Bicyclists – Shade Your Face, Eyes, and Neck From the Hot Sun With a Wide-Brimmed Helmet

The hot summer sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays can harm certain bicyclist's face, neck, and eyes with dehydration, sunburn, skin allergies and diseases, visual impairments, and other potential damages if not protected. Such damages are costly for that minority of bicyclists who like to ride, but who burn easily or are mildly susceptible to the hot sun. For them, the head / neck wraps, helmet capes or covers, narrow helmet visors, sunscreen lotions, and sun glasses alone do not give enough face and head protection. Since a bicycle helmet prevents head injury during crashes, why not use it to prevent the injuries mentioned above, particularly for those who need it? A wide-brimmed helmet will completely shade a bicyclist's face, eyes, and neck from the sun during daytime riding.

This brimmed helmet is fairly easy to make. One can simply attach the relatively stiff brim from a well-made two-or-more-ply summer hat to his or her helmet, or to a slightly bigger one in size as needed. Summer hats can be found at several Internet websites or in local stores. The helmet size itself depends on how much headroom is left after the brim is attached to it with Velcro strips to obtain the desired comfort and safety standards. Many chinstraps are attached to the upper inner part of the helmet; thus, they do not interfere with the addition of the brim. However, one should check with the helmet's manufacturer to see if attaching a 360-degree fairly stiff but pliable brim to it will void its warranty, or will interfere with its function in any way. In any case, the brimmed helmet can be returned to its original condition by unfastening the brim, and by removing the Velcro strips from the helmet's inner band.

My helmet has a four-inch-wide fairly stiff brim attached to it. The wider and stiffer the brim is, the more all-around shade it provides. But it must bend flexibly if you crash or hit your head. The brim also has a slight downward slope to it, which protects the lower face and neck much like a safari or jungle helmet will. Because the rider is generally leaning forward with his / her head raised slightly, the brim not only protects the front and sides of the face and neck, it also protects the back of the neck while allowing all of these areas to ventilate at the same time .

How to make the helmet

1. Cut off the top part of the summer hat selected with a sharp scissors, leaving the sweatband (about one-inch) in place above the brim.

2. Remove any soft-foam strips from the inner band of the helmet.

3. Attach several compatible self-stick Velcro strips horizontally to the inner band of the helmet and to the outer band of the hat brim.

4. Fasten the brim snugly into the helmet by matching the Velcro strips atop each other.

5. Reattach any soft foam strips to the inner band of the helmet after the brim is in place.

Additional options

1. To stiffen the front of the brim slightly, find a thin piece of fairly rigid plastic that has a 90-degree bend at one of its edges, eg, a cutout from one side of a small plastic case. Cut a four-inch-square section of it, keeping a one-inch-deep, two-inches-wide 90-degree bend at one end. Attach this piece to the lower front part of the brim, allowing the 90-degree bend to fit into the helmet and over the contour of the inner band. This plastic piece will firm up the front crease between the hat's brim and band (more about that later). Place a thin foam strip over the 90-degree portion atop the helmet's front inner band.

2. If desired, install a breathable cloth liner into the inner upper part of the helmet to prevent the scalp from sunburning through the helmet's vent holes. First, remove the soft foam strips from the inner upper part of the helmet. Then use double-stick tape or glue to attach the measured precut lining there. Replace the foam strips where they were.

The Velcro strips holding the brim in place give slight cushion to the inner band of the helmet, but they can reduce the helmet's size slightly, causing it to fit tighter. If it fits too tight in this manner, use shorter strips of Velcro. Or, attach the brim to a slightly larger helmet (an alternate one for hot sunny days). If necessary, to prevent the front of the brim from bending down and obscuring your vision while riding at high speed or against a strong wind, attach a thin piece of fairly rigid sheet-plastic to the front of it with glue, staples, or by whatever means is available (see optional step 1 above). Additionally, if a rider is bald or has thinning hair, the inner upper part of the helmet can be lined with a breathable material to shade the scalp. Otherwise, the brimmed helmet is now completed.

For the best all-around sun protection, use the brimmed helmet jointly with sunglasses and sunscreens. Also, to further shade-protect the rest of one's body skin, wear breathable long-sleeved, long-fingered, long-legged bicycling clothing. These combined safety measures drastically reduce the harmful effects of the hot sun's UV-rays, which could include a lifetime of fighting malignant melanoma and several other aggressive / chronic carcinomas, rashes, hives, and dermatitis's, or the spending of $ 20,000 per surgery to have benign skin lesions carefully removed. These effects make a small investment in a brimmed bicycle helmet worthwhile.

