy installation. These panels are sold in sections and are usually in rows of three, six, or nine. The only problem with these synthetic panels is that one panel might fade more than the other panel leaving behind a checkerboard appearance.

Plastic and Rubber Shingles

While the name might state rubber shingles, these are engineered products and are very popular at present. These shingles are made out of tires, plastic bags, and tons of recycled materials. These have excellent fire ratings and meet the requirements of the building codes. These have good insulation and can withstand high-velocity winds. These shingles also come with a warranty of up to 50 years.

Hence, the plastic roofing seems to be gaining huge popularity due to its varied features and easy installation and fire resistant qualities. These are quite economical and offer the best solution for those who cannot opt for natural slate. These are long lasting and a completely eco-friendly solution to meet the growing needs of good roofing material.

How To Plan A Last-Minute Trip To Red River, New Mexico

When you are considering possible destination spots for those spontaneous getaways, you will definitely need to keep Red River, New Mexico at the front of your list. As a resort town nestled in the scenic mountains of the Southwest, you have an endless amount of possibilities for vacation activities. From festivals to skiing to hiking to road-tripping, there is something for everyone at any time in this gem of a spot. To make the most of a visit, you may want to consider the following:

1. Consider the time of year.

Fortunately, Red River, New Mexico is an optimal place to visit, regardless of the season. This makes this resort town the ideal candidate for a last-minute stop. If you are planning a summer trip, then you will certainly want to take advantage of any one of the festivals that take place during the hottest part of the year. With the Arts and Wine Festival in June and the Dulcimer Festival, Chili Festival and so on and so forth, there is bound to be something going on no matter when you find yourself with a little extra time.

Summer and Fall play host to a beautiful backdrop, perfect for camping and geocaching while the winter months, of course, offer some excellent opportunities in the world of snow sports, including prime skiing.

2. Decide whether you want to be in nature, or in a resort setting. Or both!

The beauty in choosing Red River, New Mexico as your destination spot is that there are excellent choices for the avid naturist as well as options for those who enjoy a more luxurious setting. With hiking, camping, geocaching, horseback riding, skiing, and fishing activities around every bend, those who enjoy the outdoors will not be disappointed. The key to taking advantage of Red River’s beautiful scenery is to pack the correct gear, whether it be fishing rods, hiking shoes, tents or skis. Thankfully, if you forget to pack the necessities, you will likely find some excellent rental shop options.

If you are looking for something more relaxing, consider the historical tours, spa settings or the many culinary festivals available year-round. The key is to check ahead of time. An excellent place to start is with the Chamber of Commerce or a local hotel or resort. The locals should be able to point you in the right direction.

3. Check the surrounding area. And don’t forget the music festivals!

Red River, New Mexico offers some excellent day trip destinations. One big tip is to book your stay at a hotel or resort spot in Red River and then take a look at a few of the many day trips available for an adventure. The festivals are never-ending, as well. With the Songwriter’s Festival, Oktoberfest, Dulcimer Festival, Fourth of July Celebration, Bluegrass Festival, and Red River Folk Festival (just to name a few!) the music lover will never be short of activities to enjoy. Look online for discounts, no matter how early or late you are planning your trip.

Stain on Railing–Just Spray and Wipe

Just remember my advice before you start this job of using opaque, semi-opaque or transparent stain. Don’t do it. You will have turned wood that didn’t do anything to you into a maintenance item. Weathered gray wood is nature’s way of staining and it will fit into most landscape plans.

But, I know most of you want to have some reddish or brown color; so stain away, however wait at least a year on new deck installations, wood that is green will not hold the stain.

As you wipe the sweat off your brow just as you finish your deck floor, you think maybe a cold beer then a cold shower, Wonderful! But wait, you still have all the hand rails and all those upright balusters to stain as well.

Those balusters are going to be a pain. They are small and close together and they have all those nooks and crannies. Try staining a cranny for for the whole deck. It gets tiresome and boring and it takes a lot of time.

Not if you follow my simple instructions;

Take old “Windex bottle” or some bottle with spray applicator, clean well and put your stain in bottle. Now just spray your stain on balusters and wipe down with a rag. If you want to get fancy, get one of those painting gloves and stain all those balusters as fast as you can spray and wipe.

No dipping, no brushing, just spray and wipe. Pop the top on that cold one, we are done with this job.!

