7 Different Type Of Speech Introductions

Unless a speaker can interest his audience, his effort will be a failure. If your topic is not one of extraordinary interest, your listeners are likely to say to themselves, so what? Who cares? A speaker can quickly lose an audience if she or he doesn’t use the introduction to get their attention and clicking their interest in getting the initial attention of your audience is usually easy-even before you utter a single word. After you are introduced, turn to your audience and they will normally give you their attention. If they don’t, then patiently look towards the audience without saying a word. In a few moments all talking and physical commotion will stop. Your listeners will be attentive. You’ll be ready to start speaking. Keeping the attention of your audience once you start talking is more difficult. Here are some methods used most to keep them Interested.

#1: Relate the topic to the audience-

People pay attention to things that affect them directly if you can relate the topic your listeners they’re much more likely to be interested in it.

#2: State the importance of your topic-

Presumably you think your speech is important, tell your audience why they should think so too.

#3: Startle the audience.

One sure fire way to arouse interest quickly is to startle all your listeners with an arresting or intriguing statement. This technique is highly effective and easy to use just be sure the starling introduction relates directly to the subject of your speech.

#4: Arouse the curiosity of the audience-

People are curious. One way to draw them into your speech is with a series of statements that progressively whet their curiosity about the subject of the speech.

#5: Question the audience-

Asking a rhetorical question is another way to get your listeners thinking about your speech sometimes even a single question will do.

#6: Begin with the quotation-

Another way to arouse the interest of your audience is to start with an attention getting quotation. You might choose a quotation from Shakespeare or Confucius, from the bible or Talmud, from Shakespeare, song, or film.

#7: Tell a story-

We all enjoy stories-especially if they are provocative, dramatic, or suspenseful. To work well as instructions, they should also be clearly relevant to the main point of the speech. Used in this way, stories are perhaps the most effective way to begin a speech.

With this information you should be on your way to be writing some amazing intros. Good luck with your speeches!

How to Clean Your Singer Featherweight 221 Sewing Machine

You should clean your Singer Featherweight 221 at least once a year, and sometimes even after an extended period (several weeks) of continuous sewing.

Like any machine that needs to be cleaned and oiled, it’s a good idea to work over a layer of newspapers in order to minimize any additional mess. Other items you’ll need are a screwdriver, WD-40 lubricant, baby oil, sewing machine oil, lint free cotton fabric, Q-tips or toothpicks, an old small head toothbrush, and possibly 0000 fine steel wool and kerosene. Do not use alcohol (or Lestoil) to clean your Featherweight as it will dissolve the finish and the machines decals.

Start by scraping off all visible grease with a lint free cotton fabric. If you have not cleaned your Featherweight in some time, or you just purchased one and this is its first cleaning in a while, you may need to dissolve some grease that has hardened. To do this pour a little kerosene (or WD-40) onto the solidified grease and allow it to soften. Very stubborn, hardened grease may need to be soaked overnight in which case you should tip your Featherweight so that the solid material sits on a cloth soaked with kerosene (naturally this should be done in a well ventilated area, and away from open flames). Once all the old grease is removed, reapply approved sewing machine oil only. Refer to your owner’s manual for the appropriate oiling locations.

If you notice bits of grease or grime accumulating around the Singer Featherweight decal, or lettering, these can be easily removed with a Q-tip or toothpick covered with a small section of your lint free cotton. Stubborn bits can be removed by first soaking the end of the Q-tip with WD-40 or kerosene.

Remove the needle plate (throat plate) and remove any thread that may be wound around the shaft. Also clean out any accumulated lint inside the cover and under the thread spindle with a toothbrush.

If you are mechanically inclined, it’s not a bad idea to give your Featherweight 221 a very thorough internal cleaning as well. This means having to remove pretty much every mechanical component that can be unscrewed including the face plate, presser foot, bobbin cover and flywheel, but not the motor. It’s always a good idea to keep the components together (and labeled if necessary) so you know how to put it all back together again. All components should be thoroughly sprayed/soaked with WD-40 and wiped clean. The WD-40 will actually clean, lubricate, and help to protect the metal components.

Remember, although you can wipe down the motor housing, do not lubricate the motor. Electric motors require very little lubricant, and it is very easy to damage the motor by over lubricating it.

After you wipe down the motor, take a moment to check the belt tension. There should only be ½ to ¾ of an inch of play in the belt. Also, if the belt is worn, replace it. This is done by loosening the screw directly under the belt at the base of the machine, almost straight back from the light switch. Loosen the screw just enough so that the motor slides (do not remove the screw) and the belt is able to be removed. Place the new belt on, slide the motor back into position and retighten the screw. Make sure you have the proper belt tension. If the belt is too tight you will strain the motor. If the belt is too loose, you will lose power. To get the best performance out of your machine, take your time and make sure you have the proper belt tension.

If you notice any light surface rust (not deeply pitted) on the metal parts of your machine, this can also be fairly easily removed. Rub the rusted section gently with 0000 fine steel wool. Stubborn spots can be helped off by first spraying the steel wool with WD-40 or dabbing with kerosene. Do not use the steel wool to remove any dirt, grease or debris from the machine surface since it will leave scratch marks on the lacquer finish.

Once you’ve finished cleaning your Singer Featherweight 221, make sure all of the screws have been tightened. Any loose screws can cause grinding or rattling noises and in extreme cases can possibly damage you machine, if it causes a jam.

Finally, put a little dab of baby oil onto a soft lint free cotton fabric and rub it all over the outside of the machine body. Wipe off any excess. Not only will this give the unit a nice shine, but the oil will help to preserve the varnish finish.