What Is the Difference Between Slider Doors and Stacker Doors?

If you’ve recently begun a home or office refurbishment and are tossing up all your options in terms of decoration and door fittings, you may be feeling a little bombarded by the host of technical terminology you’re encountering.

When it comes to doors, the terms slider and stacker door are often used alongside each other, and sometimes used interchangeably, but they actually do refer to two different kinds of door systems. To clear up any confusion, here is a brief outline of the differences between stacker and slider and some of the advantages that each style offer in commercial and residential architecture.

A standard slider door is usually a patio-style door unit which consists of two door panels, where at least one door panel slides open on a track. A slider door opens horizontally by sliding along a track that it is either mounted on or suspended from. While one of the door panels stays stationary, the other opens to slide in front of it. It sounds more complex in description than what it is – you most likely have several sliding doors around your home and workplace and walk through them every day.

A stacker door is a specific category of slider door that has two or more panels, which slide in the same direction and stack behind the third (or fourth, fifth or sixth) fixed panel. There are many configurations available in stacker doors that provide extremely expansive openings. Using the technology of traditional slider, stacker doors can be installed with six or more consecutive sliding panels that allow for uninterrupted openings of several metres. This is because stacker doors are able to open to two thirds of their overall width, unlike standard slider doors that can only ever open to half their width.

However, both these types of doors are ideal for entertaining areas and offer a range of wonderful benefits in modern commercial and residential constructions. If your home or office is more cramped than you would like it to be, stacker or slider doors are the ideal choice. They both provide the most available space when they are open as well as when they are closed because the doors themselves slide away, out of sight.

Not only do these doors allow greater space for movement through and around rooms, they provide increased visibility between rooms and ultimately lend a modern, streamlined and professional appearance to home and office spaces. Stacker and slider doors can be simply and easily installed. As well as providing a practical solution to the enclosure of rooms, glass slider doors and stackers can deliver a priceless view. They are also far less likely to slam shut, thus cracking or breaking, during conditions of high wind.

As you can see, both present a full range of similar benefits, however, the basic difference to remember when making your choice between the two styles of door is that stackers are more effective at providing wide-ranging, uninterrupted openings making them a great selection for locations that offer stunning vistas.

Importance of Notice Boards for Schools

If you run your own school you need to make sure that you provide the best education to your students and for that you will need to think about some out of the box ideas that make learning interesting for your students. Children always prefer to have some entertainment while they are studying and therefore you need to provide them with some education that looks like entertainment. In recent times schools have started using notice boards as the ultimate way to provide education.

The best thing about notice or information boards is that you can use it the way you want it and therefore you can use it as a learning tool for kids. You can paste information about different seasons so that kids can know more about seasons. Normally, kids never find seasons interesting because we teach them in theory, but you can make teaching interesting when you can put up some interesting pictures of summer, monsoon and winter season on the board. Kids can take a look at the pictures and understand seasons in a better way than they did through theory class.

These boards are equally good for science projects because you can put up different pictures and projects on the boards. You can ask the students to make some interesting projects that will be put up on these boards and that could make them work harder because they would be glad to see their projects on the notice board. You can post scientific diagrams and information that they find hard to remember so that they can see it on daily basis and learn about something that they ought to know.

Notice boards can also bring out the creativity in students if they are good at artwork. Every kid enjoys when his or her creativity is appreciated and you can do that by using notice boards. School students are very excited to see their artwork being put up on the notice boards. This provides them some encouragement and happiness that they have the potential that is not visible to other school students. Hence, you can always put up some interesting artwork for the students so that they can inspire from it and perform better. You can even come up with some interesting facts and put them on the board so that they can learn more from it. Hence, notice boards are very important to schools in different ways.

Manganese Steel Advantages

An estimated 90 percent of all manganese is used in the production of steel. The addition of manganese as an alloying agent to steel makes up about 70 percent of this usage. While most standard steels have a manganese content ranging between 0.15 percent and 0.8 percent, genuine Hadfield grade Tensamang manganese steel plate contains between 11 percent and 14 percent.

Why is all of this added manganese so important? It is because manganese possesses high impact strength and abrasion resistance, thereby enabling manganese steel, otherwise known as mangalloy, to withstand heavy-duty applications like cutting and machining, forming, welding and thermal treatment.

