What Happens Inside the Bee Hive?

Bees are social insects; they live in groups called colonies, inside their habitats called bee hives. A colony is a very organized system with each bee given a duty and a role to perform. Bees are also very responsible and hardworking insects because they do their jobs very well and stick to their duties for the survival of the rest of the colony.

There are three types of bee individuals in the colony. Each has different functions and tasks. A bee population has about 70,000 in late summer. It is composed of a Queen bee, thousands of Workers, and hundreds of Drones.

The Queen Bee

The Queen bee is the largest in the colony and is the only female bee that is fertile. She is the head and life in the colony revolves around her. She starts her life as a two-day old female worker larva. The younger Workers feed her with a mixture called Royal jelly and she comes out of her cell after eleven days of development.

She mates with several Drones (male bees) in three days. This is the only allotted time for her to mate during which enough sperm will be stored and fertilized in her body. These eggs will be laid after ten days.

The Queen lays fertilized and unfertilized eggs. Fertilized eggs are the female ones or the Workers and the unfertilized eggs are the Drones or the male bees.

The Queen secretes a pheromone which sends messages and keeps the other bees sterile.

Worker Bees

The female Workers are the ones who build the comb in which honey is produced and stored and where eggs are being laid. There are about 55,000 of them in the hive.

Worker bees are the laborers of the colonies and do jobs not related to reproduction. They tend to the queen, the larvae and even the younger Drones. They are the ones who gather nectar and pollen, supply food and water, and produce beeswax. They travel thousands of miles away to gather nectar.

One Worker only produces half a teaspoon of honey. An entire colony produces about 200 pounds of honey every year.

As they grow older and more mature, they also act as guardians of their territories. They are the one who attack and sting. However, a bee only stings once then dies. In other words, Worker bees do all the work, cleaning, nursing, beeswax production, temperature control, security jobs, and foraging.

Drone Bees

Drones are male honey bees. Their only duty is to impregnate the queen and cooperate in the mating season. They don’t collect nectar nor pollenate and forage. They also are unable to sting because they lack stingers and don’t have a role in colony defence. Because of their limited functions and use, they are usually driven out of the colony during winter and discouraged to get in again and so they die of starvation.

Bees are indeed a very hardworking bunch. They perform their duties and responsibilities for the survival of their own kind and colony. Their collaboration and system structure is on great example for a good organization to work.

Advertising As A Tool Of Communication

Advertising is a form of mass communication with the public. It is usually one sided i.e. from the company to the buyer/potential user of the product. It is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade the potential customers to purchase or consume more of a particular brand of product/services. As rightly defined by Bovee, “Advertising is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.”

Advertising an important tool of communication is use to promote commercial goods and services, it can also be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues such as AIDS, Don’t drink and drive, Polio, Save water, electricity, animals and trees etc. “Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest – it is much too powerful tool to use solely for commercial purposes.” – Attributed to Howard Gossage by David Ogilvy.

Advertising is most effective with products that can be differentiated from similar products based on consumer accepted quality difference. Tom Egelhoff has classified advertising in 6 types, i.e. for company image, name brands, advertising service instead of a product, business-to-business advertising, co-op advertising and public service advertising. Television, Radio, Cinema, Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Video Game, Internet, Billboard, Transit Cards, Sandwich Board, Skywriting are the different mediums used to deliver the message. The companies choose the method according to the cost, budget, target audiences and their response. However, word of mouth advertising/ personal recommendations is an unpaid form of advertising which can provide good exposure at minimum cost.

Various new forms of advertising are growing rapidly. One of them is Social Networking Advertising. It’s an online advertising with a focus on social networking sites and use of the internet/ World Wide Web in order to deliver marketing messages and attract customers. The other is E-Mail advertising; E-Mail Marketing is often known as “opt-in-email advertising” to distinguish it from spam. “I believe ‘credibility’ is one of the biggest issues yet to be addressed by Internet advertisers. Everyone has their eye on ‘privacy’ as a critical concern, but credibility will be far more enabling or disabling to website profitability. A company can have a web presence and, unless the brand name is familiar, consumers have no way of knowing whether it’s a big company, a small company, an honest company, or a single scoundrel. I may be worried about my personal data being disclosed in violation of my privacy, but I’m far more concerned about whether or not the person or company with whom I’m dealing is reputable. Can I believe their claims? Will I have a recourse if something is wrong with the merchandise? Credibility no longer is strictly a brick-and-morter issue. I can’t judge someone by their place of business, when I conduct that business on the Internet. I can’t grasp a hand and look into their eyes to judge their veracity. Credibility is a huge issue.” – Jef Richard.

For a message to be effective keep it short, simple, crisp and easy to absorb. It is essential to translate the products/services offer into meaningful customer benefit by advertising and to build awareness and generate response. REMEMBER: – THE AIDA MODEL -ATTENTION, INTEREST, DESIRE AND ACTION.

In the modern scenario, most of the companies outsource their advertising activities to an advertising/ad agency which is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising and sometimes also performs other forms of promotion like public relations, publicity and sales promotion for its client. Departments of the advertising agency includes: – The Creative Department (who creates an actual advertisement), Account Service (who is responsible for co-ordinating the creative team, the client, media and the production staff), Creative Service Production (here the employees are the people who have contacts with the suppliers of various creative media), Other department and Personnel. (like public relations). As said by David Ogilvy once that the relationship between a manufacturer and his advertising agency is almost as intimate as the relationship between a patient and his doctor. Make sure that you can life happily with your prospective client before you accept his account.

Thus, I would conclude by the famous words of Bruce Barton (1955), “Advertising is of the very essence of democracy. An election goes on every minute of the business day across the counters of hundreds of thousands of stores and shops where the customers state their preferences and determine which manufacturer and which product shall be the leader today, and which shall lead tomorrow.”

Plumber Vs Plumbing Engineer – What’s the Difference?