Regular cleaning of your Singer Featherweight 221 sewing machine will keep it running smoothly for years.

Benefits of an Electric Wok Appliance For Cooking

Woks role is cooking Southeast Asian cuisine like Thai and Chinese food. However, they specialize for stir-fry, then you could use them for boiling, deep-frying, steaming, braising, and making stews and soups. They are versatile cooking utensils made from a variety of materials. You have woks made from stainless steel, cast iron, carbon steel and aluminum. There is also an electric wok. You do not need a stove to cook in such a wok. Simply plug it to an electrical source and the wok itself acts like a heating element.

Advantages of using a wok that uses electricity are several. Apart from cooking delicious food, they have some advantages over other woks. Let us highlight some of them:

1) Storage: Electricity operated woks are very compact and suited to keep at home. Their design is in such a way that you can simply push them in your cabinet. You can even easily stack them in the corner of your kitchen. They also have good looks unlike the heavy iron woks that have to hide somewhere. So, you can use them even on the dining table with friends all around and the food gets cooked there itself. Apart from a good conversation, you could also share some delicious aroma arising from the wok.

2) Portable: Since these woks work on electricity, it is very easy to use them wherever you have a plug point. You could carry it when you go for your camping or other trips. All it needs to work is an electricity source. Therefore, even if you go to a place where you cannot have a kitchen to work or fuel, you can cook food in your wok that uses electricity.

3) Cooking: A wok makes delicious food, especially stir-fry and noodles, vegetable fried rice, spaghetti, ground turkey, French fries, and meat sauce. As this runs on electricity, cooking becomes even more convenient. In this wok, you can cook omelets, hash brown potatoes and stew among others. In fact, anything that you can cook in your pan can still fit in a wok.

4) Easy Cleaning: Woks that use electricity are very easy to clean and maintain. Since they are mostly made of non-stick material, you do not even have to scrub too much as the food does not stick on the sides.

5) No stove needed: The biggest advantage of an electric wok is that you do not need any fuel or heating element to cook food. Electricity is all you need. So, it becomes very convenient to cook in summers when the temperatures are extremely hot to stand in the kitchen and cook for hours.

6) Savings: To cook a meal, you do not need to work on two-three burners at a time as it costs a lot. A wok that runs on electricity is a cheaper option. It is a one-time investment and this wok stays with you for long. If you were planning to buy a wok, I would recommend to definitely by an electric wok. It is necessary for every kitchen.

The 4 Main Types of Renewable Energy

As the world reaches its energy crisis we need to reduce our dependence on non-renewable energy sources, and start generating renewable energy on a massive scale.

To date there are four main types of renewable energy that we can produce: wind power, solar power, hydro power, and geothermic power.

Wind Power:

Wind turbines have been around for millennia, further back than the birth of Christ. Over the years they have been used to pump water, drag boats and grind flour. But at the turn of the industrial revolution, wind turbines were made to produce electricity.

Although many people envision windmills as those ornate ones in Holland or the small wind-pumps on farms, they have been developed tremendously in the past decade. Now wind turbines are able to generate thousands of megawatts of power, and when used on a small scale at home, wind power can substitute conventional energy sources, helping households to get off the grid.

Solar Power:

The sun is the most readily available form of energy there is, so we should be using it to a larger extent. And as technology advances, households are provided with a number of ways to harness the power of the sun. These ways include solar electricity, solar heaters, solar dryers and solar cookers.

With solar electric and heating systems, they are both cost-effective, good for the environment, they require little maintenance and help you save on your utility bills. Solar cookers are very healthy way of cooking food, since they cook the food at a lower temperature-helping to retain its vitamins and minerals. They are also very portable, making them ideal for travelers and campers.

Hydro Power:

Initially hydro or water power was used industrially to rivers and waterfalls to power waterwheels that would then be used to move water for irrigation or grind flour.

Today hydro power is used in dams to produce electricity for households and businesses. Hydro-electric power is generate on a large scale where dammed up water is channeled through turbines, which spins a dynamo as it gushes through. The best example of hydro-electric power would be the Hoover Dam, which was built to provide electricity to Las Vegas. In fact hydro-electric power is efficient is popular nowadays that it accounts for over 90% of the worlds renewable energy.

There have been some social and environmental concerns about building dams for hydroelectricity since entire village and communities are flooded by the dam, and the walls prevent certain species of fish from swimming upstream to spawn.

Geothermal Power:

Geothermal power is typically produced in areas with ongoing volcanic activity, where magma is relatively close to the surface. One such area is Iceland, where a large proportion of its power is produced from volcanic geysers.

Here, large power plants are built over the geysers, where hot fast-moving steam from the geysers drives large turbines to make electricity. To speed up the process, water is sometimes pumped back into the geysers to make more steam, which is then used to drive the turbines once again, thus making it an endless cycle.

Well, this concludes our brief overview of the 4 main types of renewable energy. You can find out more in-depth information on each type by reading our other articles or browsing our website in the link below.

3 Kitchen Blender Problems You Can Fix Yourself

Over time, even the best kitchen blenders will start to show damage. This is especially true if you use your blender every day to make thick smoothies. Today, in our throw-away society we’re quick to just trash a product at the first sign of a malfunction. Small appliances like blenders are usually not worth taking to a repair shop to have them fixed. But before you resign your blender to the landfill and buy a new one, there are several quick and easy repairs you can do yourself. Taking the time to do these checks to see if you can get your blender working again is certainly worth it.



