How To Repair Scratches On Sandstone Surfaces

Many homeowners opt to use sandstone for a variety of surfaces around the home, including: floor tiles, kitchen countertops, wall cladding, patios, stair treads, shower stalls, and so on. Because this naturally porous stone is sealed after installation to protect it against moisture (which can cause all sorts of damage, including cracks and discolouration), any scratches that occur to the surface are often contained to the sealant and not passed on to the sandstone beneath. To repair these sorts of artificial scratches, you will need to follow this one easy process:

As you will be working with some chemicals and other solutions that don’t react very well with out skin, you will need to make sure that you are wearing a good pair of rubber gloves before beginning. You can then mix up a solution comprised of 2 litres warm water and a quarter of a cup of oxygen bleach powder. Stir the two together until the bleach has completely dissolved.

Next, you will need to take a plastic scrubbing brush and dip it into the solution prepared above. Use the brush to scrub at the areas of the sandstone that have sustained the scratches, as this will remove any dirt and grime from within the marks. Then, use a cloth that you have dampened with clean water to wipe down the sandstone and remove any remaining solution. Use a second cloth to wipe the sandstone dry.

You will then need to take a wad of #0000 grade steel wool and dampen it with some cold water. Use the steel wool to rub at the scratches on the sandstone surface until you can no longer see them. Do not use a heavier grade of steel wool, as this could pose further damage to the sandstone. If you notice that the scratches are much deeper than was originally thought, you will need to seek advice from a professional.

To finish, you will need to apply a thin layer of sandstone sealant to the surface of the pavers using the applicator provided. Before beginning, you will need to make sure that the area is well ventilated by opening nearby doors and windows. Make sure that you follow the accompanying manufacturer’s instructions and allow the first layer to dry completely before adding a second coat. Once you have applied the final layer, you will need to leave the sandstone to dry for at least 24 hours before attempting to walk on or utilize the area again.

Our Top Ten Team Building Exercises

You’ve recruited the individual members of your team. You’ve established your goal. You’ve developed a plan and a timeline. Now the trick is to get all those unique individuals working together toward the same goal. Given the varied personalities, communication skills and personal agendas individual members bring with them to the team, getting your team to work cooperatively can be a challenge.

In the most productive teams, members are individually and cooperatively focused on reaching the team’s goal. Members understand the interdependent nature of the team: that their individual work depends upon and affects the quality of others’ work and, ultimately, the ability of the team to reach its goal. Members respect, appreciate and recognize each person’s unique contribution to the team’s efforts, but place the greatest emphasis on cooperative achievement of the team goal.

Experiential team building was all the rage not long ago. The team would travel offsite for a “fun” day of rope games and unusual problem solving, typically at an outdoor education center. Unfortunately, too often there was little follow-up and any lessons learned never made it back into the workplace. Today, the emphasis has shifted to in-house team building exercises that can be accomplished at the beginning of a meeting.

Follow these key steps to plan a productive team building exercise:

  1. Keep it simple. It should be quick and easy to set up in a typical meeting room.
  2. It doesn’t need to be expensive. You can get a lot of mileage out of basic office supplies or a few items from your kitchen pantry.
  3. The exercise should be geared for normal office clothing or team members should be told ahead of time to dress appropriately.
  4. People have a hard time relating to large groups, so divide the team into small units of 2 to 4 or 6 people. By breaking down barriers and creating partnerships within these small groups, team members will be better able to relate to the larger team.
  5. Instructions must be easy to understand, especially by any non-native English speakers in your group.
  6. Limited instructions may be part of the team building exercise. Forcing people to figure out what to do or how to do something helps team members identify skills and abilities in themselves and their peers that can help them define their roles on the team: leader, facilitator, problem-solver, communicator, etc.
  7. The exercise should engage all members quickly.
  8. It should present a problem that has multiple solutions to allow for creativity, but that can only be solved through collaboration and cooperative action.
  9. You can increase the difficulty level of any exercise by adding a complication such as “no talking,” or by speeding things up by asking, “How can you do it faster?”
  10. At the completion of the exercise, it is crucial that a facilitator, often the team leader, lead the team in reflecting on what happened, the choices made, and how they interacted with each other. Team members should discuss what they would do differently next time. Reflection is critical to identifying and reinforcing learning.

Try these team building exercises to get your team off on the right foot.

  1. Scrambled Jigsaw. Before the team arrives, place a jigsaw on each table. To manage the time element, use large-piece children’s puzzles of 100 pieces or so. Remove 5 pieces from each puzzle and move them to another table. As the team arrives, divide members among the tables. Instruct teams to fully complete their puzzle, by any means, in the shortest amount of time possible. As puzzles are completed and teams realize pieces are missing, they will be forced to negotiate with other teams to complete their puzzle. This exercise promotes flexibility, communication, negotiation and cooperation.
  2. Creative Assembly. Purchase 3-D punch-out wood dinosaur puzzle kits. Divide the team into groups of 2 to 4. Without comment or instruction, give each group the unpunched puzzle pieces, one complete puzzle per group. Do not let the group see the boxes, pictures or instructions or in any way identify what you have given them. Instruct each group to assemble its project, telling them they can only use what is in front of them. You’ll get some interesting and creative constructions, a lot of laughter and some good natured frustration, particularly with the winged dinosaur kits. When time is up, ask each group to describe its construct. In this exercise, creative thinking, brainstorming, problem-solving, cooperation and consensus will certainly get a workout.
  3. Slight of Hand. Divide team into groups of 4 to 6. Hand each group 4 tennis balls. Tell them each person must handle all 4 balls in the shortest time possible. Do this several times, each time asking, “How can you do it faster?” This exercise will progress from the obvious passing of the balls down a line, to around a circle, to some interesting ball drops and hand swiping. Your team will practice cooperation, quick thinking and creative problem solving in this exercise.
  4. Going Up. Divide team into groups of 2 to 6. Give each person one 8 1/2″ x 11″ sheet of paper and one 5″ strip of masking tape. Instruct each team to build the tallest possible free-standing structure. This exercise promotes cooperation, creative thinking, problem-solving, consensus, leadership and division of labor.
  5. Gnome Dome. Divide the team into groups of 2. Give each group 20 gumdrops and 12 toothpicks. Instruct each group to build a dome. Problem-solving, creative thinking, cooperation (and possibly snacking) will be practiced during this exercise.
  6. Poisonous Web. Stretch a piece of rope across a door frame, securing it to the frame or connecting wall with duct tape. You’ll need two pieces of rope, one 3 feet off the ground, the other 4 1/2 feet off the ground. You are creating a “window” 18 inches wide that you describe to the team as a “poisonous spider web.” The team must work together to get all members through the opening without touching the ropes. They must go through, not under or over the ropes. If a team member touches either rope, the entire team must go back to the beginning and try again. This exercise builds cooperation, leadership, creativity and problem-solving. It also forces team members to trust and depend on each other.
  7. Hang Ups. Hand each person a wire coat hanger. Tell the group they may work individually or create their own groups. Instruct them to make something useful from their coat hanger. Set a time limit of 5 to 15 minutes. Ask each person/group to describe his “tool” and its use. This exercise will indicate which of your team members are natural leaders or born socialites as well as which are more shy and may need to be drawn out when working with the group.
  8. In the Picture. This is another puzzle game. Divide the team into groups and give each one a jigsaw puzzle from which you have already removed one piece. Each team will complete a puzzle with one missing piece. Ask each team what this represents in terms of the team. You’re aiming for discovery of the importance of each individual to the successful accomplishment of the team’s goal, but you may get some interesting responses about proper planning, supply officers and quality control.
  9. All Aboard. This is another physical game. Depending on the size of your team, place a 1-foot to 3-foot square of cardboard on the floor, or mark off a square with masking or duct tape. Draw numbers, one for each team member. In order of the numbers drawn, team members must stand in the square. As the number of people in the square increases, members will have to work together and get creative to get everyone aboard. This exercise practices cooperation, problem-solving and leadership.
  10. Bridge the Gap. Divide the group into teams of 2 to 4. Give each group a small ball of modeling clay and 12 toothpicks. Instruct them to build the longest cantilever bridge they can. Award points for speed of construction, length of bridge, ability to stand without tipping over and ability to hold weight (to measure this, stack quarters until the bridge tips or breaks). Team members will practice creativity, problem-solving, consensus (and manual dexterity).