The phrase “plumbing engineer” might just sound like a fancy five-dollar term to use when “plumber” sounds too pedestrian. Like, if your stodgy old eighth-grade English teacher comes to visit, and the toilet breaks, you might say something like, “Alas! It seems as though it may be time to avail myself of some of my local plumbing engineer’s finest handiwork! Forsooth, and such.”

Luckily, your stodgy eighth-grade English teacher didn’t bring your persnickety eleventh-grade science teacher with her, because you’d be wrong.

You call a plumber to fix a broken toilet, repair a leaky pipe or unclog a stubborn drain. Plumbers are a vital component of the professional engineering community, but a plumber just is not the same as a plumbing engineer.

So what is a plumbing engineer, you ask? The easiest way to make the distinction is to think of the plumbing engineer as the guy who designs the system, and the plumber as the guy who maintains it. You’d call Jack the plumbing engineer to map out the hot and cold water system in the new home you’re building; you’d call Joe the plumber to fix it when a gasket wears out.

Plumbing engineering relies on design, planning, creation and implementation. A plumbing engineer draws up a pipe system for a new building or series of buildings, makes sure every pipe connection is solid and every delivery method is efficient. He chooses the right materials to make sure the system lasts for years with minimal maintenance. If you get a top-notch plumbing engineer, you probably won’t need to call the plumber very often.

The Whole Building Design Guide, an expansive web-based information resource for contractors, designers and architects, provides a good working definition of plumbing engineering:

The Plumbing Engineer is involved with systems that overlap into the mechanical, civil, and chemical engineering disciplines. The Plumbing Engineer is in a key position to influence the water efficiency, sustainable site, energy, fire protection, and pollution systems of a facility.

Plumbing engineers are qualified to oversee a wide array of public and private building projects:

  • When a new shopping center needs a stormwater management system, the engineering firm designing the center would hand the job over to a plumbing engineer.
  • A plumbing engineer might work closely with a fire protection engineer to to make sure a new sprinkler system is in good working order.
  • An entire team of plumbing engineers might design a sewer system for a new housing development.

Retinal Detachment – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

The retina is an extremely thin tissue that lines the extreme back of the eye and is basically responsible for the assimilation of visual data, which is then transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve for interpretation. A retinal detachment is a separation of the retina from its attachments to the underlying tissue, usually due to trauma, bleeding, extreme near-sightedness, medications or surgery. This condition invariably leads to complete loss of vision, and needs to be treated urgently. Currently, surgery is the only viable medical option in the management of retinal detachment.

The limitations of surgery are that eyesight may not be regained for several months, and recovery may be only partial. In addition, complications like infection and recurrence of retinal detachment are also possible. Ayurvedic herbal treatment can be quite useful in these situations as supportive therapy, to prevent bleeding, reduce the severity of damage to the retina, induce faster healing, salvage the maximum possible vision in the affected eye, and prevent a recurrence of the condition.

Ayurvedic medicines like Tapyadi -Loh, Laxadi-Guggulu, Usheerasav, Saarivasav, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Triphala-Ghrut, Punarnavadi-Mandur, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, and Gokshuradi-Guggulu can be used to reduce or prevent swelling and bleeding in the interior of the eyes. Herbal medicines like Laxa (Purified wax), Naagkeshar (Messua ferrea), Sphatik Bhasma (Purified alum), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Saariva (Hemidesmus indicus), and Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia) can also be used for this purpose.

Medicines like Maha-Manjishthadi-Qadha, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Tapyadi-Loh, Ekangveer-Ras, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Yashtimadhuk (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) are used to minimize eye damage and induce faster healing.

Further damage can be prevented by treating known risk factors like diabetes and hypertension, and by boosting the immune status of the body by using medicines like Abhrak-Bhasma, Trivang-Bhasma, Suvarna-Malini-Vasant, Suvarna-Parpati, Panchamrut-Parpati , Panch-Tikta-Ghrut and Maha-Triphala-Ghrut.

Retinal detachment is currently a medical condition which is difficult to treat and therefore, the potential contribution of Ayurvedic herbal treatment assumes special significance. It is important that all such patients should be under the regular care and supervision of a team of Ophthalmologists.

The History of Spray Foam Insulation

Although spray foam insulation as we know it today truly emerged in the 1980s, spray foam actually has its roots several decades further in the past, beginning with the development of polyurethane foam in the 1940s by Otto Bayer.

Otto Bayer, an industrial chemist, actually began working with polyurethane in Germany during the late 1930s. This technology was brought to the United States in the early 1940s by David Eynon, the president of Mobay, a war effort conglomerate created from the partnering of two chemical industry giants, Monsanto and the Bayer Corporation. Although Otto Bayer worked for Bayer Corporation, he was not related to the company’s founding family.

During the 1940s, polyurethane polymers were used primarily in military and aviation applications. The production of war machines for the World War II conflict drove most of the applications of these high-grade plastic polymers for the duration of the war.

It was not until the 1950s that polyurethane began to be used in home insulation. It was the invention of the “Blendometer” that allowed for expansion of polyurethane application to the home insulation realm. The Blendometer was the first machine able to mix components for the creation of polyurethane foam and was created by Walter Baughman in 1953.

The Blendometer allowed for the strategic mixing of chemicals to create what Baughman called a plastic elastomer or an expanding foam. Liquid when applied, this plastic elastomer expanded into a thick foam and eventually hardened upon drying.

Baughman’s Blendometer was still a partially manual process, with humans tilting trays of chemicals to mix foam. While the machine did allow for the use of polyurethane in home insulation as well as in other home-related applications, like air conditioner insulation, it was still a technology in its infancy and one that made widespread use of polyurethane as a residential insulation material no less cumbersome.

Polyurethane polymers were used in a variety of means throughout the following decades, with incredible advancements being made in the auto industry applications of the material in particular. However, it would be more than two decades before the foam would become widely used in home insulation processes.

Building on Baughman’s invention, the first dedicated spray technology machine was constructed in 1963 by Fred Gusmer. The 1960s and 1970s saw technological advancements which made spray foam’s use in home insulation more easily achievable and affordable.

