Plastic Pants

Plastic pants are a cheaper alternative to disposable diapers not only for children but also come in larger sizes for incontinent youth and adults. They not only offer considerable savings over the use of disposable diapers, but also boast environment-friendly features. Plastic pants are used over cloth diapers but may also be used over disposable diapers if they are preferred over cloth diapers. Plastic pants help keep children and incontinent youth and adults dry. Some brands even provide extra protection to help prevent embarrassing stains and leaks.

When choosing plastic pants, comfort is very important since as it is, putting on plastic pants trap more heat than regular underwear. Choosing the right size may alleviate this problem, though. There are various plastic pants sizes available in a wide range of styles and colors. There are some people though who prefer a tighter fit while others prefer a looser fit. Once again, choosing plastic pants size is actually a matter of preference. When buying plastic pants an important size to consider is the waist size. It is recommended to choose plastic pant size that falls about the middle of the waist size range. There is even a wide variety of elastic types available, though people generally prefer wider elastics since they are more comfortable and less likely to pinch the skin. There are plastic pants manufacturers which offer custom made plastic pants for maximum comfort.

The demand for diversity in terms of color and design is the reason there are more styles to choose from in terms of color and pattern. These are a far cry from the generic solid white plastic pants which were the only type available in the past.

There are also other styles available these days to cater to consumers' needs. There are plastic pants which are pull-ons and are still the most preferred style. There are also snap-ons that offer easier accessibility and are preferred by the older consumers and nursing homes. Depending on personal choice, consumers may also choose plastic pants with different linings, although terry lined and flannel lined are still the most popular. Plastic pants users generally say that although terry lined plastic lines are more absorbent, flannel lined plastic pants are more comfortable since flannel traps less heat.

Plank – A Great Alternative to Crunches

Many people have a rather misguided belief that in order to get an awesome six pack, they need to perform endless amounts of crunches. Performing vast amounts of crunches can build strong abdominal muscles, however this can lead to a muscular imbalance. The abdominals will become strong and the lower back muscles will be relatively weaker. This can cause a hunching over of the body due to the relatively overdeveloped abdominals and could lead to lower back pain and injuries.

Are crunches really so effective for developing a strong core if they can cause a body imbalance and potentially crippling back pain? Is there a way to develop the abdominals while improving posture and strengthening the lower back. Say hello to the plank.

The Plank, also known as the bridge, could be considered a static modification of the push up. Taking the standard push up position, hands slightly more than shoulder width apart with the feet together, the body in a straight line from toe to neck. Drop from your hands to your elbows, and brace your abdominals to maintain good straight form. This can be difficult to achieve for a long period of time in the beginning, perhaps holding for 10-15 seconds initially. As you develop your core strength, you will be able to maintain the bridge for longer, building up to over a minute.

The plank stretches the abdominal muscle, rather than a contraction in a crunch, and develops the obliques and lower back muscles which are also utilised to maintain the stability when holding the bridge position. This exercise conditions the abdominals while your body is straight, which can lead to improvements in your posture.

Your abdominals will be effectively trained to be "tensed" when your spine is straight; this will allow you to better display your well developed core proudly when you are walking around with your head held high. The plank can be made easier by dropping from the toes to the knees. This will reduce the load imposed on the abdominals and make it more achievable for beginners. I would recommend starting on the toes and dropping to the toes to allow you to complete your determined hold time.

Placing your elbows on a medicine ball, will further reduce the stability and engage your core more, allowing those with more developed abdominals to maintain a continual progressive overload of the target area muscles. The bridge offers an alternative to crunches and is considered one of the most effective exercise for developing both the abdominals and obliques.

How To Repair The Acer D2D Recovery

This tutorial can also help to do it on other computer brands

Disclaimer : First of all you must be aware that some of the operations to come can cause irreversible change on your hard disk, I recommend to you and I will never make it enough make a backup of your system before launching you in any hazardous operation. Any damage and/or modification done on your system will be under your whole responsibility. The following procedures were done on a Acer Aspire 5102wlmi and some also functioned on a Dell Inspiron 9400/1705.

As you know, the Acer computers and those of other manufacturers are now delivered with a system of restoration installed in a hidden partition of your hard disk. This system launches out while pressing keys ALT+F10 simultaneously. And sometimes for various reasons this system ceases functioning.

The first cause often comes owing to the fact that function D2D Recovery is disable in the bios (menu principal).

The solution : enable the function and try to press keys ALT+F10 during the starting of the computer.

The second cause : in this case hidden partition PQSERVICE was erased or damaged, or you replaced the disc and in this case it is not present.

The solution : If you did not previously make a backup of your system by making an image disc. It will not be possible to use the D2D recovery. Your only hope will be to have in your possession Acer Recovery CD/DVD.

And the third causes : the Acer Master Boot Record (MBR)was damaged or replaced by non-Acer MBR. As long as partition PQSERVICE is present or that you can put the hand on the necessary Acer files you can reinstall the MBR of Acer.

The solution :

First method : on a functional Windows system:

1 disable the D2D recovery option of the bios.

2 open a Windows session with an account administrator.

3 Download, unzip and launch partedit32(registration required for download).

4 Identify the Pqservice partition by its size (at the bottom of the partedit window there is a partition information box) it is a small sized partition approximately 2 to 6 Go.Once made change the type of your partition into 0C and save. Restart and open a session with an administrator account, you should be able to navigate to the PQservice partition. Seek these two files mbrwrdos.exe and rtmbr.bin once localised open a command prompt and launch this command mbrwrdos.exe install rtmbr.bin, this will install the Acer MBR. Close the command prompt window restart again Windows go into the bios and reactivate the D2D recovery. Now ALT+F10 should launch Acer recovery at the starting of the computer.

Second method : On a nonfunctional Windows system.

For that you must use a Linux distribution (for me Mandriva provided all the tools necessary).

1 Boot on the Mandriva install CD/DVD the boot menu will give you the possibility to repair or to restore the Windows boot loader.

2 If that is not enough launch an installation of linux(this will be an occasion to test this terrible OS) and choose LILO as boot loader(a boot menu that allow you to choose between several operating systems) once finished the installation. Restart your computer in the boot loader menu system you will have at least 2 Windows options the first generally point to PQservice choose it and you will boot directly into acer D2D recovery.

The last solution is the simplest one, just note that during the Linux installation you will have to resize your Windows partition to create a place for a new Linux partition it is the most perilous part because irreversible, therefore take your precautions at this time.

Movie Settings for the Canon Eos 1300D or Rebel T6 DSLR Camera

The Canon 1300D or Rebel T6 is an excellent camera for shooting both stills and movies and these are the best settings to shoot movies. In order to make any changes in the 1300D for video you need to be in the Video Mode. Turn the Dial Mode round to the very bottom option which shows a video camera, and you will hear that the mirror inside the camera pop up. That enables you to see through the viewing screen at the back which is the only way you can shoot video on this camera. It also gives you access to the menu tabs which are dedicated to video and the first thing that you really need to do here is choose your video system. This was developed when TV systems were very different and if you wanted to show your videos on a TV screen you had to align what was shot on the camera to the TVs that you are going to be showing the video on. There are two systems, one is PAL and the other is NTSC. NTSC tends to be the system which is operated in the United States and PAL tends to be the system which is operated in Europe and other parts of the world. There’s not an enormous amount of difference. However it does change the way that the camera operates very slightly. So when you start to look at the frame rates you will see that under NTSC you get a frame rate option of 60 frames per second or 30 frames per second. When you’re in PAL you get the option of 50 frames a second and 25 frames per second. They’re the real differences that you will notice. Most people these days don’t shoot on DSLR in order to show their videos on televisions. They tend to use it for social media or showing on a laptop. In which case it doesn’t make really any difference. But in order to change that you need to go into the menus and you go to Tab 2 and down at the bottom you have the option to change Video System.

The second thing you need to think about is file size and frame rate. These things are quite important because they will decide the quality of the videos that you shoot. This camera is pretty good – it’ll shoot 1080p which is full HD and it will also shoot 720p which is standard HD – both of which are perfectly acceptable for social media platforms. In order to make those changes we go again into Video Tab 2 and find Movie Recording Size. If we press on that option then we get four choices. Depending on whether you’ve chosen NTSC or PAL, you maximum rates will be either 60fps or 50fps.