To be successful, teamwork must be more than a method of dividing up the work to get the job done. Teamwork must embrace a cooperative attitude of mutual respect, shared responsibility and open communication. Teamwork recognizes each team member’s individual contribution to the team in the context of the interdependency of those efforts in cooperative pursuit of the team’s goal.

Contributions by Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

The Italian unification was a long process, which was achieved by a variety of treaties, as well as a variety of individuals. The most important persons are considered to be Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi. But their differences in beliefs and their contributions to the unification of Italy had many factors that had to be considered.

After the French Control in Italy came to an end in 1815, by the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo, it was replaced by Austrian powers. This was decided at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 , because it occurred to be the best way to prevent any future threats of French invasion. Throughout this time there were different political ideas present in Italy, which created the Secret Societies and led to Revolutions.

The Liberals believed that everyone had the right to free speech towards the government and that the best way would be through a representative assembly or a parliament. Their intentions were mostly non-violent and their followers mainly from the middle-class who favoured a constitutional monarchy.

Another political group were followers of the radicals; who had much more extreme views and were ready to use violence to obtain set goals. They wanted social reforms and fair distributions of wealth. The ones that were members of Secret Societies believed that people should have the right to political decisions and not only the parliament, unless it was elected so by men over the age of 25. Women or peasants did not count as having the same right.

The Nationalists , however, had different aspects which did not contribute well to either the Liberals nor the Radicals. They believed that people of the same race, language, culture and tradition should be united independently, with geographical a boundary which clearly shows each nation, so that no-one would be a subject of control by another nation.

Finally there was also Metternich´s view which was considered to be entirely negative. He opposed to all the other political views and had no intention of accepting any ideas which could spread and undermine Austrian control over Italy. The fact that separate states were ruled by monarchs and that there were no full ´Italians`, it would keep Italy weak, divided, easily controlled by Austria and an Unity would continue not to exist.

These political views expanded and created secret societies which had been established similarly in the 1790s, whose main purpose was to drive out the French, but after 1815 it changed to overthrow the restored monarchs and drive out the Austrians. These groups were viewed as anti-Catholic and dangerous to social order, because of their mutual protection and semi-religious rituals. The revolutions in Spain encouraged Liberals in Naples to take own action which led to a widespread uprising. This did not succeed fully because the King could not defend and establish their wishes. Meanwhile other separate revolts had begun in Sicily to fight independence. Metternich was disturbed by the revolutions because they ruined the settled peace within a country. Even In Piedmont revolutions erupt in 1820 but did not manage to change the constitution of 1770, therefore it would remain an absolute monarchy in spite of the pressures of the Liberals. Until 1831 all revolutions granted minimal changes if any at all. They failed because they were mainly local affairs which included little communication and fewer co-operations outside the limited areas. Co-ordination was non existent because the aims of each secret society or revolutionary group was based differently.

A member of one of the secret societies ( Carbonari) was Giuseppe Mazzini who was a true Nationalist and founder of the new secret society `Young Italy´. Mazzini worked for the independence and unification of Italy and based his beliefs upon the existence of God, equality of men and races each individually and the progress of mankind. He wanted to replace the Christian religion with a straight forward democracy and lead decisions made by the people, not by God. This included the creation of his new society.

In 1833 Mazzini planned a revolt on Piedmont , in which he based himself in Switzerland and collected Polish, German and Italian refugees as volunteers for an own army. The military command was entrusted to Ramorino from Genoa. He got money to raise and organize the army but instead he misused it and returned to Mazzini without the money and without an army. Now all that was useful were the ones left of Mazzinis collection, but before departure to Piedmont the Swiss authorities disbanded the German and Polish volunteers, which left fewer than two hundred men. This way it was impossible to precede the expedition.

His dream of a United Italy could not be realised in the 1830s but it did have an important event in 1833 when Giuseppe Garibaldi got involved in a Revolt led by Mazzini in Genoa. It failed once again but the young man managed to escape before his trial and death sentence. It is said that Mazzinis ideas were too intellectual and impractical for a real basis for revolution. He had a major weakness in his written works, which consistent of incoherency and lack of attention towards the needs of peasants and working reforms in the countryside. The highest point of his life was after his return in which he became the head of the Roman Republic (1849).

Another important character for the unification of Italy was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour. He was the author of the publication `Il Risorgimento´ in 1847, after Charles Albert freed the press from censorship, which was used to publicise his political ideas. In October 1850 he was appointed Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and the Navy which allowed him to practice his economic theories and make free-trade treaties with Britain, Belgium and France. He then also became Minster of finance in 1851 but already in 1852 he resigned from the government and went abroad to France, meeting with Louis Napoleon. Though meanwhile in his absence a political crisis broke out in Piedmont when new rules about civil marriage were passed out and the Church complained heavily. As the Prime minister resigned Cavour was chosen as his successor, he agreed on this and became the new prime minister in 1852, dropping the civil marriage bill. He remained in this position until his early death in 1861.