According to the International Manganese Institute, Hadfield manganese steel was named after its 19th century inventor, Sir Robert Abbot Hadfield. A baronet and British metallurgist, Hadfield developed the steel, which “found uses in the construction of railroad rails and rock-crushing machinery” thanks to its “exception durability,” the Encyclopedia Britannica explains. Indeed, steels like Hadfield manganese steel that contain more than 8 percent manganese content have the added benefit of exhibiting tensile strengths of up to 863 MPa.

As it pertains to its history, this steel was the very first alloy steel to ever be invented. The International Manganese Institute goes on to point out that it “has unique properties which make it indispensable for applications in which great toughness and wear resistance are required.” Among the applications cited by the institute are:

  • gyratory crushers
  • jaw-crusher plates
  • railway points
  • crossover components
  • teeth for earth-moving equipment
  • retainer rings for turbo alternators
  • collars on oil rigs

Wikipedia adds to this application list the following uses for mangalloy or manganese steel: mining, cement mixers, rock crushers, railway switches and crossings, and crawler treads for tractors, just to name a few.

The addition of manganese to steel results in other benefits as well. First, it allows steel to better respond to quenching because of its impact on the transformation temperature of the metal. Moreover, as the institute explains, “manganese is also a weak carbide former.” In combination, these two manganese properties offer heat treatment advantages for mechanical engineers. In fact, manganese steel is often the metal of choice in bridge construction projects. Finally, but no less importantly, manganese is far more affordable than other steel alloys like nickel. As a result, users can enjoy all the high-impact, abrasion-resistant properties they are seeking at a much lower price point.

Manganese steel is made to withstand even the most severe wear conditions. In fact, it has the unique property of getting stronger (rather than weaker) the more it takes a beating. On the Brinell hardness scale, in fact, the product reaches a hardness score of 550 BHN through work hardening. This rating gives manganese steel almost five times the hardness of mild steel and almost three times the hardness of annealed stainless steel. As such, consumers enjoy a longer lifespan and extended protection of their equipment and facilities. This work hardening property is just another one of the many advantages associated with manganese steel usage.

Quality Over Quantity With Edox Watches And Other Luxury Brands

When it comes to wrist watches, it has long been that quality is more important than quantity. While some may feel that both are necessary, not everyone is privileged enough to afford such luxuries. It’s better to save and scrimp and own that one beautiful watch, like an Ebel watch, then to own a spew of poorly made timepieces.

What separates a cheap watch from a luxury one is the time invested in its creation. The best watches are handcrafted. Countless hours are put into the process. It’s not just another piece of metal created on an assembly line. Each watch is pure perfection. So much thought and effort is placed on both the design and the creation, down to every minute detail. Besides style though, it’s also about exceptional timekeeping. Isn’t that why you wanted the watch in the first place? Sure you could look to your cellphone, but let’s not forget the real purpose of a wristwatch. Even if you don’t want it necessarily for telling time, at least you know that if your electronic devices were to fail you, you’d have the correct time.

You just won’t get this high level of craftsmanship with a cheaper brand. The watch is made in some manufacturing plant overseas and there is a good chance something will go wrong down the line. It’s cheaply made and it will most definitely fall apart sooner rather than later. The designs will also be less than substantial. They’ll look nice, but they won’t have that wow factor. If they do stop people on the street, it will probably be because people cannot believe you would wear such a poorly made watch! It’s just a fact of life that the most things cost, the more beautiful they are. Who would want a Honda over a Cadillac?

For some, spending more than a thousand dollars on a watch is just not feasible or worthwhile. But you don’t need to spend $15,000 on a watch. You can still find high quality watches like a Movado watch or an Ebel watch that is well within most people’s budget. Of course the watches can’t compare to those that cost as much as a car, but that is not to say they are on the same level as a $50 watch. They will stand the test of time, literally and figuratively.

And when you decide to splurge on the better quality watch, you know it will not only last as long as you do, but it will be a versatile watch that will always be in style. There will be no need to replace it in five years time. So always keep luxury brands like Movado watch or Raymond Weil in mind when shopping. Quality will always reign supreme.

Fixing a Leaky Faucet

Generally, fixing a leaky faucet is a quick simple fix. It will require the removal of a seal or washer and then replacing it. The homeowner can do this kitchen or bathroom repair with a little knowledge and the correct tools. One important thing to remember before you begin to fix the leaky faucet is that you turn off the water source or you will have water going everywhere. You also need to make sure that you have the correct tools To prevent losing any washers or screws down the pipes plug the sink drain. Next, you need to determine the type of faucet, which is essential in making the right repairs.

