Choosing Between the Different Types of Cooker Extractor Fans

Cooker extractor fans go by a wide variety of names, such as kitchen hood, extractor hood, ventilation hood, and electric chimney. Although they are most often installed directly above your oven by being mounted on the wall, there are many other model types available, such as those integrated into your cabinets, free standing types, chimneys, and island range hoods which are installed in your ceiling. This article will take a look at each of these different types and hopefully you will have a better idea about which one you would like to have installed in your home.

The most widely used style of cooker extractor fans are known as the canopy hoods and they are installed to hang directly over your kitchen stove. They are used to suck up all the polluted air, steam, and airborne grease that can result from cooking. This is done by either evacuating the tainted air completely from your home, or by running it through a filter and recirculating it through your home. In order to evacuate the air form your home, you will need to have ductwork connecting your fan to the outside which can be costly. If this is not the option for you, then you will need a filter based system.

Next, there are the island range hoods, which use a chimney like structure to carry the polluted air out through your ceiling. One of the drawbacks of this style is that they are practically impossible to disguise since they are out in the center of the room. They are also usually more expensive than the other models, but this is because they are so much more efficient. Their high performance allows them to draw the air through long stretches of duct without losing strength.

The freestanding cooker extractor fans are very similar, but they do not have the chimney and as such do not evacuate the air completely from the home. They will instead use a charcoal filter to clean the air and then recirculate it through your kitchen. You will usually have the choice of a disposable filter that you will have to replace every so often, and a reusable one that you can simply wash in the dishwasher before before.

These days you also have a lot of accessories to choose from for your cooker extractor fans as well. First of all, most models come with incandescent or fluorescent lights to illumine your cooking surface. There are many other add-ons as well because such as electromechanical controls, thermal sensors, automatic on and off, protection against overheating, and even cleaning reminders. The prices of these machines vary, so it is difficult to give an approximate price. However, you can typically expect to pay anywhere from $ 100 to $ 20,000. The custom built models may cost even more.

Home-Made Solar Panel

A lot of people are slowly becoming aware of the dire consequences of the imminent problem of global warming in our planet. These are the people who are really interested in helping out in their own little way. But what actually thwart their efforts are some baseless rumors that nip the bud of change even before it has had the chance to turn into a seedling. For example, solar panels are too expensive; or it takes a decade to deliver some practical worth or that they are too inefficient to work on cloudy days. This article is an earnest attempt to dispel these wrong notions and offer the latest on the technological front of solar power innovation.

1. First, the technology required to build a homemade solar panel is available in a DIY for as less as $ 200; the technology too is efficient enough to deliver on all types of days and in all kinds of places, even if it is sunny or not so sunny.

2. The information available in the DIY kit is illustrative enough for any one to easily apply and build a homemade solar panel.

3. Smaller commercial versions of the original solar panels ensure that, they suit the need of those with limited roof space.

4. A homemade solar panel is portable too, so you can take them anywhere you want and generate unlimited green energy.

So in case you are serious about reducing your energy footprint, switch to a homemade solar panel and see how your energy bill plummets.

John Mervin: Risingsun, Ohio Pioneer

JOHN MERVIN, one of the early settlers at the site of the present town of Risingsun, is a highly respected resident of that place. Like many of the prosperous and influential men of the day, he has made his way to success through adverse circumstances, and his well-won competence reflects credit upon him.

He is of English birth, having entered upon his mortal career in Leicestershire, January 11, 1824. His father, Thomas Mervin, was a butcher by trade. Our subject was reared upon a farm, near a small village, enjoying only the limited advantages of the common schools. He showed ability in the management and care of horses, and at an early age found employment in that work; but the opportunities for advancement seemed to him discouraging, and he determined to come to America. Leaving his young wife, formerly Miss Elizabeth Riley, he sailed from Liverpool, in April, 1849, in the ship “Joseph Badger,” and after a voyage of four weeks landed in New York. The trip to Albany was made by river, from Albany to Buffalo by rail, and from Buffalo he came by lake to Sandusky, where he took the Mad River railroad, then the only one in this region. His destination was Avon township, Lorain county, but by mistake he went to New Haven, Huron county. On learning his error he started on foot for Lorain county, but while en route he was taken very ill in Greenfield township, Huron county, and was cared for by some friendly English people. On his recovery he had but fifty cents left of the sum which he had saved from his earnings for his journey, and a new start in life. This money was spent for wine to stimulate his impaired energies, and instead of going on, he decided to remain there and rent a farm.

In the spring of 1850 his wife rejoined him. She had a difficult voyage, spending four months on the way, and being shipwrecked three times. They lived there for several years, renting different farms in the locality, but in the fall of 1863 they came to Wood county, driving through in a wagon. Mr. Mervin purchased sixty acres of land in Section 36, Montgomery township, where the village of Risingsun now stands. At that time the land was partially improved in the dry portion and a plank house stood near his present home. The swamply part of the farm had to be cleared, however, and there was no small amount of hard work to be done in the first years of his stay; but the rapid development of the locality brought prosperity. He still owns severnty acres of land in the vicinity, and also has ten acres in Jackson township, Seneca county. In 1877 he built a fine residence in Risingsun, which he has since occupied. Mrs. Mervin’s death, December 9, 1888, brought deep sorrow to this pleasant home. her remains are interred in Trinity cemetery, Scott township, Sandusky county. They had nine children, all of whom are living: Sarah, Mrs. George Young, of Seneca county; Mary, Mrs. Adam Graber, of Risingsun; George, a farmer in Perry township; Elizabeth, Mrs. Frank Blonde, of Perry township; Eliza and Lucy, who are at home; Frances, Mrs. Benjamin Bates, of Risingsun; Anna, Mrs. Courtland Essex, of the same town, and Hattie, Mrs. Russell Hoover [my great grandmother], of Montgomery township.

Mr. Mervin’s parents came to the United States in 1855 or ’56, and located in Greenwich township, Huron county, where his father died at the age of seventy-three years. His mother afterward made her home in Wood county with her children, but died in Richland county at ninety years of age. Mr. Mervin is the eldest of six children, all living. Thomas resides in Risingsun; George, in Longley; Elizabeth is the widow of James Brinson, of Huron county; Hannah married John Thompson, of Richland county, and Emma married first the late John Jenney, and second John Winder, of New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mr. Mervin possessed in youth a powerful physique, and is still well-preserved, his strictly temperate habits being in his favor. Fond of reading, he has intelligent views on the questions of the time, and his interest in the education of the rising generation has led to several years of able service as school director. In principle he is a Democrat, but is not bound by partisan ties in the choice of suitable men for local offices. He is a leading member of the M.E. Church.