Even if he expressed a vague wish of the Italian Unification in the 1830s, he did not take his aims realistically until the 1860s. His main focus had always been to drive out the Austrians and establish a bigger Kingdom of Piedmont, but the overall Unification was a considerable thought that began to have a slight importance to him, much later.

His decision to join in the war with Russia was affected by two main factors, which were considered right after he took office and the Crimean War started. One reason was the fact that he could ally with two of the Great Powers; Britain and France, which would give support against Austria. The other reason was gaining a seat at the Peace Conference which would give him the possibility to negotiate in a wider range and increase his reputation as well as from Piedmont. He did achieve this in 1856, where he negotiated at almost equal terms with the Great Powers and kept in touch throughout the next two years with Napoleon. The meetings were kept secret, especially the invitation to Plombieres, where Cavour and Napoleon discussed the possibilities to start a war with Austria. Throughout the discussions no major reason could be found, to start this war, so Cavour wrote a speech for Victor Emmanuel, that was presented at the Opening of the Parliament in 1859, which was anti-Austrian. It should provoke Austria into starting the War, because Napoleon believed that Austria would have to appear as the aggressor. In April 1859 the Austrian set an ultimatum to Piedmont to demobilize her army, and she had already mobilized an army in northern Italy, but due to her bad economic status, could not afford to keep it ready for very long. At this point Cavour had accomplished his goal and refused Austrian demands. Austria declared war on the 29th of April 1859 and a short but violent war started.

It lasted only 7 weeks because of the unorganized slaughter that was creating a further mess. On the 11th of July 1859 Napoleon made a truce with Austria without consulting Cavour. Piedmont received Lombardy and Austria still kept Venetia, which meant that they stayed a powerful influence in Italy.

While Napoleon and Victor Emmanuel tried to transfer Savoy and Nice to France after treaties and the armistice of Villafranca, there were many who questioned the purpose. One of them was Garibaldi, who was born in Nice and was a representative of the Piedmontese parliament who was currently preparing a military expedition in order to prevent Nice being taken over by France. But then he got diverted by an outbreak of revolution in southern Italy.

Garibaldi was a soldier and leader of men which follwed his goals in a clear, and simple way. In 1931 he had been under the influence of Mazzini but then he decided to abandon his republican ideals and follow Victor Emmanuel II becoming a monarchist instead. He constantly changed his nationalist beliefs but still remained focused on the same aim; of wanting to unite Italy and send out the Austrians. Also he wanted Rome and Venetia and Naples and Sicily to be a part of the Unification. After having led an Italian legion of guerrilla fighters in Uruguay, he decided to go back home , when he heard rumours of a revolution in Italy. He immediately offered his military services to the King of Piedmont, which denied his offer. The reason for Garibaldi to act this way, was due to his changement from a republican to a royalist. He believed that the King of Piedmont was the only one with the necessary resources to defeat the Austrians and unite Italy. This change was the end of a good relationship between Mazzini and Garibaldi.

The Roman Republic in 1849 was declared after the Pope refused to make changes in Rome, and had to escape to the south. The Republic was led by Mazzini and two other politicians which had been governed mainly under his influence. As Garibaldi reached Rome, Cavour mistrusted his intentions and asked the French for help which then intervened. Garibaldi fought with his men, without achieving his goal and travelling back to the south. In which he took possession of Palermo and also the island of Sicily. His aims at that time were to raise an army to conquer first Naples, then Rome and in the end Venice. During this time Cavour tried to stop Garibaldi, because he feared that Britain and France would see his revolts and actions as a threat to their countries and intervene even against Cavour. He asked Victor Emmanuel to command Garibaldi to stop his actions, which happened, but then he contradicted himself by saying Garibaldi should ignore the previous command. He slowly fought his way up to the city of Naples and discovered that the King had left, so that Garibaldi could rule as a dictator over the city.

Though he could not advance any further because the way was blocked by a Neapolitan military stronghold in the north. His plan was to advance through the Napal states onto Rome and therefore complete the Unification of Italy. This process of planning took a longer period of time which gave Cavour the possibility to act in advance. His major fear was that due to the followers of Garibaldi, which were mostly Mazzinians, the church and the Pope in Rome would be in great danger, and this could also affect France and the rest of the Catholic Europe. The only way for Cavour to stop Garibaldi before he reached Rome, was to send troops from Piedmont through the Papal States, with the excuse that the Pope could not deal with a revolt in his territory. When Victor Emmanuel and his troops reached Naples, there should have been a brutal ending, but instead it became a harmless meeting in which both sides marched friendly through Naples. At this point Garibaldi and his troops were disbanded and Victor Emmanuel and Cavour believed that Garibaldis political job was done, since all of Italy was united except Rome and Venetia.

In 1862, he returned to Sicily from Caprera and collected over 3000 volunteers to set up an army for the conquest of Rome. This attempt failed and Garibaldi was sent back to Caprera, but already in 1867 he again set up an army when the French withdrew from Rome. Again he got defeated by Italian troops and by the return of the French.

After the defeat of Napoleon III by the Prussian army, Garibaldi offered his service to the new French republic and with a little hesitation got elected to the French National Assembly. Meanwhile the French troops had to be withdrawn from Rome to help at home against the Prussians, which gave Italian troops in 1870 the chance to attack and finally capture their capital.

The importance of all three men contribution to the unification of Italy is unquestioned. Mazzini seen as a true Nationalist and creator of the ´young Italy`, which used democracy instead of Christianity, longing for the Unification and going beyond the middle class, to the actual essence of Italy. Cavour who fought for Piedmont, rather than for the unification of Italy, helped in spreading Italian influence over different nations and therefore was responsible for driving our major French influences. Garibaldi was the hero, seen as a humanist at last, changing his beliefs but remaining true to his main goal; the unification of Italy, which he achieved at last. Their Contributions were of different importance, but put together, led to the overall Unification.


another history essay on Italy click here

Parrot 9200 and Bury 9060 Compared

The Parrot 9200 and Bury 9060 are both excellent hands free car kits. These two systems are similarly priced however they are great in different ways. When it comes to choosing between them you need to know the strong points of each, and then ask yourself, “What do I most want?”

The Bury Car Kit

With the Bury car kit its all about the touchscreen. The 2.8in superb quality TFT screen responds to the lightest of touches for call handling and menu selection.

