DIY Flooring – Matching Flooring With the Room

One of the most important things you should consider when choosing your DIY flooring is the room you will be installing the flooring in. Different types of flooring are more suited to certain rooms than others. This article will help guide you in choosing the right flooring with your room.

Kitchens kits are often high traffic areas. It is important to purchase flooring that is easy to clean and durable. You may also want to consider purchasing flooring with a non-skid surface to prevent falls on a wet floor. Vinyl flooring is the most popular in kitchens, although ceramic tile is on the rise. Laminated wood flooring is also a good choice as it is more durable than hardwood flooring and easier to clean.

Bathroom The most important feature of bathroom flooring is that it is waterproof. If water is able to see below the flooring it can cause mildew, mold and rot damage. Like in the kitchen, bathroom flooring should be easy to clean and non-skid. Good choices are vinyl and ceramic tile.

Living Room Your options for living room flooring are wide open. You can use carpeting, wood flooring, laminate or just about any other flooring type. The important thing is to match the function and decor of the room. For a more formal living room, hardwood flooring or tile may work. For a family room, carpeting is a good choice.

Dining Room The important thing to keep in mind for the dining room is stain resistance. Light colored carpeting is probably not a good choice due to the possibility of food spillage. Wood, laminate, and tile are good options.

Bedroom Carpeting is a very popular choice for bedrooms. They tend to receive little traffic or wear. It is a good idea to use neutral colors so as not to overwhelm the other aspects of the bedroom and leave flexibility in the design of the room.

Hallways & Stairs These areas tend to be very high traffic areas. You want to make sure that you choose a flooring that is easy to clean and durable. Laminate, vinyl, and wood flooring are good choices. Ceramic tiles are also a popular choice for entry ways as they are easy to clean and provide an eye-appealing first impression to your home.

Remember that the most important thing in choosing flooring for your DIY flooring project is to choose something that you like and will match the decor in your home. But if you keep the above recommendations in mind, you can also choose a flooring that will last for a long time and does not require a large amount of maintenance.

What Muscles Are At Work When Jumping Rope?

Skipping rope is a superior form of cardiovascular exercise. It will get your heart pumping, and all it takes is a rope, a pair of shoes, and some space. You can literally jump rope anywhere, on the beach, in the park, in your basement, even on the moon, and you do not need fancy machines or expensive equipment. This time-tested classic has been used for good reason by elite athletes for decades, and there is a reason boxers (some of the best conditioned elite athletes in the world) use it to condition their bodies, jumping rope builds more coordination and burns more calories per minute than just about any form of cardio, including running, which is thought of as the holy grail of physical conditioning. It also builds up agility, rhythm, and timing, since you need to avoid stopping or letting the rope hit you when it comes up and over your body.

When you jump rope, you are using almost every muscle in your body. The muscles in your feet and calves get the brunt of the work, as you must use the ball of your foot to land and launch from, and if you are a beginner this is where you will feel it most. It also works the quadriceps (thighs), hamstrings (back of legs), core muscles (abdominals, obliques), shoulders (deltoids), and forearms. Herein lies why jumping rope is such a great form of cardio, it uses the big muscles in your body to get you moving, just like other great forms of cardio including running, cycling, swimming, or team sports such as basketball. Different variations, including speeding up your cadence and changing your footwork (skipping, double jumps, high knees) can emphasize different muscles and add variety to jump rope workouts. You can also add more of a challenge by using thicker and heavier ranges, or by wearing a weight vest, therefore increasing resistance and adding to the difficulty of the workout and an increase in calories burned.

Keep in mind, jumping rope is a form of cardiovascular exercise, and will not lead to sizable gains in hypertrophy like intensive weight training will, so it is best to use it as cardio after weight workouts, or on your off days to get the heart pumping. If you are a beginner and you are looking for a good form of cardio, or a seasoned vet just looking to switch things up, give jumping rope a try, you will not be disappointed.

Choosing the Right SDLC For Your Project

Choosing the right SDLC (Software Development Lifecycle) methodology for your project is as important to the success of the project as the implementation of any project management best practices. Choose the wrong software methodology and you will add time to the development cycle. Adding extra time to the development cycle will increase your budget and very likely prevent you from delivering the project on time.

Choosing the wrong methodology can also hamper your effective management of the project and may also interfer with the delivery of some of the project's goals and objectives. Software development methodologies are another tool in the development shop's tool inventory, much like your project management Best practices are tools in your project manager's tool kit. You would not choose a chainsaw to finish the doors on your kitchen cabinet doors because you know you would not get the results you want. Choose your software methodology carefully to avoid spoiling your project results.

I realize that not every project manager can choose the software methodology that they will use on every project. Your organization may have invested heavily in the software methodology and supporting tools used to develop their software. There's not much you can do in this case. Your organization will not look favorably on a request to cast as a methodology and tools that ''ve sent thousands of dollars on because you recommend a different methodology for your project. We'll give you some tips on how to tailor some of the methodologies to better fit with your project requirements later in this article. In the meantime, before your organization invests in software development methodologies you, or your PMO ,ought to be consulted so that at least a major of projects are benefited from a good fit.

This article will not cover every SDLC out there but we will attempt to cover the most popular ones.