– From Wood County, Ohio, history, pg. 645

Stair Handrailing Or Guard Rail – Construction and Safety

Before the 1980s most stairways had a handrail and to this day, most stair handrails are not considered guard rails. Well things have changed and now most stairways require a guard rail and it gripable handrail.

What's the difference between a stair handrailing and a stair guard rail, quite frankly about 6 inches. Your stair guard rails have a minimum requirement of 42 inches where stair handrails built before the 1980s had a handrailing for protection with a minimum requirement of 36 inches.

This does not mean that older stair handrails that are 36 inches tall will need to be removed and replaced, because the new building codes have changed. If you were to rebuild the stair handrail or do any work on the stairway that required a building permit, they could have you change your stair handrailing to meet current building codes.

I was helping another guy frame a new house in 2005 and while I was on the job I would mention to the owner, certain concerns of mine with other parts of the job. After a while he realized, that I knew what I was was talking about and started to pay attention when ever I mentioned anything related to home building.

He asked me if I would be interested in building the stair handrailing system and at the time I was too busy. I reminded him of the minimum requirements for the stair guard rail, it was no longer reported to as a stair handrail and would need to be at least 42 inches in height and include a gripable handrail.

Well as you guessed it, the next time I walked into the home, I noticed a 36 inch high stair handrail. I reminded him and he was not too worried, because he rented someone that knew all about building stair handrails.

The building inspector made him remove and replace the stair handrail, before he would approve the home for final inspection. Do not make the same mistakes, learn a little more about stair handrail safety and do not become another statistic in the home building industry.

Always check with your local building department, whether you're reading articles like this or asking questions to experienced contractors. Everybody makes mistakes and sometimes their information is out of date, according to new home building practices or building codes.

Are You Obese and Chair Bound? Learn How to Bring Movement Back Into Your Life

Obesity brings with it a plethora of excuses of why you do not have to get up and force yourself to exercise. Everyone buys into it, your friends, your family, even you.  If you are chair bound today, hope is not gone. Bodies have amazing recuperative powers. If you start a nutritionally sound diet and a short exercise routine, you will be amazed at how fast you, yes, I said you, can reclaim your life.

Nothing happens overnight, you have to build your muscles, your stamina, and your determination for success. If you are chair bound, do as my client who I like to call Miracle Jan did. She had just purchased a wheel chair and was ready to give up her mobility for good when we met. She hadn’t walked beyond the circular path from her living room to her kitchen and through the dining room back to her chair in years. So, that is how she started. One trip around her downstairs with the use of a cane and back to her chair to recover. She did this 10 times a day. It was exhausting. The next week she was doing two laps, and within the first month had built to half an hour a day of walking. Five short months later she walked a 10K with her granddaughter.  

Was it as easy as all that? No of course not, she had to push herself each and every day. I remember her first attempt at going back up the stairs in her house. One step at a time, holding onto the banister and stopping every step to catch her breath. It had been a long time since she had seen the inside of her own bedroom. But she forced herself up those stairs, and eventually set the rule that she would only use the upstairs bathroom. The hospital bed in her living room was put away, and she returned to, as she liked to say, “her wedding bed.”  

When I first started my weight loss journey, I could only do a ten minute walk around my property. I did that six times a day. Before the first month was over, the walking bug had hit me and I tried my first full hour. 6 laps all together. By the end of my second month I was hiking up a mountain and riding a bicycle up and down my street while still over 200 pounds (I’m only 5’1″).  

So many obese men and women tell me that they cannot exercise, that it is beyond their physical capabilities, but I know it is not. If you can walk from your chair to the bathroom, then you can start a routine to get back on your feet for good. Okay, yes, you will have to lose weight to enjoy the full benefits, but you must know that you can no longer use your obesity as an excuse not to exercise.  

There are plenty of chair exercise DVDs on the market, get some and start stretching those muscles, then get yourself up off the chair and walk. Walking is the number one, most important thing you can do to regain your health. Sure it may tire you out, sure your ankles may hurt a little, but the benefits are well worth it.  

For those of you aren’t completely chair bound, but seem to spend most of your time in one, I bet you can find every excuse out there not to start a walking routine. I say, think again. If your knees or your hips hurt then take short walks, adding an extra minute each day or week. Once your body gets used to it, you will be shocked how fast it will start to crave the daily exercise. You may not want to take the walk, but your body will insist.  

Movement is key to life. Like a stagnant pond in the desert, our bodies fill with toxins if we don’t move. Refuse to let that happen regardless of how lost a cause you believe you are. Right now, get up from your chair and take a walk. Set a timer when you get back and do it again in half an hour. Challenge yourself each day to go one step, one lamp post further, and see how fast your body responds.  

Don’t just say you hate being obese and that you want to change. Get up off that chair and do it. Now!

To Be Successful, Have Successful Beliefs

Beliefs Series:

  • Part 1 – Beliefs Hold the Key
  • Part 2 – Own your Beliefs!
  • Part 3 – To Be Successful, Have Successful Beliefs

As we've discussed, beliefs create our reality. We develop beliefs for every area of ​​our life, yet, the most important beliefs that contribute towards our success are the ones that determine the feelings towards oneself. How you view yourself, has a direct relationship with the success you will have in the world – if you do not believe you possess value, than there is nothing for you to share.

Successful people have successful beliefs. If you need examples for defending a successful belief, I suggest finding people you deem 'successful' and ask them, or read biographies from great minds you admire (sorry, mine is not written yet. I kid, I kid.). If you talk with some of the most successful people in the world, past or present, the most common denominator is related to the goals that they set and the beliefs they hold.

The belief in yourself, your abilities, your value, and your future success is paramount.

Let's dig in.

The Power of a Belief

"It always seems impossible until it's done." ~ Nelson Mandela

In 1954, the commonly held belief in the world was that it was humanly impossible to run a four-minute mile. That's until Roger Bannister came along, believing and proclaiming he'll do the impossible. Sure enough, after many close attempts, he broke the four-minute barrier by.6 seconds! He shattered people's beliefs by doing the impossible.