Realistically each Bury 9060 needs a flat surface for mounting. Sometimes there is an ideal place for this one-piece kit. Either to the left or right of the steering wheel allowing it to be easily seen, and touched without strain.

Both the Bury and Parrot Bluetooth car kits will automatically synchronise phone book contacts. The Bury display will show the name of the person calling, as long as that number is in your phone’s address book. Typical phone details are also shown including battery remaining, signal strength and one or two phone connection.

Unlike the Parrot 9200 the Bury comes with a hard case. Practically, not sure if anybody would need to take off the screen, but when you open the box for the first time it feels like a high quality device.

Parrot Bluetooth Car Kit

The MKi Parrot Bluetooth car kit is very easy to use and comes with music playing options.

The separate remote control can either be strapped to the steering wheel or mounted again on the dash. When it comes to everyday use the Parrot 9200 remote’s ‘twiddle’ button makes menu selection and call handling very easy. This two piece kit also gives more mounting options for the screen, allowing it to be placed higher up towards the driving view of the car, and in a more central location.

The 9200 features a high resolution TFT colour screen capable of displaying music album covers. Unlike the Bury car kit it is also capable of photo ID, and by saving a picture you can see the face of who’s calling.

A great benefit of this kit is the music playing input leads. It comes with iPod, USB and 3.5mm leads usually fitted in the glove box. You need to buy the more expensive Bury 9060 Music kit to get a similar input and even then you only get a single iPod lead. Having a USB lead also means that software updates are easier.

Comparing Bury 9060 with Parrot 9200

When it comes to comparing the Bury 9060 with the Parrot 9200 it is a matter of personal preference. The Parrot Bluetooth car kit is best for ease of use and music play and the Bury car kit has a great touchscreen. You also need to consider the layout of your car as sometimes it comes down to, “What will fit best in my car?”

Mining In Chile – The Pros And Cons

On 13th October 2010, the last of 33 miners trapped by an accident at the San Jose copper-gold mine near Copiapo, Chile was winched to safety. He had been at a depth of 2,300 feet below ground level. He had spent 69 days trapped underground with his companions after a shaft collapsed at the notoriously dangerous mine where the deaths of 8 miners had been reported over the last 12 years.

This high publicity incident was a catalyst for Chile’s mining regulation agency to bring the hammer down, closing 18 mines within days and scheduling a further 300 for closure. It’s easy to condemn Chilean mining as unsafe and exploitative, but what are the real pros and cons of the industry?


1) Mining is a great source of income for Chilean workers

Chilean copper mine workers are among the highest-paid miners in South America. However, inflated wages are used to entice workers to mines with poor safety records, as in the case of San Jose; mine workers were paid around 20% more for their troubles.

2) Generally Chilean mines have a good safety record

San Jose is an example of a smaller mine at which standards are known to slip. However, the larger mines generally owned by multi-nationals or the state copper mining company, Codelco, run a tighter ship.

3) Mining brings the benefits of a strong economy to Chileans

Currently enjoying a strong economic status, the population of Chile have good reason to be thankful for the mining industry. Over a third of government income due to exports come from copper alone. One notable benefit of the economic surplus from copper mining is the use of government funds to pay for reconstruction after the 2010 Chilean earthquake.


1) Inadequate government resources are available to monitor the industry

Between 2004 and 2010, the San Esteban Mining Company (owner of the San Jose mine) received 42 fines for breaching safety regulations. Why was the San Jose accident allowed to happen? Due to budget constraints, there were only three inspectors for the Atacama Region’s 884 mines. Despite a very immediate public response to correct the problems that led to the San Jose disaster, the government still has much to do to bring the industry under control.

2) It isn’t all wine and roses economically

Copper is a highly volatile commodity on the international markets, experiencing increases and decreases in value of up to 50% during the 1980’s. The Chilean government have established a Stabilization Fund to put aside the surpluses of good years to cover the shortfall of others, but the unpredictability of such a core element of the entire country’s economy is a great source of risk.

3) Environmental concerns

Copper mining produces 99 tons of waste for every ton of usable material. When you consider the usable copper output of Chile, that’s a lot of waste.

It isn’t often that Latin American countries get to reap the benefits of their natural resources, and Chile is a good example of a country that turns it’s rich mineral deposits into benefits that reach the population. However, in the rush to make the most of what it’s got, Chile has lost control of the smaller players in the mining industry, and it’s any one’s guess if they will be able to rein things in to the point where accidents like San Jose are a distant memory.

Do I Have To Buy A Mirror Specifically Suited For My Bathroom For A Vanity Mirror?

No, a homeowner doesn’t have to buy a special sort of mirror as a vanity mirror for the bathroom. What are called bathroom mirrors are usually those bland mirrors a homeowner finds in the bathroom section of a big box store or even a hardware store. They look like they shouldn’t go anywhere else besides the bathroom, and because they’re so boring, they often don’t.

A mirror is a piece of glass with a metallic back, usually silver or aluminum to make it reflective. Mirrors can be flat, concave or convex. Concave mirrors enlarge the reflection and are helpful with shaving and putting on makeup. Unless the homeowner finds them really off-putting, these sort of mirrors might be good to put in the bathroom. What truly matters when choosing and using a mirror in the bathroom is the lighting. The lighting in a bathroom shouldn’t be over bright and the homeowner should be aware of the different qualities of light given off by fluorescent, incandescent and halogen lights.

The one concern a homeowner might have with a vanity mirror in the bathroom is the inevitable heat and humidity in the room. Mirrors with wooden frames can be quite beautiful, but not highly recommended for bathroom mirrors, as they can swell and warp if they’re not treated with a sealant. High humidity can also damage the mirror’s reflective backing and lead to a condition called foxing. These are dark stipples that can be seen in the glass. Some people, especially collectors, adore these spots, but some might find them unsightly.

A vanity mirror that’s put in the bathroom must also be anchored securely to the wall. The wall has to be smooth, solid and dry. Mastic, an adhesive compound that can attach a mirror to the wall without clips or screws or any other hardware, shouldn’t be used. A mirror, especially if it’s heavy, should be hung on screws that are secured into a solid wall with anchors. They shouldn’t be hung one screw, but screws arranged in a way that will distribute the weight of the mirror and make sure that it’s secure. No one wants to contemplate what can happen if the humidity in a bathroom weakens an already weak fastener.

Of course, if there’s a sturdy shelf on the wall, the mirror can simply be propped up on it and leaned against the wall.