Scrum is a name rather than an acronym (which is why I have not capitalized the letters), although some users have created acronyms, and is commonly used together with agile software development. Scrum is typically chosen because of its iterative nature and its ability to deliver working software quickly. It is chosen to develop new products for those reasons. There is typically no role for a project manager in this methodology, the 3 key roles are: the scrum master (replacing the project manager), the product owner, and the team who design and build the system. There is only one role that you would be asked to play if your organization is committed to using this methodology, scrum master. If you should determine that this would actually be the best methodology for your project, you'll have to re-examine your role as project manager. You can either identify a suitable scrum master and return to the bench, or fill the role of scrum master.

Scrum suits software development projects where its important for the project to deliver working software quickly. Scrum is an iterative methodology and uses cycles called sprints, to build a working system. Requirements are captured in a "backlog" and a set of requirements is chosen with the help of the product manager. Requirements are chosen based on 2 criteria: the requirement takes priority over others left in the backlog and the set of requirements chosen will build a functioning system.

During the sprint, which can last from 2 to 4 weeks maximum, no changes can be made to the requirements in the sprint. This is one of the reasons that a project manager is not necessary for this methodology. There is no need for requirements management because no changes are allowed to the requirements under development. All changes must occur in the requirements set in the backlog.

Scrum will be suitable for software development projects where the product is a new software product. By new I mean that it is new to the organization undertaking the project, not in general. The methodology was developed to address a need for a method to build software when its necessary to learn on the fly, not all requirements are known to the organization and the focus is on delivering a working prototype quickly to demonstrate capabilities. You need to be careful when choosing requirements to deliver in each sprint to ensure that the set developed builds a software system that is capable of demonstrating the feature set supporting the requirements included.

You also need to ensure that these requirements are well known and understood as no changes are allowed once the sprint starts. This means that any changes to the requirements must come through a new set of requirements in the backlog making changes to these requirements very expensive.

This methodology divides stakeholders into 2 groups: pigs and chickens. The inventors of this methodology chose this analogy based on the story of the pig and the chicken – it goes something like this. A pig and a chicken were walking down the road one morning and happened to notice some poor children who looked like they had not eaten for days. The compassionate chicken said to the pig: "Why do not we make those children a breakfast of ham and eggs?" The pig said: "I'm not happy with your suggestion. The point to this is the product owner, scrum master, and team are all in the "pig" group. All others are in the "chicken" group. You will be in the "chicken" group if you choose the Scrum methodology as a project manager.


Waterfall methodology calls for each phase of the development cycle to be repeated once only. Requirements will be gathered and translated into functional specifications once, functional specifications will be translated to design once, designs will be built into software components once and the components will be tested once. The advantage of this methodology is its focus. You can concentrate the effort of all your analyzers on producing functional specifications during one period rather than have the effort dispersed through the entire project. Focusing your resources in this way also reduces the window during which resources will be required. Programmers will not be engaged until all the functional specifications have been written and approved.

The disadvantage of this approach is its inability to teach the project team anything during the project. A key difference between the waterfall approach and an iterative methodology, such as Scrum or RUP, is the opportunity to learn lessons from the current iteration which will improve the team's effectiveness with the next iteration. The waterfall methodology is an ideal method to use when the project team has built software systems very similar to the one your project is to deliver and has nothing to learn from development that would improve their performance. A good example of a project which would benefit from the waterfall methodology is a project to add functionality to a system the project team built in the not too distant past. Another example of an environment that is well suited to the waterfall methodology is a program to maintain a software system where a project is scheduled for specific periods to enhance the system. For example, an order and configuration software system which is enhanced every 4 months.

The waterfall methodology does not lend itself particularly well to projects where the requirements are not clearly understood at the outside. Iterative approaches allow the product owners or user community to examine the result of building a sub-set of requirements. Exercising the sub-set of requirements in the iteration's build may cause the product owners or user community to re-examine those requirements or requirements to be built. You will not have that opportunity with the waterfall method so you need to be certain of your requirements before you begin the build phase. Interpreting requirements into functionality is not the only aspect of development that can benefit from an iterative approach. Designing the system and building it can also benefit from doing these activities iteratively. You should use the waterfall method when your team is familiar with the system being developed and the tools used to develop it. You should avoid using it when developing a system for the first time or using a completely new set of tools to develop the system.


The Rational Unified Process, or RUP, combines an iterative approach with use cases to govern system development. RUP is a methodology supported by IBM and IBM provides tools (eg Rational Rose) that support the methodology. RUP divides the project into 4 phases:

1. Inception phase – produces requirements, business case, and high level use cases

2.Elaboration phase – produces refined use cases, architecture, a refined risk list, a refinanced business case, and a project plan

3. Construction phase – produces the system

4. Transition phase – transitions the system from development to production

RUP also defines 9 disciplines: 6 engineering disciples, and 3 supporting disciplines: Configuration and Change Management, Project Management, and environment so is intended to work hand in hand with project management best practices.

Iteration is not limited to a specific project phase – it may even be used to govern theception phase, but is most applicable to the construction phase. The project manager is responsible for an overall project plan which defines the deliveries for each phase, and a detailed iteration plan which manages the deliveries and tasks associated to each phase. The purpose of the iterations is to better identify risks and mitigate them.

RUP is essentially a cross between Scrum and waterfall in that it only applies an iterative approach to project currencies where the most benefit can be derived from it. RUP also emphasizes the architecture of the system being built. The strengths of RUP are its adaptability to different types of projects. You could simulate some of the aspects of a Scrum method by making all 4 phrases iterative, or you could simulate the waterfall method by choosing to avoid iterations altogether. RUP will be especially useful to you when you have some familiarity with the technology but need the help of Use Cases to help clarify your requirements. Use Cases can be combined with storyboarding when you are developing a software system with a user interface to simulate the interaction between the user and the system. Avoid using RUP where your team is very familiar with the technology and the system being developed and your product owners and users do not need use cases to help clarify their requirements.

