Tiling Onto A Wooden Floor

When most people think of tiling, what comes to mind is usually basic information that’s not particularly interesting or beneficial. But there’s a lot more to tiling than just the basics.

The best time to learn about tiling is before you’re in the thick of things. Wise readers will keep reading to earn some valuable tiling experience while it’s still free.

When tiling onto a wooden floor you need to bear in mind it’s different than tiling onto a concrete floor.

There are many different things you can do and make sure you do before laying ceramic or porcelain tiles onto a wooden floor.

1. When tiling onto floor boards, you will firstly need to lay down 18mm thick floor grade plywood which needs to be screwed down every 30cm centres. You can use a single part flexible adhesive but I use a two part flexible tile adhesive. This is the belt and braces way of doing it.

2. When tiling onto chipboard you will need to do the same as above if you follow a strict adhesives guidelines – but you can use thinner plywood going down to 12mm if the chipboard floor is already solid and screwed down at 30cm centres. Then screw the plywood down in the same way.

3. When putting Under Floor Heating onto a wooden floor, you would firstly need to put down an insulation board. You can fix this down to your existing floor with a 2 part flexible adhesive and then screw it down at 30cm. Now you can lay the under floor heating mat or cable on top of your insulation board. It’s best to use a flexible self-level compound to cover the cables, then you can tile on top using a two part flexible adhesive.

4. If you have a situation were raising the floor might be a problem then you can use a product like Schluter-DITRA. This is a polyethylene membrane with a grid structure of square cavities each cut back in a dovetail construction, and an anchoring fleece laminated to its underside. Designed for tile and natural stone installations and under floor heating Schluter-DITRA not only serves as a waterproofing membrane but also a vapour pressure equalisation layer to accommodate moisture occurring at the underside of the substrate. It’s also an uncoupling layer for problematic substrates such as wooden floors, etc.

DITRA mat is only 3mm thick and you can use a two part flexible tile adhesive to stick it down. You can lay the matting straight down onto your floorboards if they have no movement up or down. Make sure the floorboards are flat and are screwed down to the joists – any natural movement will be taken up with the DITRA mat.

Laying onto chipboard will be the same way as onto floorboards. You can tile on top of the DITRA mat with a two part flexible adhesive. Again a single part adhesive can be used but a two-part adhesive is better.

I hope this is of some help.

That’s the latest from the tiling authorities. Once you’re familiar with these ideas, you’ll be ready to move to the next level.

What to Do If Your Sump Pump Overflows

Before you call that plumber, Here are a couple of tips to try to solve the problem yourself. Or at least save your basement from flooding until a professional can get to your home.

Tips that will help you fix and diagnose why your basin is overflowing:

1. Tap the discharge line coming out of the sump pit. “Sometimes” when I would tap the line very gently with a rubber mallet the primary submersible pump would turn on. Why? because the float switch on an automatic would stick due to corrosion on the top metal rod that activates the motor. If this does work then wait till the basin is empty to see if you can locate the cause of the failure. If their is no obvious reason why the submersible pump failed, you should still replace the pump. If it happened once it will happen again and you may not be home when it does.

If that does not work, then try this:

2. “Power” Check the fuse box to see if you have blown a fuse. If you have blown a fuse then reset the breaker by turning the breaker off then back on again. Or, you can plug in a light in the outlet where the sump pump is plugged into to see if you are getting power. If you are getting power then hurry up and replace the pump if you can or call a professional plumber. Do not stick your hand in the basin when the pump is plugged in, if their is a short in the wire then you may be electrocuted.

If that does not work either, then try this:

3. Unplug the motor and put your hand down in the basin until you reach the pump. Feel around the sump pump to see if you can feel any debris stuck near or on the submersible pump. If so, then gently dislodge the object. After you have removed the object, simply lift the float switch to make sure it is going up and down properly. Quickly plug the pump back into the outlet so you don’t flood.

I hope these tips will aid you in saving your basement from flooding. You may want to consider getting a backup pump for more security.

The Fit Girl’s Guide to Birth Control

Women are such amazing creatures that it’s downright mind boggling at times. I know what you’re thinking – you and I are both women, so such self-praise sounds a bit excessive.

But really, think about it for a minute. Our physical makeup is dramatically different from that of our male counterparts. We have to train nearly twice as hard to make any substantial gains in the gym, and we’re genetically preprogrammed to store more fat than men, all because of the differences in our hormonal makeup.

Let’s face it, ladies, our bodies are built for child rearing, not heavy lifting or figure competitions. Regardless of whether those babies are a goal of yours or not, your system will always do its best to ensure a soft & comfortable atmosphere for that baby’s development during the first nine months of its existence.

Nature’s plan.

What’s even more interesting is the fact that if you’re actively working on preventing pregnancy, you’ll likely have an increased hormonal imbalance and even more pronounced effects of the estrogen hormone doing its job.

Not sure what I’m talking about? There is a phrase that will conjure up memories of bloat, fat gain, nausea, spotting or breakthrough bleeding, mood swings, and even severe headaches. It’s a short phrase with a lot of power. Ready?

“The Pill.”

Most of those who’ve tried birth control pills are well aware of their possible side effects. These are to be expected; anytime hormone levels are changed in any way, the body is bound to let you know of the changes.

Birth control pills are comprised of synthetic estrogen and progesterone (or in some cases, just one of those two). Since the menstrual cycle and ovulation are regulated by these hormones, this increase results in a variety of changes within the reproductive system, which results in pregnancy prevention.

Now, as any woman in the fitness industry knows, we try our very best to decrease the female hormones in our bodies. We all know that increased levels of testosterone, along with decreased estrogen hormones, are essential to the sense of well-being and overall health.

It’s testosterone that helps us gain lean mass, reduce fat storage, increase sexual desire, ward off that “I’m PMS’ing-leave-me-alone” mood, keep our skin healthy, and our minds sharp. Excessive levels of its opposing hormone, estrogen, produce the exact opposite effect on our bodies.