Compression

• Take the handle off

• Using a crescent wrench unscrew the packing nut, which is usually hexagonal in shape with a threaded hole in the middle.

• Remove the stem and unscrew the brass screw that holds the washer in place

• Remove the washer and then put a non-toxic plumber’s grease on the replacement washer.

• Reverse the steps to put the faucet back together.

If the leak is from the handle instead of the spigot, you will need to replace the O-ring inside of the stem. If there is excessive wear on the faucet, you may consider replacing it.

Ceramic

• Push the handle back to expose the screw

• Remove the screw, then take off the cap and handle

• Unscrew the mounting screws that are holding the disk in place

• Pull out the cylinder and remove the neoprene seals

• Clean the openings with vinegar and then rinse.

• Replace the seals and resemble the faucet

Make sure that the first time you turn on the faucet do it slowly because too much water force too quickly can break the ceramic disk.

Cartridge

• Remove the handle

• Using needle-nose pliers remove the clip that holds the cartridge in place.

• Take off the spout and remove the O-rings by cutting them.

• Coated the replacement O-rings with plumber’s grease

• Reverse the steps to put the faucet back together.

Ball-type

Find where this type is leaking can be difficult because there are many parts in this type of faucet. You can find replacement kits with new parts at home improvement and hardware stores.

• Take off the handle, collar, and cap using adjustable pliers

• Loosen the faucet cam with the special tool in the kit

• Remove the rotating ball and cam washer

• Using a pair of needle=nose pliers remove the springs, seals, and O-rings.

• Coat the new O-rings with plumber’s grease

• Install new springs, cam washers, and valve seals when you reassemble the faucet.

• Test it for leaks.

G-Spot Sex Positions For Penis Stimulation

Hitting the g-spot is often done by using finger stimulation. However, the g-spot can be stimulated by penile stimulation with a few sex positions. The primary positions that facilitate g-spot stimulation are doggy style, modified missionary position, women on top positions, and the jack hammer. Perhaps the most popular of these three is the doggy style. To successfully hit the g-spot in the doggy style position you need to be angling your penis downward to bump into the g-spot. You don’t necessarily need to have your penis pointed completely vertical, but it should be entering the vagina in a slight vertical position. Elevating your body and hips over the woman’s hips will allow you to come straight down without being restricted by the buttocks.

To hit the g-spot with the missionary position, you need to elevate the female’s buttock with pillows so that you are thrusting up toward the g-spot. To make this easier to visualize, think about attempting to hit the center of your partner’s pubic hair from below. Have your partner adjust the pillows to target the area as effectively as possible. The women on top position is also an excellent way to hit the g-spot with the penis. For this to work, you want to be chest to chest, and have the female partner push into the penis, and the male thrust into the g-spot- again imagining he is trying to hit below the pubic hair.

One of the most effective, but least comfortable positions for hitting the g-spot, is the jack hammer position. Basically, the women needs to be resting on the top of her back and neck, and the male needs to be standing over her with his penis pointed in vertical position like a jack hammer. However, when you do the jack hammer with the intention of stimulating the g-spot, you need to come in at an angle. Come from below and up, aiming for the clitoris, and pushing towards the pubic hair.

Cosy Up Your Bedroom During Winter Months

Create The Perfect Focal Point:

Chances are your bed is the biggest piece of furniture in your bedroom and quite possibly the most visually pleasing so focusing your attention on this area first will have a huge impact on your room. A quick fix is to layer up your bedding with throws, blankets and lots of cushions. All the different colours and textures will blend together adding to the warm atmosphere you’re aiming to create.

If your bed is lacking in the wow factor, it may be time to invest in a piece that does. Think solid hardwood frames and luxurious hand finished detailing like our Frank Hudson beds range. Each bed is hand crafted and offers exquisite detailing. Our French Louis XV Frank Hudson bed below offers a decadent and luxurious 1750s style with stunning ornate detailing. This lavish bed will sit proudly in any bedroom with the warm tones of the frame adding to the cosy feel of your bedroom.

Go Dark:

Perhaps it’s just us but when we think of cosy we think of dark! Dark walls, dark accessories, dark lighting all help create a warming environment. A recent design trend has been to paint one or all of your walls in a dark, bold paint and mix it with metallic style accessories such as copper and gold. This trend works perfectly in a bedroom and can help create that all important focal point. Painting the wall behind your bed creates a wonderful backdrop to feature your bed in front of as well as allowing you to hang mirrors, wall art and feature accessories to add warmth.

