Batting Tips – How to Grip the Bat Properly, and Avoid Bat Drag

Batting Tips: Gripping the Bat

Choking Up

Your grip on the bat is going to be anywhere between the knob of the bat (the very bottom) and the top end of the tape or rubber grip before the barrel of the bat. Choking up on the bat means you are moving your hands up further away from the knob and closer to the barrel.

There are reasons for “choking up” and for not “choking up”, and your decision to choke up or not should really depend on the style of a hitter that you are, and how good of a hitter you are, along with the situation when you get into the batter’s box – how many men on base and on which base, how many outs, how many strikes, etc.

The benefit of not choking up is that your swing will generate more power. if you are a homerun hitter, you will often not be choking up. The swing, when not choking up on the bat, is looser and you get more power into it. Also, not choking up means you have a longer bat, giving you the ability to have greater range for hitting outside pitches, or pitches on the outer edge of the plate.

The benefit of choking up is that it stabilizes the bat, as you are holding it closer to the barrel. The bat is not as loose, and the swing is more controlled. As well, it is lightening the bat in your hands, as you are holding it closer to the heavy part of the bat. Being a shorter bat, with your hands higher up, the swing also becomes a quicker swing. When choking up on the bat, you get a more stable swing, you cut out some of the natural wave that happens in the very loose swing of a non-choked up grip, and you are “more likely” to get a base hit.

Even hitters that do not naturally choke up will often choke up when the count runs to two strikes. At that point they are willing to cut some power out of the swing and instead swing to hit the ball and just get on base. Choking up will give them more of that stability and raise their chance of hitting the ball for a base hit.

Some say that instead of choking up, you can accomplish the same benefits by using a shorter bat. The consensus, however, is that the same issues remain even with a shorter bat, and the benefits of choking up are not achieved to the same level by using a shorter bat, unless you choke up on the shorter bat.

Bat Drag and Bat Lag

Bat Drag and Bat Lag are confusing concepts. First of all, Bat Drag is bad and Bat Lag is good.

Let’s start with Bat Drag. Bat Drag is bad. Bat Drag means that you are dragging, or pulling the bat with your arms, and moving the bat by using the hands and arms, rather than holding the hands at the shoulder, and turning the hands and shoulder as one unit.

If you swing with Bat Drag, it doesn’t mean you won’t hit the ball. Bat Draggers can be decent hitters, especially against slower pitching, but your hitting will be so much better if you work on eliminating the drag. By dragging the bat, you are not getting your body mass into the swing, and you are no getting optimal bat speed in the swing.

In a hitter with Bat Drag it is common to see the batter’s elbow of his top hand lead out in front of the knob of the bat. That causes the batter to drag the bat through the zone.

Bat Drag can be caused either by bad mechanics, and running through hitting drills can train the hitter to adjust his grip and stance, and swing to eliminate the drag, or it can be caused by using a bat that is too heavy. In such a case, if the batter switches to use a lighter bat instead he very well might eliminate the drag just like that!

Bat Lag, on the other hand, is good. Bat Lag is when the hitter begins his forward movement with the knob of the bat, without letting the knob drop or sink down first. The knob remains in front of the back elbow, the elbow of the top hand, and then as the knob of the bat moves forward into the hitting zone, the barrel of the bat lags behind it. Eventually, the barrel of the bat is whipped forward through the strike zone.

To hit well, the batters hands HAVE to lead the swing. The hips and the hands drive the swing, not the arms and not the hips and shoulders.

Life Drawing – 10 Do’s and Don’ts of Drawing a Nude Model


1 – Do Arrive Early

Due to the popularity of life drawing classes (I can’t imagine what for?) even large-sized classrooms can easily become packed out. No one cares for the slacker turning up late, clambering over everyone’s easels, elbowing people in the face. Being a latecomer won’t make you popular. Also it is embarrassing for everyone concerned when you start asking to borrow a knife to sharpen your pencils or masking tape to stick the paper to your board. Yes – make sure you get all that chit chat and material pilfering over with before the model even disrobes.

2 – Do Draw The Whole Model

Although this isn’t a problem for the serious artist, when I attended art college it was surprising the number of people who chose to either eliminate areas of the model’s naked body, or concentrate too hard on one specific ‘region’. Unless it is your raison d’ĂȘtre and master plan for world domination, it probably doesn’t serve your masterpiece well to do a tiny doodle or a huge close up of the model’s breasts (or whatever your favorite part is). You will appear amateurish and slightly foolish. Another good tip for impressing the tutor is to begin drawing your drawing from the inside-out rather than just focussing on the outline of the body. Although Picasso got away with it in his awesome nudes the Van Gogh ‘crazy marks everywhere’ approach is more artistically engaging.

4 – Do Draw Negative Spaces

A good way of convincing everyone that you aren’t simply there to act like a deviant and behave badly – and, more importantly, learn something about drawing – is to focus on drawing the spaces between the figure. Doesn’t sound like much fun does it? However it is often the case that by filling in the background as much as the figure itself, a stunning drawing can be achieved, especially if you draw a silhouette of the figure — perhaps basking in the shadows as the daylight fades from the room. Another reason to draw in this style is because a nude is far more alluring and atmospheric when details of the body are suggested as opposed to rendered in full, resplendent detail. This sometimes also has the dual benefit of making your drawing easier to do. Why make it hard on yourself? Knock everyone’s socks off with this clever trick.

3 – Do Remember Sketching A Nude Figure Is The Same As Any Other Drawing

It sounds obvious but some people get carried away with the fact that they are drawing a naked human being. Keep it real. Artists have been focussed on using the nude as a subject for centuries and not all of them slept with their models. It is unlikely to go down well if you form an unhealthy stalker-like fixation on the model. Also, if you join a class which runs for a full semester, it is likely the actual model will be switched around and you never know who will turn up. It will become very suspicious if you suddenly vanish when the seventy year old, bearded man makes and appearance but start hanging around for ages before the class when there are rumors of the twenty-five year old naked Swedish girl being ‘on’ this week.

5 – Do Pay Attention to Foreshortening

If you look at any object from different angles it has a different eclipse. The nude human figure is no different. You are trying to create the illusion of depth which is no easy feat. Foreshortening is quite like perspective and can either be used as an excuse to show off – for the well practiced and talented – or a very easy way to display your shortcomings (and perhaps give you away as a voyeuristic intruder). Just keep the faith and move around the room, taking advantage of the versatility you can obtain by drawing multiple poses. Before long you will be as good as some pompous renaissance artist.