Clearly, increasing your very own estrogen levels by going on the pill sounds more than just a little crazy. It is, however, seen as an absolute necessity by most women. Many of us just accept the unfortunate side effects and learn to deal with the consequences of a less than perfect hormonal balance.

After all, what else is there?

That’s the question we’ll answer in this article. I’ve done some extensive research on the topic, including interviewing numerous fitness and figure competitors regarding their personal experiences with birth control pills. Each of these girls has discovered what works for her; whether it’s a lower dose estrogen pill or a viable alternative that does the job while keeping those hormone levels at least somewhat conducive to her hardcore fitness lifestyle and ultra-lean body goals.

The Pill

Types of Birth Control Pills

There are two basic categories: those containing progestin only, and combination pills containing both progestin and estrogen.

Progestin-only pills contain no estrogen. These are sometimes referred to as the “mini-pill,” and are considered ideal for breastfeeding women since the presence of estrogen reduces milk production.

The mini-pill works by thickening the cervical mucus, thereby preventing sperm from entering the uterus. They must be taken at the same time every day.

While these pills don’t contain any estrogen, they’re not considered figure-friendly by any means. You see, the pill’s progesterone component has been shown to increase appetite – which of course makes it very difficult to diet, resulting in weight gain.

Some of the other side effects of the mini-pill include irregular or heavy bleeding, spotting, and severe headaches. Additionally, progestin-only pills have been shown to be slightly less effective than their combination counterparts – so that the chance of becoming a mommy is actually increased when choosing these over estrogen containing birth control pills.

Combination pills are ones containing both estrogen and progestin. This category can be broken down into three different types, which are as follows:

Monophasic pill. This is the original birth control pill. Each pack of these pills consists of 21 active pills containing the same amount of estrogen and progestin in each pill, and 7 placebos, which contain no hormones.

The second type of the combination pill is called multiphasic.Also referred to as biphasic and triphasic, multiphasic oral contraceptives contain varied amounts of hormones and are designed to be taken at specific times over the pill-taking period.

Each of the pills in this pack contains different levels of estrogen and progestin so that the hormones are varied throughout the month. They were developed for the specific purpose of reducing side effects of oral contraceptives. Women taking multiphasic pills report having fewer episodes of breakthrough bleeding and spotting, but as of now, those are the only sides that have been shown reduced.

The last type of the combination pill is the continuous use pill. This is the brand new one of the bunch, being approved in the spring of ’07. The best known brand of the continuous use pill is Lybrel, which also happens to be a multiphasic pill. It comes in a 28-day pack and is meant to be taken without any breaks in between pill packets, which basically means not having a period at all.

Some of the side effects associated with all combination oral contraceptives include most of the ones you’d normally hear about, including nausea, severe headaches, possible vomiting, irregular bleeding, and weight gain resulting from the changes in the body’s hormonal makeup.


Birth Control Options for Fit Girls

Now that we’ve gone over the basic differences among the pills, let’s take some time discussing ones that seem to be popular with women who are in the fitness industry.

Those ladies who are on the pill and training hard almost always opt for low dose pills. Low dose birth control pills are mostly monophasic pills that have an estrogen component of less than 35 micrograms. Some examples of this type of pill include LoOvral, Nordette, and Ortho-Cept.

There are also two newer formulas of low dose pills on the market, both of which have become a quick favorite among many figure competitors. Cyclessa is a brand new low dose oral contraceptive that’s also multiphasic. The low estrogen in its varying-hormone package has actually been shown to result in weight loss for many women who begin taking it… and those who didn’t lose any noticeable weight, didn’t gain any fat, according to the studies.

Yasmin is another newer low dose pill with many fit ladies in its fan club. Because of a more natural progestin in its formula, it’s been associated with improved skin texture for those who are naturally oily or acne-prone, an improved sense of well-being, and even weight control help due to reduced water retention.

Ultra low dose pills exist as well, and these are ones that have the lowest amount of estrogen in a birth control pill, which is 20 micrograms. This dose of estrogen is sufficient for contraception, however these pills oftentimes result in more spotting and breakthrough bleeding than pills containing 30-35 micrograms of estrogen, which is why most women who’ve tried them end up opting for the low dose pills instead.

If you’re interested in trying an ultra-low oral contraceptive, two of the most popular ones are Alesse and Mircette, with the prior being a favorite of three figure competitors I’d interviewed.

One other factor that’s interesting when it comes to all oral contraceptives (even low dose ones) is that they’ve been shown to decrease total and free testosterone by almost half, while increasing total cortisol levels. This, of course, is quite a negative effect for all of us trying to build muscle – it’s just bad news from the anabolic perspective.

Tired of taking pills? Read on!

Pill Alternatives

Now if none of the aforementioned sides scare you, and the only thing you dislike about the oral contraceptives is the oral part, there are a couple of alternatives that work in ways very similar to that of the low dose pills, without having to take the actual pill!

These are the NuvaRing and the Patch. Both work by supplying the same amount of hormones as low dose pills, so side effects along with benefits are very similar. Ladies who dislike taking pills may find it easier to go with either of these two, though each of the two has its own inconveniences.

NuvaRing is a small, flexible ring inserted into the vagina once monthly. It’s left in place for three weeks, and then taken out for a week. Once that week’s passed, a new ring is inserted for the following three-week period.

A few of the fitness ladies I spoke with find the NuvaRing to be very practical. One of them mentioned that it’s helped her get rid of the terrible migraine headaches she used to get with the low dose pill while also helping her lose some water weight she’d been carrying.

The Patch operates by delivering the hormones directly into the bloodstream through the skin via a thin patch. It must be replaced once weekly for three weeks straight, taking a break on the fourth week. The Patch may be applied just about anywhere on the body, and needs to stay in place at all times – regardless of the activity (yes, even training, cardio, or bathing).