If you’re not feeling that brave you can always incorporate dark with black framed mirrors, wall art, black cushions and even black bedding. Dark colours are a great way to add the feeling of cosiness whilst also remaining chic and stylish. The touches of dark colours offer a sumptuous feel that is bang on trend!

Make Use Of Mirrors & Lighting:

Lighting and mirrors can make such a huge difference to a space and actually complement each other perfectly. Add some soft low light lighting to your bedroom like table lamps, chandeliers or even fairy lights. A bedside lamp with a low watt bulb with a warm tone can create a soft, warm glow that is charming and delicate. Draping fairy lights around your bed or even around a mirror can also make a stunning visual appearance. Chandeliers are a great option for bringing a touch of glam to your bedroom, opt for a brass, champagne or gold finished chandelier to guarantee a warm glow.

Mirrors work exceptionally well with lighting and can help project the light around your room. Adding a mirror to your space can help add life to your bedroom as well as covering bare walls that can give off a cold impression. There are various ways to incorporate a mirror into your bedroom space. A full length, wall or cheval mirror is great for functionality, you can also feature a mirror directly above your bed or perhaps behind each bedside table to create an eye catching feature. When selecting a mirror opt for an ornate framed design with lavish gold, silver or champagne finish.

Invest In A Bedside Table:

This is a must for any bedroom and it doesn’t have to match your existing furniture. If you have space either side of your bed the addition of a bedside table can actually help to add warmth. Without it your bed would look lonely and the extra space could add a cold, minimalist feel which is the opposite of what we’re trying to achieve.

Look for a unique, eclectic style or perhaps a charming, rustic design that is able to add elegance and charm. You can then dress it up with a bedside lamp that can be dimmed and perhaps some candles that can be lit to create a relaxing, calm feel. These wonderful additions either side of you bed can create a comfortable, inviting little nook that exude cosiness and style.

The IEE Wiring Regulations – BS 7671-2008, 17th Edition

The wiring regulations have been in existence since 1882. They were created to help with safety in lighting circuits with specific attention to the risk presented by fire. The title of the 1st edition was in fact ‘Rules and Regulations for the prevention of Fire Risks Arising from Electric Lighting’

Since 1882 there have been 17 editions of the wiring regulations. All these editions have been released with the safety aspect of installations been the main consideration. The actual full term used in the latest wiring regulations, the 17th edition, is “Safety of persons, livestock and property against dangers and damage which may arise in the reasonable use of electrical installations”

The editions of the wiring regulations are updated when the 5th supplement or amendment is due. These supplements are referred to as amendments. For example the 16 th edition went through 4 amendments before the 17th edition was issued. These amendments were issued in 1994, 1997, 2001 and 2004. At each amendment the colour of the cover of the wiring regulations is changed. For example the covers on the above amendments started as red in 1992, green in 1994, yellow in 1997 blue in 2001 and brown in 2004. The 17th edition’s cover is red.

Reasons for the amendments are varied but in the case of the most recent editions and amendments it was the need to adopt a common standard for the European Union that have driven the changes. BS7671 will be updated as the European document is either amended or revised. The European document is referred to as CENELEC Document.

The legal status of the wiring regulations is referred to as non-statutory. This means that BS7671 taken in isolation is not actually enforceable by law. BS7671 is however reference in the Electricity at work regulations 1989 and also Part P of the building regulations. These are legally enforceable regulations. The reference to BS7671 is to suggest that following the practices laid out in BS7671 the Wiring Regulations, would indicate that good practice has been followed.

In the event of any legal challenge in regards to the standard of work carried out within any Electrical installation, references to the Wiring Regulations could and would be used. BS7671 is therefore a reference to good practices. It would however be very foolish to undertake any work on an Electrical installation with out a good understanding of the current wiring regulations which at this time is BS7671:2008 IEE wiring regulations 17th edition

Kate Spade Handbags

Kate Spade handbags are not for the meek and timid who do not like to attract attention. The Kate Spade handbag is funky, lively, and modern, perfect for the attention seekers of the world!

When Kate first arrived in New York she barely had two cents to rub together, but that did not stop her from becoming the fashion editor for Mademoiselle magazine. Eventually Kate started her own handbag company with Andy Spade, her husband. Using Kate's first name and Spade, her husbands last name, she created a new line of Kate purses that were very unique and stylishly chic.