One of the most common problems you’ll find with your kitchen blender is leaking. Even top rated blenders from blender reviews will start to have this problem eventually. The cause lies in the o-ring or gasket located in the bottom of the blender jar where the blade assembly and housing reside. Over time the rubber gasket starts to wear down. If your blender leaking comes from the glass jar and not the bottom, then there is likely a crack in the jar and you’ll have to replace it. Bottom leaking though is likely the gasket. To inspect it, you’ll need to unscrew the blade housing from the blender jar and pull out the rubber o-ring. Then you can just look for leaks and tears in the rubber of this ring. This part is easily replaceable and only costs a few dollars. You can find it online or at most home discount or appliance stores.


Faulty Blades

Another common problem with blenders will occur with the blades. In this case the engine will start to run, but the blades will turn too slowly. If this happens then the likely cause is something clogging the blade assembly area. You’ll need to take the assembly apart and clean everything thoroughly with a scrub brush. There is probably a build-up of food slowing the blades. Soaking everything for a few hours in detergent will also help to dissolve any food particles or gunk that has built up over time. Be sure to check your owner’s manual to make sure that this is OK to do for your particular blender brand. You may also want to add some white grease or WD-40 to the lower part of the blade assembly (not in any areas where you’ll be putting food of course). If all of this fails to work, then you’ll probably have to replace the whole assembly, which can also be purchased online or at most home appliance retailers.


Busted Buttons

One other issue you may have with your kitchen blender lies with the buttons or the control panel. Often buttons will get stuck. This is probably caused by food and drink getting down into the button area and causing them to jam up. Even if you are careful and clean the buttons and control panel thoroughly, over time, food particle will still accumulate. Many blender models will let you take off the control panel cover so that you can clean up behind this. You can use a toothbrush here to help you get down into all the crevices. Some blender models will also let you remove the screws on the bottom of the unit and pull out the lower housing area so that you can get to the buttons easier. Be sure to consult your owner’s manual if you need to do this. Often all your blender needs is a good cleaning to get the buttons working again.


This information should help solve most common minor blender problems. Keep in mind that often a simple repair or replacement will save you the expense of having to get a new blender. It’s also much better for the environment to repair something rather than to just throw it away.

A Classic Big Green Egg Burger Recipe

The Big Green Egg is the most versatile grill I have ever owned. It can sear steaks at temperatures up to 700F, or it can slowly smoke a 10lb brisket for 17 hours at 225F. It acts as a grill, an oven, and a smoker all in one! Another great feature of the Big Green Egg is that it is very fuel efficient. The grill easily maintains the desired temperature for several hours, or even overnight, using relatively little charcoal when compared to a normal grill. The best part about the Big Green Egg is that it is easy to make delicious food!

Burgers are one of my favorite things to cook on the Big Green Egg… Simple, fast, and of course delicious. There are a million different recipes for burgers, but they follow the same formula; bun, sauce, ground beef, cheese, seasonings, and bacon (all good burgers have bacon). My favorite burger recipe follows the same formula; jalapeno bun (from a local bakery!), seasoned ground beef, roasted corn guacamole, pepper jack cheese, and……Texas thick cut bacon. I call it, “Eric’s Famous.” With this recipe you can grill delicious hamburgers for your family and friends and take credit as a “grill master!”

Here’s How to make it:

To make the guacamole and bacon:

– Fry some bacon in a pan, set aside. Leave some bacon fat in the pan.

– Saute finely chopped onion, garlic and corn in the bacon fat.

– Mash 1 avocado in a bowl.

– Combine onion, garlic, corn and avocado in the bowl, mix evenly.

To make the burger:

– I use 85/15 meat/fat ratio, usually, for a slightly leaner burger (most restaurants use 80/20).

– Season with generic “steakhouse” seasoning, cayenne, and Tabasco sauce.

– Make some big ole burger patties.

– Fire the Big Green Egg to 500F

– 3 min, flip, 3 min, flip

– Close the draft doors, cook for another 2 min or until desired doneness

– Melt your cheese (about 30 sec), then take the burgers off.

– Lightly toast the buns on the Egg for about 1 minute.

– Assemble and Enjoy!

Please be careful when grilling at such high temperatures! The Big Green Egg can reach temperatures up to 700 degrees! Be sure to lift the lid slowly when grilling, as too much air rushing to the fire will cause a large flare up.

Automobile Business Plan – Four Steps to Success

Like other business plans, the contents of an automobile dealership business plan cover four primary steps towards success. These steps are “opportunity”, “capacity”, “activities”, and “results”.


The industry, customer, and competitive analysis in your business plan proves the opportunity. This should identify that customers in your local market are in need of a dealer of the type you’ve chosen to be because competitors are not fully serving their needs, or because their demographics are changing (more population, richer, poorer, more families, etc.) The opportunity could also be that a certain combination of services by your dealership could improve on what competitors are currently doing. The overall industry situation should look ahead to how the car sales market will be doing six months, one year, or more in the future, when the dealership will actually be open.


The experience of the management team, your license as a car dealer, and the financial resources the partners can bring to the table cover the capacity of the entrepreneur to jump on this opportunity. Funders reading the business plan expect that there will also be an element of cash missing from the entrepreneur’s capacity at the moment. Otherwise, they would not be reading the plan in the first place.


Marketing and operations plans cover the activities the company will engage in to bring in car buyers (and car sellers if you are a used car dealer as well), and run the business as efficiently as possible. As a small car dealer, consider how you can make up for this lack of scale, and the cost savings that come with it for dealer chains, through creativity and hard work.