As you’d suspect, this wasn’t a favorite of any of the girls’ I’d spoken with. Two of them had experimented with it as it seemed like a convenient, easy birth control method; both were quickly disappointed as the Patch began irritating their skin after just a couple of cardio sessions. My guess is it just wasn’t created with fitness-oriented ladies in mind.

The Patch

There’s just one other thing I’d like to mention about the NuvaRing and the Patch. Both have caused quite a bit of controversy since their FDA approval. Over the past several months, there’ve been a number of lawsuits filed against both companies, claiming that the birth control devices are responsible for blood clots, resulting in stroke, heart attacks, and even death.

Neither of the devices has been taken off the market, and both companies are maintaining innocence, stating that their products have proven to be safe in most cases.

My personal advice? Do your own research and be sure that your decision is an informed one.

Non-Hormonal Alternatives

For those of you hoping to stay away from anything that will alter your natural hormone levels, there are alternatives. The majority of fitness and figure girls I’ve spoken with, have opted for hormone-free birth control methods – everything ranging from male and female condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and lea’s shields (all of which work by creating a physical block), to longer lasting methods, such as the IUD… to permanent ones, like tubal ligation.

Since the IUD seemed to be the most obvious choice for most of the competing ladies, I’d like to discuss that in depth. An IUD is a tiny, T-shaped device that gets inserted directly into the uterus by your OB/GYN. It’s made of soft plastic and contains either copper or hormones.

The non-hormonal ones are the ones I’d like to focus on, as these are the ones most popular in the fitness world. These are known as the ParaGard Copper T 380A IUD, contain copper, and can be worn for up to 12 years. They are effective as soon as they’re inserted and can be removed at any time.

Mirena IUD

Keep in mind that ovulation still occurs when you use an IUD, so you’ll still have your period. Many women complain of more intense cramps and heavier or irregular periods, but most of the fitness-oriented girls find these sides to be a small price to pay for stable hormone levels and the ability to maintain a higher level of testosterone.

Another detail to keep in mind is the IUD installation process itself. It isn’t a pleasant experience by any means – many of the ladies I spoke with said it was one of the most painful experiences they’d endured. But really, just put things into perspective for a second: the insertion lasts for about five minutes, and you’ll most likely be worry-free for a period of over 10 years!

If you don’t already have kids, the IUD may not be suitable for you. The company states that women who have never been pregnant before have an increased risk of expulsion (expelled by the body, usually within the first year) due to a smaller uterus and difficulty with insertion. Check with your doc and follow his or her recommendations when it comes to your particular case.

I’d also like to note that many women are concerned about the safety of copper IUD’s. This concern is mostly grounded in a few events that took place in the 70’s when the very first IUD to hit the market (known as the Dalkon Shield) had to be recalled after 12 of its 2.8 million users died.

The Dalkon Shield was pulled out of doctor’s offices immediately, and although no other IUD since that period has ever been found unsafe, their reputation remains somewhat tarnished. If you begin to seriously consider this device, be sure to do your research just as you would with anything else – plenty of information is available upon an Internet search.


And that, ladies, pretty much sums up your birth control options. My only hope is that this article gave you a starting point for your own research and made you a more informed patient, one who’ll enter the OB/GYN’s office armed with knowledge.

Keep in mind that the effects any birth control pill will have on anyone will depend on not only the combination and the dose you’re taking, but also on your individual hormonal makeup and response. Because of this, the final decision is best left to you and a doc you trust.

Doors – Ways to Make a Door Open Easier

It is really very irritating and frustrating when you find it difficult to open a door. If you have any problem like this get it fixed immediately. Different kinds of doors have different solutions so we solve them in different ways

Conventional doors: We all have such doors in our houses, if that door gives you problem, you must examine it properly by checking the hinges and door knobs. Check the edges of the door if they need to be trimmed? Make sure that the hinge leaf is placed properly in the hinge mortise. Tighten all the pins of the hinge with a screwdriver. Remember that the gap between the door and the frame should be 1/8 inch. Check the door latch and door knob, if they are properly seated in its place. If there is rust in any part you should clean them immediately.

Sliding doors: sliding doors require different treatment but solution can be made in a little time with simple tools. First of all, to keep it from getting immovable, keep it clean. If it gives you problem in opening check the track, remove the dirt with a vacuum cleaner and put some graphite powder to make it run smoothly. Open the door a little and compare the edge with the frame, if they are not parallel, they need to be fixed. Check the metal track on the floor, if the track is damaged, bent or dented, get it adjusted or replaced.

Garage doors: You can not take a risk of leaving a garage door unlocked as you have many valuables there. Before taking out your tool box, examine the door if there is any interference in the door for example any small thing stuck in the door, if not, check all the parts that make up the door mechanism; like the springs rollers and cable. Tighten all the screws, remove the dirt and lubricate the pulleys. If any thing needs replacement then get it done.

Patio doors; if your patio door is giving problem then check the track at the bottom of the door if there is any foreign object, simply remove it. Wipe the door with damp towel and clean the dirt. Sprinkle graphite powder into the rollers and swing the door back and forth so that the powder goes into and round the rollers. Spray oil on the rollers to lubricate them. Apply paraffin wax or grease to the track and move the door back and forth to spread it properly.

