Newton’s Third Law and The Secret Physics of Drumming

Dating back to 4000 BC in Egypt, drums are the oldest known instrument in the world. Not only have people been using drums for a long time, but Macaque monkeys also use drumming to show dominance and communicate. Drums have been used all over the world as a means of communication or a way to create music. People who play the drums heavily rely on the physics behind them, but many people never truly realize how much newton’s third law takes place in their activity. When a person plays drums, to simply put it, they are just hitting drums in different ways at different times. The main thing they are doing is bouncing a stick, a hand, a mallet or something similar off of a drum. Without being able to bounce something off the drum, drumming would be drastically different, or even non-existent in this day and age.

Both the sticks, mallets, hands, etc., and the makeup of the drum itself have major roles in the physics of drumming. For example, without Newton’s Third Law, the drumstick would never bounce off the drum, leaving drums having a dull and bland smacking noise. Newton’s Third Law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The action would be the sticks hitting the drum, and the equal and opposite reaction are the sticks bouncing off the drum. As the sticks push against the drumhead, the drumhead also pushes against the sticks with an equal and opposite force, leaving the drum resonating with sound and the sticks back up in the air. This is possible because of the tension in the circular membrane of the drumhead. The tension makes it easier for the sticks to apply more force to the drumhead and make a louder sound while being pushed back up to hit again. Different drums also have different ways they need to be hit. For example, the snare drum needs to be hit in the center, whereas the timpani drum needs to be hit near the sides.

The ideal circular membrane has a fundamental frequency of ƒ1=0.765((√ T/σ)/D), where ƒ = frequency, T = membrane tension, σ = mass per unit, and D = the diameter of membrane. With this ideal frequency, it is easiest and most efficient to hit the drumstick off of the drum. Leading back to Newton’s Third Law, when it is most efficient to hit the drumstick off of the drumhead the forces of the sticks and the drum are completely equal and the drum leaves a resonating sound as the stick goes back up the be used to hit the drum again.

How to Wallpaper Over a Brick or Cement Block Wall

The problems of concealing grouting and rough surfaces are easily overcome. Lining paper, if properly applied, will stretch over and hide the rough patches and the effect can be completed by using a heavy or embossed wallpaper.

This technique also applies to walls built of cement blocks. If you are building with brick or cement block and know that you want to wallpaper certain walls, ask your builders to apply the mortar so that you have a nice flat surface, rather than raking out the joints. With existing walls, the secret is in preparing the raw surface.

These are the tools you’ll need:-

A long table or bench, a trough, sponge or foam paste applicator, scissors, soft brush for smoothing wallpaper on to wall, a ruler, plumb line, razor for cutting.

A paint sealer is applied to dry any moisture from the wall, then a latex based wallpaper liquid size. A well soaked pre-pasted wallpaper lining will be just sufficient to soften the size and bond the lining firmly to the wall so that when wallpaper is pasted over, it won’t weaken in any way.

The same principle can even be applied if you are papering over rough-caste walls (walls that have been plastered and raked or scrolled upon when wet). If your brick wall has an extremely rough and raised surface it will have to be plastered over prior to wall-papering.

Here is how it’s done:-

1. Prior to start working on an absorbent raw wall, you’re first step is to seal and size the wall. Coat it with a paint sealer and leave to dry overnight. Next apply a latex based wallpaper liquid size; this is especially good on absorbent surfaces. This takes about an hour to dry. If time is short you can apply two coats leaving an hour between coats, instead of the over- night sealer.

2. Apply pre-pasted lining paper. Soak it in a trough to soften and roll out to arm’s length. Fold over and back half-way, forming pleats to the end of the roll.

3. Holding the top piece of paper in one hand, and pleats in the other, stretch the first pleat along the wall and flatten out with sponge. Stretch next fold and flatten and so on to the end of the roll.

4. To paper around a corner, leave 25 mm (one inch) overlap and “butt” the adjacent strip of paper on to it.

5. Repeat soaking and folding procedure and bring next roll of paper lining overlapping approximately 6 mm (quarter of an inch) onto the first. By having paper on paper you will prevent the joins from edging into the grooves between bricks.

6. Leave lining paper to dry overnight. As it does so it will tighten and stretch out over grooves and rough patches on the wall surface.

7. Before applying wallpaper, coat again with the latex based wallpaper liquid size as added insurance that the lining paper has sealed properly and tightened on to the wall

8. The type of wallpaper used is important. It should be embossed or a heavy natural weave to ensure that the imprint of the design is not lost when pasted on.