Finally, the projections of business success and financial section of the plan show the results that you and investors should expect. If results take into account the full costs of the methods you’ve described, and include adequate compensation for staff and key team players, readers will be less likely to question elements on the cost side. If your revenue projections are based on reasonable, researched assumptions about the car buying behavior of your local market, then readers will be more likely to accept this side of the projections as well.

10 Surprising Things That Can Make You Break Out

Surprise breakout trigger #1: Fun times

Surprisingly, your skin can react to exciting events such as a big weekend, vacation, graduation or wedding in the same way as it does to stress, even though it doesn’t feel stressful at all! Just like stress, highly anticipated events can play with your immune system. Remember even when awesome things are happening to keep up with taking care of your self. Plenty of water, good foods, sleep, and a bit of calming yoga or stretching will help keep your skin (and nerves) in tip-top shape.

Surprise breakout trigger #2: Your toothpaste

Your skin can react to the ingredients in toothpaste, especially those with fluoride or whitening agents. If you are experiencing little red bumps just around your mouth, it might be time to switch to toothpaste geared to sensitive skin. (If you do switch to non-fluoride, double up on tap water, as it contains fluoride necessary for healthy teeth.)

Surprise breakout trigger #3: Getting Fit

Hold on there — you work hard on your workout, sweat a little and your pores feel great, but is it bad for your skin? Actually, acne loves sweat – and chooses this time to flex it’s muscles causing your skin problems. Your counter defense: rinse skin directly after a workout, and apply a gentle alicylic acid wash/treatment.

Surprise breakout trigger #4: Your boyfriend

Yes, he looks hot with a little manly stubble, and he smells great too — but both of these can wreak havoc on your skin after a serious make-out session! The friction from his beard, and the fragrance from her aftershave can cause major irritation and breakouts. Breakouts may not appear for days or a few weeks, but if you’ve left your date with your face red or irritated, you can bet the breakouts will show up later. Let him know that a baby-faced smooth shave is a great look, and buy him a nice gift of some great cologne to replace that after shave!

Surprise breakout trigger #5: Your mineral make-up

Woah! Aren’t mineral make-ups good for acne-prone skin? The answer is, they can be. Watch for mineral make-ups that contain bismuth oxychloride, which can cause cystic acne, itching and irritation. Monave makes a variety that is bismuth oxychloride-free.

Surprise breakout trigger #6: Your water

Whaa? If your water has a high mineral content, it can throw off the ph balance of your skin, and it also has less rinsing ability, so it can leave residue from soaps and other products on your skin. The result can be clogged pores and irritation. Consider a water softener, or look into pre-moistened cloths.

Surprise breakout trigger #7: Your facial cleanser

Facial cleansers with too much soap in them can throw off the ph balance of the skin, causing the skin to react in ways that sometimes aren’t pretty. Opt for a gentle cleanser, such as castile soap, or a natural acne wash meant for sensitive skin.

Surprise breakout trigger #8: Your hair products

What? They’re on your hair right? Your hair products can block your pores – even though it is hard to realize the connection, as acne can take days/weeks to form. On the flip-side, oils from the hair can cause forehead and jaw line acne, too. Keep your hair clean and pulled back, especially at night. If you suffer from persistent acne, try using an anti-dandruff shampoo on your hair – it is especially anti-bacterial.

Surprise breakout trigger #9: Your hands

We all know that picking the skin is bad for you. But it also makes sense that just touching your skin with unclean hands can transfer a number of unwanted, aggravating bacteria to the skin? Get into the habit of a hands-off approach to your skin. If you are applying products to your skin, wash your hands with a mild soap prior to application.

Surprise breakout trigger #10: The Sun

We all love the fact that a glow from the sun makes breakouts less noticeable and helps dry up excess oil, but a little too much sun can aggravate the pores and cause acne to appear a week or two later. Keep safe with an oil-free sun block. Look for one with micronized zinc oxide, which is helpful to acne-prone skin.

Why Are You Experiencing a Mature Hairline?

Despite the fact that a mature hairline is rather common amongst males, the question every man asks is why me? No one dreams of growing up and having their hairline gradually dissipate over time. Before you begin treatment to slow down your mature hairline from receding, it is important you understand why this is happening to you.

Genetic baldness is due to a male hormone called dihydrotestosterone. When testosterone mixes with an enzyme called 5 Alpha Reductase, dihydrotestosterone is created. This then tackles the hair follicles and causes your hair to thin and eventually fall off. The numbers that no man wants to listen to is that men can lose as much as 50 percent of their hair before noticing inherited hair loss.

If you recognize that your hair is thinner, it is vital that you do not become in denial because the faster you start treating it the better the results. If you can see your scalp through your hair, one way to find out if it is male pattern baldness is by plucking hair from the scalp that looks thinner and from the area that looks thicker.

If you look at the hair shafts with a magnifying glass and notice that some of the plucked hairs are much finer than others, the cause of your hair loss may be due to male pattern baldness. The most important step to actually take is to visit a dermatologist which will be able to pin point the exact cause of your hair loss after careful examination.

Contrary to what you may have originally believed or heard, baldness is not a result of poor circulation, clogged pores, or a lack of oxygen. While there can be different causes for a mature hairline, 95 percent of the time it happens because of the inherited sensitivity of the hair follicles towards dihydrotestosterone.

When dihydrotestosterone attaches to the hair follicles it does not allow blood to flow freely to the scalp and provide the nutrients necessary for healthy hair growth. The aftermath is finer hair which eventually falls out.