A vanity mirror should complement the decor of the bathroom, or even the decor of the bedroom if the bathroom is en suite. One thing that can be done with a mirror in a bathroom or a powder room is to edge it with makeup lights. This set up, long a staple of Hollywood movies and actors’ dressing rooms, gives shadowless light that’s ideal for applying makeup. A bathroom mirror in a seaside cottage can be surrounded by pretty seashells. The homeowner can do this themselves with some glue and seashells from the beach. A vanity mirror can have an ornate, etched glass or metal frame or have no frame at all. It can be round, square, oval, rectangular or even a bit irregular.

A vanity mirror can be ordered on line from a high end home furnishings store, found at a yard sale or a junk shop, or bought in a big box store. Some people even find their favorite mirror on the street, waiting to be thrown out with the rest of someone else’s junk.

So, after taking humidity and heat into consideration, any sort of mirror can be good for the bathroom.

Twenty Tips That Make Painting Easier

A list of twenty tips and hints that will make painting easier. Tips include ways that will make clean up easier, how to protect surface, etc.

Painting is a hard enough job without any extra labor. The following is a list of tips you should keep in mind before you start painting. They might not make you enjoy it, but they will make the job easier.

1. Make sure you have everything you need before you get started–especially enough paint. In general, a can of paint covers about 400 square feet.

2. Try to avoid painting on rainy days. The extra humidity in the air will cause the paint to dry slower. If this can’t be avoided, use a dehumidifier to help speed the drying process.

3. If you are painting a large room, don’t try and same money by purchasing the cheap rollers and brushes. The money you save will be minimal and won’t make up for sore hands. Plus, better rollers and brushes will help you work quicker.

4. Have your primer tinted the same color as you intend to paint. This will ensure that the paint covers well and could cut down on the need for an additional coat.

5. Use a nail to tap about five or six holes in the retaining grove of the paint can. This will allow the paint to run back into the can. If you need to reseal the can, you can put the nails into the can or put a little play dough or clay over the holes.

6. Glue a large paper plate to the bottom of any open paint can you are using to catch any splatters or drips.

7. Flattened out corrugated boxes are perfect to cover the floors with when painting.

8. Have a wet rag and paper towels handy to wipe up any drips or mistakes. Most of them–including accidental dabs on the ceiling–can be removed this way.

9. Keep some patching compound and a spackle handy. You’ll be surprised at all the little holes and marks you can find on your wall. They might not have been visible with the old color, but they can stand out with the new.

10. When stopping for short periods, seal your paintbrushes inside a Ziploc or plastic bag. This will keep them “fresh” without having to spend the time cleaning them. Plastic wrap and aluminum foil work almost as well.

11. Line the inside of your paint tray with aluminum foil or plastic. It will make the clean up easier.

12. To make cleaning your brushes easier, use an old baby-wipe container. Poor paint thinner into the container and push the handle of the brush through the hole in the lid. This will allow the brush to soak without bending the bristles. If you don’t have any baby-wipe containers, try cutting a slot into the lid of a coffee can or similar container.

13. Wipe paint rollers on old newspapers before cleaning. Getting rid of any excess paint will make them easier to clean.

14. Rub hand lotion on your hands and arms before you begin. It will make the paint easier to wash off your hands when you’re finished. Also, baby oil is sometime better at removing paint from your skin that soap.

15. If you have a steady hand, you might not need masking tape to cover the edges.

16. Wet newspaper can work great at protecting windows. You can use one-inch long strips of newspaper to protect the windowpanes around a window. Dip each strip into water. Pull the strip between your thumb and index finger to remove the excess water. Press the strips onto the glass close to the wood. Do only two at a time and remove them as soon as you’re through.

17. If you’re painting a bathroom, use wet newspaper to cover the bottom and sides of the tub. The newspaper will click and keep your tub paint-free.

18. Wrap hardware (doorknobs, hinges, pulls, etc.) in foil before painting.

19. Use old milk jugs to store paint. It will keep just as long and the paint is easier to access if you need to do some touch-ups.

20. Write the date, brand and color of paint used under the light switch for a handy reference.

Copyright © 2006 Ian White

An Interesting Introduction to Psychology – Gestalt, Jung, and Therapy

Boundary disturbances as defined by Gestalt Therapy are as follows: Introjection refers to “swallowing” information without ever understanding or assimilating it; projection involves displacing one’s own wishes onto another; in retroflection, a person does to herself what she wants to do to others (e.g., isolation, masturbation); deflection refers to avoidance of contact by being vague, indirect, or overly polite; confluence occurs when the self-environment boundary is too thin and self is not experienced as distinct, but merged into attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of others; and isolation is when the self-environment boundary becomes nonexistent. A Gestalt therapist views transference in the client-therapist relationship as a fantasy that hinders true self-awareness.

Jung’s Analytical Psychotherapy Views behavior as being determined by both conscious and unconscious factors, including collective unconscious, and is based on the theory that personality continues to develop throughout the lifespan. Jung contended that the personal (individual) unconscious arises from repression, whereas collective unconscious comes from universally inherited neural patterns and is described as the “reservoir of the experiences of our species.” From Jung’s Analytic perspective, archetypes are innate, universal prototypes for ideas that may be used to interpret observations. A group of memories and interpretations associated with one is termed a complex. Extroversion is the disposition to find pleasure in external things; introversion reflects a turning inward of the libido. Jung believed that at approximately 40 years-old, people shift from the extroversion of their youth to the introversion of adulthood, a time period referred to as mid-life crisis (transition).

Practitioners of Person-Centered Therapy hold the belief that people possess an inherent ability for growth and self-actualization and that maladaptive behavior occurs when incongruence between self and experience disrupts this natural tendency. In Person-Centered Therapy, the 3 facilitative conditions the therapist applies to enable clients to return to their natural tendency for self-actualization are Empathic understanding (empathy), congruence (genuineness/authenticity), and unconditional positive regard.

Therapists from Solution-Focused Therapy view the client as expert while the therapist acts as a consultant/collaborator who poses questions designed to assist clients in recognizing and using their strengths and resources to achieve goals. Solution-Focused therapists believe that understanding the etiology or attribute of a maladaptive behavior is irrelevant. They prefer rather to focus on solutions to problems.

Feminist Therapy is focused on empowerment and social change, based on the premise that “the personal is political,” and attempts to demystify the client-therapist relationship. In Feminist Object Relations Therapy, the 2 contributors to gendered behaviors are 1. Sexual division of labor and 2. Mother-child relationship (positing that many gender differences can be traced to differences in mother-daughter and mother-son relationships). In contrast to Feminist Therapy, nonsexist therapy focuses more on personal causes of behavior and personal change.