Know what happened next? A shift in belief occurred, which led to a plethora of runners conquering this once 'impossible' feat. Today, thousands of people have done it.

I do not believe humans discovered at such a rapid rate in the 50s and thus allowing our muscle fibers to increase in density, enabling new increases in speed and longevity. The only factor that changed was the belief that was possible – starting with Roger Bannister, believing in himself and not allowing a commonly held custody to hold him back.

What you think about most, what you focus on, what you believe, has a direct connection to your overall well-being, happiness, and success. Check out 'Change Your Thoughts, Change Your Reality' for a more detailed discussion.

Clarity is Power

Beliefs form our view on life, and nobody wants a blurry view. Our beliefs naturally guide us in the direction we most desire, and the clearer we are, the better the results. Our subconscious can be our best friend or our worst nightmare, and proper programming (via our thoughts and beliefs over time) is required. Put garbage in, get garbage out.

Developing clarity is one of the hardest things to do; we are very complex creatures and knowing oneself thoroughly is not easy. I was always the kid trying to do anything and everything because I never knew what I wanted out of this life. I would tell my dad "If I knew what I wanted to do, I would start now and be the best at it!" – I was 12 years old. Sure, I held the empowerment belief I could do anything and be great at it, but unfortunately, I had no where to point this energy. My goals and aspirations were fuzzy at best.

Let's look at a better example, from a person who knew what he wanted to do and the value he believed he was worth …

Picture the story of Canadian born Jim Carrey, rising from being a small time Comedian in Ontario, and landing on the big screens all over the world. Want to know something special about him? As crazy as he portrayed himself on screen, Jim had clarity – he knew what success meant to him and he believed he had the ability to capture it. Do you have this kind of belief in yourself? This is what he had to say:

"I wrote myself a check for ten million dollars for acting services rendered and dated it Thanksgiving 1995. I put it in my wallet and it deteriorated. And then, just before Thanksgiving 1995, I found out I was going to make ten million dollars for Dumb and Dumber. I put that check in the casket with my father because it was our dream together. " ~ Jim Carrey

He knew his value, he believed in himself, and even put a deadline on it!

Do your dreams have deadlines? Do you possess the beliefs in yourself to back them up?

Great Role Models

Did you know that Michael Jordan was dropped from his High School team? He believed in himself, he believed he could fly, and before we all knew it was flying across the NBA courts. In his book, "I Can not Accept Not Trying", he says that he can accept failure, but he can not accept not trying.

Lance Armstrong believes that winning is about heart, not just the legs. Your heart has to be in the right place. He also believes that if you are worried about falling off the bike, you'd never get on.

When Tiger Woods was a young boy, he wrote down on a 3×5 card that he was going to break all of Jack Nicklaus' records. Look at him now. Jack Nicklaus agrees that Woods can do it if he stays on the track he's on.

Bill Gates believes in the importance of hard work, and if you are intelligent and know how to apply your intelligence, you an achieve anything. This led him to drop out of college (scary!) To follow his passions.

Will Smith believes 'I can create whatever I want to create,' and 'We are who we choose to be'. Pretty powerful beliefs no?

All these people started with a belief and moved on to greatness. They believed in themselves and it's easily visible with everything they do. You should not have to build confidence in yourself by the accomplishments you achieve, you should achieve accomplishments by the confidence you have in yourself.

What Prevents Successful Beliefs?

Have you failed more often than not? Have you been told by people close to you, that you will not amount to anything? What is holding you back from holding successful beliefs?

That last question may sound silly, because why would anyone hold onto those beliefs that are NOT beneficial to themselves? Ludicrous! Well, this tend to be the main problem that people have, because belief formation is not dependent on a logical framework and are extremely resistant to logical thinking.

Why would a person believe they can not do something if they have no past experience in which to base that belief? Is not it just as easy to believe you can do something? It sure is, but usually fear finds a way to sneak in and blind us. That is what is so great about fear – fearis usually a red flag, an indicator for opportunities to grow. If our beliefs create our reality, than in order to change our reality, we must first change our beliefs. Let's look at how we can do that.

The Power of Positive Affirmations

Positive affirmations refer to conscious programming your brain with positive thoughts. Reminding yourself of the potential you possess, the feelings you want to experience, the life you expect to have, and the life you want to live. I suggest creating your own affirmations that are personal to you in which you can easily subscribe to. Affirmations could include:

  • "I am a successful, hard working, and motivated businessman who people trust, respect and love doing business with."
  • "I am a loving father and husband who shows love, affection, and encouragement to my wife and children."
  • "I get excited and joyful when an opportunity arrives to help someone."
  • "I feel energized when a challenge presents itself because it is just one more success waiting to happen."
  • "My life is filled with an abundance of opportunities waiting to be acted upon."
  • "My mind and body are clean and healthy and I do something everyday to ensure this."
  • "I can do anything I set my mind to."

The most powerful statements are the ones that start with 'I am …' because you are declaring your ideal image of yourself, and your brain will start aligning itself with this image as if you've already become that person.

Sometimes affirmations do not feel like they fit, or we are not living up to the expectation of the affirmation, and that is fine. If you are new to the idea behind positive affirmations, then it may feel like you are lying or tricking yourself into believing something that is not true. Affirmations are not meant for lying to ourselves; their purpose is to enable the potential within us to fulfill the affirmations. Affirmations help fight the fear that holds us back from action.

Through affirmations, we consciously note the person we want to become, and we actively move in the direction naturally by programming our thoughts and beliefs. Simply thinking the affirmation does not have a positive effect until it is repeated, believed, and felt. This has the potential to be powerful. Start thinking of your subconscious brain as a programmable entity and you'll start aligning your thoughts and beliefs to promote feelings you want to experience.

Start Having Successful Beliefs

Personally, I consistently believe that men / women should have a life filled with creating – creating ideas orventions, creating a better world, creating value for others, and creating a fulfilled life. In doing so, you leave your unique mark on the world.

I believe if you do not have the discipline to convert thoughts and beliefs into action, you are not living successfully. This belief pushes me and motivates me to produce something on a regular basis giving me feelings of accomplishment, satisfaction, and joy for fulfilling my belief. If I do not, I feel I am not living up to my potential. I do not even have to push myself anymore, I simply have the drive, urge, and need to create SOMETHING. This website is one outlet for this belief, and it is my attempt to create something that is timeless and challenges people's thought patterns, beliefs, and encourages them to live the life they can .