RUP is one of those methodologies that your organization is very likely to have invested heavily in. If that's your situation, you probably do not have the authority to select another method but you can tailor RUP to suit your project. Use iterations to eliminate risks and unknowns that stem from your team's unfamiliarity with the technology or the system, or eliminate iterations where you would otherwise use the waterfall method.


Joint Application Development, or JAD, is another methodology developed by IBM. It's main focus is on the capture and interpretation of requirements but can be used to manage that phase in other methodologies such as waterfall. JADathers participants in a room to articulate and clarify requirements for the system. The project manager is required for the workshop to provide background information on the project's goals, objectives, and system requirements. The workshop also requires a facilitator, a scribe to capture requirements, participants who contribute requirements, and members of the development team whose purpose is to observe.

JAD can be used to quickly clarify and refine requirements because all the players are gathered in one room. Your developers can avert misunderstandings or ambiguities in requirements by questioning the participants. This method can be used with just about any software methodology. Avoid using it where the organization's needs are not clearly understood or on large, complex projects.


RAD is an acronym for Rapid Application Development uses an iterative approach and prototyping to speed application development. Prototyping begins by building the data models and business process models that will define the software application. The prototypes are used to verify and refine the business and data models in an iterative cycle until a data model and software design are sufficient enough to begin construction.

The purpose of RAD is to enable development teams to create and deploy software systems in a reliably short period of time. It does this in part by replacing the traditional methods of requirements gathering, analysis, and design with prototyping and modeling, the prototyping and modeling allow the team to prove the application components faster than traditional methods such as waterfall. The advantage of this method is it facilitates rapid development by eliminating design overhead. It's disadvantage is that in eliminating design overhead it also eliminates much of the safety net which requires requirements from being improperly interpreted or missed alike.

RAD is suitable for projects where the requirements are fairly well known in advance and the data is either an industry or business standard, or already in existence in the organization. It is also suitable for a small development team, or a project where the system can be broken down into individual applications that require small teams. RAD is not suitable for large, complex projects or projects where the requirements are not well understood.


Lean Software Development, or LSD, applies the principles of waste reduction from the manufacturing world to the business of developing software. The goal of LSD is to produce software in 1/3 the time, on 1/3 the budget, and with 1/3 the defects of comparable methods. Lean does this by applying 7 principles to the endavor of software development:

1. Eliminate waste

2. Amplify Learning (both technical and business)

3. Decide on requirements as late as possible

4. Deliver as fast as possible

Empower the team

6. Build integrity

7. See the whole

Although Lean Manufacturing has been around for some time, its application to the process of developing software is relatively new so I would not call it a mature process.

LSD would be a suitable method to use where you have a subject matter expert in the method who has some practical experience in applying lean methods to a software development project. "Amplified" learning implies that your development team has a depth of knowledge in the software tools provided, and also a breadth of knowledge that includes an understanding of the business needs of the client. LSD would be suitable for a project where the development team has these attributes.

LSD depends on a quick turnaround and the late finalization of requirements to eliminate the majority of change requests, so will not be suitable for a project where a deferred finalization of requirements will have a poor chance of eliminating change requests, or the size and complexity of the system being developed would prevent a quick turnaround.

Extreme Programming (XP)

Extreme programming places emphasis on an ability to accommodate changes to requirements throughout the development cycle and testing so that the code produced is of a high degree of quality and has a low failure rate in the field. XP requires the developers to write concise, clear, and simple code to solve problems. This code is then thoroughly tested by unit tests to ensure that the code works exactly as the programmer intends and acceptance tests to ensure that the code meets the customer's needs. These tests are accumulated so that all new code passes through them and the chances for a failure in the field are reduced.

XP requires the development team to listen carefully to the needs and requirements of the customer. Ambiguities will be clarified by asking questions and providing feedback to the customer which clarifies the requirements. This ability entails a certain degree of familiarity with the customer's business; the team will be less likely to understand the customer's needs if they do not understand their business.

The intent of XP is to enhance coding, testing, and listening to the point where there is less dependency on design. At some point it is expected that the system will become sufficiently complex so that it needs a design. The intent of the design is not to ensure that the coding will be tight, but that the various components will fit together and function smoothly.

XP would be a suitable software development method where the development team is knowledgeable about the customers business and have the tools to conduct the level of testing required for this method. Tools would include automated unit testing and reporting tools, issue capture and tracking tools, and multiple test platforms. Developers who are also business analysts and can translate a requirement directly to code are a necessity because design is more architectural than detail. This skill is also required as developers implement changes directly into the software.

XP will not be suitable where the development team does not possess business analysis experience and where testing is done by a quality assurance team rather than by the development team. The method can work for large complex projects as well as simple smaller ones.

There is no law that states you must choose one or the other of these methodologies for your software project. The list I've given you here is not a totally comprehensive list and some methodologies do not appear on it (eg Agile) so if you feel that there is some other method that will better suit your project, run with it. You should also look at combining some of the features of each of these methods to custom make a methodology for your project. For example, the desire to eliminate waste from the process of developing software is applicable to any method you choose and there is a relatively waste that could be eliminated in any development shop.