Underground Waste Separation and Recycling Unit – Gemini 2

Gemini 2 occupies very little road space while offering large storage capacity thus reducing collection frequency. A Gemini 2 system significantly improves the hygiene conditions tied to garbage collection as well as improving the urban decoration of the town. Gemini 2 consists of a carbon steel free-standing tank which is treated against corrosion. The underground tank acts as the supporting structure and permits installation of the system without additional brick or reinforced concrete foundation works. This technology permits fast and easy installation and makes it simple to move the underground unit if necessary. – The tank contains 2 skips with a capacity of 4,000 litres each – The two internal skips are in sanded and painted carbon steel or AISI 304 stainless steel and are unloaded by the same single-operator side-loading self-compactor


The user places the garbage bag into a single tower positioned – above ground — at the centre of the paving or covering. The user opens the lid simply by pressing the single electric button on the tower. The garbage is stored in one of the two underground skips that remains under the tower until it is full. When the skip is full, the system automatically moves the full skip and places the empty skip under the mouth of the loading tower. On request the tower may be supplied with two buttons (instead of one) allowing the user to dispose of two different types of waste separately at a single collection point. To shut the lid, simple press the same button or (if the user forgets) the lid closes automatically after a preset time. The tower has a programmable timer to allow opening of the lid only within specific times (for example it is possible to prevent opening at night). An optical reader (installed in the built-in section) controls the capacity of the skips and a red lamp (next to the lid button) on the tower will flash to warn the user or operator that the skip is almost full. The same lamp lights up when the skip is full: in this case the system automatically blocks the lid to prevent the introduction of garbage. A remote control system is used to empty the skips and allows the driver of the compactor to open the lid, move the skip selected and lift it to road level.

More Info on the Ecogest waste collection systems

Who Is Jesus Christ For Us Today? Book Summary

In his book, Who Is Jesus Christ For Us Today, James Cone Ph.D., answers this question taking into consideration the dynamic interplay between social context, Scripture, and tradition from a Black perspective.

By the “social context,” Cone refers to the encounter of Jesus Christ in our ordinary everyday existence. It is the experience of Christ in the social world of injustice and oppression: a world of top-dog and underdog. It is the experience of Jesus in the midst of life’s absurdities that motivates one toward exploration of the Christological question, “Who is Jesus Christ for us today?

Cone cautions against assuming however, that the meaning of Christ is derived from or dependent upon our social context. He insists that the Scriptures must also be incorporated into our total understanding of the truth of Jesus Christ. He feels that this is vital because it provides us with reliable data about the Jesus Christ we encounter in our social existence.

Tradition, Cone declares, is “the bridge that connects Scripture with our contemporary situation.” He sees the Black religious tradition as representative of the Black Church’s affirmation of their humanity as well as affirmation of their faith at various junctions in history. This, he believes, provides the Black Church of today with a deeper understanding of the truth of Jesus Christ.

According to Cone then, social context, Scripture and tradition form the theological presuppositions upon which an investigation into the meaning of Christ should begin.

Who is Jesus Christ for us today? Cone poignantly points out that “Jesus is who He was.” The historical Jesus was the truly human Jesus who was also a Jew. His humanness and His identity as a Jew are both relevant and important for the affirmation of faith. Cone stresses that Jesus was not so much a “universal” man, but He was a “particular” man; a particular Jew who came to fulfill God’s will to liberate the oppressed. Blacks could relate to the historical human Jesus because He stood as a symbol of human suffering and rejection. Jesus too, was unaccepted and rejected of men; Jesus too, was beaten and condemned, mistreated and misunderstood; Jesus too, suffered from an unjust social system where the “little ones” were oppressed. Blacks identified with the historical Christ because they believed He shared in their misery and struggles. Without the humanness of historical Jesus, Cone contends that “we have no basis to contend that His coming bestows upon us the courage and the wisdom to struggle against injustice and oppression.”

Secondly, Cone suggests that “Jesus is who He is.” What he seems to be saying is that who Jesus is today is intrinsically related to who He was yesterday. His past existence affirms His present reality that is experienced with the common life. Thus, Blacks believed, not only because of the validity and authenticity of the historical Christ, but also because of their actual experience of the Christ in their everyday social existence. Christ in the present helped and strengthened them in their struggle for liberation in an oppressive society. The experience of Christ in the present enabled them to keep on fighting for justice even when odds were stacked against them. Their view of a just social order was inseparable from their faith in God’s liberating presence in Jesus Christ.

Thirdly, the meaning of Christ is taken further when Cone suggests that “Jesus is who He will be.” He is “not only the Crucified and Risen Lord, but also the Lord of the future who is coming again to fully consummate the liberation already happening in our present.” Black hope, which emerged from an encounter with Christ in the fight for freedom, is the hope that Jesus will come again and establish divine justice. The eschatological hope found in Black faith was not an opiate, but was born out of struggle in their present reality.

Finally, Cone asserts that “Jesus is Black.” He is not referring to a color but a state or experience of oneness. He draws an analogy between Christ’s historical Jewishness and present Blackness. Cone seems to be at least intimating that as the Jews were the elect chosen for divine liberation in history, so are Blacks chosen for liberation through Jesus in the present to be fully realized in the future.

Jesus’ blackness to Cone is both literal and symbolic. In the literal sense, Christ becomes one with the oppressed Blacks. He takes on their suffering and pain. Symbolically, He represents the Black experience.

This book is enlightening and educative in that it sheds a bright light on the subjectivity of Black Theology.

Tuned Mass Damper In Contrast To Viscous Damper

There are numerous damper solutions for dampening undesirable vibration. A magnetorheological attenuator and a tuned mass damper (TMD), for example. Here we focus on the benefits and negative aspects of those two actuators.

TMD Pros and Cons

The concept of a tuned mass damper is to somehow intelligently act in response to shake. A distinction I follow is that a tuned mass damper creates a counteracting force by moving about a mass at reverse cycle with the source vibration.

A benefit of a TMD is evidently its capability to make a significant change by imposing a force to the shaking process because of a moving mass. This can also be one of its major problems. If you ever apply the force systematically at a wrong instant, the vibration system may become instable in case the motion of the TMD happens in the resonance wavelength. And functioning at the resonance frequency is somewhat common, as the resonance pitch is many times the one being killed. Ok, it is true that with a semi-active actuator there’s also the danger of screwing up with something at the resonance frequency by handling the actuator poorly, but at least no additional force with a moving mass is used and due to this fact the future damage is not as damaging.