To start having successful beliefs, we need to start by recognizing the ones that hold us back, and as we noted, beliefs are not bound by logic. How can we pinpoint these harmful beliefs? We can do this by making goals and recognizing ideas that arise when we aim big. We can do this by looking at our previous track record and discovering why we failed or succeeded. Sometimes other people have to tell us. And many times, recognizing a negative belief is as simple as listening to yourself every time you use the words 'I can not …'.

Eliminate these negative beliefs and start creating beliefs that motivate you to action, push you to succeed, remind you of your purpose, and fires up your confidence. The battlefield to success is not in the world, it's inside your head. Figure that out, and the world changes in front of you eyes.


Most of us hold ourselves back by some of the beliefs we hold, we place restrictions and limitations upon ourselves. We once believed that light was not produced by the sun or fire was impossible. Thanks Edison. We once believed human flight was impossible. Thanks Orville and Wilbur Wright. Successful people hold successful beliefs, is not it about time everyone joined in?

Think about it:

  • What beliefs do you hold that pushes you to reach new levels of success?
  • What beliefs do you hold that limit you from reaching new levels of success?
  • Look in the mirror, how do you feel about yourself?
  • Close your eyes, what do you think about yourself?
  • Do you believe you'll be successful?
  • How do you feel about money and it's role in success?
  • Do you have reasons for why you are not successful? Try and debunk these.
  • Do you make a failure into a success by learning from it?
  • Are your beliefs shaped by fear and uncertainty?
  • Do you believe you can make a difference but fail to act? What belief is holding you back?
  • Dig deep and know your beliefs. You have to discover a belief you hold before you can change or upgrade it.
  • What feelings do when I think about something I want to / plan to do? Beliefs lead to the feelings we experience, so knowing our feelings can lead to understanding our faith!

Feel free to share some of your beliefs and discoveries, we're love to hear them!

Thinking – How Do Dog's Do It? Part One

If you are like me, you really do not spend much time wondering about how your dog thinks or if it thinks at all. You are aware that certain things get your dog's attention and other things make it be in a certain way, but in all honesty, we rarely give much thought to the "thinking our dogs do."

During a slow period of thinking on my own, I decided to do some research on dogs and their brainpower and discovered some interesting things that I would like to share with you.

Did you have any idea that a dog's brain and spinal cord start to develop a few days after the sperm and egg meet? This development continues through the fetal stage and through the first year after birth. In the beginning the brain makes many more cells than it initially needs and will remodel itself during the first year, according to the environment the puppy is involved in.

The brain requires stimulation in order to develop and this is why "puppy socialization" is so important. If a puppy is exposed to people, new environments and other dogs in a positive manner the chances are, it will be smarter, more adaptable and develop a more sociable attitude towards people.

When a puppy is born its brain resembles a smaller version of an adult brain. But, as it is going through that first year of development outside the womb, it continues to change and refine itself according to the puppy's experiences, and will continue to some extent, through the dog's life.

There are many interesting parts that make up a dog's brain, which is similar to ours. The cerebral cortex which is comprised of many hills and valleys, acts like the hard drive of a computer. Memories, associations and instants are stored in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is divided into five sections or lobes, which are:

  • The olfactory lobe, located near the dog's nose, this receives the scent and relays it to other parts of the brain.
  • The frontal lobe sets behind the olfactory lobe and controls the dog's emotions, reasoning, movement and vocalization. The frontal lobe makes the dog's tail wag and is in charge of most of the things your dog does.
  • The parietal lobe is found sitting behind the frontal lobe and responsible for such senses as touch, pain, taste, pressure and temperature. This particular function reminds your dog to run to the kitchen when it smells dinner cooking and practice looking very hungry.
  • The temporal lobe is on the other side of the cerebral cortex and is in charge of hearing, memory, learning and meaning.
  • The occipital lobe processes vision and allows your dog to recognize things. This lobe allows your dog to see the leash, so it will know it is going out for a walk.

Now this is not enough to get our dog up and running there is more to a dog's brain, and so we will continue to learn what makes our dog work.

There is a cauliflower-shaped object that lies behind the cerebrum called the cerebellum this coordinates the dog's movements and balance. A dog with an injured cerebellum will walk with jerky steps and its feet will be far apart in order to keep its balance.

Beneath the cerebrum is the brain's relay center, this is where the messages from all the other sensory organs and the rest of the body come, before being sent to the appropriate part of the cerebral cortex. The basal ganglia and thalamus are what form this memory center, sort of like the random access memory (RAM) of a computer. A dog's reaction to a circumstance can be transmitted to these to sites within a few thousandths of a second and be sent to the proper place and result in the correct reaction for the dog.

Next we find the parts that have the on / off switch in your dog's brain the midbrain and the brain stem, these are like a computer's central processing system. They determine whether or not your dog is awake or sleep and take care of all the bodily functions such as breathing, blood circulation and the beating of the heart.

Now there has to be a way for all this information to travel to all the parts of the brain and to do it quickly and there is. Neurons do the job and there are about 100 billion neurons in a dog's brain. They are so small that 30,000 of them can fit on a head of a pin.

Neurons are polar, which means they have to ends each with a different function. One end is called the dendrite, this end gathers all the messages from the other neurons. These dendrites are attached to a neuronal body, where the cell's life functions are taken care of. Protruding from the cell body is a thing called the axon, which transmits the signal to the next cell.

Neuron communicate with each other through neurotransmitters, a small molecule, that is secreted by the axon called a synapse, which in turn binds it to the dendrite of another neuron. Once it binds to the recipient neuron an electrical charge is developed and causes the signal to travel down the axon to cause the secretion of another neurotransmitter.

The nervous system uses a mixture of electrical and chemical signals that makes it incredibly fast, so fast your dog can feel the touch of a nail clipper and pull its paw, while you stand there wondering about the action.

Recent studies have shown that the neurons are not staid cells, but can actually shrink and disappear. This is how you can teach an old dog a new trick by reinforcing a new behavior, the old one will eventually disappear and the new behavior will take over.

For instance, if your dog has a bad habit of barking at the mailman, it is possible to teach your dog to go to specific location to get a treat every time the mailman comes. After a few times, the dog will automatically go to the location for a treat, when it sees the mailman. The neuron that saw the mailman and triggered the barking will indeed shrink and disappear.