Be careful to choose a methodology that is a good fit for your team, stakeholders, and customer as well as your project. Bringing in a new development methodology that your team will struggle to learn at the same time they are trying to meet tight deadlines is not a good idea. On the other hand, if you have the latitude you may want to begin learning a new method with your project.

Cell Phone Review – The AT & T Tilt

The AT & T Tilt phone is an awesome cell phone for a small business person or executive. Even soccer Moms love it. Why you ask? Well, because the AT & T Tilt phone allows you to synchronize with your Outlook or other contact manager program. Meaning whenever someone calls that matches any of the phone numbers in your data base, their name appears on the screen. You can also go to your data base and call any number there, by highlighting and pressing send.

The AT & T Tilt phone also has multiple ring tones so that you know by the tone who is calling, the phone also has just about every feature that all the other top phones have too. The cost is around $ 400 which makes it an excellent value, and since the phone can use Windows CE, you are able to send and receive emails too. The Tilt has a key board and if your fingers are too big there is a nifty little pick for the touch screen and also for the key pad.

The phone also helps you as you type to allow you to complete words that are most probable as you go. The battery does not last as long as I had hop for, but that is about the only drawback I can think of. The battery is sufficient, however, you will find that the phone is so versatile and that you use it so much, the battery seems to not last long. It does, but it sometimes does not seem like it. The feature I love best is the GPS like navigation, as the telephone tells you where you are, anytime you need to know and it connects to the internet to use Google Maps too. I like the AT & T Tilt and I think you will too.

Baby Strollers – Baby's First Mode of Transit

Baby's First Vehicle
There is nothing like a baby stroller for convenience. They are compact in size, light-weight and made of sturdy materials to protect baby. Baby strollers are available in various styles and colors to suit most preferences. Many are so lightweight that they simply fold away when not in use. This is a great feature in crowded shopping malls or buildings with escalators or elevator access. Baby will love being mobile in a comfortable stroller. There are strollers for the lucky parents of multiples, twins and triplets and baby's sibling nearest in age.

You have Come A Long Way – Baby Strollers
Gone are the heavy, chrome baby strollers of the early 1930's and '40's. Baby's new mode of transit is streamlined for Mom and Dads convenience and baby's too. The first strollers were not exactly convenient. Most took up a lot of room and had only minimal ability to fold away. Someone had Mom and Dad in mind when the first generation of totally mobile strollers made the scene in the late 1970's. These strollers larger lighter and lighter in weight while each new generation of babies enjoyed their ride.

This Is The Way To Travel
The latest generation of baby strollers feature things like a sunshade for bright sunlit days and insect screens to protect the precious cargo from those nasty flying creatures during their daytime or late afternoon stroller trips. There are several models that even have a compartment at the back of the handle for Moms shopping stuff. What could be handier?

Check Before You Buy
One important feature to check before purchasing a baby stroller is compatibility with baby's weight. Too lightweight and baby's safety from tip overs may be compromised. This is especially true of older babies and toddlers who prefer the stroller to trying to navigate a shopping mall. Make sure stroller wheels are strong enough to hold baby's weight appropriately and that the seat is adjustable for baby's future growth. The stroller should have a strong seat belt as well to hold a squirming toddler in place and to avoid frontal tipping.

Porch Caravan Awnings

Porch caravan awnings offer an affordable way to spend time in the outdoors with a little bit of comfort. They are designed for smaller caravans, and enable you to store any small items you may have bought on your holiday. If you visit any camp site you are certain to see a whole range of them protruding from all the caravans and vehicles. People tend to choose them for short stays and weekend breaks because they are one of the simplest awnings to set up.

You can have free standing or attached versions, and the only difference is that you can leave the free standing, or drive away awnings on the camp site. The most common place you will see them is on touring caravans, as static caravans tend to have larger and more secure awnings that are made to be left in place for weeks at a time.

Fitting a porch awning is pretty straightforward. The awning fits to the rail that runs on the side of the caravan and the hooks and locking system keeps it in place. Most retailers make this process as easy as can be with their own patented systems. The modern trend is for lightweight and breathable materials. The lightness is good for storage while in transit, and it should not take up too much room either. Having a breathable material is essential in hot weather, as it stops any condensation building up, and cools the inner area.

The good thing about most awnings is that they can be customized. You can buy a small porch awning and if your needs change then there is always the option of making it bigger. This way you do not have to spend money on a new awning, you just make your existing one better and more useable. The side panels are where the extensions will fit but make sure these extensions or extra rooms are from the same manufacturer. This will help you fit them properly. Some manufacturers do have universal fittings that can be used with a number of other designs. If you take this route then always make sure you ask the dealer if this can be done. It may save you a lot of time and hassle in the future.

Functions and Powers of the Prime Minister


In the Parliamentary system Prime Minister is the head of the government and the whole system of the state revolves round him. He is the leader of majority party in the parliament and he is the source of power. He is more power full than the president.

Relevant provisions

Article 46,91,95 of the constitution of Pakistan.

The office of the Prime Minister according to the constitution of 1973

The Prime Minister under the constitution of 1973 is the real executive and head of the Govt. The president is merely a constitutional figurehead who acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. Infact he is the real ruler of Pakistan.

Qualifications/characteristics for the office of Prime Minister (P.M)

Citizen of Pakistan

He should be the citizen of Pakistan.
Member of National Assembly

He should be the member of National Assembly.
Should not hold any office of profit

He should not hold any office of profit in the service of Pakistan.
Ideology of Pakistan

He should believe on ideology of Pakistan.
Mentally and physically fit

He should be mentally and physically fit.