It was also in the 1970s that the idea of the “super insulated” home emerged. Largely driven by the energy crisis of the 1970s, home builders and homeowners alike began to look for ways to improve the energy efficiency of homes.

The crisis fueled advancements in technology that laid the foundation for modern spray foam applications. It was the development of advanced spray nozzle technology that allowed spray foam insulation to be used widely in home construction and improvement projects.

The spray foam nozzle allows the foam mixture and the chemical responsible for its expansion capabilities to be separated until just prior to application. The spray foam mixture consists of several key components but it is the expansion chemical, isosynate, which is responsible for its easy application and expansive character.

The application nozzle allows the foam mixture and the isosynate to be delivered to the nozzle through separate hoses, mixing only seconds before being sprayed. The spray foam arrives at its destination as a liquid but quickly expands into a foam substance and later dries into a hardened plastic upon curing.

The 1980s and early 1990s saw a great deal of controversy within the spray foam insulation industry as different marketing schemes from various companies promoted the benefits of closed verses open foam insulation and as some companies tried to market water blown foam application processes.

Though there has been much debate within the industry, R-value standards, used as a measure of determining energy efficiency, have cleared up much of the controversy. R-value ratings clearly define closed foam as the most effective means of making a home as energy efficient as possible.

Closed cell spray foam has additionally been added to the list of building requirements for making homes in hurricane and earthquake zones more structurally sound. The improved stability of homes insulated with spray foam technology makes the use of spray foam a smart move for any homeowner regardless of geographic location. 

Acne Natural Cure – Natural is ALWAYS the Perfect Antidote

Looking for the right cure for your outbreak of pimples is not really that difficult. The key here is finding one that works for YOUR type of acne outbreak and is a natural method. Do not get overly frustrated or worked up about it. You can have clear and healthy skin, it will just take a little trial and error, and patience. Know about some treatments that have been beneficial as an acne natural cure for stubborn skin problems that you can use at home.

There are various types of treatments for blemishes and using them isn’t all that hard. One treatment for blackheads is a wash of lime and milk. All you have to do is bring the milk to a gentle boil, and then add the juice from one lime, and you can wash your face. Let it cool a little, and if it feels too hot don’t use it. Another kind of acne natural cure is to use an astringent for a deep cleaning of your pores. Go buy a leafy mango, boil it in some water, and then rub it after it cools, on your face. If your case of acne isn’t too severe you can also leave the mango to soak overnight. It’s an acne natural cure that will clean out your pores pretty thoroughly.

Something that you probably eat everyday is good for your skin as well. A raw potato is an ideal acne natural cure – especially for whiteheads and blackheads. The vitamin C gives your skin a healthy glow, and its alkaline gets rid of bacteria on your face. The potato has an acid in it too that scrubs away dead or dying skin cells on your face, which works as an acne natural cure. Don’t forget that you can use the papaya fruit on your face, but it needs to be raw. An acne natural cure with these types of applications will help your skin stay healthy by stopping infection from spreading.

Take note that any acne remedy might leave your skin a little parched for moisture at times during treatment. A good way to re-hydrate your skin after using an acne natural cure is to use almond oil. Get yourself a bag of almonds, and then grind them up with water, using approximately 4-5 good sized almond nuts. Spread the paste on your face, and don’t scrub. It will smoothen the face and add some moisture too. Buttermilk is another way to treat skin for dryness, and so are curds. If you’ve tried every over the counter medication for it and it’s just not working, than you might want to use an acne natural cure. You can find a treatment solution in an acne natural cure, but take your time, and find out what works for you.

How Does Sugar Boost Your Energy to Make You Grow Taller?

What sugars are useful to grow taller naturally? What is healthy regime of carb to grow taller 4 smarts way?

Carbohydrates get attention today, with a fresh new mind-set! When you think of “carbs,” what comes to mind: hearty whole-grain bread, piping hot basmati rice, tender fettuccini, freshly popped popcorn, naturally sweet potatoes, crunchy celery, summer-fresh corn on the cob, juicy peaches or sweet mangos, a fresh banana,savory baked beans,ice-cold milk delicious fruit smoothies and more.

All these nourishing foods can put carbohydrates, an important nutrient category, on your plate! Sugars, starches, and fiber: they all belong to a unique macronutrient category called carbohydrates. As energy nutrients, sugars and starches are your body’s main fuel to grow taller.

All carbohydrates are made of the same three elements: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The name “carbohydrate” comes from its chemical makeup. “Carbo-” means carbon; “-hydrate” means water, or H2O. To make different types of carbohydrates, these elements first are arranged in single units. Sugars are made of just one or two units; they’re considered “simple.” Made of many sugar units, starches and fiber are more complex.

You may wonder if you can grow taller with starch? if starch is made of sugars, why doesn’t it taste sweet? Molecule size makes the difference. Starch molecules are bigger. Unlike smaller sugars, starch molecules are too big to fit on the receptors of your taste buds, so they don’t taste sweet. But keep a starchy cracker in your mouth for a while. Once digestive enzymes in saliva break down its starch into sugar to grow taller, the cracker starts to taste sweet. The sugar molecules are small enough to taste. Get a cracker; try it!

Starches and fiber have something in common. They’re polysaccharides. “Poly-” means many. If you concluded that they’re composed of many sugar units, you’re absolutely right! They’re just longer chains of sugars. Starch comes from plant-based foods, such as rice, pasta, potatoes, beans, and grain products.

From complex to simple! In a nutshell, that’s what happens when starches are digested. Before they can be absorbed from your digestive tract into your bloodstream, they’re broken down to the simplest sugars: glucose, galactose, and fructose. Then, in your bloodstream, single sugars move into your body cells, where they’re converted to energy to grow taller. Except for fiber, carbohydrates-sugars and starches-break down to single sugars during digestion. Your body doesn’t distinguish their food source.

Being single sugars already, monosaccharides, such as the fructose in fruits, can be absorbed as they are. That’s not true for disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Digestive enzymes break them down, too. Some people don’t produce enough of an enzyme called lactase; they have trouble digesting lactose, or milk sugar.