Handbags designed by Kate spade, although fairly new to the purse market, seem to have grown in popularity to the point where they are comparable to Gucci handbags. Kate Spade designer handbags have so much personality that you may find yourself getting compliments from complete strangers as you walk down the street.

All of Kate's handbags are made in Italy and many are lined with a supple soft suede. The crinkled leather handbags are very durable and well made. Your Kate Spade designer handbag will never go out of style as they are made using modern and classic handbag designs instead of trendy short term designs.

If you do not already own a piece of Kate Spade, be sure to get in on the action and get your own Kate Spade designer handbag.

How to Get a Harley-Davidson Shovelhead and Get On the Road Quick

It is possible to find a great Harley-Davidson Shovelhead bike for a great price and get it on the road quick. It’s important to understand up front what is necessary to get the bike going before the purchase is even made. By knowing what to look for and taking stock of what needs to be done to the bike up front allot of time and money can be saved.

When checking out the bike be sure to take notes on what needs to be repaired or replaced before the bike can be on the road. Sometimes it’s easy to lose track of the big picture when checking out a bike and forget the little things the need replacing that could cost time and money. For example, the bike needs new tires, the gas tank leaks, the seat is falling off. None of these are the end of the world but combined they add up to a fair amount of time and expense necessary to bring them up to par.

Ask questions of the current owner if possible and decide how valid the information is. This is going to take some intuition as it’s at times advantageous for the seller to keep some information under wraps. Many times sellers won’t be honest about the bike which becomes especially important if the bike is not in running condition. This makes it tough to detect exactly what issue caused the bike to quit. Was it a short in a wire, or did the cylinders lose compression. Depending on the issue this could be minor or a serious issue.

Keep in mind there is always another deal around the corner and don’t be afraid to walk away. It’s easy when checking out a bike to get all wrapped up in having it today. You’ll benefit greatly if you have no fear in walking away and looking for a better deal. This is what differentiates those that know how to get great deals from those that don’t. Those with the experience to know that there is always another deal around the corner have the ability to dodge bad deals and increase the odds of finding a good one.

Finding a used bike and getting it on the road can be allot of fun. By selecting a bike on qualities other than simply price the odds will be increased that a good deal will be had. Although someone else may be finished with the bike this doesn’t mean it’s not the perfect bike for you.

The History of Electricity

The Beginning of Electricity in America

Benjamin Franklin began experimenting with electricity in America and documented the experiments.  He was able to finance his extensive work by selling off his belongings.  He is known for flying a kite in a storm that had a wet string and a key tied to the end of it.  When he observed sparks leaping from the key to his hand he understood that lightning was a natural form of electricity.

Alessandro Volta of Italy invented the electric cell in 1800, making it easier for scientists to study electricity and its various applications.  When the electric cells are connected together a battery is created.

Alexander Graham Bell is known to have invented the telephone.  Bell’s worked as a teacher for deaf students professionally which explains his fascination with different ways to transmit sounds.  During his experiments with sound transmission he began to use electricity, which eventually led to his success with the telephone.

Thomas Doolittle, a mill worker from Connecticut created the method that was used to create the first hand drawn copper wire that strong enough to use as a telegraph wire.  A man by the name of Michael Faraday discovered that electricity was created when a magnet was passed through ordinary copper wire.  This is the application that is used in America’s power plant to generate electricity that is delivered to customers across the country.  Both the electric generator and are built on this principle.  A generator takes mechanical energy and converts it to electricity.  On the other hand, motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy.

While Thomas Edison experimented with electricity he was able to invent the electrical light bulb in addition to many other gadgets.  His biggest challenge when creating the light bulb was to find the right material to use for the filament.  He settled on carbon soaked cotton thread.  The carbon was used to prevent the cotton thread from burning.  The thread glowed as the electricity traveled through it.  As soon as the popularity of the light bulb caught on he turned his attention to the development of power plants that would be run the light bulbs.  The first power plant that he built began operating in 1882 and served 85 New York city customers.

A major turning point occurred in 1895.  The power plant that was built by Edison was only capable of transporting power a short distance since it used direct current of DC.  The power was transmitted approximately just one square mile surrounding the power plant.  With the development of alternating current or AC in 1895 the plant was able to transport power over 200 miles from the newly built power plant in Niagara Falls.

Electricity was rather slow to catch on in America.  Many people were excited by the new inventions, but some were afraid of the electrical current and hesitated to have it installed in their houses.  Some people were unable to afford the price of the service.  Electricity was blamed for causing the end of simple living.  Many people felt that electric lights were less romantic than the gas light they were used to.