There are different types of mature hairlines that males may encounter. It is one of the most painful problems you may have to encounter as it usually happens before crown and vertex hair loss. If you think it will not happen to you, keep in mind that 2 in 3 men will experience some form of hair loss. At the very least, frontal or temple hair loss will be the case for many.

These are astonishing stats you should be aware of if you are a male. If you currently do not have a mature hairline, it is vital you keep an eye on it as you get older. This information will help you understand why it is happening to you so you can better treat the problem.

History of Construction in the United States

The Empire State Building, the White House, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the United States Capitol – all have one thing in common (except for the obvious fact that they are all situated in the USA): they all testify to the rich history of architecture of the USA.

The architectural timeline of the USA can be divided into 5 different periods viz.

* The Colonial period (1607-1830)

* The Federal Age (1789-1865)

* Victorian Era (1837-1914)

* Arts and Crafts (1860-1920)

* Modernism (1920 and beyond)

In the 1600s, USA was mainly occupied by immigrants from Europe who settled in various parts of the country. Thus, the buildings built by them mainly constitute the architectural timeline of this period. Early colonial architecture varied considerably from region to region, based on the nationality of the settlers. What is now commonly called as folk architecture is normally a direct effect of uncomplicated motifs of the homelands of the builders finding their way into the architecture. Important constructions of this era incorporate Virginia state capitol (one of the leading examples of Georgian architecture) and Pennsylvania state house.

Federal constructions were a usual find in the post colonial era, from the creation of the US constitution to the starting of civil war. Federal architecture predominated government buildings and was heavily found in American settlements (mainly New England).

Federal period architecture is generally based on the English form of architecture. However, a renewal of Greek forms is also noticed, signifying the architectural freedom of America from the European heritage. With the commencement of the Civil War however, the acceptance of the Federal form died down. The United States Capitol was built in this duration.

In 1837, Queen Victoria started her command in United Kingdom. The early decades of the Victorian era witnessed the enlargement of the industrial revolution. Mass production began to set in, thus lowering the price of materials and handling time. Houses started to shift out of their squarish shapes and box like structures, paving the way for more complicated floor structures and confused architecture. As the luxury of American cities spread, a widespread demand for a today’s (according to timelicurrent (according to current (according to timeline) shape of architecture was noticed. This led to a widespread tradition of the Victorian form of architecture. However, inception of World War 1 in 1918 marked the ending of this period.

However the increasing industrialization of the Victorian age had a frequent feedback as well. People started returning to craftsmanship, instead of heavily relying on machinery. Spanning the whole of Victorian age and going beyond the World War, the age of Arts and craft was a notable duration throughout the whole world. America was no exclusion.

Modernism in American architecture is simple, and notional. Going beyond the 1920s and more, modernism is heavily influenced by futuristic designs. With examples of giant skyscrapers like the Empire State Building and the World Trade Center, modernism has given America the pet name of the melting pot. The roots of the background is expressed, while a substantial move towards more futuristic designs is maintained, signifying the fact that variation is absolute.

How To Catch Any Fish – Fishing For Giant Trevally (Ulua) With Bait and Lures


Giant Trevally (called “Ulua” in Hawaiian; “GT” in Australia) have been an obsession of mine since childhood. Growing up in Hawaii they were the ultimate near shore gamefish. They are the largest member of the Jack family and are the kings of the reefs where they live. You see them on bumper stickers a lot down there for whatever reason. However, despite several close encounters, I was not able to finally land one until age 34.

Giant Trevally live in tropical reefs throughout the Pacific and Indian Ocean. They are pure muscle and a very, very tough adversary even on heavy tackle. They typically charge out of the reef, grab your lure, and then charge back in and brick you in the rocks.

I had one trip to the Republic of the Marshall Islands where every single Giant Trevally I hooked broke me off in the rocks. I was only using 50lb braided line and that was not enough to land a single one, even ones that I could see were only in the 10lb range. I never underestimated them after that and do not fish for them with less than 100lb braid.

Giant Trevally top out around 200lbs but fish that size are nearly impossible to land on sportfishing tackle because there is almost no way to keep them out of the reef. The hook will bend, the line or rod will snap, or something will give before a fish that size will. Anything over 100lbs is a real trophy.


If you are fishing for these using poppers or stickbaits, you need a very stout spinning or conventional setup capable of making long casts with these heavy lures. I would not go with less than 100lb braided line and a 200lb monofilament leader (poppers) or 100lb fluorocarbon leader (stickbaits). The only reel I would fish with is a Daiwa Saltiga. I would pair it with a high end rod from Japan made specifically for this type of fishing such as a Smith Komodo Dragon (poppers) or a Carpenter Coral Viper (stickbaits).

If you are fishing with bait from shore as is common in Hawaii most people use a conventional reel with a long rod for casting past the rocks. You need a reel that can hold a lot of line since you can’t chase the fish. I personally have not caught any this way.

Whatever tackle you use, make sure everything is in top condition. If there is any weakness in anything – hooks, split rings, lure, line, knots, rods, etc – you might as well not even both hooking them in the first place because the fight will be over immediately. Hyperwire split rings from Owner are a good choice when you need to use a split ring.


Giant Trevally readily eat baits but are much, much more fun to catch on topwater lures.


Giant Trevally love large poppers such as those made by Heru, Halco, and many other manufacturers. You cast them as far as you can, and then retrieve them with long sweeps of the rod so that the poppers kick up a lot of water. You should vary your retrieve speed to figure out what they like. The strike is often dramatic as they launch out of the water in a shower of spray trying to annihilate your popper. As with all topwater lure fishing, you have to wait until you feel weight on the end of your line before setting the hook as the fish often miss the lure on the first try.