According to Self-In-Relation Theory, one’s sense of self is largely dependent on how they connect with others, thus psychopathology is viewed as resulting from disconnection with others. A good technique to use with clients who are ambivalent about changing their behaviors and combines the transtheoretical model with client-centered therapy and self-efficacy is Motivational Interviewing. The goals of increasing a couple’s recognition and initiation of pleasurable interactions, decreasing a couple’s aversive interactions (negative exchanges), teaching a couple effective problem-solving and communication skills, and teaching a couple to use a contingency contract to resolve persisting problems characterize behavioral family therapeutic approach.

Functions and Types of Skid Steers

The basic function of a skid steer it to save manual labor on bodily jobs, it can be applied to everything, from farm work to heavy industrial work. This loader is a versatile and flexible device and its application is almost wide as your thoughts. Due to this reason, this loader is somewhat popular among large varieties of operators.

The fundamental role of skid steer is the loading and clearing of debris and some other materials. It is somewhat similar to usual front end loaders. The skid steer has an exceptional role in doing jobs around the vicinity of Oregon in cramped situations wherein bigger vehicles may not be possible. In forestry, for example, the compact design of the skid steer is very much appreciated because the jobs can take place in situations without much need of maneuver. Bigger machines like front end loader, might not be capable to enter some areas surrounding Oregon wherein the skid steer may be able to operate. The compact form of skid steer enables the forester to perform tasks that not are possible to bigger vehicles.

The skid loader is likewise valuable in ranches or in the farms. It has some advantages when used in farms and ranches. The compact design of the steer can maneuver in places which can not be done by conventional tractors. The steer loader is useful in ranch works where fences may run intimately together, or in places where buildings are located close together which may prohibit bigger vehicles. Plenty of farms and ranches are not planned to have broad access entrances, so though a usual loader can offer more power and leverage, a skid loader gives a particular benefit in mobility.

One reason of the versatility of skid loader is due to its adaptability to broad variety of tasks and jobs. Their natural design is partially to credit, but inventive companies have planned several attachments and alternatives for skid loaders. These attachments include diverse engines, arm designs, wheel system and a big record of diverse arm accessories and tools.

Skid loaders are even designed to be operated even from standing position in the grounds, in place of the seat of the driver with a rotating cage. These models are very light; the small ones weigh 500 pounds, whereas the biggest models weigh over 3,000 pounds. The horsepower used by skid loaders range from below twenty to over eighty five or more.

Tool attachments differ, ranging from essential buckets to auger to revolving cutters and to snow shovels. These tools can be applied for farming also in ranching, leveling, debris clearing, industrial work and other jobs.

The benefits of the tracked form includes better traction over terrains that are not stable, but can harm soft grounds or even concrete surfaces, depending on the heaviness of the skid steer. The wheeled forms sacrifice the additional traction for better flexibility on more fragile terrains.

Breast Plastic Surgery – Explore an Array of Possibilities

Depending on your situation, there’s bound to be a breast plastic surgery that is right for you. You could be tired of your small bosom, or sick of your extremely large chest. Whatever is bothering you, there’s a procedure that can fix it. Check out a few common options.


If you’re tired of trying to fill out your upper body, then end your frustration and get breast plastic surgery. With today’s technology, there’s no need to suffer with a figure you’re unhappy with. You can choose to get your chest augmented to boost your cup size, giving you a full upper body that matches the curves on your bottom half. Just be sure to make your appointment with a board-certified plastic surgeon that will meet your needs.

Also, once you get this procedure, be prepared to experience swelling and pain – which your doctor can prescribe medication to help alleviate it. In addition, you will need to follow all of your doctor’s instructions and avoid strenuous activity for about a month. Before long, you’ll have the womanly figure you’ve been hoping for.


While you may love the size of your chest, you may not be happy with how it’s gone south over the years. Whether you’ve nursed a baby, lost weight or just have a droopy breast that you’re uncomfortable with, a lift can help fix your problems.

This kind of breast plastic surgery is great for women that want a firmer and more youthful appearance. While it will not increase your bra size, unless you add implants, a lift can be very beneficial to your self esteem.

However, it is still surgery and has risks. Some women can experience bleeding, infections, and scarring, so it’s good to know all the facts up front before moving forward with the procedure. Fortunately, it is a pretty routine operation that can provide exceptional results.


Sometimes a full chest feels like a blessing to many women, while for others, it’s a curse. Larger bosoms can be a hindrance to many women that prevents them from leading the lives they want. The good news is that a popular breast plastic surgery procedure is the reduction.

A doctor will surgically decrease the size of the breasts allowing you to enjoy a more active lifestyle. Also, many patients experience little or no back pain as a result of their smaller chests. So if this is your situation, suffer no more.

Dating Secrets – Why Women Love A Man With Courage

We spend a lot of time around here shining the light on ‘hidden detractors’. By this I mean anything that could possibly be keeping you from meeting the kind of women you want to meet and/or having total control over continuing the relationship when you so choose, but which you haven’t quite got a handle on yet.

I believe that one of the darkest such “hidden detractor” for many guys involves Failure To Deploy in the area of courage.

That’s right, simple “courage”.

A month or so ago, I talked to you about “Six Ways To Man Up”. Each of those respective suggestions, you’ll recall, was qualified by “strength”.

Anyway, the reason why “courage” wasn’t set apart as one of the half-dozen in that list of masculine indicators that drive women wild is a very simple one.

Courage, as it turns out, is an overarching theme that quite literally pervades a man’s being. When you successfully “inspire confidence” you have essentially-by definition-succeeded at assuring a woman of your own personal level of courage.

So this time, let’s outline exactly what courage IS. And more specifically, lets talk about the kind of courage that women in particular find irresistibly attractive.

I’ll give you a hint: It’s not found in the Jeff Foxworthy moments when we tell everyone, “Hey y’all, watch this!” Nope, meaningless foolishness is a turn-off to women, as is “showing off” purely for the purpose of impressing them.

So here we go…a half-dozen ways to eliminate wussification forever and execute with strength:

1) Courage When It’s Expected As Obvious

If most garden-variety human beings can stand up something, so should you. It’s not unusual to have phobias, even irrational ones. But know this: If you are afraid to fly, cross bridges or take the elevator you will NOT be exactly inspiring confidence in a woman who likely has no such trepidation. Your ability to inspire confidence takes a direct hit when you are afraid when even most women are unfazed.

It is crucial to grasp this concept accurately. Nobody is asking you to drive in an ice storm, tail rattlesnakes like freakin’ Steve Irwin or even eat food off the floor.