This is called synaptic plasticity; it is the ability of the connection between two neurons to change in strength. The neurons are constantly signaling each other and through this exchange can remodel themselves, this is how learning occurs. It is the method in which old dogs learn new tricks and / or behaviors.

In case you did not know it, dogs are extremely smart and they have the ability to communicate not only with us, but also with other species. No other species is better at understanding human facial expressions and communicating to us through body language, than our canine friends are.

Scientists are just beginning to understand the extent, in which dogs can understand the human language. Some dogs understand and display knowledge of up to 200 words and have the ability to go directly to a toy or object when directed by a single word even after weeks of not hearing it.

A dog's brain is a wondrous organ. It is the most active organ in the dog's body and consumes over 20 percent of the oxygen in the blood. A dog's brain is so soft you could cut it with a butter knife and yet, it works faster and is more complex, than the world's most powerful computer.

In another article, I am going to venture into the world of canine emotions, it is said that dog's do not have emotions, however, I beg to differ, so please join me in part two of "Thinking – How Do Dogs Do it. "

Rhodes Lindos – A Tour of the Acropolis

This is the most impressive archaeological site on the island of Rhodes, where the dramatic natural landscape is enhanced by the picturesque quality of the more modern town. The most important archaeological monuments are to be found at the Acropolis, but there are also interesting ruins scattered at various points within the town and just outside it.

A cobbled road leads up to the Acropolis, and for those who wish to avoid the tiring climb there are donkeys for hire at the main entrance to the town. The first ruins you will encounter are the mediaeval walls, built by the Crusaders (early 14th century) on the remains of earlier defenses, both Byzantine and ancient. Along the mediaeval walls are a very small number of towers, which follow the natural contours of the high ground. On the area of ​​level ground where the mediaeval steps begin you will see to your left an ancient triimolia (a kind of ship) carved in the rock circa 180-170 BC

On the ship's prow there once stood a statue of the general Agisandros Mikkion (it has not survived) which, according to the inscription, was the work of Pythokritos, creator of the Nike of Samothrace. The great mediaeval steps lead up to the Governors Palace of the Crusader castle, which is considered of three buildings, of which two have survived. It was first restored in the early 20th century by the Danish Archaeological Mission and then, during the period between the world wars, by the Italian authorities. As you come out of the Governor's Palace you will see a series of vaulted constructions supporting the "andiro", a man-made terrace which opens out in front of the Hellenistic stoa. A number of the columns are still standing.

It was built in the shape of the Greek letter fl, in the late 3rd century BC, with protruding wings to the side, each with a frontage of four columns. It was 88 m. long, 9 m. wide and had 42 columns. The terrace was laid out later and two underground cisterns were also constructed to collect rainwater from the roof of the stoa and from the steps of the Propylaea. The scattered plinths with their inscriptions reminding us of the time when the whole area was full of statues dedicated to the goddess. Next to the Governor's Palace stands the church of Agios loannis, built on the inscribed cruciform plan. It is not clear precisely when it was built; some assign it to the late 11th – early 12th century, others to the 13th – 14th century. It was constructed on the remains of an earlier church, judging from the architectural fragments found on the Acropolis and dating from the 6th century AD.

A monumental flight of steps, behind the eight central columns of the Hellenistic stoa, leads up to the Propylaea of ​​the temple of Undia Athena, another stoa structure in the same shape. Only the foundations have survived. At the two ends of the Propylaea there were areas where the votive offerings made to the goddess were stored. The stoa was built of porous stone at the end of the 4th century BC At the highest point of the Acropolis, on the edge of the cliff, stands the temple of Lindia Athena. This is an unexpectedly small Doric temple, with a stoa of four columns at each end. There still remain in the interior the subjective altar and the plinth of the worshiped statue of the goddess. This building too was of porous stone, with mortar facing, and dates from the end of the 4th century BC (Open daily, 8.30am-2.40pm in the winter, 8 am-7pm in the summer).

Melenos Hotel Lindos is one of the largest Rhodes hotels in Rhodes Island .

Leadership Expectations – 20 Expectations For Leadership Success

How many times are individuals hired into leadership positions without really knowing what their own leadership expects of them? This is especially troublesome for those who are first time managers. As a leader, I always found it not only important but inspiring to share with my management team what I expected of each of them as leaders within the organization. Of course, turn around is always fair play. They also individually shared with me what they expected of me as their leader. Sharing expectations up front not only allowed us to come together as a high performance leadership team more quickly, but also gave us all the opportunity from the start to jointly build the best work team we could for the organization as a whole.

Below are 20 leadership expectations I have shared and found valuable for creating a strong leadership team.

1. Respect each other – treat everyone well. Do not be confrontational. Maintain their self-esteem. Be sensitive to the tone of your voice and the words that you speak. Give people the respect and the dignity they deserve. Do unto others, as they would have you do unto them. Trust people and honor the best they have to offer. You should always be in a partnership, you are part of the same team and everyone benefits form the organization being successful.

2. Act with integrity, speak honestly and do the right thing. Always, always tell the truth. Then you will not have to try and remember what you said. Choose your highest thought about something when trying to decide how to act.

3. Motivate with a mission; lead from the heart with passion and compassion. Give people a compelling reason for being a part of this organization. Employees are far more likely to put their heart in the game for a manager who breaks through the facade of invincibility and demonstrates humanness. Have a passionate belief in your ideas and values. Say the words “I believe” and share your thoughts with your team. Get people excited! Know that your true power comes from within, the source that fuels all success.

4. Be adaptable. Stay creative. Have the courage to do things differently. Find ways to always improve. Be willing to think a new thought if you want to create a different (new and improved) reality. Instill in others the need to “think a new thought”. Remember, change is part of the natural order of things. You must either change or be left behind. Be comfortable with letting go of the past in order to gab hold of a different future.

5. Pick your battles – know your non-negotiables. How you manage a crisis will determine whether it escalates or goes away. So pick your battles wisely. Some things are not worth fighting for now. Timing is everything!! Do not allow problems to fester. Deal with it. Recognize problems right away and deal with them.

6. Keep communications open. Deconstruct the barriers that inhibit the ability of the organization to learn, grow and continually adapt while moving forward. Create an organization that allows the sharing and flow of thought and information to proceed effortlessly as part of the process for the greater good. Learn to listen to and handle adversity while adhering to your beliefs. Take the heat and move on.