How to Use the Space Under Your Stairs

When home owners think about updating their stairs and hallway, they tend to focus only on tasks such as replacing the stair balustrade, handrails, spindles and newels for a fresh new look. But there is so much more that can be done to improve this area, especially if you are short of storage.

One possible solution could be staring us right in the face – the space under the stairs. Here are a few suggestions for getting the most out of this all-too-often neglected resource:

Play den

How often have your kids complained that they have nowhere to play? Children love hidden nooks and crannies, so converting the cupboard under the stairs can be a great alternative to an outdoor play house – especially in winter.

If possible, cut windows and a doorway into the side panels of the staircase. This will allow light in and stop the den feeling claustrophobic. Strips of leftover curtain material stapled to the windows make a nice homely touch.

Use a beanbag or some large cushions to create a comfy seating area. Finally, encourage your little ones to personalise their new hideaway with some books, toys and, if there is room, a small desk for drawing or writing.

Cloakroom

If you’re tired of having to pick your way over discarded bags and coats in the hallway when you get home, think about converting the area under your staircase into a cloakroom.

Even if there’s only a shallow nook, it’s usually sufficient for a few cubby holes with hooks for hats, umbrellas and coats. Try adding some wicker baskets underneath for small items such as scarves, gloves and key rings – you’ll find it so much easier to keep everything tidy.

If the whole area under the stairs is accessible, consider turning it into a clothes cupboard. Just fit some shelves and hanging rails round the edge to provide useful storage for seasonal clothing, and free up space in your bedroom wardrobe at the same time. This is also a great place to store boots, trainers, gym kits, golf clubs, tennis racquets and ski equipment.

Office

As the modern trend for open plan living grows ever more popular, many people have removed the cupboard under the stairs and replaced it with an office or study area.

The neatest way of doing this is to have custom-made shelves and a desk unit fitted. However, if your budget is modest, or you don’t want to commit to a permanent office, you can simply install a free-standing desk and some shelving units.

Bathroom

Fitting an additional toilet or shower will ease pressure on the family bathroom and is particularly useful if you have small children or elderly relatives living with you. If done well, it should also increase the resale value of your property.

Headroom can be problem, so take accurate measurements to ensure people will have enough room to stand upright. You may also want to consider installing a special sanitary pump if the pipes cannot be connected directly to the main waste system.

Shelving space

The great thing about shelves is their versatility – you can find ones to fit into almost type of space. Fitting a tailor-made shelving unit under the stairs will allow you to make the most of the space. You will be able to display all your best photos, ornaments, CDs and books that might otherwise be boxed away – and to show off your favourite items, you could even fit some strategically placed backlights.

If you have too many books you could make a miniature library by fitting some shelves under the stairs. Just add an armchair, reading lamp and coffee table, and you’re all set for some quality ‘me’ time.

Add Wrought Iron to Your Stairway

Having a nice stairway in your home is important because it is the first impression of what the upper level of your house is like. Using wrought iron in your stairway can make the statement that your upstairs is full of style and glamour. Wrought iron can be used in stairways for the railings and spindles as well as for wall décor going up the stairway including sconces and art.

Wrought iron railings and spindles come in a variety of shapes and styles, from formal and elegant to sleek and modern. You should choose a style that fits well with the existing fixtures and décor in your home. This will give your stairway and home a unified look.

Wall décor in a stairway is important since it is often the focal point of a stairway. Wrought iron sconces for lights or candles come in a wide variety of styles allowing you to achieve just the look you are going for. If you choose light sconces, they provide a great look in addition to being functional. Wrought iron wall art comes in a variety of sizes and styles and looks great in a stairway when it is matched to the railing and spindles.

If you are looking to remodel your stairway, consider using wrought iron. With the wide variety of styles available, you can choose railings and spindles that will compliment your existing home fixtures and décor. Complete your look with wrought iron sconces and art, and you will have a stairway that guests will see as a grand entrance to your upstairs rooms.

How Well Can Acupuncture Relieve Pain?

How effective is acupuncture at relieving pain? While some people may be sceptical about any treatment that falls under the category of 'alternative medicine' it seems now that even conventional western medicine has embraced the benefits of acupuncture in the treatment of pain and other illnesses.

Acupuncture has been used to successfully treat pain all over the world. The Chinese used it for thousands of years before it spread to the west. Many people suffering from chronic pain for years have turned to acupuncture and experienced remarkable results, often able to do things that had previously been impossible for them. Acupuncture is effective at treating various pain types, particularly musculoskeletal pain. A common complaint in modern society is chronic pain, which is often caused by structural imbalances, usually involving the pelvis. A skilled acupuncturist will not only work on reducing pain directly, but will also use their skills to treat the muscles which are moving the skeleton out of alignment. This technique often provides lasting relief.