But if you throw a hissy fit when a bee that you aren’t even mortally allergic to flies within five feet of you, and the women surrounding you go, “Um…dude, what’s the big deal?”, those are the times you know you have to learn how to get over it.

2) Courage When Faced With The Unknown

What happens when there’s a question mark ahead? Do you hold your head up and boldly face the music, or do you thrust your head in the sand and procrastinate for as long as humanly possible?

One key example, made hilariously famous by George Lopez in a stand up routine of his, of this is when a guy knows he has a medical issue but refuses to see a doctor.

Knowing the doctor could tell you any number of things ranging from the innocuous to the devastating, you go anyway and get it taken care of.

“It’s better not to know…besides, they’ll charge me for everything!” is funny when George Lopez says it, but would demonstrate to a woman in your life that you are a complete coward were YOU say it.

If you know the company is announcing layoffs today, you go to work. Whatever it is, unless it’s armed and deadly and you are not, you face it. Women love the initiative and the leadership.

3) Courage To Accomplish What Motivates You

I don’t know how many guys I have heard talking about what they dream of doing, or where they dream of going…quickly followed by a phrase beginning with the word “but”.

“Oh man, I’d LOVE to go to [insert exotic destination here]. But what if I got arrested and thrown into jail there or caught some weird illness while there?”

“Wow…I’d LOVE to get a motorcycle license. But I’m really afraid I’d have an accident.”

All this is BORING to women, who are often craving excitement in their lives.

The most breathtaking irony of all in that respect is that I am wracking my brain, but believe I have never suggested that a woman join me for something adventurous and have her flatly refuse…as long as her confidence was inspired.

4) Courage When The Chips Are Down

When it’s “fight or flight”, women are counting on you to keep a level head and make the right decision. Like the NBA all star wants the ball when his team is down by a point with five seconds left on the clock, you should likewise seek to be the decision-maker when a crisis looms.

Whether it’s a family issue, a job loss, a car accident, a spider in the bathroom or a weird sound in the middle of the night, you take the proverbial bull by the horns.

5) Courage Among Men

If you are consistently dominated by and generally manhandled by the AMOGs around you, women will not be impressed by your passivity. Have the courage to suggest ideas, take leadership in the face of ambiguity and remain reasonable when foolishly provoked.

Nothing inspires confidence in a woman more than this. You aren’t starting bar fights, but you are standing your ground and refusing to be a doormat.

Of course, there’s one final linchpin that all five of the previous examples are predicated upon…

6) Courage Towards HER

You must not be afraid of the woman herself.

This means that you approach her and talk to her that first time you meet her without trepidation, which in turn will help her feel at ease with you.

This also means you don’t kowtow and “kiss up” because you are afraid of either losing her favor or angering her. And it especially means that you don’t soft peddle every last original idea you have lest you offend her or not give her what she wants.

Most guys are deathly afraid of making a woman cry. You have to understand that women are more upset by your cowardice in telling the truth than by your honesty, as long as you keep her best interests at heart.

I mentioned that lack of courage is often a “hidden detractor”. Seriously, in this day and age of safe cubicle jobs and couch potato lifestyles it’s all too easy for us guys to completely miss the fact that we are even lacking in this area. But make no mistake-women have a sixth sense for this stuff. So building genuine courage, backed by solid reasoning skills, should be the goal of every man.

Here’s the thing.

I could give you a set of “rules” to follow. I could give you a checklist of things to do that might allow you to, at least for the time being, fool a woman or two into thinking you had it all together.

But ultimately the checklist would fail you. You can’t be fumbling for notes when a situation calling for genuine courage comes up.

Gregory Baltoro 70 Vs 75 – How Can You Improve On a Winner?

The Gregory Baltoro 70 backpack was a proven winner having received the 2008 Backpacker Magazine Editor’s Choice award. The vast majority of the user reviews gave the pack high marks primarily for its comfort, even with heavy loads. Gregory had introduced a new suspension system with this 70 litre model around 2006.

The Winning Ingredients

The Custom Fit Suspension (CFS) and Auto Fit Suspension (AFS) systems are unique to Gregory backpacks and they are used in their larger capacity models. Working together, these special engineering systems made the fit and comfort of the Baltoro 70 a highlight of the pack for users. To describe it in a simplified fashion, the CFS keeps the pack stable under heavy loads (prevents barreling) plus allows a certain amount of flexibility to the hipbelt. The AFS technology allows the shoulder straps and hipbelt to be attached to the back plate in such a way as to allow them to have enough articulation to provide an individualized fit to each person’s shoulder contours and hip angle. Together they keep the weight of the pack centered on the hips and stress off of the shoulders. Along with other technical improvements, this was a real win for the backpacker and for Gregory.

According to early reviews, some of the first models of the Baltoro 70 had quality issues. Buckles broke; shoulder straps and hip belts separated from the back plate and the weight of the pack by itself was heavy. However, these complaints were not numerous and the pack underwent some upgrades. The internal frame was changed to a lighter weight material and it reduced the overall weight of the pack. And by 2008, durability was one of the characteristics users liked most about the pack.

Improving the Winner

But Gregory has not rested on its laurels. Last year, 2011, the highly popular Baltoro 70 was replaced by the Baltoro 75. A risky proposition when you have a proven winner on your hands. The 70 isn’t even listed on Amazon anymore and if you went to Gregory’s website you would see that it is not part of their products listing. A specific search on the site for the 70 will fish it up but the title now includes the qualifying descriptor “old” (Baltoro 70 – old). No doubt you could find it at some of the retail outlets that carry Gregory products but a quick online search of outlets shows the 70 to be on close out or out of stock.

a) Detachable Waist Pack

The new Baltoro 75 is now the inheritor of its predecessor’s much deserved sterling reputation. How can the Baltoro 75 improve on the already popular 70? Well, one of the obvious ways Gregory has intended to improve the Baltoro is with the addition of a detachable waist pack.

One of the biggest complaints of users of the Baltoro 70 was that it had no detachable waist pack that could be used on short excursions from base camp once your destination was achieved. The new Baltoro 75 has a top cover that can be reconfigured and used as a detached waist pack.

b) Additional Capacity

Of course the added capacity expands the useful duration of the Baltoro. Since the Baltoro comes in small, medium and large sizes the addition of 5 litres means that the Baltoro line will just about span the entire 70 litre range. Small being somewhere in the 73L range and the Large reaching up to about the 78L range.

c) Updated Suspension

According to Gregory the suspension system has been updated for even more comfort. Although no specific details are given.