The third thing you need to think about when shooting movies with this camera is exposure. When you’re shooting stills with the Canon 1300D you have lots of choices. They’re all on the Mode Dial and they go from entirely manual to semi-automatic and then to entirely automatic options In most of these Modes the camera is trying to get the best exposure for the stills that you’re shooting within the given parameters that you have presented to it. With movies it’s different. You have two options – you can either shoot Automatic or you can shoot Manual. With Automatic in the movie setting the camera will try to get the best possible exposure for you and in many cases it works very well, so I would suggest that initially at least you shoot in Automatic just to get a feel for how the camera works and you don’t have to worry then about the exposure because the camera will do the best it can for you. However, if you want to go into Manual there are different ways of changing the various parameters for Manual that are different to the way that you would do that for stills. In the Menu, Movie Exposure is in Video Tab 1 and you get the two options, Auto or Manual. If you choose to go into Manual then you have much more control over the settings that you can have. You will see that you have options for setting the Shutter Speed for setting the Aperture and for setting the ISO. For the Shutter Speed, rotate Main Dial. By depressing the AV button here and rotating that Main Dial you can change the Aperture. The ISO is changed by pressing the flash button and rotating the Main Dial.

The fourth thing you need to think about is sound. The Canon 1300D does not have an external microphone socket. It just has an internal microphone, so sound can be a bit limited with this camera. But if you go into Menus and on Shooting Tab 2, the second one down is Sound Recording and you can set that to one of three options. You can have either Auto, Manual or Disabled. I would argue against disabling it entirely because sometimes it’s useful to have sound, even if you don’t intend to use it in the final cut. Auto is not bad but it will try to pick up as much sound as possible and you may not want that – you may not want the ambient sound. Manual is not too bad provided you’re reasonably close to the source of sound. There is a decibel bar going across the bottom and, as with most cameras, the objective is to try to peak on about 12. In terms of its recording in itself it’s actually pretty good, so I wouldn’t be adverse to using the internal microphone, you just have to be a little bit careful.

The next couple of options that we are going to look at are in Video Tab 3 and it may seem that they’re less important than other options, but they do affect the way that your video looks and so they are worth checking out. If we go to Video Tab 3 then at the bottom is the Picture Style option. These are the same options that you get with stills and you can choose to have Vivid or Sepia or many other options and some of them are set so that they bring out the best qualities for portrait and landscape. With video it tends to be better to try and shoot video as flat as possible and so the best option to start with is neutral and so you should always set that to neutral for video until you make the decision that you want to change the Picture Style and shoot something differently. The one just above that in Video Tab 3 is Custom White Balance. It’s very important for shooting videos because if you start moving around and shooting things in different light then the one stable element – the one constant – will be the white balance.

Clara Driscoll’s Path to Tiffany Lamps

Clara Driscoll’s letters were “discovered,” by scholars in 2005 and the resulting book, A New Light on Tiffany, illuminates the career and life of this previously little known middle manager-and on Tiffany as well. The woman who designed most of the Tiffany lamps was well trained in two art schools before taking a position with the company, and would go on to have a career that covered two decades. Yet the path to Tiffany lamps took many unexpected turns.

In 1888 Clara was hired by the Tiffany Glass Company. This was formerly known as Louis C. Tiffany and Associated Artists, yet later known as Tiffany Glass and Decorating Company, and finally as Tiffany Studios-the last two being makers of Tiffany lamps. The sometimes confusing course of organizational structure was matched by Clara Driscoll’s own topsy-turvy personal and professional road.

Her career track was marked by quick and sometimes meteoric rises. She designed Tiffany lamps at a prolific rate. Her department grew 600 percent in two years. She even managed her department smoothly despite threats by the men’s union to shut her down. Her personal life was just as eventful due to an interesting and (for us) historical bug-a-boo: Women employees at the turn of the century had to be either single or widowed. Given Clara’s history in this area, Tiffany lamps seem almost providential!

Clara seemed as intent on changing her calling card as Tiffany was his. Her flourishing career at Tiffany Glass, Tiffany Glass and Decorating, and Tiffany Studios, was interrupted by three separate forays into marriage. These were at times as colorful as the Tiffany lamps she designed during the day-though they were accomplished with varying degrees of success.

After only a year and a half at the company, the future designer of Tiffany lamps was married to a man thirty years her senior with the understanding that he was well off. He was neither well off, nor healthy and died two years later! Clara returned, started the women’s Glass Cutting Department later known as the “Tiffany Girls.” Within two years the department of six grew to thirty-five, and flourished in the production of stained glass windows.

Less than five years into her second stint with the company, Clara became engaged to a man named Edwin Waldo. They celebrated with a wedding trip; traveled through several states and ended up in Lake Geneva Wisconsin where Waldo fell ill and disappeared! Clara immediately went to New York, got her job back and within a few months had conceived the idea for the first documented glass mosaic Tiffany lamp.

So the paths finally converged for Clara and Tiffany, making possible the crowning achievement of their careers. Tiffany lamps of leaded glass design and floral motif, are their brightest legacy. Clara’s final employment lasted twelve years, after which she married a long time friend, six years her junior for the next thirty-five years.

Do Bed Bugs Bite If You Sleep With the Lights On?

People are fending off bed bugs by sleeping with the lights on hoping to avoid getting bit with the assumption that bed bugs only bite at night. These bugs live a very sheltered life. They hide in cracks and crevices during the day and come out to feed on human blood at night. So if the creatures only feed at night, wouldn’t it only make sense to trick the pests into thinking it was day all the time by sleeping with the lights on? I mean if you think about it, seems like a simple, immediate, logical solution to the problem. I researched endlessly for a source that described the behavior of these bugs to strike during the day. The experts, like Richard Cooper with bedbugcentral.com, all say the same thing, “Bed bugs are nocturnal insects and lead a very cryptic lifestyle.” The bugs only come out at night. This left me with a lot of questions. We have all flicked on a light switch in a room and seen a spider or cockroach scurry out of sight. Bed bugs must be sensitive to light, right?

Right, they are sensitive to light. But wrong if you think it will stop them from biting you. If you have bed bugs and it’s time for them to feed they will do whatever it takes to get a meal even if it means crawling into bright light to get it. It is suggested however that they are more sensitive to extreme temperatures, not light. Now heat is a byproduct of light in most cases so that could be the real reason why bed bugs come out at night. It is not because it’s bright but because they cannot risk crawling into hot direct sunlight. It does correlate, for some experts suggest putting all your belongings in large plastic bags and placing them in direct sunlight for hours to help kill them. It is also suggested to wash things in very hot water and then dried on high following. Steam devices are hot on the market right now with the high heat approach to removing the nasty bugs.

It does seem at this point that these bugs are sensitive to heat. Heat can be a means to remove these pests. It’s a safe method as well because it keeps harmful chemicals out of the house. Chemical s are dangerous and can be avoided when eradicating an infestation. Lots of natural bed bug products have surfaced in the past couple years. Some companies have even developed a travel bed bug spray for weary travelers to use in hotels and cabs.

Can keeping the lights on stop bed bugs from biting you? Unfortunately the answer is no. When the bugs are hungry, they eat. Until someone invents some futuristic light saber to fend off these critters we are all stuck using good old prevention tactics. Regarding the war on bed bugs, knowledge is power.

Spearfishing in Mississippi

Hunting fish with a spear was one of the earliest skills learned by ancient prehistoric man. Today this ancient life skill is now hobby to a growing legion of spear fishermen who take to the depths while on the lookout for monsters of the ocean. Mississippi, with its 359-miles of tidal shoreline and chain of barrier islands, offers its own challenges and rewards to those who would spearfish the 228.

Why Spearfishing?

Spearfishing is the ultimate blend between a hunter and an angler. It takes the sportsman into the underwater lair of the gamefish it would normally only see once it broke the surface. The sport allows the angler to become a stalker, a visiting sniper in a foreign water world, and is unlike any hunting or fishing that you have ever done before.

Safety

Safety in diving in general and spearfishing in particular are a must. It is commonly said that there are 100 ways for a speardiver to die and some serious thought, preparation, and planning need to accompany every trip. Never dive alone, always use your ‘diver-down’ flags, and shadow an experienced spear diver on your first trips. Stay at least 200 yards from jetties, docks, and shipping channels. Carry a knife as monofilament line is often found along any reef or wreck and can be a hazard. With that said, spear fishing is an amazing experience once you get the hang of it.