Giant Trevally also love stickbaits such as those made by Heru and Orion. You can use either surface or subsurface stickbaits; my preference is subsurface. With the subsurface stickbaits you can’t see the strike coming, so all of a sudden you just feel a violent yank as the fish tries to pull your arm out of its socket. When fishing over a reef you have to be careful that your expensive stickbait doesn’t sink into the rocks.

No matter how you fish for them, make sure you get a solid hookset. They often grab the lures in their mouths and hold them so tightly that the hooks don’t penetrate and then they just spit the lure out. Set the hook hard multiple times. To increase your chances, replace all treble hooks with heavy single hooks. They almost always grab the lure head first. You can get away with just a single hook suspended from the head although I like to add a hook at the rear to catch other species that might bite.


I never fish for them with bait but I know in Hawaii octopus and eels are popular baits to use from shore.

Where to get the big ones

The Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia have some big ones that can be caught on poppers and stickbaits. Indonesia has some good GT fishing, as does Fiji and many of the remote Pacific atolls. I have also heard about some good GT fishing in Oman of all places.

Word 2007 Error – .docx Cannot Be Opened Because There Are Problems With the Content

Office Open XML is the new format that has been introduced in Microsoft Office 2007. Based on XML and ZIP archive technologies, a file saved in Microsoft Office Word 2007 is divided into document parts. Each of these parts defines a part of the overall file contents. Thus it becomes easy for you to create and modify a Word 2007 document, either manually or programmatically.

Such files are saved with .docx extension. But they can catch odds of corruption, if subjected to unexpected shutdown, virus attack, application faults and other similar causes. However, if your recent file backup is updated and healthy, you can successfully restore the file. But backup issues necessitate the use Word Recovery applications.

While trying to open a Word 2007 document, you might receive the below error message:

“The Office Open XML File xxxxx.docx cannot be opened because there are problems with the content.”

Where, xxxx represents the name of Word 2007 document. Further, when you click Details of the error message, you get another error:

“The file is corrupt and cannot be opened.”


“Word found unreadable content. Do you want to recover the contents of this document, click yes.”


The Word 2007 document is corrupted. It usually occurs when you perform round-tripping i.e. change the Word 2007 format into another file format and convert it back into Word 2007 format, generally after doing some modifications. Other possible reasons of file corruption could be application faults, unexpected shutdown, network errors etc.


A damaged Word 2007 document can be tried to repair using any of these methods:

o Open the document with ‘Open and Repair’ feature. To carry out this, click Microsoft Office Button and open the document.

o Try saving the document as HTML, TXT or a word processing application format.

o Create a new document and try copying all the contents of the file to it, leaving the last paragraph mark.

o Use your recent file backup and restore the damaged document

o If the same issue persists, scan your damaged file using Word Repair software. These are advanced word recovery tools built with safe technology to repair and restore damaged Word documents.

Stellar Phoenix Word Recovery is a comprehensive word repair tool that can repair and restore corrupted Word documents. Its offers a rich set of features, including support to Word 2007, 2003, 2002 and 2007, safe file repair design, advanced scanning procedures and graphically rich interface. It is compatible with Windows Vista, XP, 2003, 2000 and NT.

The Various Binding Methods for Book Productions

There are several ways of binding books. However, there are two major types of binding, namely the mechanical or loose-leaf binding method and the conventional or permanent binding method. Graphic artists who would want to specialize in book publishing must know these traditional methods of book production.

1. Mechanical or loose-leaf binding method

In this binding method, loose sheets of papers together with the covers are held together by the use of plastic grip spine, plastic comb, post or ring binder etc. Holes are punched at the spine of the collated sheets together with the covers and the plastic or metallic rings are inserted through the created holes to hold the sheets and covers together. The binding processes in this category allow sheets to be removed or added without affecting the remaining sheets. Another characteristic of this binding type is that it opens flat. Examples of binding techniques under this type include Spiral wire, Ring, Comb, Post etc. The process is the same in all the techniques mentioned under it. However, the type of coil that is inserted at the spine edge points out the differences. The general process has been explained below:

Tools and materials: loose sheets of paper, hardboard (covers), trimming knife, bodkin, hammer, universal pliers.


1. Collate or arrange the loose sheets and covers together.

2. Trim all the four edges of the collated sheets for them to have equal width and height.

3. Punch or create holes of even spacing at the spine edge of the collated sheets.

4. Insert the spiral wire, plastic ring, comb or post binder through the holes and clip it at the back.

5. The book is ready for use.

2. Conventional or Permanent binding method

In this binding method, the loose sheets and the covers are held together by the use of adhesives, staples or thread. Unlike the mechanical type of binding, sheets cannot be removed or added after the binding has been done. Removal of a sheet after the binding would affect the remaining sheets. Examples of binding techniques under this category include Saddle or Single-section stitching, Side stitching, perfect binding and the edition or multi-section binding.

i. Saddle or Single-section stitching

This binding technique employs stitching to hold the loose sheets together with the cover which are folded into folios. The stitching is done in the middle section of the book after holes have been created. It is the simplest and inexpensive technique of binding. It is used for the production of exercise books, catalogues, bulletins, booklets, pamphlets, jotters etc. It ensures easy reading since the sheets open flat but the disadvantage is that when one sheet is torn, it affects the remaining sheets. Saddle or single-section binding requires the use of a number of stitches. For instance, a two stitch saddle stitching involves the holding of the collated sheets and cover using two stitches. Other types include three stitch saddle stitching, four stitch saddle stitching etc.