1 – Don’t Dictate The Flow Of The Class

Some novice life drawers are surprised when the tutor suddenly goes all hyper-active and starts ordering the class to carry out quick ‘familiarization exercises’ such as doing lightening-quick charcoal sketches and frustrating fifteen minute poses in which the model is told to change pose when you are just getting started. It is outrageous to vent your frustration in such a situation and you may even risk being banned from the class for being a troublemaker.

2 – Don’t Forget To Use The ‘Thumb and Pencil Method’ When Drawing The Face

Although you may feel somewhat self-conscious standing there with your arm outstretched, the thumb-and-pencil-method is a sure way to make certain that everything balances up. Become aware of seemingly irrelevant facts such as how many human heads fit into the nude human body and how you can line your pencil up with the top of the model’s head and slide your finger down until you get to the chin. This is a basic unit of measurement which you can use to figure out the rest of the proportions in the body.

3 – Don’t Be Afraid Of Drawing Yourself

When not in class the enthusiastic can use whatever spare time they have to keep up the good work. All you need is a mirror to draw yourself. The bold can take their work into the class next week or you can stuff your sketches in an old drawer. It doesn’t really matter. The point is that you are developing as a figurative artist. Many famous artist’s such as Van Gogh and Rembrant have used their own bodies – or at least their faces – in their paintings. One good exercise is to look out some old photos and choose a few where you are in a situation that brings back positive memories. Start blocking the background from the photo into your drawing or painting and simultaneously use a mirror to draw yourself in the present moment. The cheerful associations from the photo will affirm everything that is sanguine about yourself and art in general.

4. Don’t Look Down On Online Virtual Figure Drawing Galleries

There are many portals on the internet where models – such as – pose using full frontal nudity in the name of art. Some sites are composed of glamour models as well as artist’s models but you can usually find a good array of figures, shapes and forms. Choose someone who arouses your interest and draw them repeatedly for several weeks then move onto another model. Some 3D computer artists post their animated models online which allow you to turn the model’s body around in three dimensions. This can be particularly helpful when learning foreshortening and how to draw accurate proportions.

5. Don’t Go Out With The Model

Although it may be fine to date the tutor if they are a part time lecturer it is a no-no to hit on the model. Some classes meet in coffee shops and bars after the class but it isn’t usual for the model to attend. Conflicting signals can be sent by entirely liberated models who skirt around the class during rest breaks without putting their robe back on. If confronted by the large breasted naked Swedish exchange student complimenting your drawing whilst smiling at you in the afternoon sunlight try to see that as enough without also asking her to accompany you on a dinner date.

Why Study Math? – The Fibonacci Sequence and Sex Appeal

Oh, that field of math. Don’t you just love to hate it? Yet you have to admit that when someone explains some of its beauty to you and you get it, you marvel at how amazing a field it actually is.

Such is the case with number sequences and in particular one called the Fibonacci sequence. For those who do not know what a sequence is, it is simply a list of numbers that follow some predefined rule. For example, the sequence 2, 4, 6, 8 is the arithmetic sequence which is defined by multiples of the number 2. The Fibonacci sequence is the following: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13…Do you see the pattern? Well hold on if you don’t; what is more important-or should I say interesting-is could you ever have guessed that this sequence has something to do with sex appeal? Indeed. Read on.

If you were not able to see the pattern within the Fibonacci sequence, it is this: each successive Fibonacci number after the second is obtained by adding the two previous numbers in the sequence. Thus 3 = 1 + 2, 8 = 3 + 5, etc. Aside from the unusual appearance of these numbers within the realms of nature, as for example, such quantities as the number of black and white keys that form an octave on a standard piano are all Fibonacci numbers, and the number of spirals in the florets of a sunflower head are consecutive Fibonacci numbers; the quotient formed by consecutive numbers in this sequence get closer and closer to the golden ratio, and this is approximately 1.618.

Artists, musicians, and classical architects have been fascinated with this famous number, which seems to have a sex appeal all of its own. The ancient Greek sculptor Phidias, who created and oversaw the construction of the Parthenon in Athens, is believed to have used this golden rectangle concept in the facade of this famous architectural feat. Luca Pacioli, one of Da Vinci’s mathematics teachers, aroused great interest in the golden number in his work De Divina Proportione. Da Vinci used this work to bolster his claims that various aspects of the human body incorporated this golden number. For example, Da Vinci showed that the human face had proportions in accordance to the golden ratio. In order to show this, Da Vinci traced out golden rectangles on the face of an average human subject. One could suppose, that the more golden rectangles that could be traced out, the more aesthetically pleasing a person’s face was.

Obviously good looks are associated with an aesthetically appealing face. According to Luca Pacioli and Da Vinci’s propositions, the more closely one’s face adheres to proportions dictated by the golden ratio, the more aesthetically appealing a person is. Gee, now math is connected to sex appeal. How strange and curious this subject is! Yes. Sex appeal and math. You’ve got one, you’ve definitely got the other. All this sexy stuff found within a sequence of numbers that probably was found by some curious chap who decided to add 1 + 1 to get 2, and then said, hmmm, let’s add 2 + 1 to get 3, and so on. Next thing you know, these numbers a popping up all over the place from the piano keyboard to the face of a sunflower to the sex appeal of the human face. Wow, don’t you just love math!

Looking After Your Hips in Ballet Dancing

The hip is a ball-and-socket joint, and together with intricate sets of ligaments offers a ballet dancer tremendous range of motion, and at the same time also withstands great weight. The hip is one of the most elegant parts of the body, if you take it from an engineers perspective.

There of course is the occasional price to be paid for all that beautiful motion that your hips afford you. There might be occasional strain on the hip ligaments, or more frequently the muscles in the hip area. Some ballet dancing movements can create imbalances in the hip area. There is always differences in the strength and elasticity of the muscles in the hip and the most common conditions amongst dancers are hip flexor tendonitis, impingement and of course snapping hip syndrome.

Snapping hip syndrome is caused from tight tendons in front of the hips. These tight tendons can cause the tendon over the hip joint to snap and this often makes a clicking sound. If this happens to you, you may also notice tenderness or pain across the front of the hip. There will also be a pinching pain in you’re your knees if you bring them up to your chest. Developpes may be painful to perform.

To prevent this happening in your ballet dancing, the hip flexors all the abductors will need to be gradually stretched and strengthened. In your ballet dancing, your torso must be correctly aligned by not overarching the back or tucking under. Don’t sink into the hip while standing on one leg, or hike up the hip of the working leg. Twisting the pelvis and forcing positions is also asking for trouble.

If you have pain over the side of your hip, you could be suffering from trochanteric bursitis. This is an inflammation of the trochanteric bursa and is a common cause of hip pain in ballet dancers. The trochanteric bursa lies underneath the attachment of the broad flat bone of the femur, and serves to cushion and reduce friction between the bones, tendons and muscles.