Saltwater

Spearfishing in the Mississippi Sound is not ideal difficult due to the chocolate-milk visibility of the shallow waters between the coastline and the barrier islands, but not impossible. Spear anglers in the sound often see huge Sheepshead and the sport brings a new dimension to those who would snorkel for flounder, stripers, and reds without the investment in SCUBA gear. Inside the Sound, some of the large rubble piles offer decent gamefish opportunities. Lionfish, one of the worst invasive species in the Gulf, are great targets for spear fishermen and every one of them assassinated is a win for the fishing community on all levels.

When going outside of the sound, the rigs starting about five miles south of the islands are the best bet as the water column clears fast once you descend below twenty feet and some very large gamefish haunt these offshore jackups. Many of the offshore reefs such as the Liberty Ships, the Ship Island Barge, and others are good for snapper, AJs, and cobia and are not as far out there as the rigs.

Regs and gear

DMR regulations for spearfishing are elusive to find on their website but in general keep to the recreational fishing limits, have your license beforehand, and keep away from shooting at borderline legal fish as once you spear a fish its yours to keep, legal or not. For more in-depth info on the regs, you can call DMR at (800) 374-3449.

Several of the local dive shops, in particular Jerry and Dan over at The Dive Shop in Diberville, are spear hunting gurus and can help you out with local tips and tricks as well as the best gear. A small and eclectic group of Mississippi spear divers has formed Menfish, a support group for their habit and you can visit them at http://www.menfish.org.

Freshwater

The use of spear guns is not legal in the freshwater of Mississippi-, which is all water north of Hwy 90. Buffalo, carp, gar, catfish, shad, bowfin, and Freshwater Drum may be taken throughout the year with a bow and arrow, crossbow, and hand thrown-spear or gig. Catfish may be taken with a spear or gig during the period from July 16- April 30. Handheld spears and gigs, and crossbows cannot be used at any State Fishing Lake. Again these spear regulations are for spears that are thrown or hand-held –not shot out of a spear gun of any type so be sure to restrict your spearfishing to ‘south of 90’

So with that in mind, shop around for your spear gun, but keep it in the 228. There are plenty of targets down there for it.

A Feministic Study of "Wiser Than a God", A Short Story by Kate Chopin

A popular local colorist during her lifetime, Chopin is now recognized as an important figure in nineteenth-century American fiction and as a major figure in feminist literature. Born on February 8, 1851, in St. Louis, Missouri, she was the daughter of Thomas O’Flaherty, a prominent businessman, and Eliza Faris. Her best known work, The Awakening (1899), depicts a woman’s search for sexual freedom in the repressive society of the American South during the Victorian era.

Throughout her literary career, Kate Chopin, much like her fictional heroines, explored dangerous new ground. She created female characters that test the boundaries of acceptable behavior for women and explore the psychological and societal ramifications of their actions and desires. They are forced to make existential choices based on the few avenues available for them to create and maintain autonomous identities outside of wife and mother in the late nineteenth-century American South. Chopin’s protagonists attempt to physically or spiritually transcend these limitations but often meet with crushing results. Chopin does not guarantee her characters an admirable place within their society, but she portrays them with dignity and sympathy.

Kate Chopin began her writing career strikingly with the creation of a triumphant woman artist-Paula von Stolz-a character who seems to be a projection of the author’s own ambitions. “Wiser than a God,” Chopin’s first story accepted for publication, portrays the resolution of the woman artist with utter confidence. The central conflict of the story involves the dilemma Paula faces when, after the death of her mother, she receives a marriage proposal from George Brainard, a wealthy, attractive man and must choose between a comfortable, conventional marriage and the career as a concert pianist for which she has spent her entire life preparing.

This article aims to study the important feminist notions and concepts such as “marriage”, “Identity” and “Woman Figure” in the story of “Wiser than a God” based on feminist theories from Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex.

a. Marriage

Chopin introduces the institution of marriage as a choice rather than an absolute issue in a young woman’s life in an early short story, “Wiser than a God.” The story is prefaced with the ominous Latin proverb “To love and be wise is scarcely granted even to a god” (241). It is clear that in this story, love and wisdom will be mutually exclusive entities and one must choose between the two. Mary E. Papke suggests that in the story, “Chopin draws the mind/body split [….]” (38). The story centers on Paula, a beautiful young woman and extremely gifted pianist. She manages to shun romantic love in order to focus on her dream of a musical career until she meets George. George is very much in love with her and desperately wants to marry her. For the first time in her life she is conflicted about her future.

Paula begins to succumb to George’s affection: “She felt such a comfort in his strong protective nearness” (246). She refuses, however, to marry George, claiming that marriage “doesn’t enter into the purpose of my life” (249) -a shocking revelation. George does not understand Paula’s ambition and passion for her music and the role that it plays in her life. According to Martha J. Cutter, “Perhaps in the end language is simply not important-she succeeds without it. But Paula continually finds her attempts to explain her needs are not heard at all; even her mother tells her not to ‘chatter’ (243). Paula attempts to explain to him how important it is to her and asks him, “Can’t you feel that with me, it courses with the blood through my veins? That it’s something dearer than life, than riches, even than love?”(249). George is taken aback by her fervent declaration and answers, “Paula, listen to me; don’t speak like a mad woman” (249). It is clear that George represents societal views on marriage, and that Paula’s depiction, is based on her sharp realization that she will lose herself if she becomes George’s wife.

Although she does not marry George, Paula’s assertion that, had she married him, she would have been expected to give up her music, is proven correct with the woman he eventually does wed. Although his new wife had been an avid dancer, she “abandoned Virginia break-downs as incompatible with the serious offices of wifehood and matrimony” (250). As much as this woman was expected to give up her love of dancing, Paula would have been expected to give up her music. Here, the author points out the irony of marriage. Instead of the role of wife conveying merely social and familial woman marries, will be the defining and only identity she will have ever again. According to Papke, “Paula [….] chooses to follow the purpose of her life though she be deemed a ‘mad woman’ by George and his type, to position herself in a state of insanity. By the conclusion, it is clear that the author believes Paula to be wiser than a god” (39). Paula, however, does sacrifice deeply. She lives solely by her intellectual, rational side, effectively ignoring the desires of her heart and body.

b. Identity

“Wiser than a God,” Chopin’s first story accepted for publication, portrays the resolution of the woman artist with utter confidence (Toth 2). The initial part of the story brings up some general facts and information about Paula’s character as an artist who adores music.

These clues from the very beginning demonstrate the fact that music is merged with Paula’s character and has granted an identity to her. It’s obvious that by music she could display herself, and she could catch the attention of people around – whether in a party, in a society or in a town. These magnificent abilities could support Paula and distinguish her from the girls who lack this talent.

It is worth noticing that from the very first lines of the story, Chopin has also introduced music as a character along with Paula. Music is the soul that lives within Paula’s body. In this way Chopin illustrates both music and Paula as central and significant matters in the tale.

The central conflict of the story involves the dilemma Paula faces when, after the death of her mother, she receives a marriage proposal from George Brainard, a wealthy, attractive man and must choose between a comfortable, conventional marriage and the career as a concert pianist for which she has spent her entire life preparing. Here Gorge’s occurrence makes Paula to think of amity, affection and relation with an opposite sex. Therefore Paula at some moments after becoming familiar with George describes him as a handsome gentleman and compares him to other males that she is in relation; and approves that George is superior to them in look and appearance “He was so unlike any man of her acquaintance…she could at the moment think of no positive point of objection against him”(246). This womanly sensation that inevitably exists in Females’ nature does not make Paula to yield. Paula doesn’t want to sacrifice and annihilate her liberty and her identity that she achieved by hard practice in music. After her Mother’s death she becomes more devoted to music which is the symbol of her true self and her autonomous identity. She prefers the dreamy world, which belongs to art and music, than the real and patriarchal world, which belongs to George and his society. She believes living in moments without music is equal to extinction, annihilation and “deterioration” (248). But George expects that Paula will be willing to give up her musical calling for “the labor of loving” instead (248). He proposes to her, never fully comprehending her devotion to her art or realizing that it could conflict with her devotion to a man. Paula, who admires George, is thrilled at his request but realizes that they must part. She doesn’t allow George to separate her from her autonomous identity; even when she comprehends that George is tempting her, she shushes him up and tells “don’t tempt me further” (249). That’s why when George wants her to answer whether she is marring him or not, she couldn’t answer him confidently and she asks George to give a one week interval to her to think. George believes that he is the ‘Subject’ and the ‘Absolute’; for him Paula is the ‘Other’ not the ‘Self’ who could have an independent identity that could decide either to get married or to stay single. He couldn’t understand Paula because her character is imperceptible and unclear for him and for his society. When Paula says that marriage has no place and no position in her life, he never understands; because the society that George belongs to is occupied with girls and women who yearn for people like George to propose or marry them; so he says “Paula listen to me; and don’t speak like a mad women”(249).