So, how does it work? Acupuncture employs the insertion of fine needles into specific sites along the body's meridians. Acupuncturists believe that needles placed in the body will draw energy to the site of pain and create the energy flow required to promote health. Although conventional medicine may not accept the explanation for how acupuncture works, no-one can deny the results. So much so that many medical insurers now pay for acupuncture treatments and many hospital pain clinics now employ an acupuncturist for the treatment of acute and chronic pain.

So, its clear that acupuncture is an effective treatment of pain for many people. Acupuncture also effectively treats many other ailments including neurological complaints, respiratory problems, gastric complaints, short sightedness and many more.

Action Script 3.0 – The Switch Statement

The switch statement is very common in many programming languages. In VB.net it is called a select-case, but regardless of what it is called the process is the same. You feed the statement a value called an expression. The statement then will execute a branch of code based on the value of that expression. Sounds simple right? Good let’s get started with the actual code.

Your first line of code sets up your switch statement. It is written as:

Switch (expression) {

You start using the keyword “Switch” then you use an open parenthesis “(“, followed by the expression you want to evaluate, then we type in a close parenthesis “)” and then we use the open curly brace to begin our code block “{“.

Your expression can be pretty much anything you want so as long as the Action Script compiler can determine what it is you want to do. Let’s say for example you want to display a certain image on a webpage based on some user selection. There are a number of images to choose from therefore making the switch statement a perfect use here.

For our example lets say there are 5 images. Now you could write various nested if-else statements but that would be too cumbersome. Instead you write the switch statement and branch off to display the image in what is called the “Case” code block. The keyword “Case” determined whether or not the code underneath of it will run based on the value of the expression. So in our example our code would look like this:

Switch (ImageChoice) {

Case 1:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

The characters “//” represent comments in your code and do not get executed. They are ignored by the compiler.

The above code says that if the user chose image 1 then you are going to run the code that immediately follows “Case 1”. Notice the code “break;”. That is very important, because if you do not put that in, the program will execute the code under case 1, and each following case thereafter until either it hits a “break” or the end of the switch statement.

So far we have one case, but remember we have 5 for our example. Therefore we would write the following code:

Switch (ImageChoice) {

Case 1:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 2:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 3:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 4:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 5:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

As you can see depending on the value of “ImageChoice” will determine which branch of code will be executed.

What would happen in the code above if somehow the value of ImageChoice was 6? Well in the code above nothing would happen because there is no branch for the value of 6. The switch statement provides a nice catch all called “default”. And what this does is execute code if the value of the expression does not match and of the case statements. So lets say in our example it is possible for ImageChoice to be a number from 1 through 100, however we only want to show an image if the number is 1 through 5. Any other number will display a generic image. Our code would look like this:

Switch (ImageChoice) {

Case 1:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 2:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 3:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 4:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 5:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Default:

//Insert your code to display the default image

You now have caught anything else that might occur that you weren’t prepared for. I recommend to always include a default statement at the end of every switch statement to insure against unforeseen issues.

You aren’t quite done yet though. Remember you opened the switch statement’s code block with an open curly brace “{“. Now that we have reached the end of the switch statement we need to close it with the corresponding closed curly brace “}. Our final code looks like this:

Switch (ImageChoice) {

Case 1:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 2:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 3:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 4:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Case 5:

// Insert your code to display the image

Break;

Default:

//Insert your code to display the default image

}

And there you have it a complete switch statement that you can use in your next Action Script program.

Headache Relief – Effective Ways to Get Rid of Frontal Headaches

Are you in dire need of some effective frontal headache relief as soon as possible? Do not fret. Others are also experiencing such problems. In fact, one of the most common disorders today is a simple headache. How can you relieve such pains quickly and easily? Here are some tips that you should consider, most of which are very effective in getting rid of your frontal headaches almost immediately.