An extra negative aspect is the increased selection of moving items. A tuned mass damper is additionally the one which necessitates the most hand-operated assembly labor.

Semi-Active Damper Benefits and Drawbacks

The operating principle of a semi-active damper is based on the material aspects. When it comes to magnetorheological actuator, the dampening substance varies its viscosity. The content is a ferrofluid: oil containing metallic particles. The theory is that when you put on a magnetic field to the matter, the metallic particles are arranged according to the field lines and get the fluid stiff. This produces in practice a damper that may be turned on and off in just milliseconds.

A disadvantage of the damper is obviously its somewhat reduced quantity of usage. This is mostly because of the fact that it’s rather fresh alternative on the market and not very widely tested yet. On the other hand, this is constantly changing since the systematic research material builds up.

In my view, the semi-active actuator combines the greatest components of the previous actuator categories:

  • Small dimension
  • A small amount of moving items
  • Responds real-time to a selection of vibration frequencies

Moreover, as a result of its little size the magnetorheological actuator may be attached beside a present passive attenuator that is already attenuating certain frequencies. The magnetorheological actuator can then focus on the vibration that can vary with time.

Mt. Kenya – The Gikuyu Invoked Powers Of The Ark Of The Covenant To Bring Down The British Empire

In an interesting revelation, the seer’s messenger who hold in trust the shrines on Mt Kenya, has made public how the British rule came tumbling down not just in Kenya but all over the world. In a paid up article in the PEOPLE DAILY, dated Nov 7, the messenger revealed among other things what sparked off the interesting story.

In 1948, when the Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru communities realized that the British would never allow Africans self determination in Kenya, their military wing the Mau Mau ascended Mount Kenya with their crude weapons namely home-made guns, spears, machetes and other nondescript assortment. They laid down their weapons in prayer. Raising their hands facing Kigongona Kia Mai(the shrine where the Ark is concealed) the chief seer Mugo wa Kibiru, led them in reciting their solemn prayer.

Ngai mbara ino turathii nawe.

Nigikorwo turi aku na uri witu.

Twahoto niwe wahotwo

Twahotana niwe wahotana

Twahota nitugacoka haha tukurutire igongona ria ngatho.

God you are our ally in this war

For we are your people and you are our God

Our defeat is your defeat

Our victory is your victory

If we win we shall assemble here and offer thanks giving offering.

Like Gideon of the Old Testament, they wanted assurance from God that they would defeat the British Army. The Chief Seer left the scene. After some hours, he came with the message from God. He made a trench from where the Mau Mau were standing and said thus. “The day King George’s Army crosses this trench, count ten years, and the British Government will not only loose the war in Kenya but would loose the whole empire.”

The Mau Mau spokesman sort clarification which year that will be. The Chief Seer said the British rule will come to an end in the year the Mugumo (fig) tree in Thika falls down. That prophesy somehow reached the colonial Government. The Mugumo tree in Thika was reinforced with rails and sheets.

To fulfil the seer’s prophesy, on 1st June 1953, the Mau Mau fighters enticed the British soldiers to cross the marked trench, by encamping near the trench. The Mau Mau crossed the trench with the British army following in hot pursuit. The Mau Mau celebrated in camp that night. Exactly ten years later, on 1st June 1963, the mugumo tree in Thika fell down despite all the reinforcements. The day remains a public holiday in Kenya todate.

Interestingly, as the communities set to return to the mountain to seek God’s intervention again, the British Government could feature in bad books once more. The seer’s have made public three major reasons for seeking God’s hand.

1} Diplomatic missions engagement in local politics. Four foreign diplomatic missions in Nairobi do not observe code of diplomatic etiquette and procedure. These Embassies have changed to ‘governorships’.

2) Errant Church founders who masquerade as ‘saints’ have entered the world of politics with intent of making fortunes.

3) Leftist politicians who are imbuing electorates with revolutionary doctrines in the so called ‘majimbo'(federalism) are reminiscence of Yugoslavia – majimbo that abetted ethnic cleansing.

Although the diplomatic missions referred to above have not been named, it is unlikely that the US and UK who have been consistent with their comments on local politics could be left out. Only yesterday, Nov 14 a bishop was cleared to vie for the country’s presidency.

In a terse observation, the seers have warned that the country is destined to fall in a big civil war. That is why they have requested the community members to join them on the 20th, 21st and 23rd Nov 2007 in prayers for the Nation.

We shall watch keenly as the events unfold.

How to Make Christmas Birch Branch Reindeer

Christmas celebrations are unique in the terms of thematic decorations that give a festive face lift to any commercial or living space. This involves placing and redecorating several of the season’s special elements, apart from the Christmas tree. One such interesting addition is a handmade reindeer that can be placed at any strategic spot. Birch tree is the best option for such craft due to their cultural significance, availability, and easy designing. You will need to cut some small logs using saw and fixing some framework. Therefore, this craft is more suitable for the adults in the family, though children may be involved later at the decoration stage. Here are some easy tips to erect your own birch branch reindeer for the coming holidays.

Materials needed:

• Chainsaw or handsaw

• Drill

• Nails and hammer (optional)

• Birch tree branches, slightly thicker

• Thin branches or twigs from the same tree or any other suitable one

• Straight cylindrical rods made of wood or metal (dowel)

• Cotton balls, wool, or small pompoms

• Paint

• Glue

• Googly eyes (optional)

• Large red bead

• Small Christmas bell

• Evergreen branches of a flexible variety or suitable climbers

• Ribbons and laces

• Poinsettia (fresh or dried)

• Glitters

• Colorful berries (natural or artificial), tiny pine cones, ornaments or any suitable stuff used in small wreaths

Steps to make Christmas birch branch reindeer:

• Structure formation:

• Dissecting the branches: Cut the branches into two logs, one-half the size of the other.

• Smoothing: Use garden trimmer or knife to remove excess side branches, leaves, etc. and smooth the logs.