Nomination of the P.M.

The president in his discretion appoints from amongst the members of National Assembly who has command the majority of members in the house.

Election of the P.M

The members of the National Assembly elect PM, the leader of the majority party. Assembly in its first session elects speaker and Deputy Speaker and then the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister shall be elected by the majority vote of the total membership of the National Assembly.

Oath of the P.M

After election the P.M takes the oath in the presence of the president. He declares to be Muslim and the belief in the finality of Prophet (S.A.W.W) promises to act upon the Islamic ideology, to give presence to national interest, protect the constitution and be loyal with the country.

Allowances and salary of the P,M.

Prime Minister is given different allowances and salary of Rs. 56 thousands.
Term of the office

The tenure of the post of the P.M is five years.

Powers and functions of the P.M

The powers and functions of the Prime Minister are as under:-

Chief Advisor of the President

The P.M is the chief advisor of the president. The president performs his duties with the consultation of the P.M.

Formation of Cabinet

The Prime Minister after taking oath select his cabinet. Every Minister, individually and cabinet as whole are responsible for their acts to the parliament.

National Leader

The P.M is a national leader. He leads the nation and organizes the public opinion in favour of his party.

Leader of the cabinet

The PM is the leader of the cabinet. All the minister work under the supervision of the PM.

Leader of the House

The PM is the leader of the National Assembly. His proposals are honoured in the house. He expresses his views in the Assembly.

Power to confer titles and awards

The PM has power to confer titles and awards to those who show excellent performance in different field of life.

Power of appointments.

The PM has power to appoint the high ranking officials with the approval of the president of Islamic republic of Pakistan. He appoints diplomas, ministerial staff and judges of the Supreme Courts and the High Courts. He also appoints the members of National Finance Commission etc.

Financial Powers

The PM also performs finance matters. The budget is prepared under his supervision.

Public welfare

The PM works for the public welfare. He takes every possible step to improve the life style of the people of his country.

Foreign Relation

The foreign policy is prepared under his guidelines. The diplomats are appointed by the president on the recommendations of the PM.

Power of Legislation

The PM takes part in legislation. All proceedings are conducted with the consent of the PM. He plays a vital role in law making.

Administrative Duties.

The PM performs the administrative function. He is responsible for the smooth running of the affairs of the country. He maintains law and order in the country.

Defence of the country

The PM is responsible for the defence of the country. He can take step to improve the defence system of the country.

Power to Dissolve the National Assembly

The PM can ask the president to dissolve the national assembly.

Party head

The PM is the party head. He belongs to party who has majority in the house. He has his political significance.

Power to terminate ministers

The PM if not satisfied with the function of his minister he can terminate them.

Bridge between president and Cabinet

The PM is a link between president and cabinet. The PM is duty bound to inform the president about work of cabinet.

Representative of the Nation

The PM is representative of the nation in international level.
Resign of Prime Minister

The PM may tender his resignation to the president as and when he desires so. After PM has resigned all the minister shall seased to hold offices.

Termination/ Vote of no confidence against Prime Minister

Under the present procedure, a resolution for a vote of no confidence can be moved by not less than twenty percent of the total membership of the National Assembly. The resolution shall not be voted upon before the expiration of three days, from the day on which such resolution is moved in the national assembly.

Acting Prime Minister

On the death, sickness leave, resignation or foreign tour of the PM the senior minister look after the work.

Ending Remarks

While summing up it can be said that the PM is the real executive of the country. He has strong constitutional position. The PM is the Chief Advisor of president. He is the leader of the house and elected for the term of 5 years. He can be removed from his office be passing a resolution of vote of no confidence against him.
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Western Art – Famous Western Artists & Paintings

Famous artists in the context of this article will be taken from those most popular. Famous or best artists is something too hard for a mere mortal like me to quantify simply where popularities, particularly on the internet can be calculated. Art is all about subjectivity, so i do not claim for the following list to be exhaustive or completely comprehensive, but please treat it as a fun way to discover more about artists you already know about, and to possibly find some new artists that you had not heard of before. This is the main purpose of this article. The artists are not listed in any particular order, so the final entry would not necessarily be the least famous artist, it is more a general collection to browse through.

Michelangelo was an Italian Renaissance painter. He was considered by many to be the key Renaissance figure because of his versatility and knowledge across a wide range of disciplines. Michelangelo's most famous paintings include The Torment of Saint Anthony, Manchester Madonna, Doni Tondo, The Entombment, Battle of Cascina, Leda and the Swan, The Last Judgment, The Martyrdom of St Peter & The Conversion of Saul (1542-50)

Leonardo Da Vinci was an Italian genius best known as a painter, sculptor and architect, although he performed well in a wide variety of disciplines. Along with Michelangelo, Da Vinci is believed to be one of the most extraordinary artists of all time with such diversity and quality attained over his entire career. Da Vinci most famous paintings include The Adoration of the Magi, Salai as John the Baptist & Annunciation.

Gustav Klimt was an Austrian painter and a key member of the Vienna Art Nouveau art scene as well as a famous Symbolist artist. Klimt produced paintings of the highest order, which he is best known for, plus wall murals and other art mediums. Klimt's primary subject was the female body as shown in some of his most famous works. He also is well known for use of gold leaf paint which many artists do not use repeatedly. Klimt most famous paintings include The Kiss, Judith & Danaë.