  1. Before doing anything else, you should understand first the cause of the headache. You can do so by doing a simple investigation. List the things that you do before the frontal headaches attack. This will help you see the real triggering factors for the headaches. For example, were you trying to read some notes without your glasses on? Were you staring in your monitor for a very long time? If these activities are becoming consistent before the actual headache, then you should be sure that these activities cause it. By knowing the reasons of your headaches, you already know half of the frontal headache relief that you are looking for.
  2. One of the simplest solutions for a headache is to get some rest. A fatigued body usually causes painful head pulses. If you have been working for quite some time already, get a breather and take a nap. By recharging your body’s energy level, your headaches will eventually diminish. If you must, go get a full 8-hour sleep. Besides, another very common reason for a frontal headache is lack of sleep. This tip might already be the best frontal headache relief for you, so give it a try.
  3. Limit all of your stress-inducing activities. Another very common cause for a headache a stress. Due to the excess of adrenaline rushed in your body, your head will experience a lot of painful attacks. To alleviate your frontal headaches, calm your mind. Do the things that calm your core. Stay away from competitive activities, like playing games online. Stay low, and the headache will surely be less active.
  4. Drink your regular ration of water. By increasing the liquid levels in your body, any toxic materials will be diluted, causing the sharp headache attacks to be more bearable. However, steer away from icy cold water. They may provoke the attacks further. Tap water would do just fine. Remember that your goal is to flush out any internal contaminant that has caused of your headaches. Fresh fruit juices would also work. Aside from diluting your body from those toxic chemicals, you will also be nourishing your body with vitamins and minerals essential for the improvement of your condition.
  5. Visit your doctor, especially if your headache has been sustained for a very long time. If you have not yet done a good physical check up, this might be the best time to do it. Mention to your doctor all the symptoms that you have experienced and all the frontal headache relief options that you have tried. This will help give your doctor a background about your problem.

Red Flag Land Developments – Physical Limitations

It is important to be able to determine early in your screening if a specific parcel may be worthy of further investigation as a potential land development. However, it may be even more important for you to be able to identify fairly quickly those properties on which you should not be spending any time and effort. The problem may be with the parcel itself. On the other hand, it could be a property having the wrong seller, one that's in the wrong municipality or just bad timing. You could have any combination of factors translating into a "red flag" potential real estate development, ie, one that's not economically feasible or where you would have to grab a tiger by its tail. As the title suggests, this article discusses scenarios where a physical characteristic of the parcel is the problem.

Every real estate parcel can be used for something. The second and third articles in the Land Development Values ​​series discuss how uses are permitted under the current zoning either automatically or upon meeting certain conditions. Those articles also explain when other types of real estate developments may be possible by obtaining some sort of change, such as a variance or a rezoning. Sometimes, however, what is permitted or possible (even if favorable to the type of land development you want to do) becomes almost irrelevant because the land parcel has some incurable physical defect. Here are some examples.

Landlocked Parcels
Municipal zoning and development ordinances typically will not permit a subdivision or development of a parcel (other than a single residential building lot) unless the property owns frontage on an existing street. This defect, therefore, can not be "cured" by gaining access to the street by an easement through an adjoining property because an easement does not transfer ownership rights to that land area. It merely gives the recipient some rights to cross over or use that portion of the neighbor's property for a specific purpose over a certain period of time. You'd have to purchase adjoining land with a sufficient amount of frontage and tack it onto the parcel you wanted to develop. This could negatively impact the feasibility of the deal.

Too Little or Too Much Frontage
Municipal ordinances usually spell out minimum lot size and width requirements for flag parcels (ie, those with a narrow strip fronting on a street). A land parcel with hundreds of feet of frontage on one or more streets may not be the answer, unless your goal is to simply subdivide the property into individual residential building lots without the need for a new road. If you're contemplating a retail or office development and not subdividing, the municipality will probably require improvements along the frontage that could make the ultimate development costly. These could include widening the road along each frontage, installing curbing and sidewalk, relocating existing utility poles, or providing turn-only lanes.

Wasted Land Area
Sometimes the usable portion of a parcel is just not enough because land area is lost (ie, can not be developed) due to physical characteristics such as floodplain, slopes, wetlands, woodlands or other "protected" resources. Common sense dictates that it may be difficult or impossible to achieve an efficient land development layout (one that maximizes the parcel yield while minimizing the cost of horizontal improvements) if the parcel has an irregular shape.

Non-contiguous Land Area
It is not unusual to find parcels with the same owner that are separated from each other by either existing roads or properties owned by somebody else. The amount of contiguous acreage becomes relevant where zoning ordinance provisions specify minimum parcel area requirements for certain land uses.