George suddenly and unexpectedly sees someone different from the girl he had known as Paula begins to talk about the purpose of her life with her “father’s emotional nature aroused in her” (249). Paula makes a passionate defense of her art, something she knows she cannot understand:

What do you know of my life,’ she exclaimed passionately. ‘What can you guess of it? Is music anything more to you than the pleasing distraction of any idle moment? Can’t you feel that with me, it courses with the blood through my veins? That it’s something dearer than life, than riches, even than love?(249)

George’s reply to this-“don’t speak like a mad woman”-betrays his incomprehension and his belief that a woman who gives herself so passionately to artistic pursuit, particularly at-the expense of a potential husband, must be insane. Until now he has known Paula only as the “daughter of the undemonstrative American woman” (249).

Paula’s abilities increase in the absence of a male muse; and her loneliness and seclusion is often itself perceived as a final revolt against the society that has refused to provide her an acceptable space within which to pursue her creative inclinations. Paula’s struggle to attain her full potential as an individual is thus best perceived as deeply related to her efforts to develop her creative abilities, to grow her art, and to discover an affirming place within her world.

In this early story, Kate Chopin explores art as a kind of divine bondage, as suggested in the epigraph, “To love and be wise is scarcely granted even to a God.” Paula does love and feels physically attracted to George but is wise in her decision not to marry him. She is an exceptional woman and has the wisdom to recognize that “the purpose of her life” would be destroyed by marrying him (249). The story, rather than focusing on Paula’s moment of public triumph, shows Paula beset with temptation in her most vulnerable moment. By choosing to become a concert pianist instead of George’s wife, Paula satisfies both her own ambitions and her parents’ and thus keeps a meaningful connection to them even in their death. Seyersted notes that “Wiser Than a God” has certain affinities with de Stael’s Corinne in George’s momentary belief that he can accept a wife who does not live solely for him and his family but that it also shows a pronounced difference in Chopin’s heroine’s ability to resist romantic temptation: “unlike the French heroine… Paula tells her suitor that life is less important to her than the unhampered exertion of what she considers her authentic calling and her true self”(105).

Paula knows herself, and thus is able to avoid the trap that marriage to George would have become for her. Self-knowledge, Chopin implies, is the most important attribute of the woman artist. By listening to her own heart and instincts, Paula turns away an inappropriate mate and gains the possibility of union with a man who is talented in his own right and who is willing to let her pursue her career to its fullest. At the end of the story, Paula is resting “after an extended and remunerative concert tour,” and Max Kunstler, her former harmony teacher, is still following her “with the ever persistent will-the dogged patience that so often wins in the end” (250).

“Wiser than a God” was a triumphant beginning to Chopin’s publishing career. Never again did Chopin present the resolution and success of the woman artist so confidently and without compromise. Paula achieves fame, wealth and love. Paula seems a kind of fantasy for Chopin, an empowering wish-fulfillment, a visualization of what the woman with artistic ambitions might accomplish. This story shows the resolution of the woman artist as Chopin wishes it to be, and it implies that a woman might achieve success and fame without having to give up everything else.

“Wiser than a God” is an example of what Julia Kristeva identifies as “an imaginary story through which she [the woman writer] constitutes an identity” (166). Chopin allows none of her other women artist characters such success, however. This indicates the realization of the autonomous female artist by indicating Paula’s increased awareness of self even within the current restrictions of her society. A woman who wishes to become an artist as well as a self-reliant individual faces a double challenge in the historical context of the story. Paula establishes the possibility that the future female artist will be able to assume a respected place within her society and to maintain productive relationships that support aesthetic creativity.

c. Woman Figure

“Wiser Than a God” contains Chopin’s most outspoken demonstration of the self-sufficient woman. It is the only story she provided with a motto and her one example of what can be considered quite overt feminism, and the picture of the girl who becomes a famous pianist suffers from the strong emphasis. (Per Seyersted 117)

The acceptable role that a patriarchal society defined for a woman is that, a woman is the mistress of the house and she has to obey her husband, and take care of the house and her children. She is only allowed to interfere with the house chores, kitchen and cuisine; as Michael Warton in his article notes that: “Culturally, women are associated with the home, defining it but, crucially not owning it” (106).

In spite of Charles insistence to marry Paula, Paula prefers her solitude and wishes to be at the service of herself rather than others. She never accepts to shoulder the responsibilities of housekeeping and motherhood. She is an emancipated woman who doesn’t care for society’s expectations and regulations. Paula largely answers to Simone de Beauvoir’s definition of the emancipated woman that is, a female who “wants to be active, a taker, and refuses the passivity man means to impose on her”; who insists on the active transcendence of a subject, the pour soi, rather than the passive immanence of an object, the en soi; and who attempts to achieve an existentialist authenticity through making a conscious choice, giving her own laws, realizing her essence, and making herself her own destiny (Seyersted 104).

Ultimately, Paula reaches her goal, that is musical profession; and in her progress she achieves fame, popularity, and independence; the factors that a feminine woman lacks (Simone de Beauvoir’s definition for a feminine woman is: the woman who lets the men decide her destiny). The pride indicated in Paula’s family name does not manifest itself in a haughty attitude toward her admirer; she is soft-spoken compared to the impetuous, youthful George who insists that she is throwing him into “a gulf… of everlasting misery.” But she speaks up when she realizes they are in two different worlds, that he represents the patriarchal view of woman, and she the view of Margaret Fuller that women so inclined should be allowed to leave aside motherhood and domesticity and instead use their wings to soar toward the transcendence of a non biological career. […]George for a moment believes he can accept a wife who lives not solely for him and his children; […], Paula tells her suitor that life is less important to her than the unhampered exertion of what she considers her authentic calling and her true self.( Seyersted 103-5)

In the story we could witness the presence of feminine Victorian woman, like Paula’s mother, who is a widow and a devoted wife. She has bestowed her life for training her child and she never remarried even after years of her husband’s death. George’s wife is the other sample of typical Victorian woman who is ironically mentioned in the last lines of the story; that she was a professional dancer but she “abandoned Virginia break-downs as incompatible with the serious offices of wifehood and matrimony” (250). So Paula, the only emancipated woman in the story, never agrees to play the role of her mother in future and she never accepts to play the role of a submissive wife for George.

Dangers of Penis Extenders – Potential Side Effects From Using Penis Extenders

Extenders claim to be a big advancement in penis enlargement; enabling users a convenient and supposedly effective way to gain size. What they often leave out are the actual dangers of penis extenders.

First of all, keep in mind anytime you bring in an outside contraption, be it a stretching machine, a pump, or an extender device, then you invite the danger factor into the picture.

Second, remember, we are talking about the penis here. This isn’t about getting bigger biceps or using an ab machine to develop washboard abs. This obviously is a very, very delicate area that you generally don’t want to take unnecessary risks with. Putting your penis into some sort of stretcher, extender, or pump increases the risk for harm, especially considering the delicate nature of the part we are trying to improve.

Finally, the dangers of penis extenders specifically, and what common side effects many users have experienced are the following:

  • – raw skin, rashes – excruciating pain – temporary impotence – burst blood vessels – Peyronie’s disease – urinary incontinence

With all these side effects, can extenders still deliver legitimate size results? Many users have been disappointed with the results. Granted, many will experience one or more of the side effects and at that point they will stop using the contraption immediately.

But even the science behind extenders is pretty weak. They make comparisons to tribal women who as part of tradition use extending methods to create a larger neck. In reality these women are deforming their rib cage more than they are actually creating longer size in their necks.

Get A Gymnast Body Using Only Bodyweight Exercises

Most guys who are looking to get jacked think that the only way to do so is through weights but if you want to get a gymnast body all you need to do is use the right types of bodyweight exercises.

Why Gymnasts Have Such Appealing Bodies

Ask most guys and girls what they consider to be the most appealing body type. Most of the time you will hear a lean and ripped body is the best looking. A body that is not too big yet not too small. Now ask him or her who looks best, a gymnast or a bodybuilder?

Chances are you will get a reply that a gymnast has the most attractive body type. Gymnasts have a lean and very natural look that makes it easy to wear stylish clothes while still being athletic. It sure beats the puffy, sometimes bloated, bodybuilder look.