7. Get in the wheelbarrow! We succeed or fail together – it’s a partnership. People must know that everyone, including you, is in this together. They must understand that your success as a leader is linked to their success.

8. Always look for ways to improve something (remember everything can be improved upon until it is no longer needed). Keep being creative and looking for new ideas and thoughts. Find ways to always be improving, find new ways to win. Do not get stuck in “that’s the way we’ve always done it” because if that’s true, it’s probably time to change.

9. Live for the future, not from the past. Put your team in “future think” while bridging the gap between the past and the future. Find ways to not only create a vision for the future but also become that “vision” now, in the present. Remember you must first envision it before you can be it, you must be it before you can do it, you must do it before you can have it and only when you have it can you then claim it – SUCCESS!!

10. Work with a sense of urgency. You must understand that we do not have unlimited time! Everything has a time limit and nothing last forever. Lead with a sense of urgency and purpose knowing that what you are currently working on now is only a stepping-stone to the next opportunity that lies before you and your team.

11. Build a team ego – inflate the people around you. Put the group first. Make the people around you feel better. Make people proud to be a part of the team. Let people know they are “making history” everyday. Center success around the teams’ accomplishments. Build a team culture with shared values.

12. Do not just go through the day GROW through the day so tomorrow you can achieve more. Everyday look for or create opportunities for the members of your team to develop and grow. Remember the more they become, they more they can offer to not only the team’s success but their personal success as well.

13. Meetings: get in – get out! Enough said, literally!

14. Promote and support a balanced worklife. Realize, people don’t live to work; they work to live. Therefore, embrace the fact that they have a life outside of work, and so do you. Lead from the knowledge that people live within a holistic system that includes what happens inside and outside of work.

15. Show appreciation. Personally recognize. Understand that your team is the most valuable resource you have. It is what makes your leadership and the ability to succeed as an organization unique. Recognize that your team is uniquely qualified to deliver success to the organization. What you do with the unique talents, experiences and expertise that resides within your team will make all the difference between success and failure. There is no other team like the one you have on this planet, so lead like it.

16. Communicate what you want. Know the dangers of assumptions. Have one-on-one meetings to keep people informed. People cannot be blamed or held responsible for what they do not know. Make sure the message is understood. Do not simple assume people know what you want.

17. Be your own messenger. Be hands-on, talk to the team (everyday), reaffirm the vision, and constantly keep it out there. Be visible and let others see you lead. Let your team hear you and see you leading from the future, versus holding onto the past.

18. Act decisively – be an “intentional leader”. Decide to succeed on purpose and do what it takes to make that happen. Forget about “trying” because there is no such thing. You either get the results you want or your don’t. So decide to be a successful leader. Learn the methods of other successful leaders. Learn what works and what doesn’t and find what works best for you.

19. Don’t be afraid to fail. Take personal ownership and pride in all you are responsible for. Failure is part of the leadership package. Do not be afraid to be wrong, do not be afraid to fail, its part of the process. Failure is just another class in school. Just remember, when you fail, fail fast, learn from it and then keep moving forward.

20. Always “be of service”. Everything you do as a leader must be geared towards nurturing an environment that makes peoples lives better. Stay in service to others and those that are depending on you for your leadership.

Make a Solder Free Stained Glass Box

Solder free stained glass boxes are fun to make. You can make these boxes to hold jewelry, mementos, or anything else you want. Their size can be customized to your need or space. In just an hour, you can make one of theses boxes.

To make a square or rectangular box, cut a piece of glass or mirror for the bottom of the box. The size of this piece will be the size of the box you want to make. To cut the sides of the box, first determine how deep you want the box. Then cut 2 pieces of glass that is the same length as the glass you cut for your bottom piece by the height you desire. Then cut 2 more pieces, the width of the bottom piece minus 1/4 inch (the thickness of the glass times 2) and by the same height you cut the other two pieces. The last 2 pieces you need to cut is for the top of the box. Using the bottom glass for you pattern, cut one piece of glass that is 1/2 inch larger on all four sides and one piece that is 1/4 inch smaller on all four sides.

Once all your pieces are cut, lightly grind all the edges. Then clean and dry all the pieces and you are ready to assemble your box. To assemble box, you will need Weldbond glass glue. It is strong and it dries clear.

Using a thin line of glue on the edges of the side glass and attach them to the outer surface perimeter of your bottom piece. Do this one piece at a time. If excessive glue squeezes out, use a damp q-tip to wipe off excess. Once all four sides of your box are glued, set it aside to dry. To make the top of your box, center the smaller top piece on the larger top piece. Use only a few small dots of glue to adhere these two pieces together. Let all pieces thoroughly dry (24-48 hours).

To embellish the top of your box, you can attach glass nuggets or whatever else you would like.

History of the Curling Iron

History of the curling iron. Is there such a thing or is the curling iron just a modern invention? Each generation is the same. We think we have invented something new when perhaps all we have done is to modify “old inventions” by applying modern technology. Let us begin to investigate the history of the curling iron or, as it is also known, the curling tong.

Let us begin with the definition of a curling iron. It is a tool, a cylindrical metal appliance, used to change the structure of the hair by applying heat to a lock of hair that has been curled around it. It is natural to think with a modern mind and assume that the heat is generated by electricity. However, the curling iron goes way back before the introduction of electricity.

We only have to look at carvings from the ancient world to see that people cared about the style of their hair and that a popular style involved creating curls. Babylonian and Assyrian men dyed their hair and square beards black and crimped and curled them with curling irons. Persian nobles also curled their hair and beards, quite often staining them.

Egyptian nobles, men and women, cropped their hair close but later, for coolness and cleanliness in their hot climate, shaved their heads. On ceremonial occasions, for protection from the sun, they wore wigs. The wigs would be short and curly or long and full of curls or braids. The Science Museum has an example of curling tongs used by rich Egyptians to prepare their wigs.

In classical Greece it is known that the upper classes used curling irons.