Why limit added sugars? For one, they just contribute calories. Many foods high in added sugars supply energy but few other nutrients, and may replace more nutritious foods, along with the vitamins and minerals they provide. To compare, many starchy vegetables, legumes (dry beans), and grain products have less fat, but more vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Second, added sugars-like starches and naturally occurring sugars-can promote tooth decay, especially with frequent snacking. 

Only fiber, another polysaccharide, remains somewhat intact in the body when you grow taller. Many animals can digest fiber. However, human digestive enzymes can’t break down fiber into units that are small enough for absorption. So fiber can’t be an energy source to grow taller. That very quality makes fiber uniquely qualified to promote your health in other ways.

When you’re really active and growing taller, you may need more calories. If your overall eating plan is healthful, added sugars can supply some of that extra energy as discretionary calories. Chosen wisely, carbohydrate-rich foods and whole and enriched grain foods, fruits, vegetables, beans deliver more than energy. Much attention has been given to their role in lowering the risk for heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and some cancers. Many “carb”-containing foods also provide important vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. And fiber-rich foods deliver a host of benefits; That’s why the Dietary Guidelines advise: Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often.

Nutrient-dense carbohydrate-containing foods may help with weight regulation and growing taller, especially when combined with regular physical activity. Among the research areas: (1) carbohydrate-containing foods, especially those rich in fiber, may aid satiety so people eat less, (2) a high-“carb” diet may have fewer calories for the same amount of food than a high-fat diet does; and (3) excess carbohydrate doesn’t change as efficiently to body fat as calories from other sources. Stay tuned!

For children, an overall nutritious diet promotes healthy teeth, making them grow taller, stronger and more resistant to cavities. Several nutrients are especially important, including calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. These nutrients also build the jawbone, which helps keep teeth in place. For adults, calcium intake has little effect on keeping teeth healthy. But these same nutrients help keep your jawbone strong.

Other than their role in tooth decay, carbohydrates don’t directly relate to most health problems. Unless you consume too many! Yet “carb” myths are widespread. Here’s the scoop on some common misconceptions about “carbs.”

Eating too many calories, not just starches and sugars, causes your body to produce extra pounds of body fat. That includes too many calories from any source carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Actually, excess calories from fats turn into body fat first, before extra calories from carbohydrates do. Sugar itself isn’t the villain, either. Instead, being overweight results from a complex interaction, environment, inactivity, and grow taller nutrition choices.

Information on Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, and a very important mineral for the maintenance of neuromuscular function. It constitutes 2% of the total body weight and 26% of the dry weight of bones and teeth, as phosphates and carbonates. About 0.5 g serum calcium is exchanged with bone calcium every day.


The absorption of calcium depends on the factors listed below.

1. Body needs. In a normal person only 30% of calcium is absorbed, but in a deficient person the proportion absorbed is higher.

2. Concentration. Other factors being equal, the higher the concentration of calcium in the food, the greater the absorption.

3. Intestinal motility. Intestinal hurry diminishes the absorption of calcium. With chronic diarrhoea and prolonged use of purgatives, calcium absorption is diminished considerably.

4. Fat. When fat absorption is deficient, as in steatorrhoea, calcium .combines with fatty acids in the bowel lumen to form

insoluble calcium soaps. Decreased fat absorption also diminishes absorption of vitamin D.

5. Ingested food. Absorption of calcium from food is similar whether it is taken as whole milk, chocolate milk, yoghurt or

cheese. The absorption is also similar whether calcium is taken in milk or as calcium acetate, lactate, gluconate, citrate, or carbonate.1 The amino acid L-Iysine helps in positive calcium balance, not only because it enhances calcium absorption, but also because it improves conservation of absorbed calcium. Lactose (milk sugar) and amino acids, such as arginine and tryptophan, enhance calcium absorption. When co-administered with glucose polymer, the absorption of calcium chloride increased 1.5 to 5-fold even in vitamin D-deficient patients.

Cereals contain phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate), which combines with calcium to form insoluble calcium phytate which is not absorbed. Similarly, foods containing oxalate, such as spinach, combine with calcium to form insoluble calcium oxalate. An excess of magnesium apparently diminishes absorption of calcium. Intestinal lactase deficiency leads to decreased milk (and consequently calcium) intake, and possible also decreases calcium absorption.

6. Vitamin D. The most important factor in promoting calcium absorption is vitamin D, which stimulates the formation of a calcium-binding protein that enhances calcium absorption. When vitamin D is not consumed, as with a strict vegetarian (vegan)

diet (which excludes even milk as it is considered to be of animal origin), or if the skin is not exposed adequately to sunlight, severe vitamin D deficiency results in poor absorption of calcium.

Vitamin D3 (calcitriol: 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin 03) 400-800 IV may be of value in ensuring calcium absorption. With high doses of vitamin 0, the absorption of calcium from foods can be almost complete, and it is possible to maintain a positive calcium balance even on a low intake.

Glucocorticoids and alcohol decrease intestinal calcium absorption.

7. Calcium-phosphorus ratio. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in food has an important influence on absorption. Most foods

containing calcium also have a proper proportion of phosphorus. Milk, eggs, and some leafy vegetables like lettuce provide these elements in the required proportions.


Calcium is present in plasma but not in red blood cells. The serum level is about] 0 mg per 100 ml (2.4 mmol/l), about half

of which is ionized and the remainder protein-bound. Ionized calcium is diffusible. Its normal serum level is maintained by the parathyroid glands. Alkalosis reduces the level of ionizable serum calcium. Diminution of ionic calcium leads to increased muscle irritability and tetany.

The rest of the serum calcium is bound to proteins, mainly albumin, so that when the plasma albumin falls the level of serum

calcium is low; but since this decrease is only in the non-diffusible form, tetany does not develop.


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mobilizes calcium and phosphorus from the bones to maintain the blood level.