The Weight Training Myth

If you hear the word “weight training” you immediately get a mental picture of barbells and dumbbells and seldom think of bodyweight exercises as a great alternative to gaining muscle. Perhaps bodybuilding competitions and fitness magazines have pushed this myth of weights as the only alternative to getting ripped but the reality is you can get in shape without lifting a single dumbbell.

How To Get A Gymnast Body

It is no secret that a gymnast relies only on his body to get a great body. You won’t see them spending hours doing bench presses but you will definitely see a killer upper body that would make even the strongest guy at your gym blush.

The first thing you need to do if you want to get a body like a gymnast is focus on the right types of exercises that resemble what they do in competition. For example, when you see a gymnast competing you will notice that they spend much of their time on apparatus like bars, parallel bars, rings and the pommel horse. Ideally you can try to copy these types of exercises in your workouts.

The Right Bodyweight Exercises To Use

The best exercises to use are any that work on the shoulders, back, chest, arms and legs and the core preferably in a compound type movement.

Back Exercises

Pull Ups, Chin Ups, Parallel Chin Ups

Shoulders Exercises

Hand Stand Push Ups, Hand Stands, Dive Bomber Push Ups

Chest Exercises

Push Ups, Incline Push Ups, Decline Push Ups, Triangle Push Ups

Biceps & Triceps Exercises

Parallel Bar Dips (Triceps), Chin Ups (biceps), 1 Arm Chin Up (biceps)

Legs Exercises

Bodyweight Squats, Bodyweight Jump Squats, Pistol Squats,

Abs/ Core Exercises

L- Sit Hold, Lying Leg Raises, Hanging Leg Raises

In order to create the most effective type of workout using these bodyweight exercises make sure you don’t do all of these exercises on the same day or on consecutive days. Try to split your workouts in to 3 or 4 sessions per week.

One way you can divide your workouts is by doing upper body focused exercises one day and follow it up with a lower body and core intensive workout the following day, rest for one day and do another upper body day followed by a lower body and core workout the day after that.

You can easily choose 2 exercises per muscle group in order to get the most out of your workouts and avoid overtraining.

For sets I recommend anywhere between 3 and 4. The number of sets can be in the range of 6 and 10 if you want to gain muscle. If you find it difficult to do this many reps simply try to do as many as possible per set. Over time you will be able to do more as your strength increases.

Getting a body that is lean does not require using weights. You learn how to get a gymnast body very easily by training properly and with the right exercises.

How Professional Garage Door Repair Services Can Keep Your Home Safe

Among the many ways we try to protect our homes and keep it safe, one way is to keep the garage safe. Yes, most of us often do not consider the safety of the garage and are casual about it. But contrary to this, a garage is one place or part of the house which needs a lot of maintenance, care and proper safety measures. If your garage door is not working properly, then that might prove as a threat to the safety of your vehicle. Thus it is really important for you to opt for professional services and get your door repaired as soon as you can.

The following are some of the ways through which a professional garage door repair service provider can keep your vehicles and home safe:

• The services providers have expertise of repairing door openers and torsion springs, which means that your garage will no longer be at a threat of easy unwanted entry. After getting the openers repaired, you can be rest assured that the door won’t open without your attempt to open it and hence will remain secure.

• Another way in which a professional service provider or garage door service provider can make your home or residential premises more secure is by installation of safety sensors. These safety sensors detect unwanted or forced entry and inform the owner of the garage about it.

• Garage door repair service providers also install and repair your remote controlled doors and this is another way your garage and the vehicles parked inside can remain safe and secure at all times. Having a remote controlled mechanism means that intruders won’t be able to open the door in any other way and only you, with the remote control will have access to it. So if you are worried about the safety of your garage or home, you must too contact a garage door service company now to avail these wonderful benefits.

• Professional companies have a lot of expertise at installing all necessary anti-burglar equipments and hence make your home and garage absolutely ‘theft proof’. Once you hire a service provider or an opener installer, you won’t ever have to worry about the security of your home, even when you are out of the home or city for a few days. The advanced equipments and technology make it possible for you to avoid any kind of outsider entry or intrusion.

So what are you waiting for? It is time you started paying as much attention to your garage and its door as you do to the other parts of the house.

How to Make Fake Rock

There are several ways to make fake rock or faux rock and boulders all yielding good results.

The method you select to make fake rock is usually based on what is the cheapest and most readily available filler material you have available on site. Very realistic faux rocks or boulders can be made using any of the following filler materials.

Building Materials and Methods

· Building rubble such as second hand bricks or crushed concrete

· Recycled real rocks

· Polystyrene

Alternate methods to make fake rock involve using some way of giving an approximate shape to the finished rock before the application of the mortar.

· Chicken wire bent to shape is widely used for the smaller rocks

· Cardboard boxes of all sizes can be cut to shape

· Rebar and expanded metal

For repetition of the same design the use of moulds is recommended.

· Casting from a mould

The material and method you use to make fake rock will be the one that you consider to be the fastest and cheapest to give you the best finished result. The time the job takes is based on how much detail is required. The more definition and finish you give to each rock the more time is involved.

To make fake rock of larger proportions such as garden boulders, a smoother, low detail finish looks best while smaller decorative rocks require more work and materials.

A garden landscaping job will often require the use of several of these different finishes to give the required natural look. The more methods you are experienced in using to make fake rock the better the finished quality of work you will be capable of producing.

Solid Fill Method

While this is possibly the slowest and most expensive method to make fake rock it is still the most widely used due to the availability of used building material on most jobs. Not being of hollow construction it also gives the closest sound and feel to natural rock.

The materials used in this type of construction are:

Building rubble.

This is usually free or is already on site ready to be disposed of. It is essential to hose it down before use to ensure proper bonding.

Second hand bricks and concrete blocks

Even if you have to purchase these it is still cheaper than using concrete. Difficult shapes such as waterfalls are also easier to construct due to the regularity of their shape.

Polystyrene

This is a waste material used for packing and readily available free from your local stores. It can be cut to shape very easily and lowers the weight of the finished faux rock. It holds the shape of the rock and does not slump with the weight of the mortar, unlike some of the other filler materials.

Recycled rock and other natural materials

These are often on site and easy to use giving very natural shapes. Wash before use.

· If the material being used is in small pieces it can be placed in plastic bags and stacked for ease of assembly.

· Cut open and expose the filler material

· Apply two coats of the acrylic polymer stabilizer mix. This should be thrown on using a brush and is designed to ensure the structure is rigid before applying the finishing mortar mix.

· Apply two 40mm coats of mortar mix.

· Finish as with other techniques.

This type of rock is very easy to construct. It also uses plain concrete and a basic mortar mix for the final shaping to further save any complications. First build a small concrete base for the rock, then build up the shape with some of the rubble, then more concrete, then more rubble and so on until you have the rough finished shape.

To make fake rock with this method it is a good idea to be doing several rocks at the same time. While allowing one lot of concrete to set up you can be working on another rock. Once the rough shape is finished and set up, the application of mortar can commence.

Use a throwing action for the mortar as it adheres better than merely trowelling it on. Additional layers of mortar also adhere better to the rough texture left by the throwing action. Start the finishing coats from the top and work your way down. If you are working on two rock shapes side by side be careful to emphasise the join lines between the rocks. Definition is very important with these seams to give the rocks a natural appearance.

Hollow Rock Construction Methods

Chicken Wire

This method is of use for smaller hollow rocks.

· Cut and wrap the chicken wire to the rough shape of the finished rock.

· Bend any sharp ends of the wire inwards with a pair of pliers.

· Now cover the wire with some newspaper soaked in 50/50 diluted white woodworking glue and allow to dry.

· Cover the wire with several layers of plaster of paris bandage which has been briefly soaked in water and allow to dry.

· Decorate with diluted acrylic paint mixed 50/50 with sand to give a rock like texture.

Re-bar and Expanded Metal Construction

This is the most widely used method to make fake rock which is hollow. Using this method rocks can be shaped to cover taps, pool pumps and other equipment. Due to its ability to be easily shaped and retain structural integrity, it can be used to make anything from a waterfall to a garden arch.

Once you have the shape set up with the re-bar, the expanded metal can be attached. Tie it to the re-bar every 100 to 150mm. Make sure it is not loose. Coat the structure with two 3 to 4cm coats of mortar mix leaving a minimum of an hour or overnight between coats, depending on the temperature of the day. Add texture to the project using similar methods to the solid fill method.

Cardboard

Using a mix of large and small cardboard boxes cut to shape it is possible to build up a firm structure very close to the desired rock shape. Used boxes are readily available free from local stores and provide an easy and economic way to make fake rock of all shapes and sizes.