Causes of trochanteric bursitis could be from overuse or structural imbalances in the pelvic area. Treatment will normally involve lessening the workload, and stretching and strengthening the affected areas.

If you have pain in the front of your hip near your groin, you could be diagnosed with iliacus tendonitis or iliopsoas syndrome. This is common amongst younger dancers and affects the iliacus muscle at the lower portion of the iliopsoas muscle at the front of the hip.

This condition is also from overuse and increased emphasis on hip flexion and internal rotation, so it affects modern dancers more often. Treatment will include reducing dance load until the symptoms subside. Anti-inflammatory medication can assist with reducing the swelling along the tendon. The ballet dancer may also need to strengthen and correct muscle imbalances, so advice from a physical therapist or athletic trainer may be well worth while.

For more ballet food, visit

Sew An Easy Shawl For An Elegant Gift In Less Than 30 Minutes!

There is no fitting required. It takes just a few stitches on your sewing machine. And, you need no sewing pattern.

Women of all ages love shawls from teens to senior citizens. Sew some for your favorite charity. Give the gift of something homemade.

Even if you know very little about sewing, you can make

quick and easy, elegant shawls in less than 30 minutes.

Whether for a dressy occasion or to ward off the chill from

your shoulders in a restaurant, you will want to sew several

of these shawls for yourself and to give as gifts to young

and old alike.

They are attractive and so popular now.

Make this triangular shawl from a square of fabric.

Here are five methods that you may use to make your shawl.



1-1/2yards of 54″ fabric


1-2/3 yards of 60″ fabric.


Trim the shawl with purchased fringe or beaded trim.

You will need:

3 yards of trim or fringe for the 54″ square


3-1/3 yards of trim for a 60″ square.


Square the ends of your fabric.


Trim the shawl with fringe.

Stitch fringe along 2 sides of the shawl 1/2″ from the

edge on the right side of the fabric. Make sure the ends

of the fringe are towards the inside of the shawl.

To make the shawl:

1. Fold the square into a triangle with the right sides


2. Pin and stitch through the same stitching that attached

the fringe to the fabric.

3. Leave an opening 3″ to 4″ along one edge.

4. Turn the shawl right side out through the opening.

5. Press well.

6. Slip stitch the opening closed.


Finish with topstitching and no trim.

1. Fold the square into a triangle with the right sides


2. Stitch a 1/2″ seam on the two sides of the shawl leaving an

opening 3″ to 4″ along one edge.

3. Turn the shawl to the right side through the 3″ opening.

4. Press well.

5. Slipstitch the opening closed.

6. Topstitch 3/8″ from the two outer seamed edges.


Outside stitched purchased trim

1. Stitch and turn the shawl as above.

2. Press well.

3. Topstitch purchased trim on the two outer seamed edges.


Bias ruffle trim

1. Make a bias ruffle doubled the finished width desired plus

1″ for two 1/2″ seam allowances.

2. Cut the length double the length you need. (6 yards long for

a 54″ shawl or 6-2/3yards long for a 60″ shawl)

3. For a 3″ wide finished ruffle, cut bias 7″ wide.

4. Fold in half.

5. Baste stitch raw edges together 1/2″ from the edges.

6. Pull up gathers to fit the shawl.

7. Stitch the ruffle to two edges of the shawl.

8. Sew on the ruffle the same as the fringe in METHOD 1.


Make your own hand knotted fringe on a finished shawl.

1. Use embroidery floss or yarn.

2. Cut strands 9″ long to make 4″ long finished fringe.

3. Fold strands in half.

4. With a crochet hook, push a hole in about 1/2″ from the

edge of the finished shawl.

5. Pull the 4 folds of yarn or floss through the fabric to the

right side forming a loop.

6. Then, bring the 8 ends through the loop.

7. Pull them away from the fabric until the loop lies flat.

8. Place loops close to each other all across the fabric.

9. Trim the cut ends of the fringe evenly.

10. Wear with loops showing.

To wear your shawl:

Wear your shawl with two ends tied on the inside at your

waistline in the back. It creates the look of a shrug and

will always stay in place.

Give gifts hand made with love!

These shawls are quick, easy, inexpensive and very much

appreciated by everyone!

Sew some shawls for loved ones, friends and your favorite

charity, too.

It just makes sense!


©2005 Marian Lewis – All Rights Reserved

1st Step To Sewing Success

How To Assemble A Futon Frame

Most futons are made very similar and use the same parts to assemble them. When shoppers buy their futon they often have a set of instructions that came with the futon frame. Time passes and these instruction disappear or get misplaced and it’s time to move the futon. Not having assembled futons on an everyday basis, it may not be immediately clear how the futon goes together. In this article we’ll examine the parts and assembly of a standard futon frame to hopefully help those who may have lost instructions.

Laying out the parts:

When you purchased your futon you most likely had 6 main wood parts. 2 arms, 2 rails and a seat and back section. The back section looks different than the seat section as it has 3 pre drilled holes on the sides with the wood sides extending down to allow the seat section to be connected to it. Versus 1 or 2 holes on the seat section. Your hardware will consist of 8 bolts, 8 barrel nuts (shaped like a barrel), 4 nylon rollers, 6 metal pins, 6 washers and 6 cotter clips, allen wrench.

Attaching the hardware:

Take the 4 nylon rollers, 4 metal pins and 4 cotter clips and locate the wood backrest of the futon. It will have the three holes drilled into each side. Two of these holes are close together and the 3rd hole is towards the bottom of the side. This hole by itself will connect to the seat section. The nylon rollers have two ends. A small round top and a larger round bottom. The larger round bottom is placed against the wood over the hole and a metal pin is pushed down through the small round top through the roller and out through the hole in the back rack. On the other side slide a washer over the pin use your cotter clip and push it through the small hole in the metal pin to secure it. Repeat this step for the other three nylon rollers.

Next find the wood seat section and locate the hole closest to the end on the side. (Sometimes wood seat sections have two holes. The second hole towards the middle is for attaching what is called a kicker block. Your frame may or may not have this.) After you have located the holes on the ends of the seat section lay the wood seat and back sections face up meaning the slats in these section are facing up or are closest to the top. Now take the 2 remaining metal pins and push them through the remaining holes in the sides back section in through the holes in the seat section. Slide a washer over each pin and secure it with the remaining cotter clips.

Attaching the arms and stretchers.