Through time there have been many methods devised to curl hair and to keep the curl in place. For example, in 1906 Charles L. Nessler, a German hairdresser working in London, applied a borax paste and curled hair with an iron to produce the first permanent waves. This costly process took twelve hours. Eight years later, Eugene Sutter adapted the method by creating a dryer containing twenty heaters to do the job of waving more efficiently. Sutter was followed by Gaston Boudou, who modified Sutter’s dryer and invented an automatic roller. By 1920, Rambaud, a Paris beautician, had perfected a system of curling and drying permed hair for softer, looser curls by using an electric hot-air dryer, an innovation of the period made by the Racine Universal Motor Company of Racine, Wisconsin. A significant breakthrough came in 1945, when French chemist Eugene Schueller of L’Oréal laboratories combined the action of thioglycolic acid with hydrogen peroxide to produce the first cold permanent wave, which was cheaper and faster than the earlier hot processes. To control the amount of curl, varying diameter of rods were used for rolling. Technology to hold hair in place was advanced in 1960 when L’Oréal laboratories introduced a polymer hair spray to serve as an invisible net.

The curling iron has remained a favoured tool in spite of all the chemical inventions. We have moved on from the metal rods heated by insertion into hot coals or heating on gas or electric stoves. With no control of the heat of the iron there must have been many cases of singed hair, not to mention burnt fingers and scalps! Modern day styles demand more control and flexibility of hair style with hair looking loose rather than “glued into place”. Electrically heated and electronically controlled irons and tongs are now available. The barrels come in varying sizes enabling a tight curl or loose falling curl finish. Some have a smooth easy-glide ceramic barrel to create a super smooth finish and you can also purchase drop curl hair tongs with a cone shaped tong to create loose, tumbling waves and tousled curls. The fluctuation in hair styles from curly to straight and back again means manufacturers will continue to dream up new innovations to attract both professional hair stylists and the consumer.

So who “invented” the curling iron? Inevitably you find many references to “invented” and “patented by” or “introduced by”. The original inventor is lost in the mists of time but examples of the previous sentence are:

In1866, Hiram Maxim, who designed the machine gun bearing his name, applied for and obtained the first of many patents at age 26 for a hair-curling iron.

Four years later in 1890 two Frenchmen, Maurice Lentheric and Marcel Grateau, used hot-air drying and heated curling tongs to make deep, long-lasting Marcel waves.

The Straightening comb however, is actually credited as first being invented by the late 19th century French hairdresser, Marcel Grateau, who also, invented the curling iron, the permanent wave and later the Gillette safety razor which became popular in Germany after World War I.

In related developments, Rene Lelievre and Roger Lemoine invented an electric curling iron in 1959.

The pressing/curling iron was patented by Theora Stephens on October 21, 1980.

In August 1987 the Wahl Clipper Corporation introduced to the professional market the ZeeCurl. This flat-barrel curling iron gave stylists a tool to create new hairstyles with Z-shaped curls, adding texture and body to all types of hair. In 1988, FrenZee, the consumer version, was added.

There is little doubt that fashion will demand and dictate new innovations to ensure continuation of the history of the curling iron.

Rodger Cresswell

The Problem With Applying For 2 Job Openings at a Pharmacy

The dilemma of your wanting to apply for two job positions is a simple one. While you may have a genuine interest in two positions available within a company, my advice to you is: Decide on one job to apply for & put your full effort there.

You may have extreme resistance to my answer because you (… fill in the blank with your reason …), but let me ask you this – why do you want to apply for 2 positions with the same pharmacy / hospital? I have seen pharmacists come to me with this dilemma, and usually they tell me that they want to apply for both jobs because they want to make sure that if they do not get one job, they get the other.

Here's the truth you do not want to hear: You dilute the strength of your application by coming across that 1) you do not really know what you want, 2) even if you really know what you want, it's harder to point out everything about you that aligns with the position are applying for, when you have to do it for two separate pharmacist positions. You do not want to hear this, because you want to believe the illusion that more is better. Two applications for two separate positions equals two chances at a job, right? Wrong. 1 + 1 does not equal 2 here.

If you do not wish to listen to my advice & want to apply for 2 jobs anyway, I suggest you apply for one job first, then if you do not get a response or get rejected for it, apply for the second job. And in that second job application, re-write your resume and definitely include a cover letter that explains why you also have an interest in this other role, along with why you would be good for that particular role, citing specific highlights that support it.

If you want some help with this, there are 3 options you can choose from:

1) Find out how to do stand out from your competition by doing it yourself, with access to secrets of what works & what does not,
2) Get your resume done professionally by a marketing expert so that it gets noticed in this competitive job market
3) Do it yourself without having the edge over your competition.

The pharmacist job market is scheduled with competition for the desired positions right now. I am seeing perfectly qualified pharmacists being headstrong about doing what they've always done before with applying for jobs. They apply on their own without getting advice or access to the inside secrets of what hiring managers are looking for, and then they come to me when the damage is already done. When they do not hear back from the employer, or they hear "sorry, we filled the position already", it's too late. They blew it. Do not be the one who blows it. You have one chance to stand out-all you have to do is do it right the first time.

The Different Types of Tactical Lights For Military and Law Enforcement

Tactical lights are not just high-beam intense flashlights with a durable body. Rather, this specific group of lighting is geared towards assisting the shooter with target identification and illuminating the area. Such flashlights by manufacturers SureFire, Insight Technology, and Streamlight may be handed or mounted and, in addition to assisting with target identification, the light may be used for temporarily blinding the target.

Handheld lights are used more often in law enforcement and with smaller weapons like handguns. An officer using a gun and a tactical light at the same time will hold one in each hand and aim and beam in the same area.

Longer guns, however, require use of two hands, and this arrangement with a tactical light is not possible. Instead, the light can be mounted to the gun, which is typically a rifle, shotgun, or submachine. Although this group of mounted lights is more expensive, these flashlights have a strong enough construction to withstand the recoil of a firearm. Also, if you're looking for a light for a specific gun model, the well-known manufacturers of these products make each light for a specific long or handgun.

Illumination is an important component. Aside from seeing the target directly, the flashlight assists with giving the shooter a better picture of the area. In this case, certain tactical lights are designed for illumination purposes, although some have a target and illumination combination. Specific illumination lights are fitted with colored lenses. A red lens, for example, gives the shooter better night vision. A blue lens, meanwhile, is helpful with high-contrast viewing; in particular, blue lenses are ideal for seeing blood in an area. An infrared lens, additionally, gives the shooter night vision capabilities.

Most tactical lights use lithium batteries for power, while the bulbs are high-powered xenon or LED, with the latter allowing for maximum battery life. Most tactical lights, additionally, are created to be weatherproof and use O-ring and gasket sealing. As far as turning the device on, most rail-mounted lights have a body or tail-mounted switch.