· Make the structure rigid by stapling, wiring, screwing or gluing the cut box shapes together to form the rough outline of the desired rock shape.

· Coat the boxes with two coats of acrylic polymer stabilizer mix, using a brush to throw the mix directly onto the cardboard. If too much is applied at once there is a danger that the cardboard will be soaked and collapse. Allow the cardboard to dry between coats to give it the required strength to support the finishing mortar mix coat.

· The cardboard can now be coated with a 80mm coat of mortar mix applied in two 40mm coats.

· The structure can now be textured, stained and sealed.

Casting from a Mould.

For producing the most accurate reproductions of natural stone there is nothing to beat the castings of faux rock from a mould. They are exact duplicates of what you have seen in nature. The same rock can be produced over and over. Moulds can be made using latex or silicone usually with a plaster back up mould to retain the original shape.

The full process to make fake rock with mould casting and decoration will be the subject of a forthcoming article together with the use of texture moulds in the manufacture of faux rocks.

The Importance of English-Arabic Translation

This article is devoted to the English Arabic translation; it will lay the light on the definition of translation, the importance of English Arabic translation, the difficulty idioms impose to translators, the qualities of a good translator and the necessity for translation in general.

Translation in Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed’s words is: “the action or process of delivering from one language into another. It is the expression or rendering of sense of words, sentences, and passages etc from one language into another.” Ulm-ul-Qur’an, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, I.A.S.

The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation as the rendering of a text into another language.

Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8).defines it as follows: Translation is re-telling, as exactly as possible, the meaning of the original message in a way that is natural in the language into which the translation is being made.

Translation is much more than the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language , or the substitution of the words of one language with the words of another language, or the rendering of meaning of a text or whatsoever in one language into another, it is the bridge of appreciation and understanding among people of different cultural groups , it is the means of communication among different groups of people, the means of cultural exchange, the means of preserving cultural heritage of any nation, the means of forming ties and friendships among different groups of people, and the means of understanding and peace.

Human beings are after all not living alone and, every human being has the need and desire to know about one another, man tries to learn what other people are doing, how they are living, and how they have lived. We would like to know, apart from our different ethnicity, color, language, and culture, whether we share the same understanding of love, passion, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and many other respects of human nature. So as long as the desire to exists, translation will be the only bridge across which our aims are reached and our desire realized.

In the general sense, the goal of translation is to build bridges among different groups of people, but the goal of translation in the theoretical sense is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target language; it should ensure that both texts communicate the same message.

There has been debate as to whether translation is an art, a science, or a Skill. I think Translation is a combination of all of them. It is a science in the sense that it needs complete knowledge of the structure, grammar, semantics, and syntax and in general the make-up of the two languages concerned. It is an art since it requires artistic talent to reconstruct the original text in the form of a product that is presentable to the reader who is not supposed to be familiar with the original. It is also a skill, because it requires attention to detail the meaning and a thorough understanding of the relationship between syntax and semantics, coupled with extensive cultural background and the ability to provide the translation of something that has no equal in the target language.

Also being a human skill, it enables human beings to exchange ideas and thoughts regardless of the different languages they use. Man is endowed with the ability to convey his feelings and experience to others through language. For this process of communication man acquired both spoken language and the written language, but when human beings spread over the earth, their languages differed and they needed a means through which they can communicate and interact with each others. Thus necessity for translation to convey one’s feelings and experiences into the other language was felt.

Sometimes we ask ourselves, why is translation between English and Arabic important? Both Arabic and English are of the world great languages, in the book ‘The Spread of English, on page 77 the writer says: “the great languages of today are languages of empire, past and present. Only two, Mandarin Chinese and Russian, continue as languages of administration within single, ethno linguistically diverse states. The others -Arabic, English, French, and Spanish-are imperial legacies, having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them.”

Arabic language is one of the great world languages. there have been great languages of great empires that did not survive as a great language , like Turkish for instance, when we compare Turkish with Arabic, we find out that Arabic survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and it continues to be one of the great languages of the world till today, while the Turkish language which was the language of administration and authority in the middle east , Balkans, and different parts of the world that was under the Ottoman rule for a thousand years ,but Turkish in the words of Fishman on page 77 in the book ‘The Spread of English” ‘flowed back to Anatolia with the collapse of the ottoman empire’. But these words are not 100% accurate because Turkish is spoken all over Turkey and in Northern Cyprus, not only in Anatolia which is only a part of Turkey. Also Turkish minorities in the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece, and Romania use Turkish as their mother tongue. Moreover the languages of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, are all branches of the Turkic language family. Yet, no denying that Turkish language lost a lot of its importance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

Returning to Arabic, it is one of the six official languages adopted in The United Nations. Arabic is the language of a rich culture and civilization dating back many centuries; it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah (Allah is the Arabic word for God), and it is the language of the Holy Qura’an. It has produced great figures such as Averroes(Ibn-Roshd), the medieval Aristotelian philosopher; Ibn Khaldun, the first social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and the fifteenth centuries, the volume of literary, scholarly and scientific book production in Arabic and the level of urban literacy among readers of Arabic were the highest the world had ever known to that time. Islamic artists have used Arabic script as their principal art form for centuries; the beauty of their work will be revealed to anyone through the study of Arabic. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of languages, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic, the language the Christ spoke. Moreover, Arabic is widely spoken; total speakers of Arabic exceed 350 million.

According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was also a major vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy during the middle ages, that is why many European languages have also borrowed numerous words from it.

Pamela J.Farris says in her book Language arts on page 99

“English has borrowed from Arabic algebra, candy, lemon, orange, sugar, and magazine.”

Not only these words English borrowed from Arabic, but there are hundreds of other words borrowed from Arabic, there are some hundreds of the words English borrowed from Arabic in Al Mawrid English-Arabic dictionary, such as typhoon which means in Arabic 7HA’F , Spinach 3(‘F. , and sesame which means in Arabic 3E3E.

So Arabic being one of the world great languages makes translation from and into that language very important, especially English Arabic translation.

No doubt that English is a world language; nowadays it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of numerous countries .As well as Arabic, it is one of the six official languages in the United Nations

Consequently, the knowledge of the English language is one of the most important tools in achieving scientific and technological knowledge; moreover it is a tool of communication between countries, different cultural groups, various companies and organizations, communities and friends.

Translation is the tool to make use of the new technology and science. Science knowledge coupled with multiple languages and cultures are increasingly important in an expanding global economy and world welfare. It is clear that Britain and the USA are the forefront of new ideas in science and technology. USA has pioneered in all fields of technology and science; accomplishments of Britain and US technology are in English, so it is very essential to know English to make use of such technology and science.

Also Political relationships, wars, and conflicts make translation so important to have access to what is going on in different parts of the world, especially Arabic English translation, as English is the language of the big powers of the world, and the Arab region is the theatre, where vital events take place at present.

No denying that English is the cornerstone of the world media, many important news sources are in English, on page 34 of the book The Spread of English the writer says: “English newspapers in non English mother-tongue countries are another indication of the world wide status of English”.

If one knows English, one can read the news and points of views of several writers around the globe, by doing so one can expand his knowledge, and get a broader outlook on the surroundings, and to look at issues with a broader perspective. In my opinion, knowing any language is an international passport specifically English.

English is also the language of communication, with the spread of internet, English appeared to be the language of communication, hundreds of millions of different races communicate with each others via the internet in English, thus English helps to strengthen ties, and make friends among different cultural groups of people on different spots of our planet.

So being the language of science technology and communication, in the age of the internet, English spread so widely, there has never been a language so widely spread in so short a time as English.

As mentioned above, both Arabic and English are great world languages, so translation between this pair of languages is important and essential because of the many reasons mentioned previously.

Translation has been and continues to be the means of cultural and knowledge exchange among people throughout history, and the means of preserving cultural heritage.

As the Islamic Arabic Empire spread, the Arabic language and, indeed, culture was enriched by contacts with other civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese. During the ninth and tenth centuries, a great translation movement, centered in Baghdad, was in force, in which many ancient scientific and philosophical tracts were transposed from ancient languages, especially Greek, into Arabic. Many were enhanced by the new wisdom suggested by Arab thinkers; other texts were simply preserved, only to re-emerge in Europe during the Renaissance.

Modern European languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe a great debt to Arabic. The English language itself contains many words borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda and many others. “

By the means of translation cultural heritage is preserved and new civilizations evolved and flourished; the western civilization for instance, was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific books were translated from Arabic into different European languages, and it was the core for the current western civilization.