9. Hang your selected wallpaper vertically in the normal way.

Sit back and admire your masterpiece.

How to Get Approved For an Apartment Even With a Criminal Record

One of the most frustrating episodes ones can encounter is a denial of housing. Apartment complexes, which in reality are run by real estate management firms, use a number of factors to determine who should rent and who should not. One of the most common factors that they use is criminal background check. A criminal history can be one of the greatest huddles one can ever come across in the process of renting an apartment.

The reason apartment communities request a criminal background check is first of all for the safety of the overall community. There is a general consensus that people with violent pasts are bound to fall back into their previous destructive habits. The concept of history repeats itself seems to be a prevailing belief in many places when it comes to criminal history and nowhere more so than in apartment leasing offices.

Another reason why apartment leasing offices conduct a criminal background check is so as to create the appearance of safety in the community and in so doing have the justification to charge more for rent. If a neighborhood or apartment housing community has a high level of crime, then tenants will not want to renew their leases and this means that there will be more housing units which are vacant and which the management has to fill (or risk being censored by the owner). The more housing units are vacant in an apartment community the more it hurts the management bottom line because this drives down the rent.

When conducting criminal background checks, apartments normally concentrate on felony convictions. Misdemeanor crimes which are only punishable by fines are generally not a concern. If you have a misdemeanor, you should not be concerned but if it is a felony you may get a denial.

There are two main ways to get an apartment approval if you have a criminal record. The first one is to check the nature of your offense and see whether you received what is called a deferred adjudication. This is a probation granted to first time offenders and is also known as community supervision. If you were convicted of a misdemeanor, and got probation, you can go to the county clerk’s office and request for what is called a court deposition. This is a print-out that shows the offense, the court that heard the case, and the judgment that was rendered and the fact that you have deferred adjudication. The printout also states that you have successfully completed the community service without any other incidences and that you should not be discriminated against when it comes to services. You can take a copy of this document to an apartment manager and in most cases they will approve you.

Another way to get an apartment is to get an expungement. This is the sealing of your criminal records and can be done depending on whether you’re eligible. There is an excellent eBook out in the market regarding how to get an apartment even with an existing criminal record and bad credit and you can get it at []

Flat Styles: The Future of Web Design?

There is virtually no design element which offers a more meaningful shape to minimalism than what flat designs do. Their earliest history can be traced back to the times when designers felt that there was an urgent need to replace the much popular skeumorphic style. Skeumorphism can very simply be described as a design concept which entails the representation of design items that resemble their real-world counterparts.

All you need to find out about them and why do you need to find out about them

Flat styles were definitely viewed as an answer to the limitations of skeumorphism. If the digital space had difficulty in accommodating the skeumorphic elements, the flat style was seen as a greater fit for the digital landscape with all its (the digital landscape’s) limitations. Today flat styles are regarded as one of the most dominant trends ruling web design. So, if you are in talks with a website designing company regarding the possible layout of your website, you should ideally expect them to know about flat designs. Here is more about them.

Flat styles look great when they are rendered within the restraints of minimalism but they are definitely adept at handling a considerable degree of complexities as well. At the very core of these styles is artistic minimalism. The immediate benefits of employing this particular style have been listed below:

  • Flat designs are compatible with responsive requirements
  • Since they are backed by structured and crisp visuals, they render an overall touch of visual maturity that hardly any other web layout can guarantee
  • Speedy loading times
  • Easy user navigation
  • Typography is simple, which in turn, facilitates readability

Today we have flat 2.0, which adds complexity to minimalistic layouts. While the older versions avoided the “grandeur” of shading, the new version employs it effortlessly. Today, flat layouts have embraced more dynamic colors or bright hues to compensate the lack of visual effects that its earlier versions were known for. The modern flat styles employ a string of energizing colors contrasted with a few dull elements in a bid to create a more engaging user experience.

The typography of this particular kind of layout consisting of sans serif and uniform stroke width remains simple and easy to read as well. It should not really be forgotten that designers put particular emphasis on readability while working with this particular style. The ghost button has emerged as almost a regular feature of this particular layout. It works well with the overall nature of this layout since it doesn’t scream for attention but is there to facilitate user experience as well.

How to find them

It is extremely important on your part to find designers who are duly aware of the latest trends ruling the digital landscape. You should know where your money is going. You should try and employ the best of skills in your budget. Do read reviews of companies before hiring them – just as a means to secure an idea about their credentials.