Aside from flashlights, headlamps are widely-used tactical lights for illumination purposes. Although headlamps are also used commonly in fields like diving for similar purposes, those for military and law enforcement uses have a compact and durable design. Much like rail-mounted lights, headlamps use a three-color system for illumination purposes. Red and blue lights are used for the same purposes, but green, a color for hunter safety, is also added.

How To Define Entrepreneurial Spirit

The entrepreneurial spirit is often difficult to define let alone examine in detail because of its perception as a highly creative and dynamic entity and it is with this caveat that this article is written.

Whilst the entrepreneurial spirit can be applied to a wide range of disciplines and professionals it is perhaps most closely associated with the world of business and incorrectly used to describe many successful business people, when in fact very few individuals can truly demonstrate an entrepreneurial spirit.

Historical Context of the meaning of entrepreneur

The word itself is French in origin and if interpreted in its literal context means “between jobs”. It is interesting that a word that has come to project the very pinnacle of success should have such mundane roots as a means of describing being unemployed.

This article examines a number of concepts that appear intrinsic to what constitutes entrepreneurial spirit

1. Uniqueness

In a highly developed global business community where new ideas and business models are increasingly in short supply the importance of uniqueness cannot be under estimated and those exhibiting an entrepreneurial spirit are often associated with concepts that encapsulate originality and ingenuity. Take for example, Steve Jobs bringing the Apple IPOD to the market,

2. Creativity

Creativity is heavily connected to uniqueness but the two are not identical. Individuals with an entrepreneurial spirit are experienced at harnessing the creative process to help them produce a unique product /service or advantage. So where as uniqueness describes the end outcome, creativity describes the process of how one achieves it. For this reason those with an entrepreneurial spirit are often creative individuals who are ready, willing and able to actively adopt new techniques to get ahead even at the expense of being ridiculed by others.

3. Risk Taking

In a western society that is so often risk averse, those with entrepreneurial spirit embrace risk taking and it is impossible for such a concept not to be associated with entrepreneurs and the often high risk potential involved in following a new cutting edge approach. It must be observed however that risk is not the same as recklessness and those demonstrating an entrepreneurial spirit are likely to be adept at assessing the risks involved in any undertaking.

4. Business Savy

As highlighted previously those with entrepreneurial spirit should not be considered as reckless mavericks indeed quite the opposite, good entrepreneurs are motivated by profit and are skilled at identifying a lucrative niche in the market that can be exploited for profit. Take for example, Steve Jobs at Apple Computers who has successfully navigated a profitable course in the computing and software industry despite the market being dominated by Microsoft and IBM for a number of decades. In addition he was the first to spot the potential of utilising the computing industry to open a new market to the music fraternity , with the introduction of the IPOD, the market leader in its business stream. Such actions requires great skill and confidence and demonstrate a clear entrepreneurial spirit.

5. Developing Potential

Identifying, Investing in and nurturing potential are also essential to the ideals attached associated with entrepreneurial spirit because of the need to find differing solutions to a business problem.

Established businesses often fail to discover breakthroughs because they stick to a rigid investment formula that has worked for them in the past rather than finding new ways of moving forward.

6. Adaptability

The entrepreneurial spirit is always adaptable and ready to overcome barriers presented by business problems and is usually quicker at resolving those issues than mainstream business thinkers.

7. Ultimately Destructive

Entrepreneurial spirit is ultimately destructive to its own business in the medium term unless those engaged in utilizing the concept recognize when it is time to handover to mainstream management focussed individuals who can maintain and develop the organisation. This is because true entrepreneurial spirit is obsessed with constant creativity and change which is unsettling to employees without good management and a clear direction. Many of those demonstrating entrepreneurial spirit rarely stay long term in any enterprise they undertake, take Richard Branson for example who after launching numerous businesses under the “Virgin” brand has subsequently sold on many of these to third parties at a huge profit to himself.


In conclusion whilst there are certainly key characteristics which encapsulate the entrepreneurial spirit it would be foolish to pretend that any one individual has all those traits and even more foolish to believe that such a concept can be comprehensively defined. It is also short sighted to believe that those with entrepreneurial spirit are only evident in the business community, indeed many different disciplines and vocations have historical and existing individuals contained within them that could be essentially described as entrepreneurs.

Well Known individuals exhibiting the entrepreneurial spirit : Richard Branson, Clive Sinclair, Freddy Laker, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and Anita Roddick.

Words often used to describe individuals with entrepreneurial spirit : Mavericks, Tycoons, pathological liars, risk takers, self made business people, successful, charismatic.

Fireproof Gun Safes – Key Tips to Buying the Right One For Your Firearms

In some states in US, if you have a gun, do not own a fireproof gun safe and you tend to keep them in the drawer, you might be legally liable for penalty in times of gun theft. Research shows there more than 341,000 accidents of firearm theft from private citizens on a yearly average.

Indeed, home thefts are a critical social problem almost everywhere in the world, and the greatest danger comes when your firearms are stolen to be used in robberies and other crimes. By not saving our firearms, we are in actuality causing more social issues, not to mention creating danger for our own family members during burglary.

In fact, anyone who owns firearms, valuables, passport, policy documents, title deeds, jewelery, priceless collections of coins, stamps and others, would need to use a safe. And if you are strapped of cash but badly need one to keep all the above items and more, you can consider a fireproof gun safe. There are main reasons why you can use it as a multipurpose unit.

There is no need to get separate safes for different items as most of the common items can be stored into one. To understand if you can use one general unit for all items, you will need to know how the ratings for safes work. The industry standards are set by testing boards like Underwriters Laboratories in terms of UL fire resistant ratings. Once passed, you will find the label at the corner of the packaging, certifying the correct classification of category and the tenacity level of the unit.

Take for instance, for storage of paper documents, firearms, jewelery and cash, you will need an interior temperature within the safe of lower than 350 degrees Fahrenheit to prevent reaching the burning point. Here, a UL rating of 1 hour 350 degree F is sufficient for most of the above mentioned items.

There are different locking systems to appeal to your individual preference, like biometric systems with retinal or fingerprint access, key lock system and combination lock. You can choose the most suitable one based on your budget. Depending on the type of firearms you have, you may choose to have a standing long one or a small one if you only own small handguns. You may wish to buy one which gives you some additional space for your other items to store.

Be sure that you buy fireproof gun safe from a reputed manufacturer. Never sacrifice cost for quality and you will get the peace of mind.