In the book of “Muslim Contributions to World Civilization” On page 118 we will find that, “From 1154 AC to the sixteenth century, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars from Western Europe and Spain translated books from Arabic into Latin in the Toledo Academy established by Alfonso, Sabio the Wise. The translations were then distributed to academic centers in Europe, where they became the basis of the Renaissance, the revival of knowledge in Europe.”

Stanwood Cobb says:” Europe was indebted for all of its beginnings in alchemy and chemistry to the chemical science of the Arabs, which reached them through translation of Arabic works into Latin. In this science, as in other arts and sciences which they practiced, they developed an objective and experimental method as opposed to the purely speculative method of the Greeks.”

“The science of algebra owes much to gifted mathematicians of the

Islamic era. Its very name proves the magnitude of this debt, for the name itself is Arabic, al gebr, “a binding together .”

“In addition to the volumes of Greek science, many scientific works of the Arabs-Avicenna, Averroes, and Rhazes in particular-were translated.”

So English-Arabic translation has been and continues to be of great importance, the causes in the past and present are only different. Currently, it is well known that English Arabic translation is increasingly becoming a topic of much concern and importance these days. Oil, strategic location, history of the Islamic and different other civilizations that took place in the Arabic region, and the current events in the Middle East on the Arab side and the western desire to possess the oil and dominate the region on the Western side, contribute to this importance. This paper highlights the importance of English Arabic translation, mainly the translation of the two word English idioms into Arabic; as English language is full of idioms native speakers of English use a lot of idioms and expressions in everyday conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV shows on the Internet because idioms add color to the language, but at the same time, idioms are difficult to understand because their meaning is not what it appears to be at first sight. This imposes a major difficulty to translators from English into Arabic.

For example in the Telegraph newspaper dated 19/09/2006 one of the headlines reads “Police patrols at churches stepped up in Pope Row”

The Idiom ‘step up is used in this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom’ step up ‘as follows “rise to a higher or more important position, be promoted”

Al Mawrid dictionary translates the idiom ‘step up’ as J2J/- J6’9A- J2/’/- J*6’9A- JF/A9- J*B/E

In the context of the previous article, the idiom ‘step up’ can be translated as – J2/’/ , it is the translation of the meaning of the idiom.

A Second example in The Sunday Times dated April 30, 2006, the Idiom ‘back down’ is used in the following articles:

Iran’s psychopath in chief, by Israel

“Britain, France, Germany and America hope to pass a resolution at the United Nations Security Council this week mandating Iran to suspend its work on uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to back down, the security council could impose targeted sanctions.”

Also in the Mail guardian online dated 07 November 2005 we will find the headline

‘Blair to back down on anti-terror laws’

British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he would have to back down on proposed anti-terror laws that would enable police to hold people for up to 90 days without charging them.

Home Secretary Charles Clarke, announcing what amounts to a climbdown, said, however, that the new time limit would not be as short as the 28 days sought by critics of the new Terrorism Bill, which faces a parliamentary vote on Wednesday.

“We do not want to compromise on the 90 days at all. It will be a compromise with this nation’s security,” said Blair at his monthly Downing Street press conference, where he held out hope that he could yet minimise the impact.

American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom’ ‘back down as ‘Reverse one’s upward course, descend. For example, When she saw the wasps’ nest on the roof, she hastily backed down the ladder. This literal usage usually refers to something one has climbed, such as a ladder or mountain. [Mid-1800s]

Al Mawrid dictionary translates the idiom ‘back down’ as –J*F’2D 9F E7D(

Also 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9 is a proper translation

In the previous articles, it can be translated as 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9, and it is the translation of the meaning of the idiom.

Idioms are one of the factors that makes translation remain a human activity; although attempts have been made to automate and computerize the translation of natural language texts, or to use computers as an aid to translation, but translation remains mainly a human activity that needs skill, intelligence, human feeling that keeps the life and spirit of the original language to the translated text, idioms pose a challenge to any translation program. Since a lot of idioms cannot be translated literally.

The right understanding of Idioms is the key to have a good translation from English into Arabic. English is full of idioms; native speakers of English use a lot of idioms and expressions in their speech and writing, in other words, native speakers of English use idioms all the time. Idioms are the grease that makes language flow, but at the same time idioms are difficult to understand because an idiom is “An expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up.” Webster’s Online Dictionary, but some are easier to guess when they have some association with the original meaning of the individual words. So the translator should be aware of the idioms.

The idiom ‘cold feet’ which the Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary defines as:”to suddenly become too frightened to do something you had planned to do, especially something important such as getting married” , whereas the American Heritage Dictionary defines the idiom ‘cold feet’ as

“Fearfulness or timidity preventing the completion of a course of action”.

It is used in an article in the guardian newspaper on Saturday March 25, 2006 as follows:

‘Iraq hostages ‘were saved by rift among kidnappers’

o Guards got cold feet after American was shot

o Returning Kember ‘failed to say thanks to rescuers’

Jonathan Steele in Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor

Saturday March 25, 2006

The Guardian

The British hostage Norman Kember and his two Canadian colleagues owe their freedom to a rift among their Iraqi kidnappers, a western security source close to the rescue operation said yesterday.

This idiom used in the previous article can be translated as AB/’F ‘D-E’3 DA9D 4& E’- FB5’F ‘D4,’9G #H ‘D+B) DA9D 4& E’, the translation is the paraphrase of the idiom according to definitions given above. So the right understanding of idioms is the key to translate well.

An idiom is learned and used as a single unit of language; and should be translated in the same way. To translate idioms the translator , first of all needs to recognize idioms , understand them, know the culture from which the idiom comes, the origin, the atmosphere in which it is used , then the translator should do his/her best, at first to find an equivalent or a corresponding idiom in the target language that keeps the flavor of the original, if there is not such corresponding idiom or phrase the translator analyzes the idiom and translates the meaning of the idiom in words that keep the color and flavor of the idiom in the source language

Every language is idiomatic; each language has a certain set of rules that govern the way words are put together to express facts, ideas and feelings. The rules and their exceptions are unique to the language, despite possible similarities with other languages. In this sense, a language is always idiomatic. Within this general consideration, we usually think of ‘idioms’ as unique phrases: we use them to express something that other, more general sentences can’t express just as well. It is important to learn idioms to be able to communicate well. They are also interesting to study because of the insight they give us into the language and the people who use them. These expressions originate in the history, literature, religion, and traditions typical of a certain community. For this reason, idioms reveal much of the way of thinking of a community.

Since idiomatic expressions are so frequently encountered in both spoken and written discourse, they require special attention in translation

the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines ‘idiom’ as : a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words:. This means even if one knows the meaning of each word; one may not understand the idiom itself. So we cannot translate the idioms correctly unless we understand their meaning. If we take into account the idiom ‘ New blood and translate it into Arabic (/E ,/J/) word by word, (/E ,/J/) is sometimes used in Arabic to mean young people. On one hand, it can be viewed as an equivalent, on the other hand sometimes it is hard to guess that the expression actually means ‘ people with a lot of energy or fresh ideas who are brought into an organization in order to improve it’ as defined in Cambridge advanced Learner’s dictionary, as in F-*’, ‘DJ /E ,/J/– it can mean the need for new blood in a hospital for instance, but sometimes it can be misunderstood.

Based on the previous definition in Cambridge advanced Learner’s Dictionary, the appropriate translation for this idiom is #4.’5 EDJ&) (‘D7’B) H ‘D-JHJ) H ‘D#AC’1- ‘AC’1 H 7’B’* ,/J/) .The translation here is a paraphrase.

As a matter of fact, the literal translation of an idiom is often absurd or comical. The idiom ‘Back burner ‘ literally translates into Arabic as ”D-‘1B ‘D.DAJ’

The literal translation in Arabic sounds comical. The Dictionary of English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions defines it as follows: If an issue is on the back burner, it is being given low priority is ‘ then the right translation is -‘D EF 9/E ‘D’G*E’E-BDJD ‘D’GEJ)

sometimes The image created by the literal meaning of an idiom is comic but sometimes it can help to remember that idiom.