Motorcycle Helmets – How to Make Sure Your Motorcycle Helmet Fits You Properly

The key to knowing your motorcycle helmet fits you properly is to make sure it feels snug and solid but not uncomfortable when you put it on.

If your helmet is loose, it could come off or twist around on your head in a serious crash. And wind flowing from underneath when you ride can force it up and strain your neck.

A tight helmet will pinch your ears and press against your forehead. It will cause headaches and distract you from your ride and from surrounding traffic.

When you try on helmets before you buy, remember these key points…

  • A helmet that fits you properly will require some force to put on. It may seem tight as it slides over your head because of the inside padding causing resistance.
  • If a helmet slides too easily over your head, it will not be snug enough to remain properly positioned or to prevent annoying wind noise from filling the helmet.
  • You will know a helmet fits properly when all of its interior padding makes solid contact with your head. A helmet will become uncomfortable and not protect you adequately if it only makes contact on the top of your head.
  • When you put on a full-face helmet, it should hold your cheeks and jaw firmly. It should make solid contact with the top and sides of your head. Many full-face helmets offer removable/interchangeable cheek pads. Different size pads can create the best helmet fit.
  • Your helmet should surround and “hug” your head with even pressure throughout. It shouldn’t create “hot spots” due to uneven pressure points. It should not press uncomfortably against your temples, forehead or cheeks.
  • The padding inside a helmet that is comfortably snug will compress and remain firm as it molds to your head.
  • A helmet with padding that creates a seal around your ears will block wind noise and protect your hearing. It will not block out important sounds such a voices or car horns.
  • Your helmet should not move when you shake your head forcefully up and down or from side-to-side.
  • Your nose or chin should not touch the faceshield.
  • A full-face helmet’s faceshield should seal the eye port.
  • A faceshield should move smoothly and easily and stay up when you raise it.
  • A faceshield should not distort your view — anywhere.

Do the “roll-ff” test to make sure a helmet will stay on when you need it

No helmet can protect you if will not stay on in an accident. So try this simple “roll-off” test before you buy or use a particular helmet. Pull on the helmet and snug down the chin strap. Grab the helmet’s rear edge where it contacts the back of your neck. Then try to lift and roll the helmet forward off your head. Give it a good tug, even if the pressure is uncomfortable. If the helmet slides forward and off, you know you should continue to look for one that stays on through this test.

Does the helmet you are considering give you the features you want most?

When you know a helmet fits comfortably and passes the “roll-off” test, see that it has all other features you want.

Such comfort features include…

  • Lots of snug padding around your head
  • A snug seal surrounding — but not touching — your ears
  • A thick, padded roll hugging the back of your head and neck
  • No protrusions poking or pressing against your head or face

One final test before you take it home…

  • Put on the helmet, tighten the chinstrap and keep it on for it for at least 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Get used to how it feels and let it settle in.

After a while, if the helmet makes you uncomfortable by — for example — pressing against your forehead or the top of your head or pinching an ear, try cheek-pads that are sized differently. If that does not do the trick, let that particular helmet go. Continue the procedure with another “perfect prospect” until you find the one that satisfies you completely.

It’s Winter, Where Did These Flies Come From?

Remember seeing a big, slow moving fly in the window on a sunny winter day in January and thinking, “Where the heck did that come from?” Well even though they look like a common house fly, these are indeed Cluster Flies, and they can be a real nuisance to homes, hotels, and many office buildings, especially if there is a wooded area near by.

Cluster Flies breed and spend most of their time in the woods, migrating to buildings in the fall, looking for a warm place for the winter. You can often see them on the sunny side of a building on cool days in the fall. They are attracted to the siding as the sun warms it up. Then they will climb the wall looking for an entry. Most times they find them at the roof eaves or under windows. They then hide in attics and crawl spaces and filter down in to the building over the winter months, so the top floor is usually the hardest hit.

Cluster flies are usually larger than a common house fly. They fly very slow and are so lethargic; one can almost touch them before they will fly slowly away. Lady Bugs and “stink bugs”(a/k/a Western Conifer Seed Bugs) will all enter the same way, and you may see them wintering in your facility as well. These pests don’t pose any real health threat. They are more of a nuisance, although your hotel and restaurant guests will complain about them, and nobody in the hospitality industry wants to leave a negative impression with their guests.

In very light infestations, it’s just a matter of vacuuming them up. Squashing them can leave an unpleasant musty odor (that’s why they call them stink bugs) and/or leave a stain on your wall, window, or drapes.