• Making hole: Drill a hole in both the logs, a few inches from one end. These holes should be proportionate to the diameter of the dowel.

• Forming body: Fix a dowel in both the holes in such a way that the larger forms the abdomen and the smaller, the head portion.

• Legs: Drill four holes for the legs and insert dowels. You may also use branches of the trees in place of the dowels.

• Antlers: Make holes for the antlers on the head and place twigs.

• Nose: Fix the red bead as nose.

• Eyes: Paint the entire structure, including eyes, in the natural shade of reindeer.

• Decoration: The main decoration is done to cover the dowel in the neck area and part of the legs. It is created in the form of a loosely shaped wreath.

• Branches: Take evergreen branches of appropriate size and form. Tie the ends.

• Ribbons: Tie ribbons in places around the closed loop.

• Accessorizing neck: Interlace other decorations, like golden painted pine-cones, berries, ornaments etc. Hand the entire adornment around the neck of the reindeer.

• Body cover: Cut a rectangular piece of red velvet cloth and lace it from all sides. Place the cloth on the back of the reindeer to give it the true holiday look!

The History of Fabric Design and How Tastes Have Changed Through the Ages

The history of fabrics has been very prominent ever since. In pre-historic times, it was considered to be an artwork and a show of creativity. Now, fabrics are a widespread business, an industry that is rapidly spreading. Before we mention how the tastes have changed throughout these years, we should first talk about the history of fabrics and how it has evolved over time.

History of fabrics dates back to the Pre-Islamic and Islamic period. As mentioned, at that time, it was considered to be an art, and then people started bringing fabrics into trade and commerce. A significant amount of fabric was traded from Eastern and Middle Eastern sides to the Western geography. Silver and gold wrapped threads and silk items were the catch of those times. Before mentioning about the silk clothes, the silver and gold threads deserve attention. These threads were being used with increasing frequency on clothes, so as to give them a final picture of designing.

The history significantly moved on to the time, where Persians arose in the arena. At that time, fabric was the representative symbol of an elite and lofty class. Their specialized variety was silk, and this woven silk had a huge demand in market at that time. This is because it gave a distillation of refinement that no other fabric gave. This is why from Australian side, the Merchants of Venice, had a particular interest in this silk and the trade was started in between them too. The silk had further three classes, namely simple fine, velvet and Brocade variety, which was also famous as “Gold Silk”. Even China came into this business then by making the silk knit variety and the Brocade.

As the time passed by, India started to gain popularity in their materials. It dates back to the Indus Valley civilization in which the people built designs that are still preserved in their museum. Apart from this, cotton started to gain popularity in the Middle East and South East Asia as the crop was being cultivated in increased amounts here. Consequently, Cotton trade also started to European side too, where till then, the only source of fabric was silk. So, they overwhelmingly accepted the trading of cotton clothing.

The present era has shown a remarkable change in the fabric qualities. This is because increased exposure of the people and increased attention towards textile and fashion designing. Now, there are a high number of cotton varieties while hardly anyone uses it today, and its use is now limited to silk linen bed sheets and lingerie purposes. Cotton, polyester, velvet, wool clothing, lawn and chiffon fabrics are those that are being increasingly used nowadays.

To conclude, it must be said that there is a lot of advancement in the way tastes have changed throughout the ages. Many different types of fabrics, pure and synthetic both have emerged. There are many people who are moving to the profession of fabric designing and that has given up new ideas, because of which, tastes have changed through all these ages.

The Benefits of Painted Wall Murals

Wall murals are a creative and fun way to liven cold, bare walls. And the best part: anyone can do them–you don’t have to be an artist. You can design your own wall mural using your imagination, artwork, greeting cards, or picture books. You can purchase a wall mural stencil kit to help you, or you can find a local artist to design and paint the perfect wall mural.

Painting a wall mural is not difficult, but it does take some work. Before you begin, tape off your woodwork and cover your furniture and carpet to protect them from accidental spills. Depending on the condition of your wall, you may want to apply a neutral base coat to the area where your mural will go. Interior latex paint is a good bet, but you should talk to a paint specialist at a home improvement store to make sure it will work for you. You can use interior latex paint in large blocks of color inside the mural, but acrylic paints work best for the mural’s small areas. Acrylic paints are thin and will probably take more than one coat to get the right color.

You will need a variety of brushes for your painted wall mural. Large, broad brushes are best for wide areas of color. Small, rounded brushes are best for small areas. Don’t be afraid of getting messy. Mix the colors with your fingers, sponges, or clothes.

Faux finishes can make a painted wall mural unique. Many are easy for beginners. Experiment with some techniques on extra drywall before you start painting your wall mural. Use joint compound and paint to create a fossil rock look or to make a stencil pop from the wall. Get instructions and other ideas from painted wall mural Web sites, or check out the paint center at your home improvement air. Start with simple techniques, be creative, and have fun.

Where Do Cut Crystal Figurines Come From?

Cut Crystal Figurines

Crystal and glass figurines have been made through the ages. Famous producers of crystal figurines are for instance Lalique, Baccarat, Daum and Cristallerie d’Argues. These are beautiful sculptures made out of glass or crystal and they represent people, animals, flowers, etc.

But these are not the kind of crystal figurines we are talking about here. Cut crystal figurines are made out of full-cut faceted, lead crystal stones. Because the use of a high lead-content in the crystal, the light is reflected, actually diffracted, and this results in a beautiful palette of colors.

Basically these figurines are composed out of cut crystal lamp pendants and cut crystal beads, glued together in such a way that they represent for instance an animal or a flower. But that was basically. The modern cut crystal figurines are made of specially designed cut crystal components.

History of Glass Cutting

Bohemia was the area where most of the glass and crystal cutting was concentrated in the 19th century. They produced most of the crystal pendants for chandeliers and also the cut crystal beads and pendants for the jewellery and the fashion industry.