Hyperparathyroidism causes reabsorption of minerals together. with bone matrix, giving an X-ray appearance of cysts in the

bones (osteitis fibrosa cystica), most apparent in the skull. It may also manifest as kidney stones without detectable bone changes. PTH also stimulates the mitochondria of the kidney to increase conversion of calcidiol to calcitriol, which enhances

intestinal calcium absorption.

Calcitonin is a peptide hormone produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland. Having a very short half-life, it is secreted

continuously. The secretion increases with rising serum calcium. It helps to maintain blood level by preventing calcium release from the bones and increasing urinary excretion.

Therapeutically, calcitonin is used when serum calcium is high, as in Paget’s disease (where it decreases bone reabsorption),

and in hyperparathyroidism and breast carcinoma (where it increases urinary calcium excretion). Estrogen raises the level of calcitonin and prevents bone loss. Postmenopausal bone loss is ascribed to decreased estrogen; therefore, calcitonin rather

than estrogen therapy is suggested for the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, as well as for the treatment of



Most of the body calcium (99%) is stored in the bones and teeth. The skeleton is the dynamic reservoir where calcium is continuously deposited and reabsorbed. This dynamic activity is high in the young and declines with age. About one per cent

of total body calcium is in the circulation and soft tissue.

One episode of mild to moderate malnutrition, occurring during the first year of life, is associated many years later with

increased caries in both the deciduous and permanent teeth.

At puberty, under the influence of sex hormones, girls accumulate about 200 mg, and boys 400 mg, calcium a day. Positive calcium balance occurs only if the calcium intake is over 1000 mg a day.


About half the daily calcium intake is excreted in the feces, representing unabsorbed calcium and calcium from endogenous

sources. If a high dose of vitamin D is taken, the calcium content of the stools decreases.

About half the total daily calcium intake is excreted through the urine. Urinary excretion of calcium is the net result of

glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. The urinary excretion is under the control of the parathyroid glands, and

represents mostly endogenous calcium. The normal range of urinary calcium in adults on a normal diet is 100-300 mg (2.5-7.5 mmol) per day for men and 100-250 mg (2.5-6.5 mmol) per day for women. The kidneys conserve calcium during deficiency.

With normal kidney function, about eight per cent of filtered calcium is excreted. With the administration of the diuretics

frusemide or ethacranic acid, resorption of calcium by the kidneys is inhibited and the urinary loss is increased to 12%.

Thiazides, on the other hand, conserve calcium by increasing kidney tubular reabsorption, and the urinary loss is only three

per cent. Therefore, in older patients with high blood pressure-particularly in women-bone loss and osteoporosis occur with frusemide. Thiazide is recommended for prevention as well as treatment of osteoporosis. By decreasing calcium excretion,

thiazide is also useful in preventing recurrence of kidney stones.

High-protein diet decreases reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys and increases urinary calcium excretion.


Calcium and phosphorus are necessary for bone formation.

Bones consist of a protein matrix (framework) in which calcium phosphate is deposited. Proteins, vitamins A and C, and sex

hormones are necessary for the formation of the matrix. The calcium in the bones is always being turned over with calcium in

the blood and other tissues, at a rate of 0.5 g (12.5 mmol) per day.

Ionic calcium affects neuromuscular excitability of both the voluntary and involuntary muscles. When the ionic serum calcium

concentration. is diminished, neuromuscular excitability is considerably increased, as in tetany.

Calcium is also necessary for clotting of blood and maintenance of capillary permeability.


Milk and milk products are the best sources of calcium. Calcium in milk is better absorbed than in other foods, because lysine and lactose (milk sugar) enhance calcium absorption. Fatty preparations like butter, cream and ghee are poor in calcium but contain an adequate amount of vitamin D which aids in calcium absorption.

The daily calcium requirements of a man are easily supplied by a cup of buffalo milk. Molasses and vegetables, like peas, beans, pulses, potatoes, cauliflowers, and dried figs, also supply calcium. Pumpkin leaves have a calcium content of 240300 mg (6-7.5 mmol) per 100 g. Chewing betel leaves with lime ( calcium hydroxide) augments dietary calcium. Hard water contains calcium, which can be better absorbed in tropical countries with vitamin D derived from exposure to sunlight. Those who chew fish bones are also assured of adequate calcium intake. A solution of bones soaked in vinegar for several weeks, a practice of the Indo-Chinese, is a good source of calcium.

The tropical diet of rice, wheat or millet is deficient in calcium, but body exposure to sunlight produces vitamin D, which

improves absorption and tends to compensate for the low intake. In the West, the compulsory addition of calcium (fortification) to wheat flour ensures adequate calcium intake.

Calcium carbonate is the cheapest commercial source of calcium.


Humans have a remarkable capacity to adapt to low calcium intake; it is compensated for by diminished urinary excretion and

increased intestinal absorption.

The daily requirement for calcium ingestion varies according to factors favorable or otherwise to its absorption. In the

tropics, with exposure to sunlight, a positive calcium balance is maintained even on a calcium intake lower than is generally

recommended. The requirement increases with physical activity, and is greater in athletes.

The current calcium intake of American girls during pubertal growth period is not adequate, and increased intake has been


Pregnancy increases the demand for, as well as the absorption of, calcium. An infant at birth has more than 20 g (500 mmol)calcium, the major portion of which is accumulated in the last three months when the bones of the fetus are formed. Even if extra calcium is not taken by the mother, the fetus still derives calcium from the mother’s bones. When there is marked deficiency of calcium, the mother may suffer from osteomalacia. About 1.2 g (30 mmol) calcium per day is adequate for the

mother during the last trimester.

Lactation involves loss of calcium; human milk contains 20-30 mg calcium per 100 ml (5-7.5 mmol/l). If 1000 ml of milk is

secreted, 300 mg (7.5 mmol) extra calcium has to be absorbed by the mother. Even’ if the mother’s calcium intake is not

adequate, the concentration of calcium in her milk is maintained at the necessary level by mobilization from her bones. To allow for losses and daily -needs, a lactating mother requires 1.2 g (30 mmol) calcium daily.