Locate your two wood arms and two wood stretchers. Look at the arms and notice that one side of the arms has two routed out grooves. During assembly these routed out grooves need to face inward towards each other. Next, locate your two stretcher rails. These rails will have 4 small circular holes drilled out on the one side of the stretcher on the ends. During assembly make sure these holes face in towards the holes of the stretcher across from it. Take your barrel nut and place it inside one of the holes intended for the barrel nut. Barrel nuts usually have a phillips or flat screwdriver point and make sure this is facing out. Also make sure the threaded hole in the barrel nut lines up with the holes in the ends of the rail as your bolt will need to thread into them. Now take the bolt and push it through the outside of the arm and into the rail threading it into the barrel nut and use your allen wrench to wind the screw into the barrel nut. Repeat this step on the other bolts leaving them loose. On the rail that is closest to the routed out grooves in the arms leave two of your bolts out and make sure this area allows you to move the arm outward somewhat. [The reason for this is to make sure we can spread the arms enough to get the seat and back section into the frame without scratching our arms.]

Moving the back/seat section into the frame.

The backrest has 2 nylon rollers on each side. The top roller needs to be lined up with the routed out grooves in the arms that go up and down. If you installed the rollers correctly, the end of the nylon roller will fit into the groove and will push into it. (If it doesn’t, your rollers are installed backwards, take them off and flip them around so that the larger part of the roller is against the wood.) Now take the bottom rollers on each side and line them up into the routed out groove that runs left to right. [This step might require a helper to get the rollers lined up in the grooves.]Important Note: Make sure that the seat and back section slats are facing upwards to where the mattress will rest right on them. If it looks like the mattress will sit down into the back and seat section because the slats are facing the ground, you’ll need stop and flip the decks over and do this step again.

Finishing assembly.

Now finish putting the remaining two bolts and barrel nuts into the back arm and connect them together as discussed in the above step about attaching arms and stretchers. Go ahead and tighten all of the bolts. Tight enough but not too tight. Your futon should now be ready for use.

I wrote this text version of futon assembly instructions as a guide to help those who are missing assembly instructions. Often you can contact the futon company you purchased your futon from for a set of replacement instructions. However, if that isn’t an option, I hope this guide will get you through the process of re-assembling your futon so you can start using and enjoying it once again. Many websites also include picture instructions you can use and this page futon assembly instructions might also be of help to you.

Artist Review – David’s "The Annunciation"

“The Annunciation” by David is quite incredible! I sat for two hours, on the floor of the Met jotting notes, in order to fully appreciate the painting’s message. I have truly been inspired with what I was able to see for myself, as well as engaging the various persons stopping to view such a masterpiece.

David is a brilliant painter, he was born 1455 and died in 1523 and his work is “Netherlandish.” “The Annunciation” is merely one part of an entire multi-storied polyptych. The medium is oil on wood and was originally commissioned in 1506, by Vincenzo Sauli; a wealthy banker and diplomat for the high alter of the Benedictine Abby Church of San Gerolamo Della Cervara, near Genoa. The ensemble created a synthesis of northern and Italian artistic modes. David achieved a rare balance between detailed description and elevated exposition.

To begin, “The Annunciation” is actually two panels standing side by side, complimenting one another, with the action of the Holy Spirit approaching Mary to impregnate her with the Christ child, through the gesture by the angel of annunciation. This is a common motif among many Renaissance artists, but David really captures the moment. The two paintings are an estimated 3′ x 4′ each, and are spaced well, at approximately 8″ for full effect.

The angel of annunciation stands alone on the left panel. He is dressed in soft-toned, light blue, raiment that achieves a “flowing” action about him. The almost iridescent cape, of red and green color, is inscribed with Latin phrasing that disappears within the folds and creases. Motion is achieved through the gesture of action, as the angel signals the dove, the Holy Spirit in the right panel, to approach the virgin.

Action is further hinted at, by the bent knees, as seen through the clothing, as well as with very distinct gestures from his hands. By creating a mood or anticipatory action, David lets the angel tell whoever is viewing the painting, that he captured that moment in time as he saw it happen. The gesture of command with the angel’s right hand sets a triangular format between the two paintings. It connects them and allowed for me to follow from one panel to the next. His left hand begins a secondary triangle, but with the addition of a three sectioned golden scepter. The scepter is extended upward, toward the area between the paintings, and appears to be pointing toward the heavens. The top of the scepter has a pointed crown at the top, with a spiral mid section, and finally a smooth handgrip at the bottom.

The room itself is a contemporary setting for that time. It is of a simple design with one double pained window and almost no furniture items. The window itself is split into four wooden storm panels. The two bottom ones are closed and locked, with a simple metal latch, but the top panes reveal a view upward into the heavens through lattice made of metal as well. Nothing recognizable can be seen through the glass, other than the soft tones of a blue sky with clouds. The upper storm doors open inward, invitingly towards the angel.

The flooring in both rooms is comprised of a type of small section tile that alternates between an almost ivory tone, and is complimented by a soft rose colored alternation in the concentric pattern. Additionally, laid within the tiles, is another pattern also. The other pattern is set, (alternating), with a softer blue that the angel’s raiment and a light shade of green. The tile lines, as with the overall perspective of the pieces, head toward the top area between the paintings, following the line of the scepter. Although the story is supposed to be in the same room, David seems to have made the same room, in actuality, two separate places. One note of importance is that in the right panel, the floor on which Mary is has a hole on lower left corner on the bottom. There is a stone barrier, or edging, that seems to allow for her separation from the dark void that is visible through that hole. I feel that David is attempting to show that her separation is from the world below, and the annunciation is occurring on a higher plane than that of that same ungodly world.

The walls on each painting are primarily set with wooden panels, but the left portrait has bluish fresco-type cement topping it about halfway up. The blue of the cement is slightly darker than that of the angel’s clothing, and allows again, for the angel to stand out from the painting, and out from the corner of the room itself. There is a fireplace behind the angel, although he stands before it and blocks one’s view, in order to break up the flatness of the wall.

The expression on the angel’s face seems as if he is saying, even without words, that everything will be fine; a sort of warmth emanating from within. Aiding the warmth, are two burgundy pillows, lying across the bench along the wall. They appear very soft and comfortable, as with the scene. In turn, they connect the left half of the dyad, with the right, by completing a line, (horizontal), across to the top of the small wooden table. On that table, is a bible supported by a third, smaller pillow that sits before the Virgin. It’s open to no particular page, but the traditional rendition of David’s painting, such as Robert Campin’s “Merode Altarpiece,” would be consistent with the scene as written: The bible is either open to or implied to the Annunciation. The pages are flapping randomly, and do not reflect any specific point in the book.

The main path of sight originates from the angel, then crossing to the right painting and focusing on the Holy Spirit, the dove, finally to the Virgin. The dove is positioned just off center and above Mary’s head in the top of the scene. The flight-path of that bird leads the ultimate destination to be with Mary. There is a golden radiation with a bluish hue surrounding the bird, from a source behind it. The Virgin has the same radiation emanating from behind her head also, but hers is not as brilliant, and lacks the bluish hue.