In the case of Cluster Flies, especially if the infestation is mainly on the top floor, incandescent light traps with glue boards placed in attics and crawl spaces can often catch them before they filter down in to your building. Ask your pest management professional about these.

An even better approach is to have your pest management company treat the outside of your building in the late summer or early fall every year, especially if your problem involves Lady Bugs or Stink Bugs. This way they march through the material and die before they can become a problem on the inside.

If your home or business has a log construction, your problem is complicated because, with no attic or crawl space, these pests come directly in to your living space.

As with any pest problem, one should consult a professional. Home remedies can often exacerbate a problem by driving pests deeper in to the walls, only to have them reappear at a later date and in greater numbers. This makes a professionals job more difficult, and thus, more expensive for the consumer. Many over the counter pesticides can be many times more toxic than what a professional would use, making the remedy much more of a health hazard than the original problem.

What is the Difference Between Travertine and Limestone

There are far more geological similarities than differences between travertine and limestone. Both are formed by the settling of plants, animals, sea shells, sand, and mud on the sea beds. As millions of years pass, this sediment continues to settle and the weight of additional settlement causes the limestone and travertine to compress and harden. This process creates the fossils frequently found in both of these stones. If, at this stage, hot water rich in carbon dioxide from hot springs percolates through the limestone and dissolves some of the stone leaving behind inclusions, holes or voids, travertine is formed. As the water resurfaces, the sudden drop in pressure and change in temperature causes the water to release carbon dioxide gas. The calcium carbonate or limestone then re-crystallizes as travertine.

During fabrication, the travertine tile inclusions can be filled and honed with an epoxy resin. At this point, It can be difficult to distinguish the finished travertine product from limestone. In most cases the epoxy resin is much harder and more durable than the stone. A frequent concern with filled and honed travertine products is that the fill comes out. Our experience has shown this not to be true. Rather, when inclusions are noted after fabrication, the suspected reason is that an inclusion always existed at that spot and that a thin layer of travertine stone had covered it, therefore preventing it from being filled with epoxy. During use of the product and with normal wear and tear, that thin layer wears down or breaks and pops through exposing the inclusion for the first time. An easy way to understand this is to think of travertine tile as a piece of Swiss cheese. As one slices through the cheese, new holes expose themselves. The repair for this is to fill the new inclusion with the same color grout used during the initial setting process since it is impossible to match the epoxy resin color and the grout technique is very easy for a homeowner to do himself.

Marble is created when the sedimentary stone (limestone or travertine) is exposed to heat and pressure over a long period of time. The stone undergoes a metamorphosis, it recrystallizes and becomes denser and harder. The recrystallization allows the marble to take a nice and beautiful polish finish during fabrication.

Another stone that takes a polish well is Granite. Technically, granite is a coarse-grained igneous rock even texture and color, composed chiefly of quartz and feldspars. The quartz and feldspars are what allows it to accept a “shine” or a polish. It can also contain small quantities of mica and other minor accessory minerals. Common belief is granite was solidified from molten rock (called magma) under pressure. Due to some granite showing minimal contact with surrounding walls, scientists debate whether granite was formed through an igneous or metamorphic process. Granite has been used since ancient times as a building material and it is known to be one of the oldest rocks on earth.

Regardless of the stones’ origin, travertine, limestone, marble, and granite all perform well if one understands the strengths and limitations of each stone. In some applications the inclusions from an unfilled travertine can work well to help create additional friction, however may not be suitable for very cold climates with extreme freeze/thaw conditions. A honed limestone can enhance the beauty of a contemporary living area when the slickness of polished marble is a concern. The key to selecting the proper stone for any application is to work with a very reputable dealer who understands the strengths and limitations of each stone and to ensure the stone is installed by a qualified and registered contractor.

Interesting Violin Facts – 7 Fun Facts

Learning the violin takes a lot of time and patience so it can lead to needing something to keep you going back – especially for children. There are a number of interesting violin facts that will keep you coming back to your instrument and make you want to learn it even more.

1. One of the most interesting violin facts is that it is one of the most expensive instruments. The Stradivarius Violin is the most expensive due to its perfect tone and the history behind the instrument – it has been around since the 1500s.

2. You can now buy electric violins. They are beautiful instruments but they will cost you a lot more than a traditional violin. Many of the famous violinists now have electric violins.

3. Even though the violin is one of the hardest to play, it was constantly treated as a lower class instrument. This is mainly due to the fact that a fiddle was hand-made and then learned by ear. It was very popular for folk music, especially during the early 1900s with the Irish. It was deemed as entertainment for those classes while the upper class listened to more classical soothing sounds.