Infants who are breast-fed require 50 mg (1.25 mmol) calcium per kg of body weight daily. Artificially-fed infants require two to three times this quantity of calcium, as absorption from artificial sources is not as efficient as from mother’s milk.


Low serum calcium levels are seen fn the situations listed below.

1. Hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism.

2. Vitamin D deficiency (i) due to poor diet; (ii) in regions where women do not expose themselves to sunlight; or (iii) due

to diminished absorption in steatorrhea.

3. Low serum proteins (hypoproteinemia), in which the non-diffusible fraction bound to albumin is reduced.

4. Kidney disease, in which there is retention of phosphate or failure to acidify the urine, leading to systemic acidosis and

loss of calcium.

5. Acute pancreatitis, where the pancreatic enzyme lipase is released into the peritoneum and blood, splitting fat into

glycerol and fatty acid, the latter combining with calcium to form soaps.

6. Ingestion of drugs and toxins like sodium, fluoride and viomycin.

7. Following hypothermia for cardiac surgery.

8. Following gastric surgery, probably due to deficient vitamin D absorption. These patients respond to daily oral doses of 32.5 micrograms, or weekly injections of 25 micrograms of vitamin D. Some cases of hypocalcemia after gastric surgery may be due to hypoproteinemia.

9. High-protein diet, which increases urinary calcium excretion.

10. Rheumatoid arthritis, where considerable calcium is lost early in the disease.

How to Get Rid of Lime Stains

Hard water increases films and stains from soaps, minerals and other substances. Bathroom fixtures, sinks, dishes and other surfaces need more frequent cleaning. Calcium and magnesium in water leave hard deposits called lime scales on fixtures and equipment.

These minerals make cleaning products less effective. To clean away lime scale, you need a cleaning product with “sequestrants” Sequestrants capture and deactivate minerals in water (Calgon is one example of a product with sequestrants). The deactivated minerals then cannot react with other materials to form scum, film or lime scale.

Also, think acid. Anything with acidity can help clear away hard water stains on any surface. The general types of cleaners discussed below will help you to remove stains on household surfaces. It’s best to clean stains away regularly. If they are allowed to penetrate the surface, they become more difficult to remove.

Be sure to follow label instructions for safe use of cleaners. You may need to open a window or use a fan to get proper ventilation. Store cleaners in a safe place and properly dispose of empty containers.

Basic Lime Stain Removal

* Scrub area with warm tap water to remove dirt and soap scum first. Wipe dry with towel or cloth afterwards. It’s much harder to remove the lime stain itself with the dirt and soap scum intact, so you must first deal with the problem layer by layer, or else risk making the stain become worse and harder to get rid of.

* Vinegar or lemon juice may be rubbed over the stain to dissolve it. Many people use vinegar to clean coffee makers, dishwashers and garbage disposals. Go get yourself some Heinz white vinegar or even the generic stuff; it doesn’t matter which. Soak a brush with the vinegar and start scratching the stain.

Lemon juice is suggested as well because it functions on the same principle as the white vinegar solution. You can just use the juice or scrub with the lemon itself; that is, cut a lemon in half and rub it directly on the stain.

The acetic acid of either method should cut through the soap scum and help dissolve the organic compounds left in the grime of your bathroom. Rinse thoroughly. After the stains dissipate, follow up often with white vinegar/lemon scrubbings to keep the stains from coming back

* Use a bronze brush and some bleach. Bleach is a chemical that removes color or whitens, often via oxidation. Common chemical bleaches include household “chlorine bleach”, a solution of approximately 3-6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and “oxygen bleach”, which contains hydrogen peroxide or a peroxide-releasing compound such as sodium perborate or sodium percarbonate.

Sodium hypochlorite is used in endodontics during root canal treatments, disinfecting the canal and dissolving any remaining pulp tissue; the same process is used in dissolving hard water buildup in bathrooms, sinks, pots and pans.

* Boil some rhubarb in an affected, lime-stained pot. Rubarb is a genus of perennial plants that grow from thick short rhizomes. The plants have large leaves that are somewhat triangular shaped with long fleshy petioles, and the latter are readily available in most grocery stores.

Rhubarb is particularly effective in lime stain removal because it soaks up most marks through the abundant amount of absorbic acid in it. When you’re done, throw away the plant waste and then clean as usual.

* Ammonia may also do the trick, but it should never be mixed or used together with bleach because they can form toxic fumes.

* If all else fails, consider using stronger acids to finish the job. For example, oxalic acid is effective as a rust remover; phosphoric acid is often found in cleaning products that remove hard water deposits; and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are sometimes used in diluted concentrations in toilet bowl cleaners.

Commercial Lime Stain Removers

Shop around if vinegars and lemons just aren’t cutting it; you may need a more potent approach. Check out hardware stores and grocery aisles for more stringent chemical cleaners. Commercial products designed to remove white, hard lime deposit may be used if the label says they are safe for the surface.

* Lime-A-Way is a product found in most stores; if you have hard water, it is a must. You can use it for so many applications. To clean the sink and bathtub, spray it in the places with stains, and leave in on there for up to 15 minutes, depending on how dirty they are, and then wipe it and rinse off.

Once you wipe the sink/bathtub, use that same sponge to quickly go over the faucets: it makes them so shiny and clean, you’ll think they’re brand new.

* Bar Keepers Friend is a powder cleaner that works wonders on pots and pans. Do not use it on non -stick surfaces, though. Wet the surface of the pot and sprinkle a liberal amount of BKF onto the pot. Use a sponge to scrub in a circular pattern. Scrub away and rinse. Your pots will shine.

* Calgon is a product consisting of powdered sodium hexametaphosphate (amorphous sodium polyphospate), which in water would complex with ambient calcium ion and certain other cations, preventing formation of unwanted salts and interference by those cations with the actions of soap or other detergents.

Hotelier Tips – The Importance of the Hotel Bar

There is no single thing that makes a good hotel. Good service, clean spacious rooms and a decent restaurant are a must, and while many of the top hotels around the world are packed with swimming pools, gyms and spas, these are not the things most people want from a good hotel.