Vincent Van Gogh was a Dutch artist from the Impressionist era and well known for his connections to Paul Gauguin and his art collector brother, Theo. He was a pioneer of Expression with intense influence on 20th century art, especially on the Fauves and German Expressionists. Some of his paintings are now among the world's best known, most popular and expensive works of art. Van Gogh most famous paintings include Sunflowers, Starry Night, Potato Eaters & Van Gogh Self-portraits.

Claude Monet was a founder and key member of French impressionist painting and also one of the most famous landscape artists of all time, along the likes of Van Gogh, Turner & Constable. Impressionism is taken from the name of his painting Impression Sunrise. Claude Monet most famous paintings include Water Lilies, Japanese Bridge & Camille Monet Portraits.

Pablo Picasso was a Spanish Cubist painter and one of the most recognized figures in 20th-century art, he is best known for co-founding the Cubist movement and for the wide variety of styles embodied in his work. His most famous works are the Proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) and Guernica (1937), his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.

David Hockney is an English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer, based in Yorkshire, United Kingdom, although he also holds a prominence in London. An important contributor to the Pop art movement of the 1960s, he is considered one of the most influential British artists of the twenty century. David Hockney most famous paintings include Los Angeles Pool, Garrowby Hill & Malibu.

This initial article is the first part of a series of different articles covering major artists from the west. For further artists please return back for future articles here.

Buying Inexpensive Chandeliers

Inexpensive chandeliers are easy to find and change the look of a room. When shopping for a chandelier there are many things you can do to find one that is perfect without spending a lot of money.

Many choose to shy away from buying chandeliers because they feel they should buy top of the line. They often will choose the less expensive route and buy a new light fixture or ceiling fan instead. When comparing a top dollar chandelier with inexpensive chandeliers it is difficult to tell the difference. This is when you are comparing them in the store. If the two chandeliers are difficult to distinguish in the store, then when hung on the ceiling it is virtually impossible. Chandeliers add class and elegance to any room.

When making your purchase it is important to take the time to research different types of chandeliers and to shop many stores. Going online is a good place to start your search. You can go to a search engine and type 'inexpensive chandeliers' and thousands of websites are at your fingertips. You can find any shape, color or size of chandelier available. You can also find just about any price. Some start as low as $ 50. Many websites that have chandeliers for sale will have user reviews. You can read the reviews to find out if any previous buyers had any problems or complaints. On the other hand, you can read about the aspects that buyers loved about that particular chandelier. Others stores to purchase chandeliers include local lighting stores, home improvement stores, and some department stores.

By shopping in advance and comparison shopping, you can find the inexpensive chandelier for you. You will easily see that your room will be transformed with a new chandelier. It will change the look and feel of the room and you will feel great because you saved money.

Guide to Burning Tree Stumps

If you are looking for an inexpensive and easy way to get rid of old tree stumps, you should consider burning them down. This method is a very popular way to remove tree stumps without using any major equipment or tools. Furthermore, the cost is drastically lower than professional stump removal or stump grinding service since all you need are a few over-the-counter, store-bought products. You can expect to spend anywhere from $20 to $100, depending on the size and quantity of the tree stumps. Additional tools may be required as well, such as a power drill with wood-boring bit, a gardening spade, compost, and more. Continue below to see what you’ll need this particular method of stump removal.

How to Burn a Tree Stump

This method is not recommended for anyone that does not have experience working with open flames and fire. It is also never recommended for areas that are dry or combustible. If you do choose to burn your tree stumps, it is vital to use strict internal safety standards. Learn what these are before getting started.

You must also ask your local fire department about the local ordinances for burning tree stumps. A permit may be required in your community, or it may not be allowed at all. Also, potassium nitrate is a highly-explosive chemical, so there could be bans, restrictions, or storage regulations in your county.

What You Need:

  • Potassium Nitrate or Saltpeter
  • Dry Scrap Wood
  • Soil (optional)
  • Grass Seed (optional)
  • Power Drill
  • 1-Inch Wood Boring Bit or Spade Bit
  • 8-Inch or 10-Inch Bit Extender
  • Garden Trowel
  • Bucket
  • Funnel
  • Hot Water
  • Shovel
  • Matches


After you have checked with your local fire department and city ordinances regarding fire use and burning tree stumps, you are ready to get started. Never attempt to burn anything outside during a dry season or fire ban. This could result in devastating injuries and damages.

Here’s how to get started:

Put your drill and drill bit together along with the bit extender. Fill your bucket with a gallon of hot water.

Starting at the top-center of the stump, drill a hole at a 30 degree angle and drill 10 inches deep.

Clean out the inner debris and continue to drill holes throughout the entire stump, starting from the center and ending at the edge. Keep holes 1 inch apart.

Use your garden trowel to fill each hole with your potassium nitrate or saltpeter. Do not fill all the way to the top.

Top off each hole with hot water using a funnel or spouted cup. Continue to pour hot water in the holes until the potassium nitrate is fully dissolved.

Position the dry scrap wood on top of the stump. Try using a “V” or “tee-pee” shape, starting at the ground, and ending as a cone around the entire stump. This sometimes delivers better combustibility.

Use your match to light up the scrap wood. You may need to use a fire starter material along with it, but NEVER use lighter fluid or gasoline.

Stay with the stump as it smolders down to ash. This could take a few hours. You may even have to repeat the burning process more than once.