4. The violin, like all of its other stringed family members, is a hollow instrument. This means that the sound can vibrate around the wood to give a greater sound. However, this hollow instrument is actually made up of 70 different parts or wood, including the tuning pegs and the bridge that the strings sit on.

5. The Italians call the Violin a “kit”. There is no reason for this – just a fact.

6. The bow of a violin is actually made up of horsehair. There are hundreds of these hairs and they constantly need to be loosened so that the hairs do not break or become damaged. Rosin is also needed on the hair to make the perfect tone that a violin is popular for.

7. When the roller skates were invented by Joseph Merlin, he used the violin while he proved what he could do on them. However, he forgot the aspect of breaking and ended up skating straight into a mirror. Not only did he break the mirror but he also broke his violin.

There are many interesting violin facts that will keep you wanting to play – no matter how frustrated you get with learning the instrument. It may be one of the most difficult to learn but it is definitely the most rewarding.

Gas Fireplace – Proper Maintenance to Last a Lifetime

Owning a gas fireplace is like investing on any other appliances at home. Generally the higher the value makes it worth to pay for a promise that it will last for a long period of time or perhaps a lifetime. Gas fireplaces are likewise subject to its wear and tear and needs rekindling as it age. Prolonging its terms of use will always depend on how it is used and maintained. It is always the consumer’s responsibility to understand how a gas fireplace operates and moreover be geared with information on how to take good care of gas fireplaces. Beyond the function and a superb ambiance it may offer, the security should be prioritized at all times.

Basically there are two main questions to keep your fireplaces in good working condition. What and how are the common questions for keeping it working at its best. The logs, burners, control sections, doors and vents are the common areas of the gas fireplaces that should be checked at least once a year or when needed. Cleaning these parts must be done cautiously. First and foremost, be certain to turn the gas valve off whenever you clean a gas fireplace and make sure to follow all the instructions from its manual.

Burners and Control Section – you can use either a vacuum or a brush to sweep some soot build ups. The control buttons and burners of gas fireplaces can be clogged with dusts some time. Dusting it can prevent the buttons and burners to malfunction.

Logs – gas logs are very delicate and to avoid fractures you must use a soft brush to clean some dusts, spider web build ups or any other by-products. The authentic glow of logs can diminish after a year or so. You can either replace them or let the technician check and advice for when is the best time to replace your logs. Generally logs are made to last for a long period of time unless it was bricked or totally broken. Always use appropriate logs for your gas fireplace and check if it fits perfectly before use.

Doors and glasses – let the gas fireplace cool before you clean these areas. Do not use any abrasive materials to wipe them. It comes very visible especially on glass and doing so may leave an unpleasant scratches. Modern types are slick and sometimes plated with gold or brass louvers. Do not use harsh chemicals; instead use a slightly wet cloth to wipe them or the standard cleaning agents that are made solely to clean delicate gas fireplace exteriors.

Pipes or Vents – mostly vents maybe clogged with different things after some times when it was not operated. Clogs may sometimes be in the form of bird’s nest, leaves brought by the wind, dead embers or even rusts. It is very important to check the venting system the same with the flue and chimney. Operating your unit with clogs on vent can pose real danger or fire build up. In addition to that, check the joints and latches if they are sealed.

If you are not familiar with all the necessary maintenance do’s and don’ts, leave the inspection to the expert. There are technicians who can do all the safety measures that need to be checked. It also includes checking of the igniter, pilot flame, the heat emission, the right positioning of the logs and the electrical wiring.

11 Simple House Hacks You Could Do For Your Home

Here are a few ways to do cheap fixes for your home in the most affordable way.

1. Insulation

Fixing your insulation could save you at least 50% of your energy bills. All you need to do is use rubber tubing, fiberglass and cellulose on the spaces between doors, windows and other openings. Using double-glazed windows is also useful for repelling outside temperature. You could lower the value on your thermostat now.

2. Energy Saving Appliances

These expensive appliances could save you more in terms of energy expenses. A great bonus with energy saving appliances is added features. For air conditioners, for example, you could set the time it would activate and it would turn itself off. For washing machines, it would optimize the energy it uses for cleaning clothes as well as the water needed for washing.

3. Fixing Holes in the Basement

Your home’s foundation could give in due to moist and the natural wear-and-tear of materials. If the foundation-form rod holes are becoming exposed, you might need some cement to patch the holes. Bricklayer mortar or cement and sand should do the trick for such holes. However, you will need to find some personal cement laying equipment.