Any businessman, salesperson or weekend guest, just wants somewhere clean, friendly and welcoming to lay their head of an evening. However, there is one thing that most customers expect of any hotel, no matter the size, rating or location – a good hotel bar.

No matter what the size of hotel, guest house or bed and breakfast, you should never underestimate the importance of the hotel bar. It doesn’t matter if you don’t have the space or resources for a pool, spa or gym, every hotel, no matter the size needs a good well equipped hotel bar.

Having somewhere to relax and perhaps have a chat with other guests is all part of the hotel experience and most guests make use of the hotel bar at some point in their stay.

You don’t need a large cocktail bar equipped with every imaginable drink either. If you only have a small space you can still run a good and inviting bar in your hotel just by remembering a few things when you are setting it up.

Ensure the bar is well stocked. Not having enough drinks is a mortal sin for anyone running a bar so ensure you have enough in. You don’t need a vast array or beers wines and spirits either. If you are running a small bar stick to the basics. As long as you have the basic beers, spirits and a couple of good wines there will be something for everybody.

Make sure you have a good bar equipment supplier. Making sure you have enough glasses, cork screws and other bar equipment is just as important as ensuring you have enough drinks. Its a good idea when setting up a hotel bar to choose a bar equipment supplier who has a good range of stock as no matter how ell prepared you are, you may never no what you may need in the future so having a hotel and bar equipment supplier you can trust is important.

The Best Foreplay For Men – How to Arouse, Pleasure and Indulge the Man in Your Life

It may seem like there is no need for foreplay with men, considering how quickly a man can get aroused, but that doesn’t mean the step should be skipped. While a man has to sometimes work hard to get a woman aroused, women barely have to lift a finger to get a man aroused. That all being said, with extra arousal it is possible to make the sex better and this is why foreplay for men is so important.

So, what can you do for your man to get them aroused during foreplay?

1. The first thing you need to do is to give him something nice to look at. Men like to see their partner in sexy clothing, so some lingerie can go a long way in arousing your partner.

2. You can also put on some erotic movies in order to get him in the mood. Adult movies are great because you can both watch them, both get aroused and both get some ideas about how to please the other person.

3. A striptease is a good idea to get his motor running. Do a slow striptease around him and he will be putty in your hands.

4. Men like women who can seize control during sex. With a bit of animal instinct, you can make being aggressive as a sign of lust for your partner. Men love this and it will get them more into the mood.

5. A great way to heighten arousal during foreplay is to let your lips roam over his body, just above the skin. You can slowly blow on his skin and the change in temperature from your breathe will give him goose bumps and increase his overall arousal.

6. A soft massage is a great part of the foreplay for men. You can excite him with a simple touch by moving your hands along his body and massaging various parts to relax him. Sometimes gentle scratches are nice as well.

7. You can go with something easy to get him aroused and few things are as easy as oral sex for a man. Make sure you get the man to the point where he can’t seem to take anymore and then stop.

Foreplay for men is something that will make your sex life more passionate and better. With some very easy steps like these, you can turn him on to the point where he just can’t take it anymore.

Wusthof Culinar Knives – Are You Ready For It?

This article will discuss the Wusthof Culinar range of knives by the German knife maker. If you’ve already seen Wusthof Culinar knives, then you have to admit these are beautiful craftsman work. Their exceptional design make these full stainless steel perfectly balanced, and just like any Wusthof knife they are extremely sharp.

Are You Ready For A Wusthof Culinar Set?

First let’s clear some confusion you may have with the Culinar knives about the handle. I’ve heard people commenting on the handle not being part of the single piece of steel. They are right, but the knives are still forged from one piece of stainless steel: from the tip of the blade to the end of the tang, there’s just one piece of steel. Then the handle is sealed to the tang.

So, to be completely clear, the tang is the part that extends from the blade and stays inside the handle.

This is still the main difference of a Wusthof Culinar knife with other Wusthof lines (Classic, Ikon, Classic Ikon, Gourmet, etc.): that the knife is totally metal colored. Also, there is only one rivet in the handle instead of three. These knives really have a sense of elegance and fluidity.

If you are looking for great kitchen knives, that both have the optimal sharpness to meet all your cutting needs and bring some modern design, then a Wusthof Culinar set will ideally fit your requirements. Presented in a nice wood block they look even more gorgeous pieces of art.

Here are the features of these Wusthof knives:

  • compound tapered blade
  • laser tested blade for ultimate sharpness and best cutting angle
  • 18/10 stainless steel sculpted handles, satin-finish
  • ergonomic design for comfort
  • superior balance for more precision and ease of use

Of course there is a Wusthof Culinar knife for every use, and if you decide to buy a set, be sure to include a Chef’s knife, vegetable knife, paring knife, utility knife. You are of course free to add more specialty knives per your own wishes.

Few Words On Maintenance and Care

Most premium knives are dishwasher ready. However, these knives should always be washed by hand with a mild cleanser, and manufacturers like Wusthof recommend you don’t throw these in the dishwasher.

These knives are strong but delicate too, you don’t want them to get scratched by other tableware elements inside.

IF you need to restore the blade, few strokes on a sharpening steel will do a great job. Also, because your Wusthof Culinar knives are made to last for decades, they come with the Wusthof lifetime warranty.

Options and Benefits of Metal Fencing

If you wish to boost your home security, you may consider metal fencing as a cost-efficient and long lasting option. You will have better peace of mind when you sleep at night or go away on vacation. To some degree, metal fencing is a good way to secure your possessions and protect your loved ones from harm.

Metal fences are also commonly installed to secure fish ponds, gardens, and pets. Metal offers a degree of flexibility that more home builders are seeing the value of this material. The home owner may choose from various kinds of metals, designs, sizes, and patterns available. You may even have your fences painted to complement your home’s exterior.