Cutting and polishing glass and crystal stones was a tedious job and needed much skills in those days.

The son of one of the best Bohemian glass cutters at the mid 19th century, was a young man named Daniel Swarovski.

After a visit to an exhibition in Vienna in 1883, he became obsessed with the possibilities of electricity. He wanted to use electricity to power the tedious glass cutting process. He succeeded after nine years of experimenting! and could patent the first semi-automatic, electrically driven, glass and crystal cutting machine.

This was such a revolutionary invention that it changed the glass cutting industry forever. His machine could cut glass and crystal with much more precision and at much higher speed than the manually cutting method.

The Perfection of Crystal Cutting

After the invention of the electrically driven cutting technology, Daniel Swarovski did not stop inventing. He started a factory where he constantly improved the cutting but where he also mastered the making of flawless, high lead-content crystal.

His jewelery stones made him the number one supplier of the fashion industry in Paris. All the famous couturiers used his cut crystal stones and Swarovski became an established brand.

The Swarovski company never stopped developing new ways how to make better crystal and new ways how to cut crystal better. Needless to say that they are today still the no.1 crystal cutting company in the world.

The First Cut Crystal Figurine

It is not so long ago, actually in 1976, that the first commercial cut crystal figurine was made and, again, that one was made by the Swarovski company.

In 1976 the winter Olympics were held in Innsbruck in Austria, not far away from the Swarovski factories (Wattens, Austria). Swarovski designer Max Schreck made a mouse out of cut crystal stones and it became a best seller during the games, immediately after it was launched into the market.

The reason why it took so long before the first cut crystal figurine saw the daylight is because there was, until the beginning of the seventies, no glue which could glue the stones together. The glue is a solution of an acrylate which hardens out to a clear acrylic substance under UV-radiation. That kind of Chemistry only developed after WWII.

The smaller version of the original mouse is still available and is sold under the name ‘replica mouse’. The replica mouse is not alone anymore. The collection of cut crystal Swarovski figurines is still growing and the beautiful cut crystal figurines depict themes from the world of flora and fauna, childhood memories, Christmas themes and more.

Famous Brands for Cut Crystal Figurines

The most famous brand is, without any doubt, Swarovski. There is a whole army of collectors of about 325,000 people who are a member of the Swarovski Crystal Society. Being a member of the largest collectors society in the world makes it possible to buy limited editions. The limited editions are special models which are produced in limited quantities only.

Many companies have started making cut crystal figurines after Swarovski started with their collection. And many of them have stopped after a while.

Making cut crystal figurines is not just sticking some stones together. The companies who survived during the last four decades and who still make cut crystal figurines are the companies who put lots of effort in design and quality.

Preciosa from the Czech Republic is such a company. They have a great collection of beautifully designed figurines and they also use the finest crystal for it. After all Preciosa is world’s no.2 crystal cutting company and they have a name to keep up.

Crystal World is another top brand. This company, with a team of Japanese designers, is already making beautiful pieces since it was founded by Rudy (Ryuyu) Nakai, in 1983, in the United States.

In Egypt is the company Asfour. Asfour is like Swarovski and Preciosa also a giant crystal cutting company. Asfour also makes a high quality crystal and they design beautiful crystal figurines.

You’ll find other producers of crystal figurines in other countries but usually they are not as specialized as the four companies above. China and Turkey have quite some producers of crystal figurines. Some of those companies have nice models but for most of them, crystal figurines are not their main business and they usually offer a range of other crystal products alongside the figurines.

Cut crystal figurines have a magical attraction to many people. The clarity of the material, the breaking of the light into many colors and the timeless designs make people want to surround themselves with them.

What once started as a single crystal mouse in Austria in 1976, is now collected by hundreds of thousands people around the world and brings joy everyday to many. We can only thank the innovative, world-famous crystal cutting company Swarovski for inventing the cut crystal figurines which bring that special touch to many people’s life.

9 Tips To Choose The Best Website Development Company

Web development firms have a greater role in enhancing the client company’s brand name and their reputation online. In short, the success of a brand online often relies on the expertise of web developers. More and more customers are turning in to web to get details regarding the products and services offered by a particular brand. And as the popular say goes, “First impression is the best impression” which means a website should be as catchy and impressive as possible to turn a prospective customer in to a business.

A lot of web design companies are available to create website for your company according to the budget you have. But only a professional web development company can see the bigger picture of their client requirements instead of compromising for their short-term goals. A lot of research must happen before choosing the best website designing and development company. Landing in to the wrong development partner will result in long-term consequences that might be damaging for the reputation of your brand.

Here are a few tips that will help you choose the right website development company.

Are they Receptive?

This is an important aspect in the selection of the right web development firm. You will have to check whether the website design company is serious in handling your queries and returning calls. If they are making delays in replying to your queries prior to establishing a contract with them, then it is desirable for you to avoid them since their responsiveness in the long-term once the site launches cannot be guaranteed at all.

Do they have an advisor to brief you?

Companies offering best web development services will have advisors who will try to understand your requirements and will advise you whether you will have to make any changes in the designing and functionality of the website that you have in mind. Usually if the designing of the website does not match with the services you offer, it might turn out to be a waste of money. An advisor can help you clear this obstacle before the start of the web development process itself.

Take a look at the web development firm’s own website

Most web design companies showcase their own website to draw clients towards them. If their website is not attractive, then how can they make your website attractive?

Does the web development company provide you with repeated suggestions?

These are strong signs of a genuine website development services company. They often serve you as a trusted guide by claiming that some of your ideas are bad and will have the explanations for it too. It is not necessary for most of the brands approaching website design companies to have a thorough knowledge regarding the changes happening across web standards, eCommerce and security standards, web standards and usability experiences.

Have a look at the previous completed projects

It is essential for the client companies to take a look at the previous projects done by the web development firm they are approaching and prefer to speak with those clients to get a feedback about the web development company.