4. Tile Laying

Laying tiles isn’t easy. Builders make sure the floor is even, the tiles are cut and evenly spaced, and they are laid down carefully or else they could be broken. Tile mastic serve as the strongest adhesive for tile laying projects. They are affordable in most hardware stores too.

5. The Magic That is WD-40

Squeaky windows and doors? A solution spray called WD-40 could work wonders by lubricating the hinges of these annoying home pests. Any household should have a can of this at the ready for any lubricating needs.

6. Talcum Powder

Too-shiny floors are great to look at but annoying to hear. Squeaky floors, a negative side-effect of ultra-house cleaning, are no match to talcum powder. It makes the floor cleaner and less slippery too.

7. Wallpaper Unfurling

Awesome wallpapers having their adhesive grip loose? Don’t fret. Using a knife, spread wallpaper paste on a clean sheet of paper. Attach the paper against the loose area of the wallpaper. Press the wallpaper and writing paper sandwich against the wall and voila! You have a fixed wallpaper!

8. Cleaning an Old Chandelier

Majestic chandeliers could return to their glorious years with good dusting. Unplug your chandelier, wear white cotton gloves damp with glass cleaner. Wipe the chandelier clean and then use another pair of dry gloves to rub the chandelier clean of dust.

9. Sliding Window Problems

WD40 won’t do well for sliding window problems, but a bit of silicone spray lubricant would do great for the skids. Spray the lubricant on a rag then wipe it along the sliding tracks of the windows. Silicone lubricants work well with wood, metal or plastic, so you won’t have to worry about anything.

10. Stubborn Bathroom Decals

Sometimes, debris leave a mark on your house. The WD40 lubricant could help here. By spraying the areas with WD40, you could then use a credit card to scrape the debris away from your bathroom tiles and even your bathtub. Rinse the entire thing with dishwashing soap and you’re done.

11. Clever Light Bulb Removal Trick

Using duct tape, you could instantly remove any hard-to-reach and hard-to-unscrew light bulb. Procure a one foot length of electric tape into the middle of the light bulb. Then, by folding the tape in half, stick it onto itself. Then grip each end between your thumb and index finger then you could instantly loosen up the light bulb.

OC3 Vs OC12 Vs OC48 – Costs, Speeds and Advantages & Disadvantages

Are you looking to upgrade your business’ bandwidth to an OC3, OC12 or OC48? This task can be intimidating and frustrating to tackle, even in the best of situations. Making the right choice for your business’ needs is challenging with so many variables to consider.

To help you understand the differences between OC3 vs OC12 vs OC48 bandwidth choices, each is described below in terms of: Bandwidth Type, Speed & Description, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages and Cost.

OC3 Circuit

Speed & Description: An OC3 circuit is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 155.52 Mbps using fiber optics.

Application: Large enterprises with significant bandwidth requirements or as an ISP backbone.

Advantages: OC3 benefits include super fast connectivity for critical internet needs as well as burstable bandwidth up to 155.52 Mbps.

Disadvantages: Very costly.

Costs: The price for OC3 lines can vary greatly depending on the carrier, location of the service and which application is used. For service from a Tier 1 provider, prices can start around $10,000 to $30,000 per month. This doesn’t include the local loop or the extensive setup. For any business considering a reliable OCx network, a Tier 1 provider (versus Tier 2 or Tier 3) is highly recommended.

OC12 Circuit

Speed & Description: An OC12 circuit is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 622.08 Mbps.

Application: OC12s are commonly used by ISPs as WAN connections.

Advantages: Bandwidth can be added as business grows without any major system overhauls. OC12 circuits also have a higher performance, lower latency, and increased reliability versus metropolitan Ethernet or long-haul waves.

Disadvantages: Very costly.

Costs: The price of OC12 circuits are based on the carrier, location of the service and which application is used. For service from a Tier 1 provider, prices can start around $100,000 to $300,000 per month, not including the setup costs which can add another several hundred thousand dollars. For any business considering a reliable OCx network, a Tier 1 provider (versus Tier 2 or Tier 3) is highly recommended.

OC48 Circuit

Speed & Description An OC48 circuit is a network line with transmission speeds of up to 2488.32 Mbps.

Application: OC48 connections are used as the backbones of many regional ISPs.

Advantages: OC48 circuits are faster than OC3 and OC12 connections, even surpassing gigabit Ethernet.