Here is an example of English idioms that can be easily understood from the images they evoke. The English idiom double faced translates literally in Arabic as 0H H,GJF- (with two faces) in Arabic. So the image created by this idiom helps us to remember and understand it. So we can translate it as EF’AB ‘hypocrite’ in Arabic- or -E.’/9 deceiver (in Arabic), which will be an adequate translation. The image created by the idiom double faced can make us think of a person with two faces , which means hypocrite .Even though using the images of the literal translation is an effective and fun way to learn English idioms, the literal translation alone is deceiving in many cases

The real meaning of the English idiom has to be learned in context to be correctly understood. It is necessary to study idioms within sentences. A proper example makes the meaning and the use clear. For example the idiom sitting duck which means ‘an easy target’, when we learn this idiom in a sentence as in “His arguments were so simple, she was able to knock them down like sitting ducks.” It will be easy to understand that the idiom means ‘an easy target’ and translate it into Arabic adequately, if we translate it literally in Arabic it would be (7) ,’D3) which does not make sense in Arabic, but the adequate translation is a paraphrase translation of the idiom which is G/A 3GD

Translation of ideas and meaning from one language to another leaves much freedom to the translator , but translation of idioms does not need only translation of ideas and meaning , the translator should keep the effect idioms give to the language as possible as the translator can. To translate idioms word-for-word” translation is inadequate and confusing, To translate idioms well, the translator must recognize idioms to be idioms, the translator must understand the goals and intents of the author of the original work; and the context in which idioms are used, then s/he should understand the meaning of the idioms, s/he should look it up in dictionaries, search on the web , ask native speakers, and understand the massage of the idiom and in what context it is used . It is good to find a similar idiom in Arabic that carries the same meaning of the English idiom, if the translator cannot find so it is good to parse the idiom apart into its meaning and translate the meaning.

Katharine Barnwell says: The task of the translator is to translate the meaning of the message, rather than the words.

Bible Translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12.

In order to have a good translation, there must be a good translator, who should be fluent in the two languages he seeks to translate between. He must understand the language which he is translating from, as well as the language in which he is translating the work into. Moreover, a good translator must specifically be a good communicator in the target language. A good translator must have the knowledge, skill and experience in this business; In fact the translator has a very serious responsibility not to change the meaning in any way. He must be careful not to add anything to the meaning, or to leave any part of the meaning. Actually the task of translator is more difficult than the writer himself, the writer is free to express his ideas and views in the way he sees suitable and in the vocabulary he likes, but the translator confines himself to the words the writer used and he must be careful not to add anything to the meaning, or to leave any part of the meaning.

Conclusion:

From what has been mentioned above, it is obvious that translation is the bridge of appreciation, love and friendship among nations, it is necessary for progress and prosperity .By the means of translation new civilizations evolved, the western civilization was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific, books were translated from Arabic into Latin, and it was the basis for the western civilization.

English Arabic translation has been and continues to be of great importance, because both languages are great world languages, moreover current events, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world add to this importance ; English is the language of big powers and Arabic is the language of the region where conflicts take place for many reasons mentioned previously

Idioms pose a challenge to translators from English into Arabic. English is full of idioms which cannot be understood from the individual words .A translator of English idioms into Arabic needs good knowledge of the two languages and a good knowledge of both cultures .Idioms reflect culture traditions ,cultural identities and history of any nation. They give us insight into history , culture , traditions, and values, morals. So idioms reflect our common humanity through language.

Profit From Animals – Why Rare Breeds Are Worth Considering

Modern factory farm production requires assembly line breeds, animals that are almost “man-made.” Too many small farmers raise the same animals because they have become “normal.” White chickens and white turkeys, Yorkshire pigs and Holstein cows, only these breeds are so hybridized they probably share little in common with their ancestry.

The purpose of these “normal” breeds is to stack lots of cheap meat on supermarket shelves. But if you studied out what was in that cheap meat, you might not call it food, or at least, stuff you’d never threaten your body with. The interesting thing is this whole factory farm system is supposedly set up to increase “profit.”

I thought I might involve my children with raising animals for showing in the local fair. Here in Texas, some children graduate from school with a very large sum of money in their bank accounts obtained by showing animals at the county fair.

Then I saw some chickens raised by friends who did have those large bank accounts. The judge handled the chickens carefully and talked about what qualities of body shape and size he was looking for. When he set the birds down, they fell over. They could not walk! If you set them on their backs, they would probably just stay there. They were pathetic. When we heard how continual force-feeding had made them winners, I did not want my children to think this was a way to “profit” from animals.

Many rare and unusual breeds of farm animals possess qualities of great value other than shoveling the fattest, cheapest chunk of meat onto someone’s plate. The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy is a great place to learn more. For instance, check out the Buckeye chickens. These are large, meaty birds that are “very cold-weather hardy.” I know from personal experience that white chickens die like flies in the cold. Buckeyes could be well worth trying if you live in colder climates and love to watch your chickens roam as much as possible.

There are many valuable qualities heritage breeds have retained that the modern factory breeds have lost. Ease of reproduction, healthier meat, better flavor, all these are “profitable” elements. Not needing a vet, or even yourself, every time your cows give birth is a valuable characteristic, for instance.

There are a number of farmers who do keep these rare breeds from an altruistic view, some work as non-profits. I applaud their efforts. But I am convinced that a simple and good life is a life of profit and increase. The more that a farmer profits from the valuable characteristics of rare and unusual breeds – on a small, simple-life scale, the greater the chance that many of these wonderful breeds of farm animals can be preserved.

Learn to Sail With Magic Shroud Telltales

If you are anything like me, you are always on the lookout for sailing tips that make sailing easier with less effort. When you first learn to sail, it can be tough to “see the wind”. You can feel the wind on your cheek or the back of your neck. But how can you see it? Check out these three simple, non-electronic type wind indicators that are available for sailors:

Types of Apparent Wind Indicators

Sail Luff Telltales

Your Genoa or mainsail may carry telltales–small strips of yarn or ribbon–attached the luff (in the case of a headsail) or the leech (on a mainsail). These telltales show the flow of apparent wind across the sail. But sail telltales can be tough to see. You have to bend down, crane your neck to see the luff of your Genoa. And when you sail short-handed or by yourself, that can be a lot of work. Plus the fact that luff telltales just show the apparent wind flow across one sail.

Masthead Fly

If you have a wind “fly” at the masthead, this miniature wind-vane shows how the wind flows across the boat. It’s just about the perfect apparent wind indicator because it’s not obstructed or blocked by another sail, mast, rigging, or blocked by land nearby. But masthead flys can be tough to see way up at the top of your mast.

Shroud Telltales

Shroud telltales are an easier alternative to the masthead fly and still give you a great picture of how the apparent wind flows across your boat. They’re easier to use than luff telltales for shorthanded sailors because you don’t need to bend down and strain to see the luff of your Genoa or headsail. Best of all, they are cheap, easy to make, and super simple to use. Follow these three easy steps to make and mount your shroud telltales in just a few minutes:

1. Find the Right Material for Shroud Telltales

Go down to your local fabric and sewing store. Find the aisle that sells yarn. Buy a roll of Angora wool yarn. Dark colors are good for daytime sailing, while brighter colors stand out better at night. Angora wool makes the best telltale because it’s light and shows direction even in those super light morning zephyrs.

2. Make and Attach Your Shroud Telltales

Cut off two 6″ to 9″ strips of wool. Attach the yarn to the upper shroud on each side, as high off the deck as possible. You want the yarn in clear air so that it’s not blocked by your cabin roof, Bimini top, or spray dodger.

3. Match Your Telltale to the Point of Sail

Use a “sail and study” method to learn to read the shroud telltale. Sail onto each point of sail, get the boat steady, and watch the telltale. Observe how it points. After a few times of doing this, you will be able to recognize just how the telltale should look when beating, reaching, or running.

How to Use Your Shroud Telltales

Concentrate on three specific points of sail: beating (close hauled), beam reaching, and running. On each point of sail, observe the angle that your shroud telltales make. This takes a bit of practice and patience.

For beating, find that “razor’s edge” between luffing and sailing. Glance at the windward side shroud telltale. Note how it makes a slight angle off the bow. Hold your course and concentrate on that angle. Fall off a bit and note how your windward shroud telltale changes its angle. Head up back to a beat (close hauled course). Again, note the shroud telltale angle. Repeat this several times until this shroud telltale angle becomes second nature to you.

Follow this same sequence with a beam reach and running course. As you can see, shroud telltales will force you to first find the point of sail and then assist you to hold that point of sail. This will make you less reliant on luff telltales and take less effort because they will always be visible while you steer from your tiller or wheel.

Use these three fast, easy steps on your journey to learn to sail better than ever before. You will increase your speed, power, and performance on any point of sail–wherever in the world you choose to sail!