Mary’s face appears somber, and quite possibly scared. Her hands lay crossed, open over her chest, as she kneels before the Bible. Her gaze stares right at whoever views this work, but it also stares past them as well. I feel, that the face can be drawn out from the scene further, by the dress she wears. That dress is a brilliant and rich royal blue color, with a golden design along its border. As with the angel’s raiment, the drapery folds created on both figures, is comparable to those of Jan Van Eyck. They produce a depth and feel about them, as with all the fabrics in the paintings.

A white ivory-colored jar flags Mary’s right side. Three white lilies stem from it. Those lilies are signifying the purity in the moment…the holiness. That holiness is added to with a soft red velvet bag lying before her, on the floor. There is a set of rosary without a crucifix spilling out toward Mary from that bag. Since the rosary is dedicated to Mary, I take it as a gift from God for her future role as the mother of the Christian savior, Jesus Christ. A circular path is achieved around the painting from those rosaries, to the dove, and back to the angel. It is a well-balanced portrayal.

Directly behind the Virgin, there is a bed covered in a dark blue cloth. The bedding derives from extensions of that cloth, originating from two tendrils above the view. They come down to engulf the bed all the way to the floor. Again, David’s use of a slightly contrasting shade of blue allowed me to pull from the paintings, all the key elements. Blue is a common motif within “The Annunciation.”

Light symmetry is also a factor of both panels. The left has a brighter appearance. I assume that since the presence of the angel, in addition to the open panels of the upper windows, the set of paintings reveals this difference in that manner. In the right panel, Mary is shrouded in a darker light. This darker appearance may be due to the fact that the Holy Spirit is the “light” for that room, in addition to Mary’s illumination from behind her head. Mary’s illumination appears to be very secondary in the scene.

As I said earlier, perspective lines are implemented to give depth to the work. The only failure that David attained was the bottom shelf on the table, under the bible. That shelf is out of perspective. It took awhile to pick that out though. Aside from that one discrepancy, all elements within the rooms are set beautifully to a multi-point perspective. The main line of sight heads toward the center area between the paintings in a 45-degree pyramidal direction, from the tiles.

David’s other paintings from this polyptych are masterpieces such as “The Rest on the Flight into Egypt,” “The Crucifixion,” “The Nativity,” and, “Virgin with Child and Four Angels.” I got to see them all. Each one drew my attention away from the Met, and into the scenes. I have truly grown from my visit and will return to this newfound treasure of the arts.


1. Art History: Revised edition; Volume 2; Marilyn Stokstad; Harry N. Abrams Inc, Publishing 1999

2. The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Gerard David “The Annunciation”

3. FA18 @ Suffolk County Community College; 2000

The Advantages of Floor Lamps

You can use different kind of lightings to light up your homes. Most people use the chandeliers, tube lights or bulbs while some use the ancient method of candles, especially those who live in remote areas where the electricity is scarce, to light up their homes.

Whatever be the method, the ambience created by the lights placed in the rooms additionally is always different. While a soft light creates an atmosphere of peace and elegance, one may have to look at bright lighting for places like study where you need a lot of lighting. The use of the lighting depends on the usage of the room in question.

Lamp is the most widely used method to add extra lighting. It can not only change the way your room look but can also help you in filling up some blank spaces. Floor lamp is one of the many kind of lamps that can be used for this purpose.

Various designs in floor lamps can be used to enhance the beauty of the room and it also blends well with the other furniture. The flexibility is also high as it can be changed very easily. You can just replace the shade of the lamp, shift it to a different location, change the bulb and get a new look altogether.

You can get floor lamps in different shapes and various sizes. There are even a variety of styles to opt from. Craftsman, Art deco, Tropical, Contemporary, Traditional, Country, Retro, Mission, Rustic, as well as Mission are some of the popular styles that are available. Halogen and incandescent are the lighting elements one can get in these floor lamps. Either of the Utility lighting, spot and ambient lighting could be the purpose of lighting. The textures are also available in varieties like glass, common wood, etc.

When compared to the other sources, floor lamps are easy to move from place to place. One can just pick these and plug it in a different place. For those who have the habit of changing the furniture around can opt for these lamps. The installation is also easy as you can buy the lamp and fix it where you want.

There are certain factors one needs to think about when they purchase a floor lamp. The different factors being the lamp switch, the space to be used, the usage of the lighting. You can purchase them both online and offline.

Lesbian Relationships: Boundaries Vs Barriers

We would like to think we are stronger than we are and more emotionally stable then the next person, however that would be hard to prove. Even more so it would be difficult to believe. We all carry baggage and issues in our past that cause us to occasionally feel unsteady and shaken.

There are very few of us that can honestly say we are as stable and strong as we seem, for the rest of us it is a daily battle of finding that equilibrium. When people come into therapy it is for one reason, there is something in their lives that has became unmanageable. There is something that has been putting pressure underneath their skin like a splinter that has embedded it self and is now an infection.

What is that splinter whose mucous pus is causing so much pain in our lives? PEOPLE! It is usually a person or group of people. It is amazing how much power we give to others over us. It never ceases to amaze me how we allow others to create fears and anxiety to such levels that we are unable to function or become dysfunctional.

Dysfunctional is the clinical term for when the engine of our Begin is not running smoothly, and a little oil and TLC is needed. When we have allowed the action and behavior of ourselves and another to cause friction in different areas of our life, such as school, work, friendships, family, spiritually, and health. We start throwing rocks into our engine, when we have either built barriers or have poor boundaries with others.

We all have a personal boundary, it is an imaginary line that surrounds you and protects you from situations and peoples you feel threatened by. When the threat is real this boundary is indispensable to our survival, but sometimes the threats are not what they appear. Our past can cause us to imagine threats that are not there, when we have learnt mistrust and that everyone is an enemy.

When we have difficulty trusting we see treats that aren’t always there. Our boundaries soon became barriers or walls that are most likely causing us harm rather than providing protection. As kids we aren’t always taught healthy boundaries and we are forced to allow people closer than we feel comfortable. We may have felt that those we have allowed close took over our inner thoughts and feeling, abusing the lines that protect us, our boundaries.

As children we learn in situations like these, where are personal boundaries were not respected, to build walls instead. A learnt situation could be something like your parents wanting to know if your gay because of behaviors they have noticed, or being forced to date a guy so show you straightness, but it could also be something as destructive as sexual or physical abuse. In any of theses cases we will probably build walls as a coping mechanisms.