Many expos and fairs often featured exhibits that displayed the recent inventions that used electricity as their power source.  The 1893 Columbian Exposition that was held in Chicago displayed 5,000 arc lights and 90,000 incandescent lamps.  People that visited the expo had the opportunity to view or ride the different electrified exhibits which included three cranes, several water fountains, a moving sidewalk, elevators and a street car system that was created by General Electric.

The Pan-American Exposition that was held in Buffalo, NY in 1901 used electricity as the theme.  An electric tower that was 400 feet in height, displaying 40,000 lights was featured in addition to the Electricity Building which was home to a huge exhibit of electrical appliances.

Power became accessible by more people as small electrical companies started to spring up around the country.  A number of the smaller companies started to merge together and form large conglomerates, the largest ones being General Electric and Westinghouse.  These two companies started building power plants that were equipped with generators that used fossil fuel combustion and steam to produce electricity.  Other plants were being built that used kinetic power to generate power like water or wind.  Once nuclear power was developed, the power that was released as nuclear reactions occurred was used to create electricity.

The demand for electricity grew by 12% each year for the first thirty years of the twentieth century.  In order to keep up with today’s demand for electricity, renewable resources are being implemented to supply the much needed power.  Many people are using solar power, hydropower and wind power are being put to use in order to meet the demands of consumers and to protect the environment.

7 Ways to Distinguish an Authentic Versus a Fake Talavera

Are you interested to own and have been looking for genuine Talavera product? How would you know that the products offered by online distributors, and offline dealers and retailers are really authentic? Beware of imitations!

Talavera is a tin-enameled earthenware, Majolica pottery made and comes only from Puebla, Mexico, and its nearby communities of Atlixco, Cholula and Tecali.

This world-renowned hand-painted pottery is notable by a milky-white glaze. It comes in different forms, including both functional and decorative pieces such as plates, serving dishes, vases and tiles.

Here are some characteristics of genuine Talavera pottery:

  • Talavera is made from a mixture of only two clays, a dark clay and a light, slightly rose-colored clay.
  • The source of clay supply to make the Talavera comes from the Talavera geographic zone of Puebla and the communities of Atlixco, Cholula and Tecali.
  • Talavera is hand formed with a potter’s wheel or using molds, not poured. They are also hand-painted.
  • Talavera pieces have gone through two firings. The oven used to fire Talavera should be at least 800 degrees Celsius.
  • Talavera uses six color pigments, and its color combination enhances the workmanship sophistication of Talavera pieces.
  • The Talavera item is created by certified workshops in the state of Puebla Mexico using the traditional Talavera process.Workshops producing authentic Talavera are certified by passing an inspection and verification process at least every six months. The Mexican Talavera Regulatory Council regulates the production of Talavera and restricts the use of the term to items produced within the designated zone of Puebla. There are only less than 20 certified workshops producing genuine Talavera.
  • Certified Talavera pieces bear the signature of the potter, the logo of the workshop and the special hologram that certifies the piece’s authenticity. Only pieces from workshops that meet the standards are certified.

You can buy Talavera in many shops and throughout places in Mexico and globally. Some workshops also offer tours where you can see how it is being made.

There are also a number of shops now that offer non-certified and authentic but still high quality Talavera products.

Authentic Talavera is costly, as every piece is one of its kind and of excellent quality. However, imitations may be as pricey and seemingly unique. You need to be extra careful that your money is really worth the Talavera item you have with.

For more information, visit:

  • http://www.mlsbajaproperties.com/blogs/mls_baja/archive/2009/12/27/real-vs-fake-talavera-pottery.aspx
  • http://talaverica.com – Home Talavera pottery, handcrafted silver Jewelry from Mexico, and more…

Stuffed Red Peppers Cooked Perfectly In Your Toaster Oven

These stuffed peppers are a departure from traditional stuffed peppers in a few ways. First, I use vitamin C rich red peppers rather than the standard green bell or Poblano peppers. Second, the filling is comprised of anchovies, fruits and nuts rather than the traditional meat or cheese fillings. This makes for a very unique flavor profile which I love. The peppers cook up perfectly in a toaster oven. The close proximity of the heating elements provides a beautifully browned top to these tasty stuffed peppers.