How after sales service are managed?

This is one area where most of the companies feel disappointed at times with their client web development company. The reason, the lack of enthusiasm to help the brand company once the project is over. The best web development company would engage in a long-term relationship with the client by offering uninterrupted round the clock services to them regarding website maintenance.

Whether direct communication is allowed with the web developers?

More than a marketing person, it is the technical person that will be of use during the development stage of your website. Usually a team of web designers and web developers would be involved in the developmental stages of your website and it is only them who will be able to best understand your requirements when it comes to the creative as well as technical thoughts.

Do you or the web development company own the website code?

Most of the website development companies own the website code since they expect the client to approach them in future also if any changes have to be made. But check whether your company will be comfortable with such restrictions. The client website development company can make the changes easily since they have hands-on experience creating your website where as if you own the website code, you will have the freedom to make any changes. But the task would be a bit difficult for the IT department since the code is developed by the client web development company.

Are comprehensive services offered?

The best web development company would offer comprehensive services and thereby takes the entire responsibility of your website design, development and maintenance. The process starts from developing an initial strategy, planning, design, development, testing as well as marketing.

It has to be taken note that most of these firms are also offering mobile application development. Most of the client companies are moving towards developing a mobile application for their products and services in addition to the website development services since a majority of the customers now uses smartphone for online purchases.

Insight and Options to Home Weight Lifting Equipment

Who says you need to go to a gym to get an excellent workout on weight lifting equipment? There are hundreds of home workout stations that are easy on the budget and have all the tools to give you the body that you thought you could always only dream of. There are hundreds of thousands of every day consumers who are realizing the benefits of having home gym equipment. Busy schedules do not always allow for regular trips to the gym. For many people, the doors are closed long before they are able to even think about going. Having access to a complete workout at home has as many benefits to life and convenience as it has to health and emotional well being.

Similar models to most machines found in a gym are available to regular consumers. Unless you’ve got a vast amount of available space, however, the machines used in gyms all over the world would not fit very conveniently. The majority of consumers have little space to be able to give away to multiple pieces of equipment. It is for this reason that the best investment for anybody interested in a home gym is a complete, multi-station workout machine.

One of the most popular home workout stations is the Bowflex machine. The Bowflex machine mostly consists of resistance type exercises. Although it is different than traditional weights, these types of machines provide great benefit to toning muscle and losing weight. A greater benefit to these types of machines is their easy storage capacity. Because this particular type of weight lifting equipment does not use weights, there is not as much space necessary. Most of these types of workout stations even have transforming capabilities which allow them to be stowed away.

Another top option for home gym equipment is the total gym, a type of multi-positional bench and weights attached to a pulley. There are a great number of workout stations of this nature on the market that all have their merits. As with any selection of products, there are downsides as well as upsides. Determining the most important features of a workout station is up to the consumer alone. You may find help in getting consultation from a source you can trust, such as a trainer or a friend who is more experienced with weight lifting. There is a lot of information to be found on the internet, as well. Be weary of sites who offer little or no information. Avoid sites, also, from which you are unable to get every one of your questions about the product answered.

Before settling on a home gym workout station, it is important to be aware of all the capabilities of the machine. If you have exercises in mind that you would like to be able to perform, you want to verify that this machine will allow you to do them. You don’t have to live at the gym or break your bank to have access to a better body. Look online to find your best option for weight lifting equipment that you can use easily at home.

Sleep Disorders in Astrology

A good sleep is necessary for optimal health and can affect mood, weight and hormone levels.

Sleeping disorders and sleeping problems are common modern complaint,including insomnia, sleep deprivation, sleep apnea, snoring and restless legs syndrome. Sleep disorders and problems are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning.

Some of the main causes for sleep disorders are excessive fatigue, fear, anxiety, heavy and rich meals, coffee, tea and others stimulants taken at night, too hot or noisy room.

A persistent sleep disorder deserves careful attention and medical check-up.

Astrological factors responsible for sleep disorders/problems are

12th house/lord -natural significator of sleep

4th house/lord-house of comforts

Moon -significator of mind/heart/stomach /mood-swings

Mercury -represents intelligence and brain nerves

Saturn -represents depression, obstruction and diseases

Astrological combinations for sleep disorders

1. Mercury governs brain nerves, Moon controls mind, heart and stomach. Jupiter rules over the liver and lungs. The parts of the body which causes sleep disorders are brain nerves, lungs and liver. Therefore these three planets are responsible for providing sound sleep.

2. Lord of 12th house present in 3rd/6th/8th indicates disturbed sleep.

3. Lord of 3rd/6th/12th house placed in 12th house indicates inadequate sleep.

4. If lord of ascendant/3rd house or the Moon is posited in 12th house then the sleep is characterized by vague dreams.

5. Presence of natural malefic like Saturn/Mars/ Sun/Rahu/Ketu in 12th house indicates disturbed sleep.

6. 12th house hammed between 6th and 8th house lords represents insomnia or sleep with horrific dreams.

7. 12th lord combust by Sun then the native will suffer from insomnia.

8. 12th house/lord associated with Venus indicates long hours of sleep.

9. Lord of 3rd /4th house present in 12th house or lord of 12th house present in 3rd/4th house induces sexual dreams in the mind of native.

10. Lord of 12th is in exaltation/own house, the native will sleep too much.

11. Lord of 12th house placed in ascendant or lord of ascendant and 12th exchanges their houses, then the native develops lazy tendencies and sleep too much.

12. 12th house/lord associated with Venus causes excessive sleepiness, especially if Venus is also the lord of Ascendant /4th house amount of sleep exceeds many folds.

13. Rahu associated with 12th house/lord is responsible for interrupted sleep.

14. If Ketu is associated with 12th house/lord the native will remain dull and sleepy.

15. If lord of 12th house is weak and present in 6th/8th house the sleeping period is curtail.