Unfortunately, as we grow older tools such as building excellent walls to survive the powerlessness of childhood, became weapons in adulthood. If we cannot let our lover in and trust her, she well never feel like she is in a committed relationship and there will be no intimacy. I have noticed in my own past and hearing stories from my clients that when we have walls we are emotionally unavailable. For most of us it’s been a life long experience that we have completely became unaware of this tapping out process. You most likely heard your partner call you “distant” or felt the neediness of you partner that seems to never be fulfilled.

When we are emotionally unavailable we cannot commit and we also happen to attract the emotionally needy. Human dynamics is an extraordinary thing where the magnets of our soul attract people who will continue to push the unmanageable monster within us as we will for them.

Here are some key steps in developing healthy boundaries:

1. Learn when others are not respecting your boundaries, for example when people are: over-enmeshment, disassociated, there is excessive detachment, victimized or martyrdom, aloofness or shyness, cold and distant, always in your face/smothering, and don’t respect your privacy.

2. Why are you letting others do these thing to you, most likely you have thoughts or ideas that you deserve it or that you are to blame in some way. At this stage seeing a therapist would be recommended to help you work through these maladaptive thoughts and damaging self-belief system.

3. Swap the old for the new! Get some healthier ideas and thought about yourself if something is not working for you let it go and try something new. For example, go from “maybe I deserve this abuse” to” I want people to respect me. I want a partner who supports me.”

4. Identify behaviors that will help to stay healthy, for example learn how to say “NO” and “thank you but no thank you.”

5. Be consistent once you decided to change. You have identified how do it, now do it in all areas of your life. Remember being healthy is a skill so the more you do it the more competent you become at it! So get practicing!

You deserve the life you want and you deserve to be happy. Don’t let anyone treat you any less.

Alex Karydi~The Lesbian Guru

Various Types of Security Systems, Products and Gadgets

It is human tendency to ignore unpleasant circumstances until they happen! Security takes low priority among other things, when it should be treated as the most important and the foremost thing. No matter how secure your country, state or neighborhood maybe, security should precede all other facilities. Whether you are looking at a residential, commercial or office area, the prime feature to look out for are its security systems. After all, you invest your hard-earned money to make your place as per your choice. So you should invest some more to prevent it from unprecedented acts.

The early ages of mankind saw traditional methods of patrolling and bow-arrow. With the advent of new technology security has taken a new, more sophisticated form. You get various security gadgets to prevent unauthorized access to personal property. Some of the high-end security products are:-

* Burglar Alarm System – Burglar alarm systems are designed to detect unauthorized access in a confined area. These consist of an array of sensors, a control panel and alerting system, and interconnections. The sensors are capable of detecting unauthorized access by various methods like monitoring door and window contacts, by passive infrared motion detectors, ultrasound, vibration, electric or magnetic fields, or microwaves. These alarm systems can be used for various purposes like fire protection, intrusion protection and many more.

* Vehicle Security Systems – Vehicle security systems are designed specifically for the security of your vehicle. These typically include GPS trackers, rear view cameras, car alarms that raise a high volume sound if any unauthorized access is attempted.

* CCTV Camera – Closed circuit television cameras are used to transmit a signal to a specific place on a limited set of monitors. These are typically used for surveillance activities in public places, industries, offices and highly secured zones.

* Digital Safe Lockers – These are the upgraded forms of traditional lock and key lockers. These gadgets are more reliable as they work on keypad number entry combination locks.

* Door Locks

* Electronic Key Tags – A famous form of Electronic key tags is RFID tags. Most of the asset tracking, logistic industry and payment systems use RFID to make their operations smoother.

* Electronic Security Systems

* Fire Alarm System – Fire alarm systems are designed to detect fire caused accidentally. These devices raise an alarm the moment fire breaks out. These have heat detectors, smoke detectors, flame detectors and carbon monoxide detectors.

* Glass Break Detector – A glass break detector is a sensor used in electronic burglar alarms that detects if glass is shattered or broken. These sensors are commonly used near glass doors or glass store-front windows to detect if an intruder broke the glass and entered. Glass break detectors use a microphone which monitors any exceeding noise or vibration coming from the glass. A detector circuitry detects a certain set threshold and raises an alarm.

* GPS Tracking System – A GPS tracking system uses Global Positioning System to find the precise location of living/non living entity.

* Home Security Systems – Most home security systems consist of door and window sensors, motion sensors and a central keypad controller. These systems take care of your home even while you are away from home.

* IP Camera – Internet Protocol Cameras are installed for surveillance purposes. These devices can send and receive data via a computer network. They are broadly classified into Centralized and Decentralized IP cameras.

* Metal Detectors – These are commonly used to detect the presence of hidden metal. Metal detectors work on the principle of magnetic field. It consists of an oscillator producing an alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, and this produces an alternating magnetic field of its own. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected.

* Motion Sensor Detector – Motion detectors are used to monitor movements. IT raises an alarm the moment it captures a moving object.

* Security Camera

* Smoke Detector – It is used as an indicator of fire. It detects smoke in commercial, residential and industrial areas. These devices use optical detection and physical process for sensitive smoke detection.

* Surveillance Systems – These are a collection of security devices that are collectively used for surveillance purposes.

* Video Door Phone

The above is a small list of security products available in the market to give you protection against unforeseen circumstances. Find the best manufacturers, suppliers and dealers in your city. Invest wisely and stay protected!

Battlefield – Bad Company 2 Binkw32 Error Fix – How To Repair Binkw32 DLL Errors On Your PC Quickly

Binkw32.dll is a file used by the “Bink Video Codec” – a highly advanced video processing engine which is used by many of the leading games and media players available for the Windows system. Even though this file is one of the most important for use with the likes of “BattleField Bad Company 2” and other leading games, the fact is that it’s continually either being damaged or corrupted, leading your system to run much slower and with a lot of errors. The “Binkw32.dll is missing” error or “binkw32.dll not found” error is a common problem for millions of computer users every day. If you want to resolve the issue, it’s vital that you’re able to repair the various issues which are leading the error to form, as well as helping repair any further problems that Windows might have inside.

The errors you’ll likely see with binkw32 include the likes of:

  • Binkw32.dll is installed in the Windows or Windows System Directory – it must be installed in the application directory
  • Binkw32.dll not found
  • Binkw32.dll is missing
  • Could not load Binkw32.dll. Reinstalling this application may fix this error

The reason why binkw32.dll errors show are normally down to 3 particular problems. The first is that the binkw32 file is somehow damaged and unreadable, the second is that Windows has some settings issues leading the error you’re seeing to show, and the third is that you may have installed multiple games which have confused Windows as to the location of the binkw32.dll file.

The first step to repairing the error you’re seeing is to reinstall the game which is first causing it to show. This will basically wipe all the older files which caused the error to show, and will then replace them with fresh new ones which should work well for your PC. Although this will not solve all cases of binkw32.dll errors, it’s a good start which almost everyone can do. If you do this and find the error still appears, you may then wish to manually replace the file on your PC with one that’s on the game CD, further ensuring that the copy of the file you have on your PC is as fresh and workable as possible.