This recipe makes 8 halves. Serve two halves as a main course or use one as a side dish. These stuffed peppers go very well with roasted chicken or turkey, since the filling is similar to a fruit and nut stuffing. It makes for a much prettier presentation compared to simply serving a dish of stuffing or dressing.

Ingredients

4 large red bell peppers

2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil

1 cup of whole grain bread cut into 1/2 inch square pieces

10 anchovies, chopped

1/4 cup of golden raisins

4 whole dried apricots, chopped

1/4 cup of pine nuts

2 cloves of garlic, minced

1 tablespoon of chopped fresh parsley

1/4 cup of dry white wine

1/2 teaspoon of freshly ground black pepper

Directions

Heat your toaster oven to 350 degrees F. Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil on the stove top.

Cook the peppers in the boiling water for 8 minutes. Remove and allow to cool slightly.

Toss the whole grain bread pieces with the extra virgin olive oil. Bake in your toaster oven for 10 minutes. Transfer to a mixing bowl. Add the anchovies, golden raisins, apricots, pine nuts, parsley, dry white wine and freshly ground black pepper. Mix well.

Slice the cooled red peppers in half lengthwise. Remove the pith and seeds but leave the stem attached. Place them into a baking dish lined with parchment paper. Evenly distribute the filing amongst the pepper halves. Bake in your toaster oven until they are hot throughout and the tops are golden brown; this should take about 30 minutes. Serve hot.

The Best Toaster Oven For Cooking Stuffed Peppers

You will want a toaster oven capable of even cooking that also has browning capabilities. Any mid-range or above unit should suffice, just avoid cheap models that never reach temperatures sufficient for proper browning. Visit Toaster Oven Reviews to find the best model for cooking stuffed peppers and so much more. You will find thousands of reviews and a handy buying guide to help you along the way. Look to the reviews for any issues with achieving or maintaining proper temperatures.

Ten Proven Tips to Buy the Best Meat Available

Ten Proven Tips to buy the Best Meat Available

As you look through the meat section at your local grocery store you are probably like so many others asking yourself if the steaks you have chosen is really good meat. Here are some tips on how to make sure you buy good meat.

The quality grade does not necessarily mean that you will be getting good meat. Some cuts of meat are just naturally more tender than others. You should look for cuts from the less used muscles along the back such as the rib and loin sections. The shoulder, flank and leg cuts will be tougher.

How to make sure you buy good meat

As you look through the meat section at your local grocery store you are probably like so many others asking yourself if the steaks you have chosen is really good meat. Here are some tips on how to make sure you buy good meat.

  1. The quality grade does not necessarily mean that you will be getting good meat. Some cuts of meat are just naturally more tender than others. You should look for cuts from the less used muscles along the back such as the rib and loin sections. The shoulder, flank and leg cuts will be tougher.
  2. The USDA beef quality grade is like this prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter and canner. The best beef that you can find is of course prime, but this is very hard to find and does come with a large price tag. Most of the beef that you find at your local grocery will be choice, select or standard. Standard is usually sold as un-graded or as “brand name” meat
  3. Roast and steaks should be firm. Do not purchase soft or squishy feeling roast or steaks no matter the type of meat.
  4. Check the sale by date and no buy after that date. You should buy the meat either before or on the day that is the “sell by date”.
  5. Check the packaging for any type of damage. The meat should be cold and wrapped securely.
  6. The package should not contain any moisture. This could mean that the temperature of the meat has been above 40 degrees and that will cause the taste of your meat to be less quality.
  7. Look for beef that is bright red in color and has thin creamy white fat evenly distributed throughout the roast or steak. On the other hand, veal should not be bright red; it should be almost white in color or lightly pink.
  8. Before you buy any meat find out if it has been injected with flavorings. You do not want to purchase any meat that has been injected with flavorings, this can cause your meat to break down and become mushy.
  9. Do your own tenderizing. Do not buy meat that has been tenderized by the butcher. He uses piercing products that allows the natural flavor and juices to escape from your meat and this will be produce a tough and un-flavorful meal. Try to purchase dry aged if at all possible. This type of meat will probably only be found at a butcher shop. Dry aging is a process where the meat is taken from the bag that it arrives in to the butcher and is hung in a cooler for a certain amount of time to dry out. This will make the cost go up, but the aging adds more flavor and also tenderizes the meat. If you buy your steak from the local grocery, the steak has been cut, wrapped in plastic and has aged on the way to the store.
  10. When in doubt, talk with your butcher. He can answer all your questions regarding the different types of meat, cuts and may even have some great recipes for you to try.