Tools and materials: Papers folded into folios, bone folder, trimming knife, metal ruler, thread, bodkin, needle, pencil, paper board (cover).


1. Fold the loose sheets into folios and insert it into each other to form a section.

2. The section is placed or inserted into the paperboard to be used as cover.

3. At the middle part of the section, create a number of equally spaced marks where the holes will be created. (It must be noted that three holes are marked and created for a two stitch, four holes for three stitch, five holes for four stitches etc.)

4. Pierce or create holes through the marked points with the help of a bodkin.

5. For a two stitch saddle stitching, insert the threaded needle in the middle hole from the inside of the section. Pull it outside and then through the first hole from the inside. Pass the threaded needle then at the third hole and bring it back to the middle hole where the stitching was started. Pull the two ends together and tie them together tightly to secure the ends.

6. The fore edge, head, and tail of the sewn book are marked and trimmed with a trimming knife.

7. The saddle-stitched book is ready for use.

ii. Side stitching

This binding technique involves the use of single sheets of papers and two paper covers. It is called a side stitching because the stitching or holding of the sheets of paper is done at the side of the book. An advantage of this binding technique is that when one sheet is torn, it does not affect the remaining pages. However, its disadvantage is that a side-stitched book does not open flat.

Tools and materials: Single sheets, bodkin, pencil, needle, paper clips, stapler, paper boards (covers), trimming knife.


1. Collate the single sheets of paper together with the covers.

2. Hold the collated sheets in position at the head and tail with paper clips.

3. Create a parallel line to the spine one centimeter away from the spine.

4. `Create equally spaced holes with a bodkin at the side.

5. Use a threaded needle to stitch the side of the book to hold the leaves together. Staple pins can also be used to hold the sheets at the side of the book.

6. The fore-edge, head, and tail of the book is trimmed nicely with a trimming knife.

7. The side stitched book is ready for use.

It should be noted that sometimes, a strip of brown paper and glue are used to cover the sewn areas or staple pins at the side of the book.

iii. Perfect binding

This method does not employ stitching. It uses adhesive or glue to hold the sheets and covers together. When one sheet is torn, it does not affect the remaining sheets. They are used for producing writing pads, memo pads, sketch pads, telephone directory etc.

Tools and materials: Sheets of paper, adhesive, strawboards (covers), brush.


1. Collate the sheets of paper and jog to align them together.

2. Apply the adhesive or glue to the spine together with the backing board.

3. Glue the front cover to the backing board and allow it to dry.

4. Trim the fore-edge, head, and tail with a trimming knife or guillotine.

5. The perfect bound book is ready for use.

iv. Edition/Case-bound or multi-section binding

This binding method employs both sewing and gluing techniques. Owing to this, it is the binding technique that ensures the most durability and protection of books. Though it opens flat, when one sheet is torn it affects the remaining sheets. It is used for the production of notebooks, dictionaries, diaries, albums, project reports, thesis etc.

1. Body- This is the main sheets that contain the contents of the book.

2. Gummed tape- This is a strong reinforcement tape that is glued at the edges of the endpapers to hold them together with the body of the book.

3. Headband- It is a colourful band of thread placed at the top and sometimes the bottom of the backbone of a book as a form of decoration and as a reference aid in books.

4. Lining- This is a heavy paper or synthetic leather material glued to the backbone to give it a smooth and even surface.

5. Backing paper- This is a stiff but flexible paper strip placed between two binder’s boards. It gives the book cloth stability.

6. Case- This refers to the covers of a hardbound book.

7. Binder’s board- This is a thick, grey, rigid paperboard used to make the case.

8. Book cloth- This is a material made from either natural or man-made fibres used to cover the binder’s boards that form the case.

9. Backbone- This is the spine or the back of a bound book.

10. Super- This is a gauze-like fabric glued to the backbone and the case of a book. It provides a firm link between them.

11. End sheets- These are the blank sheets of paper placed at first and last sections of the book thus, before the first sheet and after the last page of the body of the book.

a. Producing a multi-section bound book

Tools and materials: Paper, strawboard, needle, thread, metal ruler, trimming knife, cutting plate, bone folder, brush, glue, press boards, hammer, binding cloth, binding tape.


1. Collate the required number of sections or signatures for the book. It must be noted that eight folios constitute one section or signature.

2. Create six to eight marks at the spine of the book depending on the height of the book. Use the bodkin to pierce holes at the marked areas.

3. The threaded needle is used to sewn the various sections together beginning from the first section to the last section. At equally spaced sections, the binding tape is inserted and the sewing is done over it.

4. Two folios of the same size as that of the book are pasted at the spines at the first and last sections of the book to serve as end papers.

5. Round the spine of the book with a backing hammer into a convex shape.

6. Glue the spine and paste the muslin over the glued area.

7. Place the book under a weight to dry thoroughly.

8. Mark the fore-edge, tail and head of the book and trim.

b. Production of the case

1. Cut two backing boards which are a bit larger in size than the size of the book.

2. Measure and cut the spine with a relatively lighter paper when compared to the backing boards for the covers.

3. Cut a piece of binding cloth larger and longer than the spine of the case.

4. Apply an adhesive and paste the two backing boards with the spine at the middle of the binding cloth at the middle of the case.

5. The excess binding cloth is turned over and pasted in the inner parts of the backing boards.

6. Apply an adhesive at the middle section of the case as well as the backbone of the book.

7. Fix the book into the prepared case. This process is termed as Casing-in.

8. Place a weight on the book and allow it to dry. The case-bound book is ready for use.

Nuances of Decision Making – A Broader Perspective!