Once all the stump has turned to ash, use your shovel to break away the leftover pieces of burnt wood and tree roots.

Optional: Fill in the hole with new soil and cover with grass seed.

Construction Equipment Zone

Highways that stretch foe very long miles. Malls that house different stores. Buildings in which we work in. Houses that we call home. All of these, by a large degree, were made using construction equipment.

Construction today would take a very long time if not for construction equipment. Take for example the cement truck. Now the cement truck's purpose is to mix concrete that is to be used in laying foundations for various buildings, for example. It's indispensable in construction since it makes the mixing of concrete faster. Think about a construction site without one. It would take the workers a very long time in constructing a building if not for the turning and churning that a cement truck does. But what makes a cement truck?

Take a normal 10-wheeler truck and put a barrel shaped sort of container on its back. Hook the barrel up to a generator or engine of samples then turn that engine on. Put some gravel, cement, sand, water etc inside the barrel and pretty much that is what a cement truck does.

Another important piece of construction equipment is the loader. Now, what is a loader? A loader is a piece of construction equipment that can scoop up a reasonable amount of material (dirt, soil, etc.) onto a dump truck (another piece of important construction equipment). A loader has a large bucket that it uses to "pick up" materials from the ground, for loading as well as dumping.

As mentioned earlier, another important piece of construction equipment is the dump truck. Now a dump truck makes sure that whatever material a loader puts on the back side of it gets to be properly disposed of. A dump truck is basically made up of a "compartment" on its back that is used to store the material that needs proper disposal. Alternately, a dump truck can also be used to carry materials that are needed in the construction site.

There is also construction equipment that is not exactly vehicular in nature. A perfect example of which is the rivet gun. A rivet gun is a construction tool that is used to drive rivets and it is usually powered by air (pneumatic). On of its uses is to fashion metal girders together. Its precision makes sure that the rivet is driven into the right place.

There are also pieces of construction equipment that are neither mechanical nor vehicular in nature, an example of which is the shovel. A shovel is a piece of construction equipment since it can help in the manual mixing of concrete. This is not the only use of a shovel though. A shovel can also be used for gardening, for example.

These are only some of the pieces of construction equipment that are being currently used. For major construction purposes, like road construction, for example, something like a cement truck can fit the job well. For something smaller in scale, a shovel does the job justice.

Whatever construction purposes need, make sure the equipment you choose does the job as having one or some entitles being a responsible charge or owner.

Building the Perfect Elevator Pitch

We all know what an elevator pitch is. It's your short little teaser or explanation when somebody says "What do you do?"

Have you ever been at a loss as to what to say in a case like that? Most of us have, and when we get done fumbling to try to make the best of the situation we kick ourselves for sounding we do not even know what we do. So what is the solution to this. In a word, "Planning," so let's build the perfect elevator pitch that will tell truthfully, and quickly what your particular area of ​​expertise is.

First let's talk a little bit about focus. What is focus? Well, you know how you have heard of regular soda straws being driven into trees during a tornado? That's focus, and with focus anything can be accomplished. What we want to do is apply that principle to your elevator pitch.

How can your elevator pitch be that focused and accomplish so much? Well, with proper preparation and planning your unique selling position and elevator pitch can be that powerful and focused. You need to believe that you are not just a business that can satisfy the needs of your customers, but actually believe that you are the only business that can do that. If you do not believe that, do whatever you need to do to believe that yourself. When you have that heartfelt belief, your prospect will believe it too.

Now build the perfect elevator pitch – here is the formula.

"You know how …"

"Well what we do is …"

By finishing both of these sentences with great thought and precision you will have a killer elevator pitch. It sounds easy, but odds are you are going to put a reasonable amount of time into this process. I would suggest taking out a piece of paper and drawing a mindmap of the core function of your business and then around that phrase put all of the benefits that you can possibly think of. Then stew on it, so to speak. At all times try to get the emotion of a problem and a solution, remember that people buy with emotion and justify it logically.

Here is an example of what you may come up with –

"You know how when you call a plumber to fix a leak or something in your house, they will make you sit around and wait all day for them?

Well, what we do is treat our customers with dignity and respect from the time they call until they are completely satisfied. We guarantee to be there within 15 minutes of when we say we will come or the job is free and we do the work quickly and properly so that you can get on to more important things in your life "

After some time and work you will find an elevator pitch that rings true and conveys you business in a nutshell. Odds are that what you come up with at first will not be prefect, but with use will refine itself and become better and better.

Practicing Silence For Better Personality

Billions of words have been written and spoken from the very beginning of the human history and thousands of them are unused or unsaid. A "Silence Please" board may give you some comfort of being in a well organized environment. Even though silence gives comfort, it may frighten few those who can not afford the absence of sound. But majority will get soothed in a silent atmosphere.

Normally we all love silence and this makes us so comfortable. We will be so relaxed inside a Church, Temple or Mosque. It's because of the power of the silence there. Silence is the symbol of rest and sound is the symbol activity. You will be exhausted in a noisy circumstance without even talk. Noise makes you exhausted, it makes you busy always. Sometimes you may think that why am I so tired or exhausted. You may not notice that it's just because of the dissonant sounds around you.

Be silent with no effort is a talent. It may not be possible from the first day itself. But you could achieve this after having unremitting practice. It is your first step to the meditation. You will talk to the God Almighty in silence and he will talk to you. Silence with an effort will not give you much pleasure. Being silent should not be a task, it should be a practice. You could be silently physically, but it is not so easy to be silent mentally. You should not talk to yourself when you want to be silent.