The second step to fixing the binkw32.dll error on your PC is to use a ‘registry cleaner’ program to fix any of the errors and problems which Windows may have causing the error. Registry cleaners scan through a part of Windows called the “registry database”, and will fix any of the error / problems that are inside. The registry database stores all the settings and options that Windows needs to run, and is used by your PC to help remember everything from your desktop wallpaper to your latest emails. More importantly, the registry also keeps a large list of DLL files inside to help your computer load up the files it requires to run. Although this list is extremely important, it’s continually causing a large number of errors – leading your PC to run much less reliably than normal. To fix this problem, you need to use a registry cleaner tool to fix any of the errors that Windows computers may have inside, allowing your PC to run much faster and smoother as a result.

Hand-Scraped Vs Distressed Flooring: What’s the Difference?

Flooring trends come and go. For a while, parquet flooring was highly requested, but that product has since waned. Presently, hand-scraped, or distressed, hardwoods are growing in demand, available for all domestic and exotic species and also in unfinished and prefinished solid and engineered flooring. But, with products labeled “hand-scraped” and “distressed,” is there any difference between them?

Essentially, no. Distressed flooring is characterized by texture, either a smooth sculpted appearance or roughness like just-sawn wood. According to popular hardwood manufacturer Armstrong, distressed flooring has grown in popularity because of texture, which is now considered just as important as color. Texture, Armstrong states, stimulates the sense of touch and sight with the floor.

Two basic styles of distressed flooring are available: classic, which is characterized by a sculpted look, and rustic, which displays more character marks like knots, mineral streaks, and graining. For the flooring to get the distressed appearance, however, the hardwood is altered through scraping (Wire Brushed, Hand-Sculpted, or Hand Hewn and Rough Sawn), Finish (French Bleed or Pegged), or Aging (Time Worn Aged or Antique). In many cases, multiple methods may be applied to distress the hardwood.

Those looking for an even more distressed look are recommended to get a custom job, in which a professional comes in to hand-scrape an unfinished wood floor. He or she uses bleaching, pickeling, beating with chains, or fastening with antique nails to achieve this look.

Nevertheless, no matter if flooring is hand-scraped after installation or before, all techniques are traditionally done by hand by a trained craftsman, such as an Amish wood worker. In fact, certain distressed flooring is labeled as “Amish hand-scraped hardwood.” Yet, certain products labeled “distressed” aren’t actually worn by hand. Rather, the hardwood is distressed by machine, which presses a pattern into the surface of unfinished hardwood. The result is a distressed hardwood floor that has a repetitive look to it.

In terms of adding a distressed or hand-scraped product to your home, decide how long you will want this look for your floors and how great of an area it will cover. If it needs to blend in with existing flooring, consider purchasing an unfinished variety, one that can be stained. If, on the other hand, a full floor is being made to look rustic, opt for prefinished: it takes less installation time and no staining is necessary. On the other hand, if you plan to have a rustic character for only a few years, consider going with a product that can easily be replaced, such as thinner engineered flooring, or hardwood that can be sanded down, such as solid or a thicker engineered product.

High Blood Pressure – An Analogy of The Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system essentially consists of the heart, a network of hollow blood vessels (called arteries, veins and capillaries) and the blood that fills them.

In simplistic terms, the cardiovascular system conveys food and oxygen to every one of the 500 million million or so cells in the body, and dispatches waste products from the body’s cellular metabolism, to the appropriate organs for removal.

Understanding how high blood pressure develops makes it a good idea to at least understand how the mechanics of this marvellous system works.

The mechanical aspect of how blood is mobilised through the cardiovascular system may be likened to how gasoline is moved in the fuel system on your automobile.

The gasoline is stored in the tank at one end of the vehicle. The gasoline firstly has to be pumped by the fuel pump from the fuel tank via a large main pipe to the opposite end of the vehicle where the engine is located.

The fuel must also be pumped hard enough to defy gravity because the upper engine parts that require the fuel is located higher than the position of the fuel tank.

The fuel, which is still under pressure, then passes though filters which removes any impurities from it (if there were any). The main pipe is then branched into 4, 6, 8 or as many necessary smaller pipes that feed fuel to the upper parts of the engines that require it.

Fuel that is pumped in excess to the needs of the engine at any time is pumped back to the fuel tank by another system of small pipes connected to the pump, ready for another trip around this circuit.

If this mechanical arrangement did not exist fuel would simply sit in the fuel tank under no persuasion to move. The engine simply would not start due to fuel starvation.

The heart is to the cardiovascular system what the fuel pump is to the automobile; without the heart, blood would never defy gravity and be pumped upwards to the brain or the other organs; these organs would simply be starved of nutrients and die.

To continue the analogy, the arteries act as the pipe work that deliver fuel to the engine, and the cardiovascular’s veins act as the pipe work that carries the fuel back to the fuel tank for another circulation.

To complete the analogy, the kidneys, lungs and liver performs as the fuel filters do in the fuel system i.e. they remove impurities from the blood.

High blood pressure / hypertension occurs if for any reason the heart has to pump more forcefully in order to immobilse blood in the blood vessels. Typical reasons for this are due to blockages in the blood vessels or due to an increase in impurities in the blood.

Blockages in the arteries are usually due to a chronic build up of calcification and fatty deposits lining the inside of the arteries, effectively making the diameter of the arteries smaller and more restrictive to blood flow.

Imputites in in the blood is usually in the form of blood clots or a high incidence of cholesterol in the blood that both effectively makes the blood thicker and harder to pump. The incidence of blood impurities could increase if the liver or kidneys fail to properly do their main tasks.

How to Sit Like an Alpha Male

The best way to get girls to want you is to build up attraction. Women are attracted to different things than men. We like to see a girl with a nice firm butt, a small waist, big eyes, etc. Women like to see a guy that looks like he’s in charge of the room.

It’s not that girls are attracted to power. That’s a myth. What women are attracted to is perceived power. They’re attracted to guys that look like men that are in charge. It doesn’t matter to the women that you have power. We’re talking about full on, carnal attraction. The appearance of power, even if the girl knows you have none, is all you need to build up that attraction.

So you need to display that power in everything you do, even when you sit. You need to sit like an alpha male. Here are several ways to showcase your manliness when you’re sitting down.

Take Up Space

The first tip is to take up space – and take up as much space as possible. Guys that are in charge get as much space as they want. Sit like you are the only one that is allowed in your chair or couch. You can do that in a lot of ways:

1) Spread out your legs. You don’t want to spread them out so wide that you look like a slob, but spread them out fairly wide so that you look large and comfortable.