Decision-making is a process of Intelligence, Design and choice activities and “is a central part of the management process”. Decisions are hard to make but once decide, there should be no second take.

The following steps are involved in the process of Decision-making.

1. Recognising the problem

2. Deciding priorities among problems

3. Diagnosing the problem

4. Developing alternative courses of action

5. Evaluating alternatives

6. Selecting the best alternative

7. Effective implementation and follow-up action. 

Recognising the Problem: Herbet A Simon calls this step as an “intelligent activity”. It is important to find out whether there is any deviation from the past experience. For e.g. Sales might decrease, expense might decrease, sometimes there might be deviations from the plan, sales budget, and competitors may outperform by improved systems.

Deciding priorities among the problems:A manager would face many problems at the same time. He should not be bogged down with small and unimportant problems. Some problems can be easily solved by the sub-ordinates. Some may not be important. A manager must see that – he selects carefully the most important problem. Peter Drucker says that “once the right problem is perceived then half of the problem is solved”. A manager must diagnose carefully by asking the following questions.

a. What is the real problem?

b. What are the causes and effects of the problem?

c. Is this problem very important?

d. Can they be solved by sub-ordinates?

e. Which is the right and most important problem to be solved?

Diagnosing the Problem:After choosing the right problem the manager must now start diagnosing the problem. There is no simple answer to the question of how to diagnose the problem, because every individual differs in his or her own way of diagnosing the problem depending on the different background orientations and training.A manager must systematically analyse the problem for identifying the alternative causes of action.

Developing Alternative Courses of Action:This step is a creative and innovative activity where a manager thinks in all directions innovately. Sometimes a manager can also use a technique called “brainstorming” where a few individuals discuss at length the various possible available alternatives.

First of all, a manager must be thoroughly familiar with the problem. This is called saturation. Later, he must think about the problem from several view-points which is called deliberation. Sometimes the manager may not get into the crux of the problem, i.e. there may not be any fruitful result of deliberation, then the manager might temporarily switch off his conscious search and relax. This process of realisation is called incubation. Then after sometime, a flash of light may occur, and the manager may get some insights and ideas. This stage is called illumination. In the last stage, which is called accommodation, the manager resynthesise his ideas into a usable proposal.

Evaluating the Alternatives:The manager must now give proper weightage to the positive and negative aspects of the alternatives and evaluate by using some criteria like

(a) time;

(b) cost;

(c) risk;

(d) results expected;

(e) deviations anticipated;

(f) resources available for implementation.

Selecting the Best Alternative:This is the most important step where the manager selects the best alternative that will yield maximum profits or results with minimum cost or input or resources. To put it in simple term the solution should be able to solve the problem in the best possible way only.

Effective Implementation and Follow-up Action:Any decision without proper implementation becomes futile and hence proper care must be taken by the manager to communicate, pool resources and start implementing the decision taken. In large organisations, follow-up procedures are available in the system itself in order to pave way for effectiveness in the implementation of the decisions. Proper follow-up enhances the effectiveness of the decisions taken.

Decision is a course of action consciously chosen from available alternatives for the purpose of achieving a desired result. Thus, a decision is a choice, the result of conscious mental activity and is directed toward a purpose, for e.g. if you have decided to read this article, you always have a choice, of stopping immediately or continuing to read. And this is also a conscious mental activity.

Decision – making is closely related with all management functions like planning, organising and controlling.Decision – making is closely related to solving problems.

Three Advantages of Having a Vanity With A Lighted Mirror

Nowadays a vanity with a lighted mirror is a very common piece of furniture in the home. People are a lot more interested in their appearance on a day to day basis than they have been years ago. Along with that is the fact that this does not only apply to the ladies anymore. Men are increasingly interested in their grooming and appearance to the extent that they use accessories that help them to better see and maintain their facial appearance. It is for reasons like these that this piece of furniture has become very popular in the household.

Three Advantages of a Vanity With A Lighted Mirror

The first advantage to be derived from having a vanity with a lighted mirror is that with this concentration of light around the mirror, the person using this mirror will be able to tell exactly how they look at the time and will therefore be able to groom themselves in a much better way than if depending on just normal room light. The concentration of lights around the mirror enables you to see exactly how your face is made up and how it looks whereas with a normal room light you may have just an idea how your final appearance looks, but not as detailed an idea as when you have a much better lighted mirror.

A second advantage of having a vanity lighted mirror is the fact that it provides light without disturbing your partner/children etc. in the bedroom. Before these lighted pieces of furniture, people would depend on the bedroom light for example. If your partner is presently sleeping but you have to begin to dress for work or for an early morning outing, your sleeping partner would have to contend with the bedroom light being on. We all know this is not pleasant for the person trying to get some sleep. With this type of furniture now, this is eliminated and the person in the mirror also gets better light to prepare themselves, without disturbing their sleeping partner or kids.

A third advantage to using a vanity with a lighted mirror is that not only can you get better lighting but many of these lighted mirrors actually have light settings to emulate different scenarios. This is a hit with the ladies especially because when they are applying their makeup, they want the light to emulate the light of the place they are going. Some of these lighted settings are (1) day, (2) evening and (3) home/work (everyday). The day setting gives a similar lighting to daylight, the evening one adds a shade of pink and gives off a bit more heat so that applying makeup is easier, and the “everyday” option gives the light of the average room.

In summary, these are three benefits that you get when you own and use a vanity with a lighted mirror. There are more prevalent in the household nowadays than ever before and are a great asset to help you manage your appearance while applying makeup or for the guys, while grooming yourself.