Disadvantages: Incredibly high cost.

Costs: As with OC3 and OC12 circuits, the price of OC48 circuits are based on the carrier, location of the service and which application is used. For service from a Tier 1 provider, costs can start around $300,000 to $500,000 per month, not including the setup costs which can add another several hundred thousand dollars. For any business considering a reliable OCx network, a Tier 1 provider (versus Tier 2 or Tier 3) is highly recommended.

What Is a PRI Line, What Are the Advantages and Limitations of PRI Circuits?

In an ISDN system, there are two types of services: Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Primary Rate Interface (PRI). While the first one is installed at home or small business organizations, the later one is for large organizations which have their own telephone exchange systems. There are number of B-channels and D-channels in the system which carries data, video, voice with several control and signaling information. But, what is Primary Rate Interface and how does it work?

What is PRI Line?

The Primary Rate Interface comprises of a 64 Kbps D-channels and 23 Kbps B-channels. Here, it uses T-1 line. It also consists of one D-channel and 30 Kbps B-channel, which use an E1 line. If a user accesses the Primary Rate Interface on a T-1 line, he can get internet speed up to 1.544 Mbps. On the other hand, an E1 line user can get services up to Mbps. PRI utilizes Q.931 protocol over D-channel.

There are some countries where this system is carried on a T-carrier system line while E-carrier line is available worldwide. The users of the system are directly connected with the telephone company’s central office.

Advantages of PRI Circuits

1. The service provider gives almost 500 numbers for each line. Therefore, it becomes easier for the outsiders to call the extension straight without going through the PBX Auto-attendant.

2. Through a PRI line, it is possible to have voice and data access. There are also some service providers which offer free data transmission for certain period of time.

3. Call hunting is also easy with a Primary Rate system. But for the analog trunks, the service provider needs to extend the facility and also include additional cost.

4. What are the other benefits of this system? It can be utilized for voice connectivity, video conferencing, data connectivity, faxing, etc. And all these can be done simultaneously.

5. This circuit is anytime better than the analog trunks as it is an end-to-end digital system.

6. Due to the fiber optic materials, the wire is far more redundant than analog trunks. Also, you will face less troubleshooting here than other systems.

7. Tapping your digital phone lines and listening to your conversation is almost impossible now.

8. You don’t have to wait long to start a call here.

9. As there are several service providers who comes with flexible plans, this system also become economical for small companies.

Limitations of PRI Circuits

1. If the minimum rental is less than the average value of calls in an analog system, then installing PRI circuit is not that much economical.

2. If you have to make international calls, this system is not cost-effective. You can choose SIP or ITSP services at lesser rate to make such calls.

3. You have to pay for Inter branch communication if you install this line. If you install VOIP systems, you can make inter branch communication over internet at much lower cost.

4. You can buy Primary Rate lines only if you buy those from your EPABX vendor.

Cable Basket: What It Is, How It Is Used, and the Advantages

What Is A Cable Basket?

A cable basket is a form of cable tray that is constructed out of a wire mesh material, and it is used to provide support for data cables. Proper cable management is facilitated because cables are kept organized and all in one place. It is typically used when there are a plethora of small cables to be wired. Data cables are small in nature compared to electrical wires or other wires and cables that are much heavier in nature.

When the cable installation involves heavier wires, it is common that a more solid tray be used. This type of tray is typically made out of steel. The solid tray is made out of steel to protect it from corrosion due to exposure to the elements, the installation almost always involves running some of the wires outdoors. Baskets, though far lighter than the typical tray, are also made to last against the elements. Though baskets are not made out of solid steel in the same way that the trays are, the baskets are made to be protected against corrosion and will last for a long time. Additionally, the more solid cable tray provides support for the heavier wires.

How It Easily Facilitates Cable Distribution and Cable Management

A cable basket facilitates easy cable distribution and cable management because all that has to be done is that the wires are laid inside of the baskets, rather than pulling it through pipes. Because pulling these wires through pipes is definitely more difficult and time consuming, dropping the wires into cable baskets takes only a fraction of the time and allows for the cables to easily be distributed around the building. Baskets run along the building in the same way that pipes do, except that they are open, allowing easy access to the wires but still providing protection to the wiring. The openness enables the wires to be maneuvered in a hassle-free way, hence the reason baskets are the most preferred when it comes to data cables over open wiring and other conventional methods of installation and cable management.