Suppose you were thinking of buying two parcels from the same owner. Parcel "A" is 20 acres and Parcel "B" is 30 acres but they are across the road from each other. The ordinance requires that a site developed into a particular use have at least 50 acres. The seller's property may consist of a total of 50 acres, but for purposes of determining if it meets the site area requirement, it will be treated as two separate parcels. So unless you were able to purchase enough land adjoining either "A" or "B" to have contiguous land area of ​​at least 50 acres, the type of real estate development that you wanted to do would probably not be possible.

Vulnerability: Beyond the Facade

For most people, vulnerability is a maniacal force–something bad and to be avoided. Throughout the day, endless Ego defense resources are utilized in an attempt to protect the frail sense of self from perceived dangers in the world. As is the case with many of our attempts of self-protection, over zealousness can lead to the distortion of reality, leaving the true value of emotional vulnerability hidden behind a sea of fear.

Before we can understand the significance of being vulnerable, let’s look to see how the “gift” of vulnerability got such a bad rap. First, let’s turn to some dictionary definitions of the word vulnerability:

1. Capable of or susceptible to being wounded or hurt, as by a weapon: a vulnerable part of the body;

2. Open to moral attack, criticism, temptation, etc.: an argument vulnerable to refutation: He is vulnerable to bribery.

3. Open to assault; difficult to defend: a vulnerable bridge.

Definitions 1 and 3 make sense if you are Patton defending against a Rommel ground attack. And, they have a lot to contribute to the disparaging connotations surrounding the concept of open to being hurt. Instead, let’s focus on the second definition, which directly addresses the issue at hand.

Open to moral attack. Yikes! Moral attack; that sure doesn’t sound good. But wait. Who is doing the attacking and why would I be afraid of having my morals attacked? As I view it, I want my morals questioned. Not by others, but by myself. It is this outside force that motivates me to look inside of myself. How else am I going to understand what I stand for, and if I need to make changes to my moral foundation.

This was not always the case. In my younger days, I had no understanding of my own belief system. This caused me to end up in precarious situations, fearing vulnerability and the resulting emotional pain. I ran from pain. I tried to build a fortress around me to keep pain out. But, I couldn’t run from my own life choices and beliefs–the source of the majority of my pain. After a while, I came to the realization that I had to change my beliefs and approach to the world. I embarked on a journey to do so, right into the heart of my own fears and sense of vulnerability. My other choice was to try to continue to forge an emotional state of invulnerability. This hadn’t worked. Through facing my fears, I was finally able to hear and decode the important life lessons that were being communicated. Prior to doing so, these vital messages had reverberated off and away from my defensive walls. This is why I refer to vulnerability as being a gift; a very precious and wise one.

Many people fear the criticism of others. We don’t want to show the world that we are anything but strong winners who have our lives together. Therefore, we keep close watch over what we allow others to see, apprehensive about how the world will respond to our true selves. By opening up and facing our true essence, one can process and react to the messages transmitted via vulnerability. Hopefully, these messages won’t fall on deaf ears. With this in mind, here are some alternative definitions of vulnerability:

1. A state of being that allows learning to take place: I learned from my emotional pain.

2. A gift that allows you to touch your soul and create meaningful human contact.

3. A mechanism that allows one to grow via self-examination and exploration.

Using these definitions, ponder the following questions: have you purposely tried to seal your psyche/Ego off from a state of vulnerability? Have you looked inward to better understand yourself, or have you spent your valuable emotional resources trying to keep others out? Have you heeded the messages that are communicated via your emotional pain or are putting them on ignore? Have you learned to decipher when it is time to button up the hatch versus when it appropriate and beneficial to open yourself to the world?

In essence, vulnerability is one of many tools that you can use to increase the chances of creating a meaningful and valuable relationship with yourself and with others. Thus, the next time you’re feeling vulnerable, listen to the message being transmitted. It may contain valuable information that will assist you in creating success in life and relationships. Don’t be afraid of the sea of fear; rather, part it and walk through it. Happiness and success lie on the other side.

Soldering Solar Cells Together – An Introduction to a DIY Solar Panel Construction

This is just a small introduction to soldering solar cells together. You may already know, but before we begin, it is good to remind you that there are both “tabbed” and “un-tabbed” solar cells on the market. Tabbed cells are a little more expensive, but if you are intend to build more that one panel, they will save you a heap of time, broken cells and frustration. Solar cells are very fragile, and the more you handle or mis-handle them, the greater are the chances of breaking them. Soldering solar cells requires care, and because untabbed cells effectively requires not only soldering right across a cell, there is twice the work and – well, chances are you will break some.