A small silence between your sentences would give you more confidence when you talk. You are getting relaxed after having a small silence or break and this gives you more audacity and strength. "Relax" another comfortable word. "Relax .., Relax .., Relax ..," I know you will be relaxed if someone says like this to you. So we need leisure, we enjoy it always. Practice unnoticeable silence in your speech; your words will be deepoted into others

I am not talking about the physical silence to your duties or responsibilities. Silence may cause the opposite result. Unsaid words may cause the opposite meaning. Being silent instead of saying "I can do it for you" may be considered "I can not do it for you" or vice versa. Be smart and tactful when you want to be silent. My intensity here is to make you understand how practicing "silence" could make your personality stronger, how it makes you unique from others, how it it cleans your unwanted feelings and tensions.

"The Healing Power Of Silence" is indescribable. All of us will have a minimum percentage of the so called "depression". Regular practice of silence will make your thoughts healthy and brighten, and this helps you to come out from your crazy thoughts. You are always led by your thoughts, having healthy and bright thoughts are always important for you to achieve your life goals.

Close your eyes and take a deep breath, maintain a breathing cadence, practice for 10 minutes. Do it regularly and try to make a better change in your personality.

Stairs Made of Wood Versus Concrete Stairs

Wood is one material that has won the hearts of many homeowners when it comes to their interiors and furnishings. Every home is bound to have something that is made out of wood. After all, it’s a very classic material. Wood is timelessly beautiful. Even when it comes to stairs, wood still plays a key role in most homes and to further reinforce this, here are the advantages of a wood staircase versus concrete stairs:

Wood is definitely safer to use. Indeed, it is better to fall on wooden stairs than on concrete stairs. The reason behind this is pretty obvious, wood offers better cushioning in case something lands on it. This is indeed good news for homes with little ones who tend to regularly fall on their butts. Their chances in developing fractures and the like are lessened when using the stairs made of wood.

If you also talk about the building point of view, stair builders have a divided preference when it comes to the wood vs. concrete debate, although most say concrete is easier to work with. Besides, wood planks are more expensive if you replace them than redoing a concrete mixture.

When it comes to your interior stairs, wood definitely sets a homey ambience to complete a home’s look. Ever notice that welcoming feel you get in a home with lots of wood furnishings? The same goes for stairs made of lumber, nothing spells ‘home’ more than wood. It sets off a cozy tone as opposed to a the hard, condescending aura of concrete. For the offices, concrete spells “corporate” out quite well, but wood can also add a Zen touch, something the office could use to reduce stress in the area.

The wooden alternative will also cause less and will be easier to renovate and change as opposed to the concrete version. Renovating and fixing the stairs will be easier if it is made out of wood. Just in case your wood staircase needs fixing, you can visit your local home depot or a trusted online stair parts supplier to get the quality stair parts you deserve at a reasonable price.

Speaking of price, be it known that wooden stair parts are more expensive and they also cost more money, time and effort to maintain and to keep beautiful.

At the end of the day, it still depends on which attributes of wood or concrete are the ones which you prioritize. Your staircase is your investment. Make it count.

Stairway Bunk Beds

Over the past few years, I've been asked many times about stairway bunk beds, or bunk beds that have stairs instead of a ladder to get to the top bunk. Having stairs instead of a ladder has one major advantage, safety. If you are worried about your kids actually climbing a ladder and whether or not they can handle it, especially when you can not be with them every second, and believe me it only takes one second of not paying attention for a child to get hurt , then stairs is probably for you.

Having stairs lead to the top of the bunk is not only a cruel safety feature, but it can make going to bed on the top bunk fun, as if it were not fun enough, I guess what I meant was more fun. Remember how much fun it was for you as a kid when you got to sleep on the top bunk? It was almost a feeling of independence as a kid, freedom from the floor and the rest of the world.

Another great feature that stairs provide is the ability to have storage underneath these stairs. I've seen a few sets where drawers have been built to utilize this space nicely. In fact, it's like having a dresser on the end of the bunk beds that will store all your clothes. Think of it, two beds and a dresser all built into one unit, now that's extreme practicality.

Now that we've defined the benefits of having stairs lead to the top bed on your bunk beds, let's discuss the downside. Can you think of any? Well, there is really only one drawback and if you can work around it, you will have no problems. Since the stairs are typically built on the end of the bunk beds, you will need more room to accommodate the bunk bed set, more room lengthwise that is, and this is where most bedroom floor plans fall short. You might be able to get the bed in against the longest wall and have it fit rather nicely, but then you find the drawer option that is going to house all your kids clothes does not work. That is, there is not enough room to even open the drawers.

So as a good rule of thumb, make sure you know where you would like your new bed to fit in the room, take some measurements, find out the length length of the bunk bed including the stairs, and then add twenty four inches on top of that if you expect to have drawers at the end. Remember, not only does the drawer have to open all the way up, but you have to be able to get in there at the same time.

One other thing to keep in mind when planning out space in the room for your bunk bed, remember that the stairs, and therefore, the drawers, will only be able to fit on one end. That is you will not be able to reverse the stairs and put them at the other end of the bed.

Hopefully this article has given you a few tips about buying stairway bunk beds and some decisions that need to be made. Having a set of stairs instead of a ladder will give you much needed peace of mind, especially when it comes to kids.