Yet To Be Seen

The other consistent complaint about the Baltoro 70 was the noise. It had a tendency to squeak when you were walking. In some instances the squeak was intermittent but in others it was non-stop. Some users found it to be extremely nerve racking to themselves or to their trekking companions. The jury is still out as to whether this annoyance has been remedied.

So apparently Gregory has determined that you can improve on a winner. You do it by building on its strengths and improving its weaknesses. That is what they have done with the Gregory Baltoro 75 backpack. Pretty sound logic. But in the end, the user will be the deciding factor as to whether it succeeds.

Alzheimer’s Disease: 2nd Stage Symptom

Changes in the brain of Alzheimer’s sufferers may begin 10 to 20 years before

any visible signs of dementia or any symptoms of Alzheimer’s appear.

Alzheimer’s disease progresses through three main stages:

The first stage is mild. The symptoms at this stage can be observed by

family members and considered as part of normal aging. The family

member starts to forget places or things. Sometimes, the family

member forgets their address. At this stage, it seem a little matter

of “mom or dad , they’re just getting older”.

However by the time the second stage appears, family members

began to sense that there may be something serious happening.

As the memory continues to deteriorate, there is a sense

that ther is a more severe problem.

During the second stage of Alzheimer’s disease there is evidence that

the damage to the brain has progressed. At the second stage of Alzheimer’s

disease there are some language problems. Family members fear that the

patient has had a stroke. The ability to speak is slow and labored.

There is a strain to articulate feelings or request. There may be an inability

speak clearly.

During the second stage of Alzheimer’s the person’s reasoning ability is

hampered. The person may decide to go to the grocery store at 2:00 am in

the morning. The person will not understand why this does not make sense.

Some individuals become combative or emotional over perceived injustices.

The processing of sensory information such as reacting to heat or cold

becomes impaired during the second stage of the disease. The brain is not

connecting or interpreting sensory messages from the body. Alzheimer’s

patients have been known to not feel the heat from a stove or not react to cold.

In the second stage of the disease, the symptoms and signs of Alzheimer

have become more obvious. As the disease progresses, family members can

see that other regions of the brain have been affected. There are

pronounced changes in behavior and there is a pronounced attention deficit.

The progression of Alzheimer’s disease can vary. The individuals who

have been studied shows that the duration of the disease may vary from

3 to 20 years. Early detection is critical to controlling and slowing

the progression of the symptoms. Finding the right Alzheimer’s treatment

plan is important at this stage. The disease can be slowed at this stage.

There are medications approved by the FDA to treat Alzheimer’disease. There

is no cure. However, some medication have been tested that delay the progression

and possibly the onset of new Alzheimer’s symptoms, Many of the drugs that are

prescribed for Alzheimer patients are designed to help with the emotional or

the behavioral changes that occur.

When the individuals starts to experience any of the symptoms associated

with the various stages of Alzheimer’s, they should seek medical help immediately.

Don’t confuse the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease with the changes that take place

in normal aging. Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of aging.

Some studies indicate that some of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s may be due to

other conditions that impact the diagnosis. Depression, some of the side effects

of other medications, excessive use of drugs or alcohol or even nutritional

imbalances may be disorders that can impair memory and other


If these problems are identified early on, individuals can sometimes

stave off the progression of the disease by being reactive to the symptoms


How To Use A Vacuum Food Sealer

Now you have found a great vacuum food sealer, but you may not be sure how to use this nifty little thing. How do you use one of these things? Why should I use one?

You may have seen these vacuum food sealer machines in the stores and you might not be sure how to use them. You may also have tried in the past to use one, but were put off by the difficulty that you thought went into using them. They are really not as hard to use as you may think, you just have to give it a try.

A good place to start is with getting the items that you want to put into the vacuum sealed bag. This way you will have everything that you need in front of you and you won’t have to go looking for something when you are ready to start on your vacuum sealing. You can use the vacuum to seal more then one certain kind of food to put into a vacuum bag system. This way you will be able to get it all done at one time, instead of having to pull out the vacuum sealer more then one time.

The next thing that you will need to do is to start the machine up. This may seem like a big deal but it really isn’t. All you will need to do is to plug it into the wall or push the button on the machine. This may seem like it’s something that could be hard to do, but you will find that it’s not that hard at all in the end. You also will want to make sure that the food that you are using with your vacuum sealer is all there. There is nothing that is more of a pain, then having to go back and do it all over again.

When you get that great little vacuum sealing machine, don’t be scared of it and learn to use it. If you are not sure of what you are doing, then you can read the directions and find out what you need to do to make it work for what you are doing. This will help you to learn more about your machine and how you are supposed to use it. Bottom line is don’t be afraid of it and you will be able to harness all of the machines benefits.

Simple Home Design Tips

Having a home with the design that we truly want is something that would really make us feel good. Although most houses built these days have general designs, it would be better if we could come up with our own design to give our homes a more personalized touch. We all certainly would want everything in our house to be perfect as much as possible. Designing our own houses is very practical, fun to do, and is not really hard to do. We do not really need to hire an interior decorator or any home design experts if we want to save money since we can also do it on our own. We just need to be creative and have fun while we do it.

Take your time and think what kind of design that you really want to incorporate in your house. If you want more references, you can just search the internet for a wide variety of design options. It is important that you make a final decision since it may cost you more instead of saving money if the design is already completed and you change your mind and have it redone. After you make the final decision, you can start searching all the materials that you would need. You also do not need to rush this part since you would want to compare different rates from different stores first. It would be also a great idea to ask for recommendations from your family, friends, and other people you know who could help you.

After thorough considerations and preparations, you may start designing either the interior or the exterior part of the house whichever you are comfortable with. Choosing the right colors could help you set the ambiance.

You may also want to consider Feng Shui for good luck but only if you believe in that practice. Aside from using common furniture such as sofas, chairs, and tables, you may also want to add other components inside your house. Consider putting paintings, wall mounted fountains, and other extra fixtures to add more life to the interior design. For outdoors, putting sectional patio furniture may just do the trick to liven up the atmosphere outside of your house. Wooden, metal, or plastic chairs are also ideal outdoors. Whatever design you want for your own house, it is best to start at larger places down to the smaller ones which require more detail.

Depending on your preferences, you may want to have a minimal or simple design. Not only that you can save money but you can also save space. When you are designing in your house, keep in mind that this is a place where you would spend much of your time so you should consider putting emphasis to comfort and functionality. Designing a house also does not need to be complicated. As long as you are creative, you are resourceful, and you know what you want, it should just be a breeze. Just do not rush things so you will not have regrets in the future.