Tabbed cells come with the metal connector strips already attached to the front “sunny side face” of the cells, this strip has a free end long enough to lay across the following cell. These tab strips will connect the front of one cell to the contact points on the back of the next, and so on. Most cells are negative on the front and positive on the back and so allow the current to flow between the cells in your panel.

Why are tabbed cells good? Well, Like I said, there is a lot of work involved in soldering untabbed cells. Basically you have to solder a new metal tab strip to the front of each cell BEFORE you even look at connecting your cells together. In other words, you do a double job and that adds up to hours of fiddly work with fragile solar cells. So, my advice is, buy tabbed cells. By the way, the soldering iron should be a good quality 65 to 75Watt adjustable unit set at about 700F. If you run the soldering iron too cold, the solder will not run properly, too hot and you risk damaging the cells.

But, just in case you went and bought untabbed cells to save money, let’s explain what has to be done. Firstly, you need to solder a tabbing strip to the “sunny-face” of each of your cells. There are two ways to do this, both fiddly. You can solder the strip directly to the cell with flux or, pre-solder or “tin” each strip and then solder it to the cell. The idea is to get a solid connection to the solar cell or it will not transfer current. Solar tabbing ribbon typically consists of 10-15 micrometers of solder alloy, commonly SN60 (60% tin and 40% lead) coated on copper strip, note this contains lead. I would go without pre-soldering the tabbing strip as I’m a bit lazy. Either way, apply flux to the the big shiny strips(the bus bars) on the front “sunny-face” of the cell. Lay the tabbing strip along the fluxed bus bar and with a flat tipped soldering iron, run slowly down the strip. Extra fingers are good here. If you did a bad job, the tab strip will peal straight off. If done carefully, the tabbing strip will bond to the bus bar. I suggest practicing on a broken cell with some spare strip to get a feel for the soldering. Since there are usually two of these on each solar cell, there is a lot of fiddly soldering to do. Now do you see why it is better to buy tabbed cells?

Now to the next step, connecting your tabbed cell to its mate, the next cell. Basically you will be soldering the free end of the top “sunny-face” tabbing strip to the bottom of the next cell and repeating the process down your string. So, if you did not lay your cells out according to your panel layout, (e.g. 3 strings of 8 cells), or whatever your design will be, do that now. Leave a small space of about 1centimeter between each of them. It is a good idea to draw a template on some cardboard or Masonite to keep the strings neat and match the size of your array box.

Now that the tops are tabbed, flip them all over (sunny side down), but, slip out the tabbing strip from the first one so it lays over the back of the next. Do the same all the way down your “string”. You will be soldering the strip to the contact points on the back of the cells. If your cells are like mine, there will be 6 small whitish contact squares. Make sure your tab strips line up so they will sit over the contact spots then apply flux to the spots. Hold your soldering iron to the strip on the spot and when its hot, touch the solder wire to the point and let the solder flow, don’t apply too much and don’t over heat the contact as you may damage the cell. An alternative is to use a solder paste on the contact, lay the tab on and hold the iron on the point till it flows, for me, this was a better solution. Do the same for all six contact points, now have two cells connected. Repeat this process for all the solar cells along the string.

It is a pretty good idea to check that you have good solder connections, by exposing the cells to light and testing the output voltage. At the very least, check each string, it is too late when you have connected them all up to find you have a “dry solder” somewhere and have to trace it back. With the string of cells all soldered together, there is one more thing to do. At this stage you will have at one end of the string, the last one, with its “top tabs” free. But at the beginning of the string, nothing to connect to. So you need to solder a short length of tabbing strip to the back of the “top” (first) cell to have something to connect to and complete a circuit. So, on the “first” cell, solder tabbing strips across the back contacts with enough of a free end to allow you something to connect to. Now you will have connecting tabs at both ends of your string ready to connect to its neighboring string or a connector bus. Actually, now that you have read this far, its a good idea to do solder this “first” set of back tabs before soldering up a string, it saves some double handling.

So, there you have it, a completed string of solar cells you can use. How many strings of cells you make up per panel depends on what voltage you are aiming for. Building a DIY solar panel is fun and can save money, but make no mistake, there is work involved. You may opt for simply buying your solar panel off the shelf, but if cost is a factor and you have patience, a DIY solar panel is not a difficult project.