2) Spread out your arms. Put your arms up on the sides of the chair like you are putting your arm around a girl. This comes with the added bonus where if a girl sits next to you your arm is already around her.

Make sure that you are taking up as much room as you can. You can also put your foot on your knee if that is more comfortable for you.

Be Relaxed

You need to sit like you are relaxed, because alpha males don’t get nervous in the room. That means that in addition to your legs apart, you should be slouching a little – not too much or it will look like you’re hiding, but enough that you look comfortable. Your legs shouldn’t shake and your arms and hands shouldn’t be clenched.

Be Firm

Remember, even though you want to look relaxed, you don’t want to look like a slob. Don’t forget to sit tall. Keep your back mostly straight (little bit of slouch is okay, but not too much), your shoulders out – whatever it takes to make you look powerful.

Lean Back

Finally, when you’re talking to anyone – whether it’s a girl or a buddy – you need to remember to lean back. Don’t lean in to hear what they are saying. Leaning in is a sign of weakness. The alpha male doesn’t need to lean in to listen to other people speak, because the alpha male is the one that everyone else should need to work to hear.

Winning The Girl Over with Your Body Language

How you handle yourself is what is going to build her attraction. Even if you’re a nice guy, you still need to display alpha male body language because that’s the type of body language that girls are attracted to. It’s one of the reasons that girls you’re not interested in start to like you – the body language you show when you’re not interested are nearly identical to the body language an alpha male shows all the time.

So when you’re sitting down, don’t forget to continue to show that body language. How you sit plays a huge role in how you’re perceived by girls. Since you need to appear like an alpha male, you need to make sure that you are showing alpha male behaviors at all times. So sit like a man, man.

How to Find Latitude and Longitude on a Nautical Chart

Any GPS receiver will find Latitude and Longitude along your sailing routes at any moment. But as a skipper, have you plotted this information onto a nautical chart to check your position? Boost your sailing navigation skills to the next level with this vital sailing skill!

Navigating with Latitude

Cartographers create a grid-like web on your navigation chart. Latitude lines run in a horizontal direction. Longitude lines run in a vertical direction. Imagine the earth, balanced on her axis without a tilt. Wrap a “belt” around the earth, divide it in two and you have the equator–birthplace of Latitude. Label the equator 0 degrees.

Latitude lines parallel the equator to the north or to the south. To plot Latitude to find out where you are, you measure how many degrees you are north or south of the equator. Latitude reaches a maximum of 90 degrees at both north and south poles. Always label Latitude N, if north of the equator, or S, if south of the equator.

In chart navigation, use the scales on the right or left side to find your Latitude. These scales are broken down into degrees, minutes and tenths of a minute, or degrees minutes and seconds. One degree of Latitude equals sixty minutes; one minute of Latitude equals sixty seconds. Here’s a simple way to remember this:

1 degree = 60 minutes.

1 minute = 60 seconds.

Navigating with Longitude

Return to your imaginary globe. To measure Longitude, you again divide the earth in half, but this time lengthwise. Locate Greenwich, England on your globe. Draw a line around the earth that intersects Greenwich and both north and south poles. Cartographers call this the Greenwich, or prime meridian–the birthplace of Longitude. Label the Greenwich meridian 0 degrees.

Longitude lines parallel the vertical Greenwich meridian to the east or to the west. To find longitude, you measure how many degrees you are east or west of the Greenwich meridian. Longitude reaches a maximum of 180 degrees on the other side of the earth, at the International dateline. You must label Longitude E, if east of Greenwich, or W, if west of Greenwich.

Use either the top or bottom of the chart to measure Longitude. Like Latitude, Longitude is broken down into degrees, minutes and tenths of minutes or degrees, minutes and seconds.

How to Convert Increments of Minutes

All nautical charts show minutes broken down into increments so that you can plot parts of a minute. For example, if your gps position shows 23-13N; 82-16W, there are no increments to worry about. But, if your gps position shows Latitude 23-13.278N; Longitude 82-16.786W, you have increments of minutes. Before you plot your position, round off increments to the closest tenth of a minute. Round off like this: Latitude 23-13.3N; Longitude 82-16.8W.

Look at the Latitude scales (right or left side) and Longitude scales (top or bottom) on your chart. Are minutes broken down into tenths or into seconds?

Some charts show degrees, minutes, and tenths of a minute. The minutes will be broken down into 10 small segments. Each small segment equals one-tenth of a minute. Other charts show degrees, minutes, and seconds of a minute. If your chart shows degrees, minutes, and seconds, you will need to multiply the “tenths” of a minute by 6. Follow this example:

GPS reading (with minutes rounded as described earlier): Latitude 23-13.3N; Longitude 82-16.8W.

Multiply the increment of Latitude minutes like this.3 X 6 = 18 seconds.

Multiply the increment of Longitude minutes like this.8 X 6 = 48 seconds.

Plot: Latitude 23 degrees, 13 minutes, 18 seconds; Longitude 82 degrees, 16 minutes, 48 seconds.

How to Plot Latitude and Longitude

Use a pair of dividers to plot your position by Lat and Long onto the chart. Read the degrees and minutes from your GPS. Find the closest degrees and whole minute of latitude on your GPS.

For example, for Latitude 23-13.3N, you would look for 23 degrees, 13 minutes on the right or left side scales on your navigation chart. Push one point of your dividers into the 13 minutes. Open up the other leg 3 small segments (three tenths), above the 13 minute mark. If your chart shows seconds instead of tenths, open up the other leg of your dividers 18 seconds (.3 X 6) above the 13 minute mark. Place a pencil mark where the dividers touch the exact Latitude.

Next, plot your Longitude. Use the same exact method to plot your Longitude. Make sure to use the top or bottom chart scales to plot your Longitude. When you’ve found your Longitude, place a pencil mark where the dividers touch the exact Longitude.

Find Your Exact Position

Align your parallel rules or any other straight edge so that the top long edge touches the Latitude pencil mark. Make the parallel rules or straight edge perpendicular so that when you draw in the Latitude line, it will be parallel to all other latitude lines. Draw a light pencil line across the body of the chart to a location close to where you marked the top or bottom Longitude scale.

Repeat this same method to align and draw in your Longitude line. Where the Longitude pencil line intersects the latitude pencil line shows your exact position. You should now have a cross. Place a dot where the two lines cross. Circle the dot. Erase the light lines drawn from the edges of the chart to clean up the chart and keep your plot neat.

Use these easy steps to find Latitude and Longitude on your nautical chart fast. With these sailing skills, you will be well on your way to become a confident sailing skipper-anywhere you choose to go sailing!