The Advantages of Using Cable Baskets

Using cable baskets presents a number of advantages during a cable installation, as well as after that. There are two main advantages to using a basket during the installation. One advantage that is most appealing is that baskets are lighter and much easier to use compared to the tray, since the cable tray is more cumbersome. Another advantage to using these baskets during an installation is that many more installations can be completed within a given day because of the quickness and ease that baskets provide. Advantages after the cables have been installed include, but are not limited to, being able to make changes to the cables with little or no difficulty (The openness of the baskets allows for this to be easily done) and providing optimal protection for the wires.

Being that cable runs are frequent in a premise and often subject to changes, it is fitting that a cable basket or cable tray be used. These allow for changes to be made easily so as to adapt to changing cabling requirements.

What to Look for in a Mortgage Lender


1. Face to face accountability mixed with online capabilities – you don’t want a loan originator who hides behind a phone in Iowa. They are trained sales people and you need to be able to hold sales people accountable or they will tell you whatever they need to in order to get you on the hook. With this said you can’t be in the stone ages. You need to have e-signatures, e-upload, and digital progress trackers; but these should complement your face to face access, not replace it.

2. While you’re shopping rates– take note at how quickly you’re responded to, if they take the time to call you versus email only, and if you actually ENJOY talking to the person. This is going to be a 30 day process from contract to close so you better like the person. Again, these are a sales people. If they can’t fake it hard enough for you to like them during the sales process, imagine how they’ll be to work with after they already have your commitment. They better be lightening-quick to your responses while selling you because turn time on those responses will probably slow during the underwriting process.

3. DO NOT make pricing your sole deciding point. Getting a competitive rate is important, but that doesn’t mean selling your soul for $9/mo. The most important thing is getting the job done within the required timeframe as pain-free as possible. If the job isn’t done right you can lose due diligence money, appraisal and inspection costs, and potentially your dream home. Referrals from non compensated, non affiliated people you trust is the best way to know if the company you choose can accomplish the task.

I hope as many people as possible take my advice and save themselves a horrible experience. People can be naive and think that everyone they work with is out to help them when in reality, most people are only out to help themselves. Your loan originator, lender, loan officer, mortgage originator, home loan consultant, mortgage consultant, whatever you want to call them, they are all really the same exact thing no matter what company they are at. Their real title is ‘sales person.’ An average loan transaction can bank the person who sells it to you about $2,000. Imagine the things that you would tell someone for that amount of money. Guard yourself.

Interior Design Trends For Your Home

People love to decorate their house with latest interior design trends. Everyone likes it when people compliment them on the interiors of their house. The more difficult thing then designing the interiors of the house is to design it a way that society can easily embrace. To keep up with the latest trends, people read about it in magazines, over the internet, consult design specialists etc. We hereby try to make it a little bit simpler for all those people who want to know what the latest interior design trends are.

A good thing about the trends in interior home designing is that they don’t change so quickly like trends in other industries like fashion, movies etc. So if you have recently designed your house with latest interiors then you don’t need to worry about your designs being out of date any sooner. The latest trends are an amalgamation of traditional and modern interior designs. The use of natural materials and colors is aesthetically preferred these days. Hand craft items have also made a come back in interior designing trend. Earlier it was often used with traditional designs. Colorful textures and modern geometry along with use of glass or other see through objects in the interior designing is also catching up.

Greener and natural options have become the latest trend in almost every aspect of life. Following with this trend, natural materials have also made entry in interior designing. Natural wood like texture in furniture, green carpets are some of the examples how people try to join the feel of nature into their houses. The versatility of natural elements allows experimenting with various designs and incorporating a transitional style. The interiors of house with natural elements in it create a calm and cozy atmosphere. It also has the advantage of giving the house a cleaner look.

The handcrafts are effective to make a classy combination of traditional and modern design. Handcrafts have made their way back into the interior designing industry for several years. The handcrafts use the latest technology with the artistic craftsmanship. While using handicrafts in designing the interiors we should keep in mind not to overdo it. When coupled with vintage furniture and accessories the hand crafts look even classier.

Transparent and see through materials are widely being used in interior designing. The objects made of glass or other transparent materials have the advantage that they allow the natural light and don’t create and dark shades. Diaphanous curtains, glass windows, transparent furniture are some of the examples which we can use to incorporate this latest design trend. Much like the traditional design, the latest design trends also include using bold patterns and bright primary colors. The most important aspect of it is carefully choosing the colors and accessories in designing the house. Nowadays objects with smooth and soft edges are more preferred over straight lines. It can also be engaging and relaxing to use large geometric patterns in the house.