There are plenty of choices when it comes to a metal style fence design, from the simplest to more complex and intricate designs. Of course, we cannot forget the durability and the sturdiness of metal type fencing, which makes it ideal for any kind of property. A coat of paint is enough for the metal to last for many years. When the metal eventually degenerates, metal style fences are easy and cheaper to repair or replace.

Wood will remain a popular choice for fencing but metal comes with a lot of advantages for the home builder. Unlike wooden fences, metal type fencing is not prone to pest and termite infestation. It is inexpensive and does not take much to maintain. When it comes to aesthetic appeal, metal fencing easily rivals the classic appeal of wooden fences. Even better, ornamental metal fences are made available in a variety of shapes and styles.

Metal Fencing Options

Aluminum and wrought iron are two commonly used materials in this type of fencing. Aluminum is the cheaper alternative between the two and can withstand rusting better. It would make a good choice if it always rains in your location. Aluminum metal is also ideal for pool areas. It is also ideal if you would like to have your fences painted on.

On the other hand, wrought iron fences cost a little more because they are custom-built and bring about a more classic look and feel. Rust can be a major problem but if you live in a mostly sunny city, proper maintenance is all it takes to keep them in top condition. Wrought iron fences can be galvanized to keep away rust and prevent discoloration.

With regard to design, you have the option to choose between chain-link metal fencing or interlocking post and rail fencing. You may choose either one depending on your needs and preference. Chain link fences are commonly found around football fields, public pools, and baseball pitches. If you are installing a fence mostly for practical purposes, chain-link fences are affordable and easy to set up.

If you would like your fence to serve a decorative as well as a functional purpose, you may pay a little extra and have post and rail metal fencing installed. Costs vary in range depending on the thickness, spacing, and the overall appearance of the rails. Line posts and corner posts should be chosen with care. They vary according to joint shapes such as u-joint, y-joint, t-joint, or square-shaped. Each type supports various types of metal fencing and you may ask the help of a contractor to ensure the quality of your metal fencing.

Timber Fences Vs Colorbond Fences

In my opinion if properly maintained a colorbond fence will outlast a timber fence by 5-10 years. Colorbond fences are made from steel so the paint will fade and the steel eventually rust but not so quickly as treated pine or even hardwood posts will rot through enough to lose stability.

A modification growing in popularity to increase the life of the timber fence is to use Galvanised steel posts. Galvanised Steel posts may eventually rust but the steel is thicker than colorbond steel so the posts will outlast colorbond posts however the timber will still generally warp, fade and rot therefore still living less time than a colorbond fence however if the fence is maintained correctly when the timber has seen its last days you can simply cut the timber frame away and re-use the same steel posts for your next fence.

This will reduce the cost of your next fence substantially because most of the labour in fence building is the setting of the posts which won’t be necessary. The price of a standard 1.8m high paling fence is not increased using steel posts as light gauge steel posts can be utilised for the same cost as timber posts.

If you wish to upgrade to a higher fence or lapped palings then this will increase the cost of the steel posts as heavier gauge steel will be required.Steel posts will increase the life of your timber fence however many people don’t like the look of steel posts and wish their entire fence to be made from timber therefore opting for timber posts.

Colorbond will generally last longer than timber fences with timber posts, it has other disadvantages. The heat from our hot Australian sun is absorbed into the steel and radiates onto plants close to the fence which can be harmful to the plants depending on how well the plant handles increased temperature.

Also colorbond fencing is easily bent or dented by kids, animals or vandals. For this reason I do not recommend a colorbond fence that backs onto a public area because vandals seem to love tagging them, (spraying them with spray paint) or kicking and denting them.

Although there are over 32 colours to choose from with your colorbond fencing, neighbors often do not agree and it can be costly to paint one side a different colour.

In summary both colorbond and timber fences have their advantages and disadvantages and your personal circumstances will depend which fence type would best suit your needs.

Ubon Ratchathani – A Retirement Haven

When planning for your retirement you should consider the possibility of retiring to Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand.

Why should Ubon Ratchathani be included on a list of places to enjoy your leisure days? It is a foreign country. The native language is Thai. It is far from your homeland.

Many people, when the are nearing the age of retirement face the realization that they must adjust their lifestyle. Retirement income is often much less than during their working life. Where do you make the cuts?

Ubon Ratchathani is the largest province in Thailand in terms of land mass. It is located in the northeastern region and is bordered by the Mekong River and Laos to the East and Cambodia to the south.

One of the main points for making a new home here is the cost of living. It is easy to maintain an excellent quality of life for a fraction of what it will cost in western countries in Europe, Scandinavia and North America. You can secure quality accommodations, including all utilities, for less than you have been paying the bank for your car payment. You can enjoy three meals a day of tasty Thai food for less than a single meal back home. Medical care is surprisingly affordable at one of the four major hospitals in Ubon.

You can easily travel to Ubon Ratchathani by plane, rail, bus or private auto. The city benefits from being serviced with multiple schedules daily with three major modes of transportation. The buses and trains originate and terminate between Bangkok and Ubon but there are ways to make connections for domestic travel. The buses can take you around Ubon as well as around Thailand.

There is a small but growing community of western expats who call Ubon home. You can meet others to socialize with. If you want to get a taste of your homeland there are stores and shops to acquire the ingredients your need.

If you enjoy traveling you will discover it is quite cheap and convenient to get around Thailand from Ubon. You can walk the beaches of Phuket or Samui Island for a fraction of what you would pay in Hawaii or Florida. Take a trip north to the Lanna culture and mountains of Chiang Mai.

From Ubon you can be in Laos enjoying a step back in time or head south to Cambodia and visit the awesome magnificence of Angkor Wat. The journey to these places is only a few short hours. If you are wanting to visit friends and family back home it is a one hour flight to Bangkok to make your connection.

Living in a foreign country has requirements that never come to mind when at home. The local immigration office is just a 45 minute drive from Ubon city. All the foreign embassies are a train, bus or plane ride to Bangkok away.

Retirement is a time to enjoy the fruits of your labor. You should seriously consider Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand as an option to maintain or even raise your quality of life.